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1

Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

2012-11-01

2

Monoclonal antibodies against a 97-kilodalton antigen from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed Central

We prepared a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Aspergillus flavus that all reacted against one 97-kDa antigen by western blot (immunoblot). Flow cytometry demonstrated that these antibodies bound (in increasing degrees) to all morphologic stages of A. flavus growth: conidia, swollen conidia, and hyphae. Cross-reactivity among species was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of fungal culture filtrates. Four MAbs reacted with 10 of 11 A. flavus isolates, and the fifth one reacted with 9 of them. One MAb also reacted with A. fumigatus, two reacted with A. niger, A. wentii, and A. nidulans, and all five reacted with A. ochraceus. None reacted with A. terreus, A. glaucus, A. versicolor, or a Penicillium species. Each MAb bound to A. flavus hyphae in formalin-fixed paraffin sections of a muscle biopsy from a confirmed human case of invasive aspergillosis. In summary, these MAbs identified a 97-kDa antigen found on A. flavus that is both surface bound and an exoantigen. Either the same or a cross-reacting antigen is present in A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus species. Images PMID:7496924

Hetherington, S V; Henwick, S; Parham, D M; Patrick, C C

1994-01-01

3

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

2009-01-01

4

Isolation of Bacterial Antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from Almonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR)

Jeffrey D. Palumbo; James L. Baker; Noreen E. Mahoney

2006-01-01

5

Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer.  

PubMed

Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years. However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus, the most prevalent species in the genus. In certain locales and hospitals, Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis and it is the most common cause of superficial infection. Experimental invasive infections in mice show A. flavus to be 100-fold more virulent than A. fumigatus in terms of inoculum required. Particularly common clinical syndromes associated with A. flavus include chronic granulomatous sinusitis, keratitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis following trauma and inoculation. Outbreaks associated with A. flavus appear to be associated with single or closely related strains, in contrast to those associated with A. fumigatus. In addition, A. flavus produces aflatoxins, the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compounds ever characterized. Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics, and much taxonomic and population genetics work is necessary to better understand the species and related species. The flavus complex currently includes 23 species or varieties, including two sexual species, Petromyces alliaceus and P. albertensis. The genome of the highly related Aspergillus oryzae is completed and available; that of A. flavus in the final stages of annotation. Our understanding of A. flavus lags far behind that of A. fumigatus. Studies of the genomics, taxonomy, population genetics, pathogenicity, allergenicity and antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus are all required. PMID:17526826

Hedayati, M T; Pasqualotto, A C; Warn, P A; Bowyer, P; Denning, D W

2007-06-01

6

Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fungi are now complete, providing us with the opportunity to examine any genomic differences

G. A. PAYNE; W. C. NIERMAN; Jennifer R. Wortman; B. L. PRITCHARD; D. BROWN; R. A. DEAN; D BHATNAGAR; T. E. CLEVELAND; MASAYUKI MACHIDA; J. YU

2006-01-01

7

ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS HAVE BEEN APPLIED  

E-print Network

are a group of toxic, carcinogenic fungal metabolites produced by certain isolates of Aspergillus flavus during cottonseed infection. Regulations limit the quantity of aflatoxins permitted in foods and feeds to growers in food-grade 5 gallon polyethylene buckets and was stored on farm without special care until use

Cotty, Peter J.

8

Properties of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellobiase enzyme was partially purified from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger AS-101 and the general and kinetic properties of the enzyme were examined. The enzyme was unstable on storage. However, it was protected by the addition of BSA, glycerol or sodium azide. Addition of glycerol also protected the enzyme from denaturation due to freezing and thawing. Effect of thiol

Ajay Singh; A. K. Agrawal; A. B. Abidi; N. S. Darmwal

1990-01-01

9

New metabolic pathway for converting blasticidin S in Aspergillus flavus and inhibitory activity of aflatoxin production by blasticidin S metabolites.  

PubMed

Blasticidin S, a protein synthesis inhibitor, inhibits aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus without affecting fungal growth. Analysis of metabolites in blasticidin S-treated A. flavus using quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that blasticidin S was metabolized into a novel metabolite, N-acetyldeaminohydroxyblasticidin S. Conversion of blasticidin S to N-acetyldeaminohydroxyblasticidin S via deaminohydroxyblasticidin S or N-acetylblasticidin S was observed in in vivo and in vitro A. flavus systems. Blasticidin S and N-acetylblasticidin S inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger strongly and weakly, respectively, but deaminohydroxyblasticidin S and N-acetyldeaminohydroxyblasticidin S did not inhibit its growth. On the other hand, deaminohydroxyblasticidin S sustained the inhibition of aflatoxin production whereas N-acetylblasticidin S and N-acetyldeaminohydroxyblasticidin S did not. These results suggest that the free amino group at C-13 of blasticidin S and deaminohydroxyblasticidin S may be important for the inhibitory activity of aflatoxin production. PMID:23879927

Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sakuda, Shohei; Watanabe, Maiko; Kamata, Yoichi; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2013-08-21

10

Lipids in Aspergillus flavus-maize interaction  

PubMed Central

In some filamentous fungi, the pathways related to the oxidative stress and oxylipins production are involved both in the process of host-recognition and in the pathogenic phase. In fact, recent studies have shown that the production of oxylipins in filamentous fungi, yeasts and chromists is also related to the development of the organism itself and to mechanisms of communication with the host at the cellular level. The oxylipins, also produced by the host during defense reactions, are able to induce sporulation and to regulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins in several pathogenic fungi. In A. flavus, the oxylipins play a crucial role as signals for regulating the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, the conidiogenesis and the formation of sclerotia. To investigate the involvement of an oxylipins based cross-talk into Z. mays and A. flavus interaction, we analyzed the oxylipins profile of the wild type strain and of three mutants of A. flavus that are deleted at the Aflox1 gene level also during maize kernel invasion. A lipidomic approach has been addressed through the use of LC-ToF-MS, followed by a statistical analysis of the principal components (PCA). The results showed the existence of a difference between the oxylipins profile generated by the WT and the mutants onto challenged maize. In relation to this, aflatoxin synthesis which is largely hampered in vitro, is intriguingly restored. These results highlight the important role of maize oxylipin in driving secondary metabolism in A. flavus. PMID:24578700

Scarpari, Marzia; Punelli, Marta; Scala, Valeria; Zaccaria, Marco; Nobili, Chiara; Ludovici, Matteo; Camera, Emanuela; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Fanelli, Corrado

2014-01-01

11

Isolation of bacterial antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from almonds.  

PubMed

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR) under conditions conducive to aflatoxin production. Using solid and liquid media in coculture assays, 171 bacteria isolated from almond flowers, immature nut fruits, and mature nut fruits showed inhibition of A. flavus growth and/or inhibition of NOR accumulation. Bacterial isolates were further characterized for production of extracellular enzymes capable of hydrolyzing chitin or yeast cell walls. Molecular and physiological identification of the bacterial strains indicated that the predominant genera isolated were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia, as well as several plant-associated enteric and nonenteric bacteria. A set of 20 isolates was selected for further study based on their species identification, antifungal phenotypes, and extracellular enzyme production. Quantitative assays using these isolates in liquid coculture with a wild-type, aflatoxin-producing A. flavus strain showed that a number of strains completely inhibited fungal growth in three different media. These results indicate the potential for development of bacterial antagonists as biological control agents against aflatoxigenic aspergilli on almonds. PMID:16767519

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Baker, James L; Mahoney, Noreen E

2006-07-01

12

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

13

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-01-01

14

Effects of soil moisture and temperature on preharvest invasion of peanuts by the Aspergillus flavus group and subsequent aflatoxin development.  

PubMed Central

Four soil temperature and moisture treatment regimens were imposed on Florunner peanuts 94 days after planting in experimental plots in 1980. At harvest (145 days after planting), the incidence of the Aspergillus flavus group and the aflatoxin concentration were greatest in damaged kernels. Extensive colonization of sound mature kernels (SMK) by the A. flavus group occurred with the drought stress treatment (56% kernels colonized); colonization was less in the irrigated plot (7%) and the drought stress plot with cooled soil (11%) and was intermediate in the irrigated plot with heated soil (26%). Aflatoxin was virtually absent from SMK with the last three treatments, but it was found at an average concentration of 244 ppb (ng/g) in drought-stressed SMK. Colonization of SMK by the A. flavus group and aflatoxin production were greater with hot dry conditions. Neither elevated temperature alone nor drought stress alone caused aflatoxin contamination in SMK. When the ratio of SMK colonized by A. flavus compared with A. niger was greater than 19:1, there was aflatoxin contamination, but there was none if this ratio was less than 9:1. Irrigation caused a higher incidence of A. niger than drought did. This may have prevented the aflatoxin contamination of undamaged peanuts. PMID:6402980

Hill, R A; Blankenship, P D; Cole, R J; Sanders, T H

1983-01-01

15

Effects of soil moisture and temperature on preharvest invasion of peanuts by the Aspergillus flavus group and subsequent aflatoxin development.  

PubMed

Four soil temperature and moisture treatment regimens were imposed on Florunner peanuts 94 days after planting in experimental plots in 1980. At harvest (145 days after planting), the incidence of the Aspergillus flavus group and the aflatoxin concentration were greatest in damaged kernels. Extensive colonization of sound mature kernels (SMK) by the A. flavus group occurred with the drought stress treatment (56% kernels colonized); colonization was less in the irrigated plot (7%) and the drought stress plot with cooled soil (11%) and was intermediate in the irrigated plot with heated soil (26%). Aflatoxin was virtually absent from SMK with the last three treatments, but it was found at an average concentration of 244 ppb (ng/g) in drought-stressed SMK. Colonization of SMK by the A. flavus group and aflatoxin production were greater with hot dry conditions. Neither elevated temperature alone nor drought stress alone caused aflatoxin contamination in SMK. When the ratio of SMK colonized by A. flavus compared with A. niger was greater than 19:1, there was aflatoxin contamination, but there was none if this ratio was less than 9:1. Irrigation caused a higher incidence of A. niger than drought did. This may have prevented the aflatoxin contamination of undamaged peanuts. PMID:6402980

Hill, R A; Blankenship, P D; Cole, R J; Sanders, T H

1983-02-01

16

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. The commonly recognized producers of aflatoxins include A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. pseudotamarii, A. bombycis, and A. ochraceoroseus (Cary et al. 2005). Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities can arise from field conditions conducive to fungal\\u000a growth before harvest as

Perng-Kuang Chang

17

A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

2014-10-01

18

Research on the strong transglycosylation activity in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aspergillus niger M-1 strain shows strong transglycosylation activity. A gene of it was introduced into Escherichia coli, and isomalto-oligosaccharides were isolated by a chemical enzymatic method in order to measure the transglycosylation activity.

Lan Yu; Yun-Kai Zhang; Yong-Ling Qin; Yu-Yan Liu; Zhi-Qun Liang

2008-01-01

19

Induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for the simultaneous induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase along with fructokinase and repression of glucokinase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger. Fructose is the first product of sorbitol catabolism.

B. M. Desai; V. V. Modi; V. K. Shah

1967-01-01

20

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or...

2010-07-01

21

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or...

2011-07-01

22

Aspergillus flavus genomics as a tool for studying the mechanism of aflatoxin formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a weak pathogen that infects plants, animals and humans. When it infects agricultural crops, however, it produces one of the most potent carcinogens known (aflatoxins). To devise strategies to control aflatoxin contamination of pre-harvest agricultural crops and post-harvest grains during storage, we launched the A. flavus genomics program. The major objective of this program is the identification

Jiujiang Yu; Gary A. Payne; William C. Nierman; Masayuki Machida; Joan W. Bennett; Bruce C. Campbell; Jane F. Robens; Deepak Bhatnagar; Ralph A. Dean; Thomas E. Cleveland

2008-01-01

23

Methods to sample air borne propagules of Aspergillus flavus C.H. Bock1,2,  

E-print Network

viable conidia of A. flavus under controlled environment conditions, but not in the field, although-dispersed propagules of Aspergillus flavus can infect and colonize many agricultural products, including cottonseed. To help reduce the risk of toxin entering the food chain, aflatoxin content is strictly regulated by law

Cotty, Peter J.

24

Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis. PMID:19906457

Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

2010-01-31

25

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2010-04-01

26

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

27

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

28

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

29

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

30

Identification of the Predominant Volatile Compounds Produced by Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH2Cl2, and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth. PMID:4629700

Kaminski, E.; Libbey, L. M.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

1972-01-01

31

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

32

Solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus niger for cellobiase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger NRRL3 was cultivated in a moist wheat bran and ground corncob solid medium supplemented with inorganic minerals for the production\\u000a of cellobiase (?-1,4-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.21). With this method, A. niger NRRL3 was able to produce a high concentration of cellobiase (215 IU\\/gofsolid substrate) after 96 h of incubation. Temperature\\u000a and moisture content affected final cellobiase titers. The best

George T. Tsao; Liming Xia; Ningjun Cao; Cheng S. Gong

2000-01-01

33

Production and immobilization of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU07  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high yield strain Aspergillus niger ZU-07 was used to produce cellobiase. It was found that the spores of A. niger ZU-07 were rich in cellobiase. By entrapping the spores into calcium alginate gels, the cellobiase was immobilized efficiently. The immobilized spores were quite stable, with a half-life 38 days. In repeated batch hydrolysis processes on 10gl?1 cellobiose by the

Xueliang Shen; Liming Xia

2004-01-01

34

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

2011-01-01

35

Leaching of copper converter slag with Aspergillus niger culture filtrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of copper converter slag of M\\/s Hindustan Copper Ltd, Ghatshila (Bihar, India) was carried out usingAspergillus niger culture filtrate. The effects of the duration of leaching, temperature, pulp density and the addition of hydrochloric acid were studied.A. niger culture filtrate solubilized metals from the converter slag at levels of 18.70% copper, 7.40% nickel and 4.00% cobalt. Addition of hydrochloric

Lal Bihari Sukla; Rabi Narayan Kar; Vinita Panchanadikar

1992-01-01

36

[Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus niger].  

PubMed

Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), also known as semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis , is a recently defined entity. CNPA is characterized by a pulmonary infiltration with cavitation of chronic evolution in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, slight immunodeficiency or healthy patients. Good evolution is obtained with antimicotic treatment. The isolation of Aspergillus niger as a cause of CNPA is infrequent and may bear worse prognosis. A patient who presented CNPA by Aspergillus niger is described. The patient had received radiotherapy for epidermal carcinoma of the esophagus. Three other cases have been reported in the literature. The diagnostic aspects, treatment and prognostic factors of CNPA are commented upon. PMID:1766284

Arévalo, M; Solera, J; Rodríguez, F; Vizcaya, M; Vercher, R; Martínez-Moratalla, J

1991-11-01

37

Cloning of Aspergillus niger genes in yeast. Expression of the gene coding Aspergillus ? -glucosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of cloning filamentous fungal genes by expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. A genome bank of Aspergillus niger was made in E. coli using a yeast cosmid shuttle vector and over 10,000 different cosmid clones were individually isolated. Yeast transformants carrying Aspergillus DNA were screened for the expression of the genes for fungal secreted glycoproteins,

Meria E. Penttilä; K. M. Helena Nevalainen; Alain Raynal; Jonathan K. C. Knowles

1984-01-01

38

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility groups in preventing aflatoxin contamination  

E-print Network

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA h i g h l i g h t s A mixture of 4 atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Application of strain mixture in maize fields did not increase moldiness of grain. Preharvest application

Cotty, Peter J.

39

Differences in fungicidal efficiency against Aspergillus flavus for neutralized and acidic electrolyzed oxidizing waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralized electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) and acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AcEW) are electrolyzed oxidizing waters (EOW) that have significantly different fungicidal efficiencies against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) (The actuation durations of no survival population to NEW and AcEW were 90s and 120s, respectively.), even when used at the same available chlorine concentration (30ppm). It has been verified by our previous

Ke Xiong; Hai-jie Liu; Rong Liu; Li-te Li

2010-01-01

40

Soluble phosphate accumulation by Aspergillus niger from fluorapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine conditions that may provide greater solubilization of insouluble phosphate, the fungus Aspergillus niger was grown in a stationary culture containing modified citrate medium supplemented with 800 mg fluorapatite per litre. Solubilization of insouluble phosphate increased with fungal growth, reaching a maximum after 11 days of culture. Soluble phosphate levels were correlated with pH of the culture

Paulo Cesar Cerezine; Ely Nahas; David Ariovaldo Banzatto

1988-01-01

41

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1–12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and

Khin Moh Moh Aung; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

42

Hyperspectral imagery for observing spectral signature change in Aspergillus flavus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aflatoxin contaminated corn is dangerous for domestic animals when used as feed and cause liver cancer when consumed by human beings. Therefore, the ability to detect A. flavus and its toxic metabolite, aflatoxin, is important. The objective of this study is to measure A. flavus growth using hyperspectral technology and develop spectral signatures for A. flavus. Based on the research group's previous experiments using hyperspectral imaging techniques, it has been confirmed that the spectral signature of A. flavus is unique and readily identifiable against any background or surrounding surface and among other fungal strains. This study focused on observing changes in the A. flavus spectral signature over an eight-day growth period. The study used a visible-near-infrared hyperspectral image system for data acquisition. This image system uses focal plane pushbroom scanning for high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging. Procedures previously developed by the research group were used for image calibration and image processing. The results showed that while A. flavus gradually progressed along the experiment timeline, the day-to-day surface reflectance of A. flavus displayed significant difference in discreet regions of the wavelength spectrum. External disturbance due to environmental changes also altered the growth and subsequently changed the reflectance patterns of A. flavus.

DiCrispino, Kevin; Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Brabham, Kori; Lewis, David; Beach, Jim; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

2005-11-01

43

Rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus in rice using biofunctionalized carbon nanotube field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we have used carbon nanotube field effect transistors (FET) that have been functionalized with protein\\u000a G and IgG to detect Aspergillus flavus in contaminated milled rice. The adsorbed protein G on the carbon nanotubes walls enables the IgG anti-Aspergillus antibodies to be well oriented and therefore to display full antigen binding capacity for fungal antigens. A

Raquel A. Villamizar; Alicia Maroto; F. Xavier Rius

2011-01-01

44

Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

aflatoxin accumulations are introgressed with temperate and locally adapted lines. This program utilizes only one isolate of A. flavus even though many isolates exist in the environment. The objectives of this thesis are i) to evaluate the progress...

Mayfield, Kerry L.

2009-05-15

45

Bisulfite Sequencing Reveals That Aspergillus flavus Holds a Hollow in DNA Methylation  

E-print Network

Aspergillus flavus first gained scientific attention for its production of aflatoxin. The underlying regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been serving as a theoretical model for biosynthesis of other microbial secondary metabolites. Nevertheless, for several decades, the DNA methylation status, one of the important epigenomic modifications involved in gene regulation, in A. flavus remains to be controversial. Here, we applied bisulfite sequencing in conjunction with a biological replicate strategy to investigate the DNA methylation profiling of A. flavus genome. Both the bisulfite sequencing data and the methylome comparisons with other fungi confirm that the DNA methylation level of this fungus is negligible. Further investigation into the DNA methyltransferase of Aspergillus uncovers its close relationship with RID-like enzymes as well as its divergence with the methyltransferase of species with validated DNA methylation. The lack of repeat contents of the A. flavus ’ genome and the high RIP-index of the small amount of remanent repeat potentially support our speculation that DNA methylation may be absent in A. flavus or that it may possess de novo DNA methylation which occurs very transiently during the obscure sexual stage of this fungal species. This work contributes to our understanding on the DNA methylation status of A. flavus, as well as reinforces our views on the DNA methylation in fungal species. In addition, our strategy of applying bisulfite sequencing to DNA methylation detection in species with low DNA methylation may serve as a

Si-yang Liu; Jian-qing Lin; Hong-long Wu; Cheng-cheng Wang; Shu-jia Huang

46

Bisulfite Sequencing Reveals That Aspergillus flavus Holds a Hollow in DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus first gained scientific attention for its production of aflatoxin. The underlying regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been serving as a theoretical model for biosynthesis of other microbial secondary metabolites. Nevertheless, for several decades, the DNA methylation status, one of the important epigenomic modifications involved in gene regulation, in A. flavus remains to be controversial. Here, we applied bisulfite sequencing in conjunction with a biological replicate strategy to investigate the DNA methylation profiling of A. flavus genome. Both the bisulfite sequencing data and the methylome comparisons with other fungi confirm that the DNA methylation level of this fungus is negligible. Further investigation into the DNA methyltransferase of Aspergillus uncovers its close relationship with RID-like enzymes as well as its divergence with the methyltransferase of species with validated DNA methylation. The lack of repeat contents of the A. flavus' genome and the high RIP-index of the small amount of remanent repeat potentially support our speculation that DNA methylation may be absent in A. flavus or that it may possess de novo DNA methylation which occurs very transiently during the obscure sexual stage of this fungal species. This work contributes to our understanding on the DNA methylation status of A. flavus, as well as reinforces our views on the DNA methylation in fungal species. In addition, our strategy of applying bisulfite sequencing to DNA methylation detection in species with low DNA methylation may serve as a reference for later scientific investigations in other hypomethylated species. PMID:22276181

Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Huang, Shu-Jia; Luo, Yan-Feng; Sun, Ji-Hua; Zhou, Jian-Xiang; Yan, Shu-Jing; He, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jun; He, Zhu-Mei

2012-01-01

47

Use of mycological, nested PCR, and real-time PCR methods on BAL fluids for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus in solid organ transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. A reliable and early diagnostic method is needed to improve survival. In this study, four methods direct microscopy, culture, nested PCR on internal transcribed spacer region, and TaqMan real-time PCR targeted ?-tubulin gene were examined for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus in sixty-four bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids that were obtained from SOT recipients. Direct examination with 20 % KOH (potassium hydroxide) and culture on mycological media were also performed. Of the 64 samples, seven (10.9 %) were positive in direct examination (five with septate hyphae and two with aseptate hyphae), and 15 (23 %) had positive culture including five A. flavus, four A. niger, two Penicillium spp., two Rhizopus spp., one Fusarium spp. and one mixed A. flavus/A. niger. Twenty five (39 %) samples had positive nested PCR with A. flavus and 6 (9.4 %) with A. fumigatus-specific primers. Only eight (12.5 %) had positive real-time PCR for A. flavus and nine (14 %) for A. fumigatus. The incidence of aspergillosis in these patients included proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in two (3 %), probable IPA in 14 (22 %), possible IPA in 38 (59 %), and not IPA in 10 (16 %). A. flavus was the most common cause of pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) in the study. The results suggest that because nested PCR is too sensitive it may increase the number of false-positive results and is not recommended for BAL samples for diagnosis of PA. Although further studies with significant number of proved positive/negative standard BAL samples are necessary for better evaluation, the novel multiplex real-time PCR developed in the study could be promising as a valid diagnostic method for IPA. PMID:24045934

Zarrinfar, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Khodadadi, Hossein; Paknejad, Omolbanin

2013-12-01

48

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

49

Virulence and Cultural Characteristics of Two Aspergillus flavus Strains Pathogenic on Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotty, P. J. 1989. Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillusjlavus strains pathogenic on cotton. Phytopathology 79:808-814. Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of sclerotial size, cultural characteristics, and virulence to cotton. Strain L isolates produced large sclerotia (over 400 \\/lm in diameter), and strain S isolates produced small

P. J. Cotty

1989-01-01

50

Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro a  

E-print Network

Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro, 29122, Piacenza, Italy b U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, School of Plant, Universitďż˝ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122, Piacenza, Italy a b s t r a c ta r t i

Cotty, Peter J.

51

Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Production in Corn: Influence of Trace Elements  

PubMed Central

Distribution of trace element levels in corn germ fractions from kernels naturally infected with Aspergillus flavus and from kernels free of the fungus demonstrated an association between the presence of A. flavus and higher levels of metals. A. flavus production of aflatoxin on various autoclaved corn media showed that ground, whole corn was an excellent substrate; similar high levels of toxin were observed on full-fat corn germ but endosperm and defatted corn germ supported reduced yields. The influence of trace elements and their availability in defatted corn germ to A. flavus-mediated aflatoxin biosynthesis were measured. Enrichment of the substrate with 5 to 10 ?g of manganese, copper, cadmium, or chromium per g of germ increased toxin yields. Addition of lead or zinc (50 to 250 ?g/g) also enhanced toxin accumulation. Aflatoxin elaboration was reduced by the addition of 25 ?g of cadmium per g or 500 ?g of copper per g of germ. PMID:4216287

Lillehoj, E. B.; Garcia, W. J.; Lambrow, M.

1974-01-01

52

Sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger with intermittent broth replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent broth replacement was carried out to enhance the productivity and purity of sodium gluconate usingAspergillus niger by reducing the concentration of unmetabolized glucose. As inoculum size increased, length of lag phase was shortened and\\u000a high initial production rate of sodium gluconate was achieved. However, too high inoculum concentration lowered productivity\\u000a during the later stage of fermentation and increased residual

Sang-Yoon Lee; Bu-Su Park; Jin-Hyup Kim; Byung-Gee Kim; Dong-Il Kim

1999-01-01

53

MINI-REVIEW Aspergillus flavus hydrolases: their roles in pathogenesis  

E-print Network

with respect to aflatoxin levels, with the maximum allowable levels permitted by the US Food and Drug agricultural importance because it produces the potent mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. When A. flavus infects assessment concluded that the major peanut-exporting regions (USA, China, Argentina, and Africa) would suffer

Cotty, Peter J.

54

Interactions of Saprophytic Yeasts with a nor Mutant of Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities. PMID:10347069

Hua, Sui-Sheng T.; Baker, James L.; Flores-Espiritu, Melanie

1999-01-01

55

Effect of Aeration on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 produced up to 212 mg per liter of total aflatoxin in submerged culture in aerated (3,000, 6,000, 9,000, and 12,000 ml/min) and agitated medium in 14-liter fermentors with 10 liters of medium consisting of 2% yeast extract and 10% sucrose. Aflatoxin production increased with time. A maximum of 212 mg/liter was produced at 9,000 ml/min aeration, whereas the yield decreased substantially at the lower aeration rates. Two other strains of A. flavus synthesized aflatoxin in smaller quantities. PMID:16349672

Hayes, A. Wallace; Davis, Norman D.; Diener, Urban L.

1966-01-01

56

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

57

Cryptic Species and Azole Resistance in the Aspergillus niger Complex?†  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as “A. niger complex” by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

Howard, Susan J.; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W.

2011-01-01

58

Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A; Nielsen, Kristian F

2011-01-01

59

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

2011-01-01

60

Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates  

PubMed Central

Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95?% of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates of A. flavus. A. flavus was the only species (28?% prevalence) detected in the avian clinical isolates, whereas this species ranked third (19?%) after members of the genera Penicillium (39?%) and Cladosporium (21?%) in the environmental samples. Upon microsatellite analysis, five to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a 0.852 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded a 0.991 D value with 25 distinct genotypes. One clinical avian isolate (lung biopsy) and one environmental isolate (egg) shared the same genotype. Microsatellite typing of A. flavus grown from avian and environmental samples displayed an excellent discriminatory power and 100?% reproducibility. This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates. PMID:22977077

Hadrich, Inčs; Drira, Inčs; Neji, Sourour; Mahfoud, Nedia; Ranque, Stéphane; Makni, Fattouma

2013-01-01

61

Genes differentially expressed by Aspergillus flavus strains after loss of aflatoxin production by serial transfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. Levels of aflatoxins in agricultural commodities are stringently regulated by many countries\\u000a because of the health hazard, and thus, aflatoxins are of major concern to both producers and consumers. A cluster of genes\\u000a responsible for aflatoxin biosynthesis has been identified; however, expression of these genes

Perng-Kuang Chang; Jeffery R. Wilkinson; Bruce W. Horn; Jiujiang Yu; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland

2007-01-01

62

Aspergillus flavus dose–response curves to selected natural and synthetic antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of selected concentrations of antimicrobials from natural (vanillin, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol or citral) or synthetic (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) origin on Aspergillus flavus lag time inoculated in laboratory media formulated at water activity (aw) 0.99 and pH 4.5 or 3.5, were evaluated. Time to detect a colony with a diameter >0.5 mm was determined. Mold response was

Aurelio López-Malo; Stella M Alzamora; Enrique Palou

2002-01-01

63

Aspergillus flavus growth in the presence of chemical preservatives and naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of water activity ([aw] 0.99 or 0.95), pH (4.5 or 3.5) and antimicrobial agent (potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium bisulfite, carvacrol, citral, eugenol, thymol, or vanillin) concentration (0, 100, 200 up to 1800 ppm) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus were evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA).Mold spore germination time and radial growth rates (RGR) were significantly

Aurelio López-Malo; Stella Maris Alzamora; Enrique Palou

2005-01-01

64

Comparison of Aflatoxigenic and Nonaflatoxigenic Isolates of Aspergillus flavus using DNA Amplification Fingerprinting Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus that produces mycotoxins in many food and feed crops, such as maize (Zea mays L.). Isolates were analyzed for toxin production by nucleic acid profiles in an attempt to differentiate aflatoxigenic from\\u000a nonaflatoxigenic isolates. A total of 41 aflatoxigenic and 34 nonalfatoxigenic isolates were included in the study. The isolates\\u000a were evaluated initially using

R. E. Baird; R. N. Trigiano; G. Windham; P. Williams; R. Kelley; H. K. Abbas; J. K. Moulton; M. L. Scruggs

2006-01-01

65

Aspergillus flavus growth response to cinnamon extract and sodium benzoate mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of selected combinations of cinnamon extract (CE, 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 800ppm) and sodium benzoate (NaB, 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 800ppm) on the growth response of Aspergillus flavus inoculated on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to 0.98 aw and pH 3.5 or 4.5 were evaluated for 30 days. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were

Aurelio López-Malo; Jaime Barreto-Valdivieso; Enrique Palou; Fernanda San Martín

2007-01-01

66

Identification of alternative splice variants in Aspergillus flavus through comparison of multiple tandem MS search algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Database searching is the most frequently used approach for automated peptide assignment and protein inference of tandem mass\\u000a spectra. The results, however, depend on the sequences in target databases and on search algorithms. Recently by using an\\u000a alternative splicing database, we identified more proteins than with the annotated proteins in Aspergillus flavus. In this study, we aimed at finding a

Kung-Yen Chang; David C Muddiman

2011-01-01

67

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose - Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

68

Survival of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme in High-Moisture Corn Stored Under Modified Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Freshly harvested high-moisture corn with 29.4% moisture and corn remoistened to 19.6% moisture were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fr. and stored for 4 weeks at about 27 C in air (0.03% CO2, 21% O2, and 78% N2) and three modified atmospheres: (i) 99.7% N2 and 0.3% O2; (ii) 61.7% CO2, 8.7% O2, and 29.6% N2; and (iii) 13.5% CO2, 0.5% O2, and 84.8% N2. Kernel infections by A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme (Sheld.) Snyd. et Hans., and other fungi were monitored weekly. The modified-atmosphere treatments delayed deterioration by A. flavus and F. moniliforme, but their growth was not completely stopped. A. flavus survived better in the remoistened than in the freshly harvested corn. F. moniliforme survived in both. A. flavus and F. moniliforme were the dominant fungi in corn removed from the modified atmospheres and exposed to normal air for 1 week. PMID:811165

Wilson, David M.; Huang, L. H.; Jay, Edward

1975-01-01

69

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

70

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

71

Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths  

SciTech Connect

It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

72

Production and immobilization of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger A20  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of cellobiase was investigated using a submerged culture of Aspergillus niger A20. The maximum production occurred when the pH was controlled and maintained at 4.0 during the fermentation process. Lactose (0.2%, w\\/v) and cellulose (1.5%, w\\/v) were the most favourable carbon sources. Yeast extract (0.05%, w\\/v) peptone (0.025%, w\\/v), urea (0.025%, w\\/v) and (NH4)2SO4 (0.07%, w\\/ v) were

Ahmed F. Abdel-Fattah; Mona Y. Osman; Mohamed A. Abdel-Naby

1997-01-01

73

Studies on the Production of Fungal Peroxidases in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpose, a protease-deficient A. niger strain and different expression cassettes have been used. Northern blotting experiments indicated high steady-state mRNA levels for the recombinant genes. Manganese peroxidase was secreted into the culture medium as an active protein. The recombinant protein showed specific activity and a spectrum profile similar to those of the native enzyme, was correctly processed at its N terminus, and had a slightly lower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Recombinant MnP production could be increased up to 100 mg/liter upon hemoglobin supplementation of the culture medium. Lignin peroxidase was also secreted into the extracellular medium, although the protein was not active, presumably due to incorrect processing of the secreted enzyme. Expression of the lipA and mnp1 genes fused to the A. niger glucoamylase gene did not result in improved production yields. PMID:10877800

Conesa, Ana; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.

2000-01-01

74

RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity (aw) on growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus has been previously studied. Here we found the strains under 0.93 aw exhibited decreased conidiation and aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to that under 0.99 aw. When RNA-Seq was used to delineate gene expression profile under different water activities, 23,320 non-redundant unigenes, with an average length of 1297 bp, were yielded. By database comparisons, 19,838 unigenes were matched well (e-value < 10?5) with known gene sequences, and another 6767 novel unigenes were obtained by comparison to the current genome annotation of A. flavus. Based on the RPKM equation, 5362 differentially expressed unigenes (with |log2Ratio| ? 1) were identified between 0.99 aw and 0.93 aw treatments, including 3156 up-regulated and 2206 down-regulated unigenes, suggesting that A. flavus underwent an extensive transcriptome response during water activity variation. Furthermore, we found that the expression of 16 aflatoxin producing-related genes decreased obviously when water activity decreased, and the expression of 11 development-related genes increased after 0.99 aw treatment. Our data corroborate a model where water activity affects aflatoxin biosynthesis through increasing the expression of aflatoxin producing-related genes and regulating development-related genes. PMID:25421810

Zhang, Feng; Guo, Zhenni; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Sen; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Shihua

2014-01-01

75

Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Contamination of Leguminous Trees of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. in section Flavi were frequently associated with desert tree legumes in uncultivated areas of the Sonoran Desert. Of 270 samples of debris and fruits of mesquite (Prosopis spp.), ironwood (Olneya tesota), acacia (Acacia spp.), and palo verde (Cercidium and Parkinsonia spp.), 87% were positive for A. flavus (S and L strains) and A. tamarii. A. flavus was the most common species (87%) among the 3,763 isolates examined. Mesquite pods were both the substrate from which A. flavus was recovered most frequently and the substrate from native habitats with the greatest aflatoxin content. In vitro, most desert legumes supported significant growth, reproduction, and aflatoxin production by A. flavus, with mesquite pods yielding 1 x 10(10) propagules/g and 5,000 mug/kg of aflatoxin B(1). Twenty percent of legume pods collected in the desert contained measurable quantities of aflatoxin, ranging from 1 to >2,500 mug/kg. Insect-damaged mesquite pods had significantly higher aflatoxin than intact pods. Legumes are apparently important reservoirs of aflatoxin-producing fungi and significant sources of aflatoxin contamination in the native Sonoran Desert habitats of Arizona. PMID:18944238

Boyd, M L; Cotty, P J

2001-09-01

76

RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity (aw) on growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus has been previously studied. Here we found the strains under 0.93 aw exhibited decreased conidiation and aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to that under 0.99 aw. When RNA-Seq was used to delineate gene expression profile under different water activities, 23,320 non-redundant unigenes, with an average length of 1297 bp, were yielded. By database comparisons, 19,838 unigenes were matched well (e-value < 10-5) with known gene sequences, and another 6767 novel unigenes were obtained by comparison to the current genome annotation of A. flavus. Based on the RPKM equation, 5362 differentially expressed unigenes (with |log2Ratio| ? 1) were identified between 0.99 aw and 0.93 aw treatments, including 3156 up-regulated and 2206 down-regulated unigenes, suggesting that A. flavus underwent an extensive transcriptome response during water activity variation. Furthermore, we found that the expression of 16 aflatoxin producing-related genes decreased obviously when water activity decreased, and the expression of 11 development-related genes increased after 0.99 aw treatment. Our data corroborate a model where water activity affects aflatoxin biosynthesis through increasing the expression of aflatoxin producing-related genes and regulating development-related genes. PMID:25421810

Zhang, Feng; Guo, Zhenni; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Sen; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Shihua

2014-01-01

77

Degradation of polyurethane by Aspergillus flavus (ITCC 6051) isolated from soil.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the isolation of fungi from soil with the ability to degrade polyurethane (PU). A pure fungal isolate was analyzed for its ability to utilize PU as a sole carbon source in shaking culture for 30 days. Incubation of PU with Aspergillus flavus resulted in 60.6% reduction in weight of PU. The scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed certain changes on the surface of PU film and formation of some new intermediate products after polymer breakdown. Thermogravimetric curves showed changes between the thermal behavior of the samples that were inoculated with A. flavus and control. FTIR spectra showed detectable changes in control and incubated samples, suggesting that degradation occurs, with the decreased intensity of band at 1,715 cm(-1), corresponding to ester linkages. We have identified an extracellular esterase activity which might be responsible for the polyurethanolytic activity. PMID:22367637

Mathur, Garima; Prasad, Ramasare

2012-07-01

78

Elucidation of veA -dependent genes associated with aflatoxin and sclerotial production in Aspergillus flavus by functional genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aflatoxin-producing fungi, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, form structures called sclerotia that allow for survival under adverse conditions. Deletion of the veA gene in A. flavus and A. parasiticus blocks production of aflatoxin as well as sclerotial formation. We used microarray technology to identify genes differentially\\u000a expressed in wild-type veA and veA mutant strains that could be involved in

J. W. Cary; G. R. OBrian; D. M. Nielsen; W. Nierman; P. Harris-Coward; J. Yu; D. Bhatnagar; T. E. Cleveland; G. A. Payne; A. M. Calvo

2007-01-01

79

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

2014-01-01

80

In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

2014-09-01

81

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; Devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

82

Categorisation of sugar acid dehydratases in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In the genome of Aspergillus niger five genes were identified coding for proteins with homologies to sugar acid dehydratases. The open reading frames were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activities tested with a library of sugar acids. Four genes were identified to code for proteins with activities with sugar acids: an l-galactonate dehydratase (gaaB), two d-galactonate dehydratases (dgdA, dgdB) and an l-rhamnonate dehydratase (lraC). The specificities of the proteins were characterised. The l-galactonate dehydratase had highest activity with l-fuconate, however it is unclear whether the enzyme is involved in l-fuconate catabolism. None of the proteins showed activity with galactaric acid or galactarolactone. PMID:24382357

Motter, Francine A; Kuivanen, Joosu; Keränen, Hanna; Hilditch, Satu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

2014-03-01

83

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

84

Environmental influences on maize-Aspergillus flavus interactions and aflatoxin production  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1960s, the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus (Link ex Fr.) has been the focus of intensive research due to the production of carcinogenic and highly toxic secondary metabolites collectively known as aflatoxins following pre-harvest colonization of crops. Given this recurrent problem and the occurrence of a severe aflatoxin outbreak in maize (Zea mays L.), particularly in the Southeast U.S. in the 1977 growing season, a significant research effort has been put forth to determine the nature of the interaction occurring between aflatoxin production, A. flavus, environment and its various hosts before harvest. Many studies have investigated this interaction at the genetic, transcript, and protein levels, and in terms of fungal biology at either pre- or post-harvest time points. Later experiments have indicated that the interaction and overall resistance phenotype of the host is a quantitative trait with a relatively low heritability. In addition, a high degree of environmental interaction has been noted, particularly with sources of abiotic stress for either the host or the fungus such as drought or heat stresses. Here, we review the history of research into this complex interaction and propose future directions for elucidating the relationship between resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus colonization, abiotic stress, and its relationship to oxidative stress in which aflatoxin production may function as a form of antioxidant protection to the producing fungus. PMID:24550905

Fountain, Jake C.; Scully, Brian T.; Ni, Xinzhi; Kemerait, Robert C.; Lee, Robert D.; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Guo, Baozhu

2014-01-01

85

Seed mycoflora of Ephedra aphylla and amino acid profile of seed-borne Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven seed samples of Ephedra aphylla were collected from different rangelands in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia during seed production season of 2010. They were assessed to determine the incidence of seedborne fungal flora using both agar plate and blotter paper methods. The investigation of the seeds yielded thirty four fungal species belonging to twelve genera, which are new record to seed-brone mycoflora of E. aphylla in Saudi Arabia. The agar plate method was found superior over blotter methods. The genus Aspergillus was the most prevalent one followed by Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Chaetomium. Only eighteen isolates of A. flavus (? 28.6% of total isolates) were able to produce aflatoxins. Mycelial amino acids profile of selected aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus was investigated and five amino acids, namely cystein, lysine, praline, tryptophan and valine were common in mycelia and all of them were aflatoxins producers. Based on the dissimilarity coefficient between the isolates and their amino acids patterns, high diversity among the population of A. flavus has been recorded. PMID:22982635

Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed F

2012-09-01

86

Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.  

PubMed

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound. PMID:25108759

Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

2014-10-17

87

Movement and Longevity of Aspergillus flavus Propagules and Factors that Contribute to and Influence their Colonization and Production  

E-print Network

Aflatoxin contamination accounts for millions of dollars worth of losses for corn and cotton in Texas. Two atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus, AF36 and Afla-Guard, are labeled for its management. The purpose of this study was to measure...

Hassett, Brandon

2012-10-19

88

Spatial Differentiation in the Vegetative Mycelium of Aspergillus niger? †  

PubMed Central

Fungal mycelia are exposed to heterogenic substrates. The substrate in the central part of the colony has been (partly) degraded, whereas it is still unexplored at the periphery of the mycelium. We here assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a main determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. This question was addressed by analyzing whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 7-day-old maltose- and xylose-grown colonies. Expression profiles at the periphery and the center were clearly different. More than 25% of the active genes showed twofold differences in expression between the inner and outermost zones of the colony. Moreover, 9% of the genes were expressed in only one of the five concentric zones, showing that a considerable part of the genome is active in a restricted part of the colony only. Statistical analysis of expression profiles of colonies that had either been or not been transferred to fresh xylose-containing medium showed that differential expression in a colony is due to the heterogeneity of the medium (e.g., genes involved in secretion, genes encoding proteases, and genes involved in xylose metabolism) as well as to medium-independent mechanisms (e.g., genes involved in nitrate metabolism and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification). Thus, we conclude that the mycelia of 7-day-old colonies of A. niger are highly differentiated. This conclusion is also indicated by the fact that distinct zones of the colony grow and secrete proteins, even after transfer to fresh medium. PMID:17951513

Levin, Ana M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Conesa, Ana; de Bekker, Charissa; Talon, Manuel; Menke, Hildegard H.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Wösten, Han A. B.

2007-01-01

89

Antifungal effects of citronella oil against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404.  

PubMed

Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from some aromatic plant materials. Certain essential oils such as citronella oil contain antifungal activity, but the antifungal effect is still unknown. In this study, we explored the antifungal effect of citronella oil with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The antifungal activity of citronella oil on conidia of A. niger was determined by poisoned food technique, broth dilution method, and disc volatility method. Experimental results indicated that the citronella oil has strong antifungal activity: 0.125 (v/v) and 0.25 % (v/v) citronella oil inhibited the growth of 5?×?10? spore/ml conidia separately for 7 and 28 days while 0.5 % (v/v) citronella oil could completely kill the conidia of 5?×?10? spore/ml. Moreover, the fungicidal kinetic curves revealed that more than 90 % conidia (initial concentration is 5?×?10? spore/ml) were killed in all the treatments with 0.125 to 2 % citronella oil after 24 h. Furthermore, with increase of citronella oil concentration and treatment time, the antifungal activity was increased correspondingly. The 0.5 % (v/v) concentration of citronella oil was a threshold to kill the conidia thoroughly. The surviving conidia treated with 0.5 to 2 % citronella oil decreased by an order of magnitude every day, and no fungus survived after 10 days. With light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, we found that citronella oil could lead to irreversible alteration of the hyphae and conidia. Based on our observation, we hypothesized that the citronella oil destroyed the cell wall of the A. niger hyphae, passed through the cell membrane, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and acted on the main organelles. Subsequently, the hyphae was collapsed and squashed due to large cytoplasm loss, and the organelles were severely destroyed. Similarly, citronella oil could lead to the rupture of hard cell wall and then act on the sporoplasm to kill the conidia. Nevertheless, the citronella oil provides a potential of being a safe and environmentally friendly fungicide in the future. PMID:23081773

Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Ouyang, You-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Ben; Duan, Shun-Shan

2013-08-01

90

Calnexin Overexpression Increases Manganese Peroxidase Production in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Heme-containing peroxidases from white rot basidiomycetes, in contrast to most proteins of fungal origin, are poorly produced in industrial filamentous fungal strains. Factors limiting peroxidase production are believed to operate at the posttranslational level. In particular, insufficient availability of the prosthetic group which is required for peroxidase biosynthesis has been proposed to be an important bottleneck. In this work, we analyzed the role of two components of the secretion pathway, the chaperones calnexin and binding protein (BiP), in the production of a fungal peroxidase. Expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase (MnP) in Aspergillus niger resulted in an increase in the expression level of the clxA and bipA genes. In a heme-supplemented medium, where MnP was shown to be overproduced to higher levels, induction of clxA and bipA was also higher. Overexpression of these two chaperones in an MnP-producing strain was analyzed for its effect on MnP production. Whereas bipA overexpression seriously reduced MnP production, overexpression of calnexin resulted in a four- to fivefold increase in the extracellular MnP levels. However, when additional heme was provided in the culture medium, calnexin overexpression had no synergistic effect on MnP production. The possible function of these two chaperones in MnP maturation and production is discussed. PMID:11823227

Conesa, Ana; Jeenes, David; Archer, David B.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.

2002-01-01

91

Biological detoxification of zearalenone by Aspergillus niger strain FS10.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination of corn and cereal products is a serious health hazard throughout the world and its elimination by microbial methods is now being widely examined. In this study, an Aspergillus niger strain, FS10, isolated from Chinese fermented soybean, was shown to reduce levels of ZEN in corn steep liquor (CSL). Spores, mycelium and culture filtrate of the strain FS10 were tested for their ability to remove ZEN. The results indicated that strain FS10 could remove 89.56% of ZEN from potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. Mycelium and culture filtrate decreased the ZEN content by 43.10% and 68.16%, respectively. The contaminated corn steep liquor initially contained ZEN 29?g/ml, 60.01% of which could be removed by strain FS10. To demonstrate the loss of toxicity in vivo, the culture filtrate incubated with the contaminated corn steep liquor for 48h was administered to rats. The results indicated that the contaminated corn steep liquor severely damaged liver and kidney tissue. Rats administered with contaminated corn steep liquor treated with the strain FS10 culture filtrate showed significantly less severe liver and kidney damage, and organ index values were comparable to the non-ZEN-exposed control (p<0.05). Our study suggests an effective approach to reduce the hazards of ZEN in corn steep liquor. PMID:25007785

Sun, Xiulan; He, Xingxing; Xue, Kathy Siyu; Li, Yun; Xu, Dan; Qian, He

2014-10-01

92

Genome shuffling of Aspergillus niger for improving transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), the glucosylsaccharides used as food additives, are made from saccharified starch by enzymes or microbial cells with transglycosylation activity. This study aimed to generate shuffled futants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced transglycosylation activity for industrial IMO production. The starting mutant population was generated by (60)Co-? radiation; mutants with higher transglycosylation activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by a novel high-throughput method based on detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best performing strain GS3-3 was obtained, its transglycosylation activity (14.91 U/mL) was increased by 194.1 % compared to that of original strain C-6181. In fermentor test, transglycosylation activity of GS3-3 was obtained at 16.61 U/mL. The mycelia of GS3-3 were reused ten times to produce IMO syrup from liquefied cassava starch containing about 280 g/L total sugar within 4 days. The conversion of liquefied cassava starch to IMO was at 71.3-72.1 %, which was higher than the best conversion (68 %) ever reported. GS3-3 shows a great potential for industrial IMO production. PMID:24043449

Li, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Gu, Lingli; Zeng, Wei; Liang, Zhiqun

2014-01-01

93

Relating significance and relations of differentially expressed genes in response to Aspergillus flavus infection in maize.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a pathogenic fungus infecting maize and producing aflatoxins that are health hazards to humans and animals. Characterizing host defense mechanism and prioritizing candidate resistance genes are important to the development of resistant maize germplasm. We investigated methods amenable for the analysis of the significance and relations among maize candidate genes based on the empirical gene expression data obtained by RT-qPCR technique from maize inbred lines. We optimized a pipeline of analysis tools chosen from various programs to provide rigorous statistical analysis and state of the art data visualization. A network-based method was also explored to construct the empirical gene expression relational structures. Maize genes at the centers in the network were considered as important candidate genes for maize DNA marker studies. The methods in this research can be used to analyze large RT-qPCR datasets and establish complex empirical gene relational structures across multiple experimental conditions. PMID:24770700

Asters, Matthew C; Williams, W Paul; Perkins, Andy D; Mylroie, J Erik; Windham, Gary L; Shan, Xueyan

2014-01-01

94

Global Survey of Canonical Aspergillus flavus G Protein-Coupled Receptors  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane receptors that relay signals from the external environment inside the cell, allowing an organism to adapt to its surroundings. They are known to detect a vast array of ligands, including sugars, amino acids, pheromone peptides, nitrogen sources, oxylipins, and light. Despite their prevalence in fungal genomes, very little is known about the functions of filamentous fungal GPCRs. Here we present the first full-genome assessment of fungal GPCRs through characterization of null mutants of all 15 GPCRs encoded by the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. All strains were assessed for growth, development, ability to produce aflatoxin, and response to carbon sources, nitrogen sources, stress agents, and lipids. Most GPCR mutants were aberrant in one or more response processes, possibly indicative of cross talk in downstream signaling pathways. Interestingly, the biological defects of the mutants did not correspond with assignment to established GPCR classes; this is likely due to the paucity of data for characterized fungal GPCRs. Many of the GPCR transcripts were differentially regulated under various conditions as well. The data presented here provide an extensive overview of the full set of GPCRs encoded by A. flavus and provide a framework for analysis in other fungal species. PMID:25316696

Affeldt, Katharyn J.; Carrig, Joseph; Amare, Meareg

2014-01-01

95

In silico analysis of ?-mannanases and ?-mannosidase from Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma virens UKM1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gene encoding an endo-?-1,4-mannanase from Trichoderma virens UKM1 (manTV) and Aspergillus flavus UKM1 (manAF) was analysed with bioinformatic tools. In addition, A. flavus NRRL 3357 genome database was screened for a ?-mannosidase gene and analysed (mndA-AF). These three genes were analysed to understand their gene properties. manTV and manAF both consists of 1,332-bp and 1,386-bp nucleotides encoding 443 and 461 amino acid residues, respectively. Both the endo-?-1,4-mannanases belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 and contain a carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1). On the other hand, mndA-AF which is a 2,745-bp gene encodes a protein sequence of 914 amino acid residues. This ?-mannosidase belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 2. Predicted molecular weight of manTV, manAF and mndA-AF are 47.74 kDa, 49.71 kDa and 103 kDa, respectively. All three predicted protein sequences possessed signal peptide sequence and are highly conserved among other fungal ?-mannanases and ?-mannosidases.

Yee, Chai Sin; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu

2013-11-01

96

Prevalence of airborne Aspergillus flavus in Khartoum (Sudan) Airspora with reference to dusty weather and inoculum survival in simulated summer conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khartoum air was scanned for airborne Aspergillus flavus for 12 months using the horizontal gravitational settling method. Frequency of occurrence was related to total fungal catch and dusty weather. The Aspergilli were prevalent (68% of total isolated\\/plate\\/month) and A. flavus constituted 31% of the total Aspergilli. In June (hot, dry & dusty) Aspergilli constituted 79% of the total isolates, whilst

Mahgoub H. Abdalla

1988-01-01

97

Efficient cloning system for construction of gene silencing vectors in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach based on Gateway recombination technology to efficiently construct silencing vectors was developed for use in\\u000a the biotechnologically important fungus Aspergillus niger. The transcription activator of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes XlnR of A. niger was chosen as target for gene silencing. Silencing was based on the expression vector pXLNRir that was constructed and used\\u000a in co-transformation. From all the

José Miguel Oliveira; Douwe van der Veen; Leo H. de Graaff; Ling Qin

2008-01-01

98

Properties of ?-glucosidase purified from Aspergillus niger mutants USDB 0827 and USDB 0828  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two extracellular ß-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) were isolated from Aspergillus niger USDB 0827 and A. niger USDB 0828, and their physical and kinetic properties studied. Both enzymes were very similar in terms of molecular size (230000 Da), pH optimum (pH 4.6), temperature optimum (65° C), stability at high temperatures and substrate preferences. They were capable of hydrolysing ß-linked disaccharides, phenyl ß-d-glucoside,

Yin Kiong Hoh; Hock-Hin Yeoh; Teck Koon Tan

1992-01-01

99

Construction of a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain secreting high levels of Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain secreting Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase activity was constructed by transforming S. cerevisiae NCYC869-A3 strain with plasmid pVK1.1 harboring the A. niger ?-ga- lactosidase gene, lacA, under the control of the ADH1 promoter and terminator. Compared to other recombinant S. cerevisiae strains, this recombinant yeast has higher levels of extracellular ?-galactosidase activity. In shake- flask cultures, the

J. A. Teixeira; M. Penttilä; N. Lima

2002-01-01

100

Production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger using some food industry wastes.  

PubMed

The production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger and the possibility of utilizing food industry waste and residues as the sources of carbon in media were investigated. Media prepared from molasses, vinasse, whey, sugar-beet waste and fruit pomace were used and GA3 yields were found in concentrations 310, 273.14, 120, 73, 118.13 mg/l in such media, respectively. It was observed that food industry wastes can be used as cheap sources of carbon for gibberellic acid production by Aspergillus niger. PMID:9127484

Cihangir, N; Aksöz, N

1996-01-01

101

Efficient expression and secretion of Aspergillus niger RH5344 polygalacturonase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) cDNA was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Secretion of the protein into the growth medium was efficiently directed by the fungal leader sequence, and processing occurred at the same site as in Aspergillus. The expression level was significantly enhanced by using a “short” version of the yeast ADHI promoter. An additional increase in

C. Lang; A. C. Looman

1995-01-01

102

Analysis of protease activity in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on peanut seed infection and aflatoxin contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are aflatoxin-producing fungi that can infect peanut seeds in field crops. An association between A. parasiticus proteolytic enzyme activities and peanut fungal infection was examined. For this study, a model of inductive and non-inductive\\u000a culture media to produce A. parasiticus extracellular protease before infection was used. These A. parasiticus cultures were used to infect peanut

R. Asis; V. Muller; D. L. Barrionuevo; S. A. Araujo; M. A. Aldao

2009-01-01

103

Milk kefir: ultrastructure, antimicrobial activity and efficacy on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

The association of kefir microbiota was observed by electron microscopic examination. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that kefir grain surface is very rough and the inner portions had scattered irregular holes on its surface. The interior of the grain comprised fibrillar materials which were interpreted as protein, lipid and a soluble polysaccharide, the kefiran complex that surrounds yeast and bacteria in the grain. Yeast was observed more clearly than bacteria on the outer portion of the grain. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations of kefir revealed that the grain comprised a mixed culture of yeast and bacteria growing in close association with each other. Microbiota is dominated by budded and long-flattened yeast cells growing together with lactobacilli and lactococci bacteria. Bacterial cells with rounded ends were also observed in this mixed culture. Kefir grains, kefir suspensions, and kefiran were tested for antimicrobial activities against several bacterial and fungal species. The highest activity was obtained against Streptococcus faecalis KR6 and Fusarium graminearum CZ1. Growth of Aspergillus flavus AH3 producing for aflatoxin B1 for 10 days in broth medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kefir filtrate (%, v/v) showed that sporulation was completely inhibited at the higher concentrations of kefir filtrate (7-10%, v/v). The average values of both mycelial dry weights and aflatoxin B1 were completely inhibited at 10% (v/v). This is the first in vitro study about the antifungal characteristics of kefir against filamentous fungi which was manifested by applying its inhibitory effect on the productivity of aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus AH3. PMID:21350802

Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Ghaly, Mohamed F; El-Naggar, Ayman K

2011-05-01

104

Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (aw) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16 degrees C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 25 degrees C and 0.95 and 0.98 aw. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 25 degrees C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 16 degrees C and 0.98 aw. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions. PMID:3111368

Cuero, R G; Smith, J E; Lacey, J

1987-01-01

105

Development and evaluation of ITS- and aflP-based LAMP assays for rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus in food samples.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous studies focused mainly on the detection of A. flavus or aflatoxin separately. Here, we developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS)- and aflP-based rapid detection of A. flavus in food samples using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region of A. flavus and the aflatoxin-encoding gene aflP were used as target regions. The detection limits of A. flavus and aflP were 10 fg and 1 pg pure DNA, respectively, which allows aflatoxin-contaminated samples to be differentiated from infected samples and reduces false-negative or false-positive results. For specificity testing, DNA extracted from 7 A. flavus, 5 different Aspergillus spp., and 21 other fungi were used, and our results showed that A. flavus strains are detected by ITS-based detection and aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains are detected by aflP-based detection. Furthermore, the ITS- and aflP-based LAMP assays were used for detection analysis of DNA from food samples artificially and naturally contaminated with A. flavus. Our results showed that the detection rate of A. flavus based on the multi-ITS-based LAMP detection is 100% and that the aflatoxigenic strains in all A. flavus are detected by the aflP-based LAMP assay. The LAMP protocol described in our study represents a rapid and highly specific and sensitive diagnostic method for A. flavus detection, which can be used as a diagnostic tool that simplifies A. flavus monitoring and guarantees the quality and safety of foods. PMID:25126831

Liu, Peiqing; Li, Benjin; Yin, Rongmei; Weng, Qiyong; Chen, Qinghe

2014-09-01

106

The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very important property that has led to applications such as antioxidant and preservative. Moreover, it is a "natural" substance and fully biodegradable. PMID:11791342

Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

2001-01-01

107

Mycotoxin occurrence and Aspergillus flavus soil propagules in a corn and cotton glyphosate-resistant cropping systems.  

PubMed

The effects of cotton-corn rotation and glyphosate use on levels of soil-borne Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in corn and cotton seed were determined during 2002-2005 in Stoneville, Mississippi (USA). There were four rotation systems (continuous cotton, continuous corn, cotton-corn and corn-cotton) for both glyphosate-resistant (GR) and non-GR cultivars-herbicide system arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Aspergillus flavus populations in surface (5-cm depth) soil, sampled before planting (March/April), mid-season June) and after harvest (September), ranged from 1.47 to 2.99 log (10) cfu g(-1) soil in the four rotation systems. Propagules of A. flavus were higher in the continuous corn system compared to the continuous cotton system on three sample dates, and cotton rotated with corn decreased A. flavus propagules in three of nine sample dates. Propagules of A. flavus were significantly greater in plots with GR cultivars compared to non-GR cultivars in three samples. In cotton seed, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels were similar (< or = 4 microg kg(-1) and non-detectable, respectively) regardless of rotation and glyphosate. In corn grain, aflatoxin was above the regulatory level (> or = 20 microg kg(-1)) only in GR cultivar in 2004 and 2005. Fumonisin was higher in non-GR cultivar (4 mg kg(-1)) regardless of rotation in 2004; however, in 2002, 2003 and 2005, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels were similar regardless of rotation and glyphosate. These results indicate the potential for increased aflatoxin and fumonisin levels (1 of 4 years) in corn; however, climatic conditions encountered during this study did not allow for mycotoxin production. In laboratory incubation studies, fairly high concentrations of glyphosate were required to inhibit A. flavus growth; however no short-term effect of soil treatment with glyphosate on A. flavus populations were observed. These data suggest that altered populations of A. flavus or higher aflatoxin concentrations in corn grain were due to indirect effects of the GR cropping system. PMID:17917911

Reddy, K N; Abbas, H K; Zablotowicz, R M; Abel, C A; Koger, C H

2007-12-01

108

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger  

E-print Network

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger Jinglin Li in plant, bacteria, and fungi. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a putative type III PKS-pyrone synthase, and benzalacetone synthase have been cloned and characterized.4­6 They deviate from

Zhao, Huimin

109

Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Penicillium nalgiovense.  

PubMed

The glucose oxidase gene (god) from Aspergillus niger was expressed in Penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. The GOD protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. The expression vector was introduced into P. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amdS marker gene of A. nidulans. PMID:24414658

Geisen, R

1995-05-01

110

Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. PMID:23867099

Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

2014-01-01

111

Citric acid production from beet molasses by cell recycle of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Production of citric acid from beet molasses at a varying pH profile using cell recycle ofAspergillus niger was investigated. Best results in terms of citric acid concentration, yield, productivity and specific citric acid productivity were obtained with a substrate pH of 3.0.

T. Roukas; E. Alichanidis

1991-01-01

112

Improvement of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger with addition of phytate to beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytate is an important plant constituent and can be found in the seeds of cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule, giving it the ability to complex with multivalent cations. In this study, the phytate was used as an additive to enhance citric acid production by Aspergillus niger from an untreated beet molasses. The

Jianlong Wang

1998-01-01

113

Formation of myo-inositol phosphates by Aspergillus niger 3-phytase.  

PubMed

Kinetics of phytate hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger phytase and correlation between the amount of released phosphate and creation of lower myo-inositol phosphates were investigated. Phytase was able to hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakis-, pentakis-, tetrakis-, and trisphosphates. Finally, about 56% of total phosphate were released and myo-inositol bisphosphate was detected as the end-product. PMID:11271819

Dvoráková, J; Kopecký, J; Havlícek, V; Kren, V

2000-01-01

114

Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 Rhamnoside Hydrolase, a New Type of Flavonoid Glycoside Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

A novel rutin-?-l-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing ?-l-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the ?-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13. PMID:22544243

Liu, Tingqiang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira

2012-01-01

115

Morphological patterns of Aspergillus niger biofilms and pellets related to lignocellulolytic enzyme productivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To study the morphological patterns of Aspergillus niger during biofilm formation on polyester cloth by using cryo-scanning electron microscopy rela- ted to lignocellulolytic enzyme productivity. Methods and Results: Biofilm and pellet samples obtained from flask cultures were examined at )80? C in a LEO PV scanning electron microscope. Spore adhesion depends on both its rough surface and adhesive substances

G. K. Villena; M. Gutiérrez-Correa

2007-01-01

116

Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose involves the formation of cellobiose as an intermediate. It has been found necessary to add cellobiase from Aspergillus niger (NOVO) to the cellobiase component of Trichoderma reesei mutant Rut C-30 (Natick) cellulase enzymes in order to obtain after 48 h complete conversion of the cellobiose formed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. This

W. Grous; A. Converse; H. Grethlein; L. Lynd

1985-01-01

117

Bioenergetic consequences of glucoamylase production in carbon-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger has been grown in glucose- and maltose-limited continuous cultures to determine the bioenergetic consequences of the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase. Growth yields (g biomass per mol substrate) were high, indicating that growth was very efficient and protein production for biomass was not exceedingly energy consuming. It has been found that the energy costs for the production

M. Metwally; M. Sayed; M. Osman; P. P. F. Hanegraaf; A. H. Stouthamer; H. W. Verseveld

1991-01-01

118

Systemic analysis of the response of Aspergillus niger to ambient pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an exceptionally efficient producer of organic acids, which is one of the reasons for its relevance to industrial processes and commercial importance. While it is known that the mechanisms regulating this production are tied to the levels of ambient pH, the reasons and mechanisms for this are poorly understood. METHODS: To cast

Mikael R Andersen; Linda Lehmann; Jens Nielsen

2009-01-01

119

Indole Diterpenoids and Isocoumarin from the Fungus, Aspergillus flavus, Isolated from the Prawn, Penaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Two new indole-diterpenoids (1 and 2) and a new isocoumarin (3), along with the known ?-aflatrem (4), paspalinine (5), leporin B (6), ?-cyclopiazonic acid (7), iso-?-cyclopiazonic acid (8), ditryptophenaline (9), aflatoxin B1 (10), 7-O-acetylkojic acid (11) and kojic acid (12), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus flavus OUCMDZ-2205. The structures of Compounds 1–12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, quantum ECD calculations and the chemical method. New Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 20.5 ?M. Both new Compounds 1 and 2 could arrest the A549 cell cycle in the S phase at a concentration of 10 ?M. Compound 1 showed PKC-beta inhibition with an IC50 value of 15.6 ?M. In addition, the absolute configurations of the known compounds, 4–6 and leporin A (6a), were also determined for the first time. PMID:24983640

Sun, Kunlai; Li, Ye; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Weiming

2014-01-01

120

Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

121

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

122

siRNA as a molecular tool for use in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Gene silencing using siRNA has been examined in the industrially-important fungus, Aspergillus niger. Protoplasts of an A. niger strain containing a single genomic copy of the Escherichia coli uidA gene, encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS), under control of the A. niger glaA promoter at the same genomic locus, were exposed to siRNA targeted against the uidA gene. Down-regulation of uidA mRNA and GUS activity by siRNA was observed in mycelia that developed from the protoplasts. The down-regulation was transient and was not carried over to conidiation. We concluded that gene silencing by siRNA provides a relatively quick method for analysis of gene function in A. niger. PMID:18066687

Barnes, Sally E; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Archer, David B

2008-05-01

123

Efficacy of two chemical coagulants and three different filtration media on removal of Aspergillus flavus from surface water.  

PubMed

Aquatic fungi are common in various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling as well as interacting with other organisms. Species of Aspergillus are the most common fungi that occur in water. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the efficacy of two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, used at different concentrations to treat drinking water, in removing Aspergillus flavus, as well as testing three different filtration media: sand, activated carbon, and ceramic granules, for their removal of fungi from water. The results revealed that both coagulants were effective in removing fungi and decreasing the turbidity of drinking water, and turbidity decreased with increasing coagulant concentration. Also, at the highest concentration of the coagulants, A. flavus was decreased by 99.6% in the treated water. Among ceramic granules, activated carbon, and sand used as media for water filtration, the sand and activated carbon filters were more effective in removing A. flavus than ceramic granules while simultaneously decreasing the turbidity levels in the test water samples. Post-treatment total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the experimental water did not decrease; on the contrary, TN concentrations increased with the increasing dosage of coagulants. The filtration process had no effect in reducing TOC and TN in tested water. PMID:25076518

Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

2014-02-01

124

Characterization of a fungistatic substance produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from soil and its significance in nature.  

PubMed

A fungus capable of using vegetable tissues for multiplication in soil was isolated and identified as Aspergillus flavus based on morphological characteristics and sequence similarity of ITS and 28S. When grown in liquid medium prepared from the same vegetable tissues used in soil amendment, the isolate of A. flavus produced a substance capable of preventing disease development of black leaf spot of mustard cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicola and inhibiting the germination of A. brassicicola conidia. The inhibitory substance was fungistatic, and was very stable under high temperature and high or low pH value. It was soluble in ethanol or methanol, moderately soluble in water, and insoluble in acetone, ethyl acetate or ether. The inhibitor is not a protein and has no charges on its molecule. This is the first discovery of the production of a fungistatic substance by this deleterious fungus. Results from this study suggest the possession of a strong competitive saprophytic ability by A. flavus, which in turn may explain the widespread occurrence of this fungus in soils. Production of a fungistatic substance when A. flavus was grown in medium prepared from vegetable tissues suggests the importance of antibiotic production in its competitive saprophytic colonization of organic matters in soils. PMID:21334470

Chen, Yen-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ju; Yang, Ching-Hui; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

2011-10-01

125

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23899775

Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

2013-09-01

126

The role of Aspergillus flavus veA in the production of extracellular proteins during growth on starch substrates.  

PubMed

The aflatoxin-producer and opportunistic plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is responsible for the contamination of corn and other important agricultural commodities. In order to obtain nutrients from the host A. flavus produces a variety of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Interestingly, A. flavus amylase and protease activity are dependent on the global regulator veA, a gene known to regulate morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in numerous fungi. Analysis of starch degradation by fungal enzymes secreted into broths of starch- or corn kernel-based media showed a notable accumulation of glucose in samples of the A. flavus control strain while the deletion veA sample accumulated high levels of maltose and maltotriose and only a small amount of glucose. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and proteomics analysis of culture broths from starch- or corn kernel-based media demonstrated differential production of a number of proteins that included a reduction in the amount of a glucoamylase protein in the veA mutant compared to the control strain, while an alpha-amylase was produced in greater quantities in the veA mutant. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses using anti-glucoamylase or alpha-amylase antisera supported the proteomics results. Additionally, an overall reduction in protease activity was observed in the veA mutant including production of the alkaline protease, oryzin, compared to the control strain. These findings contribute to our knowledge of mechanisms controlling production of hydrolases and other extracellular proteins during growth of A. flavus on natural starch-based substrates. PMID:24584515

Duran, Rocio M; Gregersen, Scott; Smith, Timothy D; Bhetariya, Preetida J; Cary, Jeffrey W; Harris-Coward, Pamela Y; Mattison, Christopher P; Grimm, Casey; Calvo, Ana M

2014-06-01

127

Comparing phosphorus mobilization strategies using Aspergillus niger for the mineral dissolution of three phosphate rocks.  

PubMed

Phosphorus deficiencies are limiting crop production in agricultural soils worldwide. Locally available sources of raw phosphate rock (PR) are being recognized for their potential role in soil fertility improvement. Phosphorus bioavailability is essential for the efficiency of PRs and can be increased by acid treatments. The utilization of organic acid producing micro-organisms, notably Aspergillus niger, presents a sustainable alternative to the use of strong inorganic acids, but acid production of A. niger strongly depends on the mineral content of the growth media. This study compared the phosphorus mobilization efficiency of two biological treatments, namely addition of acidic cell-free supernatants from A. niger cultivations to PRs and the direct cultivation of A. niger with PRs. The results show that addition of PR to cultivations leads to significant differences in the profile of organic acids produced by A. niger. Additions of PR, especially igneous rocks containing high amounts of iron and manganese, lead to reduced citric acid concentrations. In spite of these differences, phosphorus mobilization was similar between treatments, suggesting that the simpler direct cultivation method was not inferior. In addition to citric acid, it is suggested that oxalic acid contributes to PR solubilization in direct cultivations with A. niger, which would benefit farmers in developing countries where conventional fertilizers are not adequately accessible. PMID:19709342

Schneider, K D; van Straaten, P; de Orduńa, R Mira; Glasauer, S; Trevors, J; Fallow, D; Smith, P S

2010-01-01

128

Production of Fumonisin B2 and B4 by Aspergillus niger on grapes and raisins.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A. acidus strains isolated from raisins were tested for fumonisin production on laboratory media. Neither A. tubingensis nor A. acidus strains produced fumonisins, but 77% of A. niger strains did. None of the strains produced ochratoxin A. Ten selected fumonisin producing A. niger strains were further able to produce fumonisin B(2) and fumonisin B(4) on grapes in the range 171-7841 microg fumonisin B(2)/kg and 14-1157 microg fumonisin B(4)/kg. Four selected strains were able to produce fumonisin B(2) (5-6476 microg/kg) and fumonisin B(4) (12-672 microg/kg) on raisins. PMID:20014861

Mogensen, Jesper M; Frisvad, Jens C; Thrane, Ulf; Nielsen, Kristian F

2010-01-27

129

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

E-print Network

challenged by A. flavus 3) by mapping the proteome of silk proteins in a A. flavus resistant inbred and 4 and susceptible corn inbreds showed significant activity in the resistant line compared to the susceptible line (p RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE MAIZE INBREDS By Bela Peethambaran A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty

Ray, David

130

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

131

Bioleaching of spent refinery processing catalyst using Aspergillus niger with high-yield oxalic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spent refinery processing catalyst was physically and chemically characterized, and subjected to one-step and two-step bioleaching processes using Aspergillus niger. During bioleaching of the spent catalysts of various particle sizes (“as received”, 100–150?m, <37?m, and xŻ=2.97 (average) ?m) and pulp densities, the biomass dry weight and pH were determined. The corresponding leach liquor was analysed for excreted organic acids

Deenan Santhiya; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

132

Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA )i n Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA )i nSaccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase's activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene

YANMING HAN; DAVID B. WILSON; XIN GEN LEI

1999-01-01

133

Purification and characterization of endoxylanase Xln-1 from Aspergillus niger B03  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular endoxylanase was isolated from the xylanolytic complex of Aspergillus niger B03. The enzyme was purified to a homogenous form using consecutive ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography. The\\u000a endoxylanase was a monomer protein with a molecular weight of 33,000 Da determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide\\u000a gel electrophoresis, and 34,000 Da determined by gel filtration. The optimal pH and temperature values for

Georgi Dobrev; Boriana Zhekova; Ginka Delcheva; Lidia Koleva; Nicola Tziporkov; Ivan Pishtiyski

2009-01-01

134

The use of Aspergillus niger for the bioconversion of olive mill waste-waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill waste-water was used for protein production in small-scale experiments, using non-sterilized medium without pH control. A 14 g\\/1 concentration of proteins, 61% chemical oxygen demand removal and a 58% reduction in total phenolic compounds were obtained using an Aspergillus niger strain. The removal of phenolic compounds resulted in a change in the colour of the waste-water from black

Moktar Hamdi; Abdelkader Khadir; Jean-Louis Garcia

1991-01-01

135

Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been achieved using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography, in conjunction with two additional chromatographic steps employing hydroxylapatite, and Mimetic Green. The enzyme was purified 186-fold with a yield of 15%. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 77 kDa

Michael Kotik; Pavel Kyslík

2006-01-01

136

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger in biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger was compared in three different culture systems: biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentation. Biofilm and solid-state\\u000a fermentations were carried out on perlite as inert support, and lactose was used as a carbon source in the three culture systems.\\u000a In cryo-scanning electron microscopy, biofilm and solid-state cultures gave similar morphological patterns and confirmed that\\u000a both spore first

Norma N. Gamarra; Gretty K. Villena; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

2010-01-01

137

Purification and properties of three cellobiases from Aspergillus niger A20  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cellobiases, here called cellobiase A, B, and C, from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger A20, were purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, gel filtration through Sephadex G-75, and column chromatography\\u000a of DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzymes were homogeneous on polyacrylamide disk electrophoresis. The mol wt of the purified\\u000a enzymes were estimated by SDS-gelelectrophoresis to be 88,000, 80,000, and 71,000

Mohamed A. Abdel-Naby; Mona Y. Osman; Ahmed F. Abdel-Fattah

1999-01-01

138

Production and characterization of a highly active cellobiase from Aspergillus niger grown in solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Aspergillus niger produced extracellular cellobiase when grown on different lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation. The enzyme activity and yield were variable according to the carbon source. In Vogel’s medium, the cellobiase productivity was significantly higher on wheat bran, followed by Leptochloa fusca (kallar grass) straw augmented with corn steep liquor. Maximum yield of cellobiase\\/g wheat bran was significantly

Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka; Muhammad Waheed Akhtar; Atif Hanif; A. M. Khalid

2006-01-01

139

High efficient expression of cellobiase gene from Aspergillus niger in the cells of Trichoderma reesei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellobiase gene from Aspergillus niger was cloned and connected with the strong promoter Pcbh1 from Trichoderma reesei to construct a recombinant plasmid pHB9 with the hygromycin B resistance marker. The plasmid was transformed into conidia of T. reesei using the modified PEG–CaCl2 method. Main factors effecting the transformation were discussed and about 99–113transformants\\/?g DNA could be obtained under optimal

Bingbing Wang; Liming Xia

2011-01-01

140

Aspergillus niger lipases: induction, isolation and characterization of two lipases from a MZKI A116 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger strain MZKI A116 was used to produce lipolytic enzymes in submerged culture. Lipase production was induced by addition of olive oil to a complex medium with an initial pH of 5.0. Maximal activity was reached after 70 h in a 15 1 bioreactor at 30 °C with aeration of 0.5 vvm and agitation 400 rpm. Optimal temperature and

D. Pokorny; A. Cimerman; W. Steiner

1997-01-01

141

Production of a bioflocculant from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent as carbon source.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the potential of bioflocculant production from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as carbon source. The bioflocculant named PM-5 produced by A. niger showed a good flocculating capability and flocculating rate of 76.8% to kaolin suspension could be achieved at 60 h of culture time. Glutamic acid was the most favorable nitrogen source for A. niger in bioflocculant production at pH 6 and temperature 35 °C. The chemical composition of purified PM-5 was mainly carbohydrate and protein with 66.8% and 31.4%, respectively. Results showed the novel bioflocculant (PM-5) had high potential to treat river water from colloids and 63% of turbidity removal with the present of Ca(2+) ion. PMID:25189510

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Osman, Noridah Binti; Yusup, Suzana

2014-11-01

142

Gluconate formation and polyol metabolism in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of A.niger to accumulate metabolites is remarkable. Under all conditions polyols accumulate in the cell and when mycelium in later developmental stages is considered, depending on the carbon source, aeration and external pH, polyols and\\/or organic acids can be formed in a very efficient way. The aim of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the

C. F. B. Witteveen

1993-01-01

143

Fumonisin B(2) production by Aspergillus niger from grapes and natural occurrence in must.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger has been recently found to produce fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)). Thirty-one strains belonging to four Aspergillus species isolated from grape were evaluated for FB(2) production on agar plates. Four out of eight strains of A. niger produced FB(2) (29-293 microg g(-1)). None of the strains of A. uvarum (n = 7), A. tubingensis (8) and A. carbonarius (8) produced detectable amounts of toxin. The capability to produce FB(2) was also confirmed by some A. niger strains artificially inoculated on grape berries. Natural occurrence of FB(2), at levels of 0.01 and 0.4 microg ml(-1), was found in two samples of must collected in Apulian cellars in 2007. This is the first report of FB(2) contamination in must. These findings suggest that there is a potential risk of exposure to FB(2) in the grape-wine chain for consumers and that A. niger may represent the major fumonisin-producing species among black Aspergilli occurring on grapes. PMID:19742356

Logrieco, A; Ferracane, R; Haidukowsky, M; Cozzi, G; Visconti, A; Ritieni, A

2009-11-01

144

Use of a granular bioplastic formulation for carrying conidia of a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Previous research demonstrated that aflatoxin contamination in corn is reduced by field application of wheat grains pre-inoculated with the non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 30797. To facilitate field applications of this biocontrol isolate, a series of laboratory studies were conducted on the reliability and efficiency of replacing wheat grains with the novel bioplastic formulation Mater-Bi to serve as a carrier matrix to formulate this fungus. Mater-Bi granules were inoculated with a conidial suspension of NRRL 30797 to achieve a final cell density of approximately log 7 conidia/granule. Incubation of 20-g soil samples receiving a single Mater-Bi granule for 60-days resulted in log 4.2-5.3 propagules of A. flavus/g soil in microbiologically active and sterilized soil, respectively. Increasing the number of granules had no effect on the degree of soil colonization by the biocontrol fungus. In addition to the maintenance of rapid vegetative growth and colonization of soil samples, the bioplastic formulation was highly stable, indicating that Mater-Bi is a suitable substitute for biocontrol applications of A. flavus NRRL 30797. PMID:19349167

Accinelli, Cesare; Saccŕ, M Ludovica; Abbas, Hamed K; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Wilkinson, Jeffery R

2009-09-01

145

Purification and Characterization of a Keratinase from a Feather-Degrading Fungus, Aspergillus flavus Strain K-03  

PubMed Central

A keratinolytic enzyme secreted by Aspergillus flavus K-03 cultured in feather meal basal medium (FMBM) containing 2% (w/v) chicken feather was purified and characterized. Keratinolytic enzyme secretion was the maximal at day 16 of the incubation period at pH 8 and 28?. No relationship was detected between enzyme yield and increase of fungal biomass. The fraction obtained at 80% ammonium sulfate saturation showed 2.39-fold purification and was further purified by gel filtration in Sephadex G-100 followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, yielding an active protein peak showing 11.53-fold purification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and zymograms indicated that the purified keratinase is a monomeric enzyme with 31 kDa molecular weight. The extracellular keratinase of A. flavus was active in a board range of pH (7~10) and temperature (30?~70?) profiles with the optimal for keratinase activity at pH 8 and 45?. The keratinase activity was totally inhibited by protease inhibitors such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), iodoacetic acid, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) while no reduction of activity by the addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) was observed. N-terminal amino acid sequences were up to 80% homologous with the fungal subtilisins produced by Fusarium culmorum. Therefore, on the basis of these characteristics, the keratinase of A. flavus K-03 is determined to be subtilisins-like. PMID:24015101

2007-01-01

146

Beyond aflatoxin: four distinct expression patterns and functional roles associated with Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism gene clusters  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Species of Aspergillus produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, and recent genomic analysis predicts that these species have the capacity to synthesize many more compounds. It has been possible to infer the presence of 55 gene clusters associated with secondary metabolism in A. flavus, however, only three metabolic pathways - aflatoxin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and aflatrem - have been assigned to these clusters. To gain insight into the regulation of, and infer ecological significance for the 55 secondary metabolite gene clusters predicted in A. flavus, we examined their expression over 28 diverse conditions. Variables included culture media and temperature, fungal development, colonization of developing maize seeds, and misexpression of laeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism. Hierarchical clustering analysis of expression profiles allowed us to categorize the gene clusters into four distinct clades. Gene clusters for the production of aflatoxins, CPA, and seven other unknown compound(s) were identified as belonging to one clade. To further explore the relationships found by gene expression analysis, aflatoxin and CPA production were quantified under five different cell culture environments known to be conducive or non-conducive for aflatoxin biosynthesis and during colonization of developing maize seeds. Results from these studies showed that secondary metabolism gene clusters have distinctive gene expression profiles. Aflatoxin and CPA were found to have unique regulation but are similar enough that they would be expected to co-occur in substrates colonized with A. flavus. PMID:20447271

Georgianna, D. Ryan; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Burroughs, James L.; Dolezal, Andrea L.; Bok, J.; Horowitz-Brown, S.; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Yu, Jiujiang; Keller, Nancy P.; Payne, Gary A.

2014-01-01

147

Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose  

SciTech Connect

Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

1991-12-31

148

Gene cloning and enzymatic characterization of an endoprotease Endo-Pro-Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

A novel endoprotease Endo-Pro-Aspergillus niger (endoprotease EPR) was first successfully expressed at high level in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and the purification procedure was established. The endoprotease EPR is 95 % identity with proline specific endopeptidase from A. niger CBS513.88 (EMBL; AX458699), while sharing low identity with those from other microorganisms. The purified endoprotease EPR was a monomer of 60 kDa. Furthermore, the peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis confirmed that the purified protein was an endoprotease Endo-Pro-Aspergillus niger. A three-dimensional model revealed that the active site of the enzyme was located in Ser(179)-Asp(458)-His(491), based on template 3n2zB with sequence identity of 17.6 %. The optimum pH and temperature of the endoprotease EPR were pH 4-5 and 35 °C, and the stabilities were pH 3-7 and 15-60 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the endoprotease EPR had the ability to digest peptides with the C-terminal of proline as well as alanine, and was also capable of hydrolyzing larger peptides. The properties of the endoprotease EPR made it a highly promising candidate for future application in the field of brewing and food process. PMID:23685896

Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

2013-08-01

149

Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure. PMID:25048233

Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

2014-11-01

150

The structure of Aspergillus niger phytase PhyA in complex with a phytate mimetic.  

PubMed

Phytases hydrolyse the phosphomonoesters of phytate (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate) and thus find uses in plant and animal production through the mobilisation of phosphorus from this source. The structure of partially deglycosylated Aspergillus niger PhyA is presented in apo form and in complex with the potent inhibitor myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis sulfate, which by analogy with phytate provides a snapshot of the Michaelis complex. The structure explains the enzyme's preference for the 3'-phosphate of phytate. The apo-and inhibitor-bound forms are similar and no induced-fit mechanism operates. Furthermore the enzyme structure is apparently unaffected by the presence of glycosides on the surface. The new structures of A. niger PhyA are discussed in the context of protein engineering studies aimed at modulating pH preference and stability. PMID:20541524

Oakley, Aaron J

2010-07-01

151

Inhibition of Aspergillus niger Phosphate Solubilization by Fluoride Released from Rock Phosphate  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F? per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions. PMID:23770895

Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araujo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Jose Ivo

2013-01-01

152

Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose involves the formation of cellobiose as an intermediate. It has been found necessary to add cellobiase from Aspergillus niger (NOVO) to the cellobiase component of Trichoderma reesei mutant Rut C-30 (Natick) cellulase enzymes in order to obtain after 48 h complete conversion of the cellobiose formed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. This study of the cellobiase activity of these two enzyme sources was undertaken as a first step in the formation of a kinetic model for cellulose hydrolysis that can be used in process design. In order to cover the full range of cellobiose concentrations, it was necessary to develop separate kinetic parameters for high- and low-concentration ranges of cellobiose for the enzymes from each organism. Competitive glucose inhibition was observed with the enzymes from both organisms. Substrate inhibition was observed only with the A. niger enzymes.

Grous, W.; Converse, A.; Grethlein, H.; Lynd, L.

1985-01-01

153

Effect of growth temperature on lipid fatty acids of four fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum , and Trichoderma reesei )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of growth temperature on the lipid fatty acid composition was studied over a temperature range from 35 to 10° C\\u000a with 5° C intervals in four exponentially growing fungi:Aspergillus niger, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, andTrichoderma reesei. Fatty acid unsaturation increased inA. niger, P. chrysogenum, andT. reesei when the temperature was lowered to 20–15, 20, and 26–20° C, respectively.

Merja Suutari

1995-01-01

154

The inhibitory effect of Bacillus megaterium on aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid biosynthetic pathway gene expression in Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is one of the major moulds that colonize peanut in the field and during storage. The impact to human and animal health, and to the economy in agriculture and commerce, is significant since this mold produces the most potent known natural toxins, aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, and teratogenic. A strain of marine Bacillus megaterium isolated from the Yellow Sea of East China was evaluated for its effect in inhibiting aflatoxin formation in A. flavus through down-regulating aflatoxin pathway gene expression as demonstrated by gene chip analysis. Aflatoxin accumulation in potato dextrose broth liquid medium and liquid minimal medium was almost totally (more than 98 %) inhibited by co-cultivation with B. megaterium. Growth was also reduced. Using expression studies, we identified the fungal genes down-regulated by co-cultivation with B. megaterium across the entire fungal genome and specifically within the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster (aflF, aflT, aflS, aflJ, aflL, aflX). Modulating the expression of these genes could be used for controlling aflatoxin contamination in crops such as corn, cotton, and peanut. Importantly, the expression of the regulatory gene aflS was significantly down-regulated during co-cultivation. We present a model showing a hypothesis of the regulatory mechanism of aflatoxin production suppression by AflS and AflR through B. megaterium co-cultivation. PMID:24652062

Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Yu, Jiujiang; Shan, Shihua; Li, Qiyu; Li, Qianting; Guan, Bin; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

2014-06-01

155

Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on growth and aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus in culture media and cheese.  

PubMed

The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) against growth, spore production and aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15546 was investigated in synthetic media as well as Iranian ultra-filtered white cheese in brine. EO effectively inhibited radial growth and spore production on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 ppm, the radial growth and sporulation reduced by 79.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The growth was completely prevented at EO400 ppm on PDA, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oil was estimated at 1000 ppm. The oil also significantly suppressed mycelial growth and aflatoxin synthesis in broth medium at all concentrations tested (P<0.05). At 150 ppm of EO, the mycelial growth and aflatoxin accumulation reduced by 90% and 99.4%, respectively. The EO at all concentrations tested, had an inhibitory effect against radial fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus in cheese. However, no concentration of EO examined was able to completely inhibit the growth and aflatoxin production in cheese. The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by this EO as a natural inhibitor to control the growth of molds in foods such as cheese. PMID:19477213

Gandomi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Bokaei, Saeed; Khosravi, Alireza; Abbasifar, Arash; Javan, Ashkan Jebelli

2009-10-01

156

Interaction of tannase from Aspergillus niger with polycations applied to its primary recovery.  

PubMed

The interaction of tannase (TAH) with chitosan, polyethyleneimine and Eudragit(®)E100 was studied. It was found that TAH selectively binds to these polycations (PC), probably due to the acid nature of the target protein. TAH could interact with these PC depending on the medium conditions. The effect of the interaction on the secondary and tertiary structure of TAH was assayed through circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. TAH was recovered from Aspergillus niger culture broth by means of precipitation and adsorption using chitosan. PMID:23706551

Durán, Luis V Rodríguez; Spelzini, Darío; Boeris, Valeria; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Picó, Guillermo A

2013-10-01

157

Generation, annotation, and analysis of an extensive Aspergillus niger EST collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Aspergillus niger, a saprophyte commonly found on decaying vegetation, is widely used and studied for industrial purposes. Despite its place\\u000a as one of the most important organisms for commercial applications, the lack of available information about its genetic makeup\\u000a limits research with this filamentous fungus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We present here the analysis of 12,820 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated fromA. nigercultured

Natalia Semova; Reginald Storms; Tricia John; Pascale Gaudet; Peter Ulycznyj; Xiang Jia Min; Jian Sun; Greg Butler; Adrian Tsang

2006-01-01

158

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of recombinant ?-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

?-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25) is an important exoglycosidase specific for the hydrolysis of terminal ?-linked mannoside in various oligomeric saccharide structures. ?-Mannosidase from Aspergillus niger was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to clear homogeneity. ?-Mannosidase was crystallized in the presence of D-mannose and the crystal diffracted to 2.41?Ĺ resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a=62.37, b=69.73, c=69.90?Ĺ, ?=108.20, ?=101.51, ?=103.20°. The parameters derived from the data collection indicate the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23519806

Demo, Gabriel; Fliedrová, Barbora; Weignerová, Lenka; Wimmerová, Michaela

2013-03-01

159

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF KAFFIR LIME, BITTER CUCUMBER AND TOBACCO EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ethanolic extracts of kaffir lime leaf, bitter cucumber fruit and tobacco leaf were examined for their ability to control the growth of A. flavus on PDA. The results showed that the ethanolic extracts of all herbs had an inhibitory effect on fungal growth. Kaffir lime at 10 % and tobacco at 8-10 % showed significantly higher inhibition than at

Dusanee Thanaboripat; Sittichai Chareonsettasilp; Kanokwan Pandee

160

Removal of aflatoxin B1 and inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth by the use of Lactobacillus plantarum on olives.  

PubMed

Olives can be contaminated with a wide variety of molds (Aspergillus and/or Penicillium) that can be occurring naturally on fresh and processed olives and could support mycotoxin production. The aim of this work was to investigate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by fungi and its bioaccumulation in olives during storage and to study the impact of the application of Lactobacillus plantarum on the inhibition of mold development and production of AFB1. Two different treatments were applied: (i) olives with natural microflora and (ii) olives inoculated with Aspergillus flavus after elimination of natural microflora. AFB1 has been extracted from olives and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. Results showed the absence of this metabolite in the olives for the season 2008 to 2009. In 2009 to 2010, AFB1 was detected at the level of 11 ?g/kg. The application of L. plantarum during the storage of olives favors the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 5.9 ?g/kg correlated with a decrease in the amount of molds (86.3%). The images obtained by environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that L. plantarum was able to adhere to the olive surface and probably produce a biofilm that inhibits the multiplication of yeast and fungi by oxygen competition. Results showed an increase of antioxidant activity and amount of total phenolic compounds of olives, respectively, by 24 and 8.6%. In many olives contaminated with A. flavus, AFB1 was present at an initial level of 5.15 ?g/kg and increased to 6.55 ?g/kg after 8 days of storage. The biological detoxification of AFB1 in olives by L. plantarum is confirmed by the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 2.12 ?g/kg on day 0 and its absence after 4 days of storage. PMID:25285494

Kachouri, Faten; Ksontini, Hamida; Hamdi, Moktar

2014-10-01

161

Aspergillus flavus grown in peptone as the carbon source exhibits spore density- and peptone concentration-dependent aflatoxin biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus species in seeds with high lipid and protein contents. It has been known for over 30?years that peptone is not conducive for AF productions, although reasons for this remain unknown. Results In this study, we showed that when Aspergillus flavus was grown in peptone-containing media, higher initial spore densities inhibited AF biosynthesis, but promoted mycelial growth; while in glucose-containing media, more AFs were produced when initial spore densities were increased. This phenomenon was also observed in other AF-producing strains including A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Higher peptone concentrations led to inhibited AF production, even in culture with a low spore density. High peptone concentrations did however promote mycelial growth. Spent medium experiments showed that the inhibited AF production in peptone media was regulated in a cell-autonomous manner. mRNA expression analyses showed that both regulatory and AF biosynthesis genes were repressed in mycelia cultured with high initial spore densities. Metabolomic studies revealed that, in addition to inhibited AF biosynthesis, mycelia grown in peptone media with a high initial spore density showed suppressed fatty acid biosynthesis, reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and increased pentose phosphate pathway products. Additions of TCA cycle intermediates had no effect on AF biosynthesis, suggesting the inhibited AF biosynthesis was not caused by depleted TCA cycle intermediates. Conclusions We here demonstrate that Aspergillus species grown in media with peptone as the sole carbon source are able to sense their own population densities and peptone concentrations to switch between rapid growth and AF production. This switching ability may offer Aspergillus species a competition advantage in natural ecosystems, producing AFs only when self-population is low and food is scarce. PMID:22694821

2012-01-01

162

Gene Overexpression and Biochemical Characterization of the Biotechnologically Relevant Chlorogenic Acid Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger?  

PubMed Central

The full-length gene that encodes the chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger CIRM BRFM 131 was cloned by PCR based on the genome of the strain A. niger CBS 513.88. The complete gene consists of 1,715 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 512 amino acids with a molecular mass of 55,264 Da and an acidic pI of 4.6. The gene was successfully cloned and overexpressed in A. niger to yield 1.25 g liter?1, i.e., 330-fold higher than the production of wild-type strain A. niger CIRM BRFM131. The histidine-tagged recombinant ChlE protein was purified to homogeneity via a single chromatography step, and its main biochemical properties were characterized. The molecular size of the protein checked by mass spectroscopy was 74,553 Da, suggesting the presence of glycosylation. ChlE is assembled in a tetrameric form with several acidic isoforms with pIs of around 4.55 and 5.2. Other characteristics, such as optimal pH and temperature, were found to be similar to those determined for the previously characterized chlorogenic acid hydrolase of A. niger CIRM BRFM 131. However, there was a significant temperature stability difference in favor of the recombinant protein. ChlE exhibits a catalytic efficiency of 12.5 × 106 M?1 s?1 toward chlorogenic acid (CGA), and its ability to release caffeic acid from CGA present in agricultural by-products such as apple marc and coffee pulp was clearly demonstrated, confirming the high potential of this enzyme. PMID:17630312

Benoit, Isabelle; Asther, Michele; Bourne, Yves; Navarro, David; Canaan, Stephane; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Herweijer, Marga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Asther, Marcel; Record, Eric

2007-01-01

163

Identification of Genes Associated with Morphology in Aspergillus niger by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

PubMed Central

The morphology of citric acid production strains of Aspergillus niger is sensitive to a variety of factors, including the concentration of manganese (Mn2+). Upon increasing the Mn2+ concentration in A. niger (ATCC 11414) cultures to 14 ppb or higher, the morphology switches from pelleted to filamentous, accompanied by a rapid decline in citric acid production. The molecular mechanisms through which Mn2+ exerts effects on morphology and citric acid production in A. niger cultures have not been well defined, but our use of suppression subtractive hybridization has identified 22 genes responsive to Mn2+. Fifteen genes were differentially expressed when A. niger was grown in media containing 1,000 ppb of Mn2+ (filamentous form), and seven genes were expressed in 10 ppb of Mn2+ (pelleted form). Of the 15 filament-associated genes, seven are novel and eight share 47 to 100% identity with genes from other organisms. Five of the pellet-associated genes are novel, and the other two genes encode a pepsin-type protease and polyubiquitin. All 10 genes with deduced functions are either involved in amino acid metabolism-protein catabolism or cell regulatory processes. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts of all 22 genes were rapidly enhanced or suppressed by Mn2+. Steady-state mRNA levels of six selected filament-associated genes remained high during 5 days of culture in a filamentous state and remained low under pelleted growth conditions. The opposite behavior was observed for four selected pellet-associated genes. The full-length cDNA of the filament-associated clone, Brsa-25, was isolated. Antisense expression of Brsa-25 permitted pelleted growth and increased citrate production at concentrations of Mn2+ that were higher than the parent strain could tolerate. These results suggest the involvement of the newly isolated genes in the regulation of A. niger morphology. PMID:15066846

Dai, Ziyu; Mao, Xingxue; Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

2004-01-01

164

Dual transcriptional profiling of a bacterial/fungal confrontation: Collimonas fungivorans versus Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Interactions between bacteria and fungi cover a wide range of incentives, mechanisms and outcomes. The genus Collimonas consists of soil bacteria that are known for their antifungal activity and ability to grow at the expense of living fungi. In non-contact confrontation assays with the fungus Aspergillus niger, Collimonas fungivorans showed accumulation of biomass concomitant with inhibition of hyphal spread. Through microarray analysis of bacterial and fungal mRNA from the confrontation arena, we gained new insights into the mechanisms underlying the fungistatic effect and mycophagous phenotype of collimonads. Collimonas responded to the fungus by activating genes for the utilization of fungal-derived compounds and for production of a putative antifungal compound. In A. niger, differentially expressed genes included those involved in lipid and cell wall metabolism and cell defense, which correlated well with the hyphal deformations that were observed microscopically. Transcriptional profiles revealed distress in both partners: downregulation of ribosomal proteins and upregulation of mobile genetic elements in the bacteria and expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and conidia-related genes in the fungus. Both partners experienced nitrogen shortage in each other's presence. Overall, our results indicate that the Collimonas/Aspergillus interaction is a complex interplay between trophism, antibiosis and competition for nutrients. PMID:21614084

Mela, Francesca; Fritsche, Kathrin; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes A; de Graaff, Leo H; van den Berg, Marlies; Leveau, Johan H J

2011-01-01

165

Studies on influence of natural biowastes on cellulase production by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of natural biowaste substrates such as banana peel powder and coir powder at varying environmental parameters of pH (4-9) and temperature (20-50 degrees C) on the cellulase enzyme production by Aspergillus niger. The cellulase enzyme production was analyzed by measuring the amount of glucose liberated in IU ml(-1) by using the dinitrosalicylic acid assay method. The substrates were pretreated with 1% NaOH (alkaline treatment) and autoclaved. The maximum activity of the enzyme was assayed at varying pH with temperatures being constant and varying temperatures with pH being constant. The highest activity of the enzyme at varying pH was recorded at pH 6 for banana peel powder (0.068 +/- 0.002 IU ml) and coir powder (0.049 +/- 0.002 IU ml(-1)) and the maximum activity of the enzyme at varying temperature was recorded at 35 degrees C for both banana peel powder (0.072 +/- 0.001 IU ml(-1)) and coir powder (0.046 +/- 0.003 IU ml(-1)). At varying temperatures and pH the high level of enzyme production was obtained at 35 degrees C and pH 6 by using both the substrates, respectively. However among the two substrates used for the production of cellulases by Aspergillus niger banana peel powder showed maximum enzymatic activity than coir powder as substrate. PMID:22471203

Kiranmayi, M Usha; Poda, Sudhakar; Vijayalakshmi, M; Krishna, P V

2011-11-01

166

Inhibition of growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by extracts of Agave species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Agave asperrima and Agave striata on growth and production of aflatoxin (in A&M medium) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; in Czpaek-Dox medium) and on growth in corn under storage conditions was determined. Aspergillus strains were inoculated (106 conidia per ml of medium or per 6 g of corn), then

Eduardo Sánchez; Norma Heredia; Santos García

2005-01-01

167

Effects of Stenochlaena palustris Leaf Extract on Growth and Morphogenesis of Food Borne Pathogen, Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Some synthetic preservatives have become controversial because they have been proven to cause health problems. These increased health concerns have led consumers to prefer food preservatives based on natural products. Hence, Stenochlaena palustris leaf extract was used in this study to evaluate the antifungal activity against food borne pathogen, Aspergillus niger. The value of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of leaf extract for this fungus grown on Potato Dextrose Agar medium was 50 mg/ml. IC50 value for the hyphal growth of A. niger was at a concentration of 17.41 mg/ml. Morphology changes of A. niger treated with the fern leaf extract was observed through scanning electron microscope. The thread-like and elongated hyphae cell wall was disrupted, with some appearing flattened and others being broken. Currently, there is growing interest in using natural food preservatives such as medicinal plant extracts for preserving foods to reduce outbreaks of foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, S. palustris appears to have promise as a safe alternative natural product-based food preservative for future generations. PMID:22691997

Sumathy, V; Jothy Lachumy, S; Zuraini, Z; Sasidharan, S

2010-12-01

168

Solubilisation of some naturally occurring metal-bearing minerals, limescale and lead phosphate by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The ability of the soil fungus Aspergillus niger to tolerate and solubilise seven naturally occurring metal-bearing minerals, limescale and lead phosphate was investigated. A. niger was able to solubilise four of the test insoluble compounds when incorporated into solid medium: cuprite (CuO2), galena (PbS), rhodochrosite (Mn(CO3)x) and limescale (CaCO3). A. niger was able to grow on all concentrations of all the test compounds, whether solubilisation occurred or not, with no reduction in growth rate from the control. In some cases, stimulation of growth occurred, most marked with the phosphate-containing mineral, apatite. Precipitation of insoluble copper and manganese oxalate crystals under colonies growing on agar amended with cuprite and rhodochrosite was observed after 1-2 days growth at 25 degrees C. This process of oxalate formation represents a reduction in bioavailability of toxic cations, and could represent an important means of toxic metal immobilisation of physiological and environmental significance. PMID:9297818

Sayer, J A; Kierans, M; Gadd, G M

1997-09-01

169

Heterogenic expression of genes encoding secreted proteins at the periphery of Aspergillus niger colonies.  

PubMed

Colonization of a substrate by fungi starts with the invasion of exploring hyphae. These hyphae secrete enzymes that degrade the organic material into small molecules that can be taken up by the fungus to serve as nutrients. We previously showed that only part of the exploring hyphae of Aspergillus niger highly express the glucoamylase gene glaA. This was an unexpected finding since all exploring hyphae are exposed to the same environmental conditions. Using GFP as a reporter, we here demonstrate that the acid amylase gene aamA, the ?-glucuronidase gene aguA, and the feruloyl esterase gene faeA of A. niger are also subject to heterogenic expression within the exploring mycelium. Coexpression studies using GFP and dTomato as reporters showed that hyphae that highly express one of these genes also highly express the other genes encoding secreted proteins. Moreover, these hyphae also highly express the amylolytic regulatory gene amyR, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene gpdA. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the high expressers are characterized by a high 18S rRNA content. Taken together, it is concluded that two subpopulations of hyphae can be distinguished within the exploring mycelium of A. niger. The experimental data indicate that these subpopulations differ in their transcriptional and translational activity. PMID:20722697

Vinck, Arman; de Bekker, Charissa; Ossin, Adam; Ohm, Robin A; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2011-01-01

170

Isolation of epiphytic yeasts with potential for biocontrol of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger on grape.  

PubMed

Antagonistic yeasts were isolated from the epiphytic flora associated with grape berries cv. Negroamaro and identified at species level using molecular methods. A total of 144 yeast isolates were tested in a preliminary screening on agar to select isolates showing a killer activity against Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger, the main species responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A in grape. Twenty-eight yeast isolates were selected for their inhibitory effects on the above fungal species and assayed by an in vitro nutritional competition test for their antagonistic capacity towards three selected ochratoxigenic strains. Six yeast isolates belonging to five species, namely 2 isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis and one each of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Issatchenkia terricola and Candida incommunis, were finally selected and screened on wounded grape berries for their ability to inhibit infection by ochratoxigenic moulds. With the exception of the K. thermotolerans isolate, when inoculated at 10(9) CFU/wound, the other five challenger yeasts reduced the A. carbonarius and A. niger colonization on grape berry (P<0.05). In particular, the best antagonistic activity was shown by the two I. orientalis isolates. Results suggest that antagonist yeasts with the potential to control A. carbonarius and A. niger on grape can be found among the microflora associated with the berries. PMID:16443300

Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Logrieco, Antonio; Visconti, Angelo

2006-04-25

171

VOCs removal from waste gases: gas-phase bioreactor for the abatement of hexane by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a biofilter reactor was successfully applied to remove hexane (a volatile organic compound) from contaminated air streams. Since hexane is very poorly water soluble and hardly metabolized by most bacteria, because of its short hydrocarbon chain, a gas-phase bioreactor inoculated by Aspergillus niger was adopted. In fact, filamentous fungi include many paraffin-degrading species and develop aerial structures

Giorgia Spigno; Claudio Pagella; M Daria Fumi; Roberto Molteni; D Marco De Faveri

2003-01-01

172

Comparative analysis of different whole cell immobilized aspergillus niger catalysts for gluconic acid fermentation using pretreated cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the efficiency of various whole cell immobilization techniques for the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger were investigated using potassium ferrocyanide-treated cane molasses as the substrate. The techniques followed were:(1)Calcium alginate entrapment,(2)cross-linking with glutaraldehyde after cell permeabilization with (a) acetone, (b) toluene and (c) isopropanol and(3)development of granular catalyst.

D. Subba Rao; T. Panda

1994-01-01

173

Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes. PMID:23369298

2013-01-01

174

Regulation of citric acid production by oxygen: Effect of dissolved oxygen tension on adenylate levels and respiration in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the control of citric acid accumulation by oxygen was investigated by means of pilot plant fermentation using Aspergillus niger. The critical dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) for oxygen uptake of this fungus was about 18–21 and 23–26 mbar for trophophase and idiophase, respectively. Minimal DOT for citric acid production was about 25 mbar. Citric acid production increased steadily

C. P. Kubicek; O. Zehentgruber; Housam El-Kalak; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

175

Monitoring the hydrolysis and transglycosylation activity of ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glucosidase from Aspergillus niger is an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of ?-1,4 linkages and transglucosylation to form ?-1,6 linkages. In this study, an analytical method of oligosaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to provide quantitative estimation of the fractions of each sugar unit and was applied to characterize the ?-glucosidase reaction. Our data indicated that ?-glucosidase reacts with

Nobuhisa Shimba; Mai Shinagawa; Wataru Hoshino; Hideyuki Yamaguchi; Naoyuki Yamada; Ei-ichiro Suzuki

2009-01-01

176

Production and Characterization of a-Galactosidase by a Multiple Mutant of Aspergillus niger in Solid-State Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary a-Galactosidase is applied in the sugar industry to enhance sugar recovery from sugar beet syrup and to improve nutritional value of the soymilk. In the present investigation, the influence of process variables on the production of this important enzyme has been ex- plored in a newly isolated multiple mutant strain of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermen- tation (SSF). Defined

Muhammad Siddique Awan; Fatima Jalal; Najma Ayub; Muhammad Waheed Akhtar; Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka

177

Comparative analysis of calcium gluconate and sodium gluconate techniques for the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium gluconate and calcium gluconate methods are important techniques available for gluconic acid fermentation. The comparative analysis of these fermentations has been addressed using Aspergillus niger. The techniques are equally influenced by the spores age in slant growth, inoculum level in germination and production media, different levels of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Sodium gluconate method is promising with respect

D. Subba Rao; T. Panda

1993-01-01

178

Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity  

PubMed Central

Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and reliable approach to increase the productivity in industrial processes. Because of the predictable behavior fungal morphology showed in dependence of osmolality, a customization of morphology for process needs seems feasible. PMID:21801352

2011-01-01

179

Intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition in Aspergillus flavus is thigmoregulated, independent of vegetative compatibility group and is strain dependent.  

PubMed

Biological control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination by atoxigenic stains of Aspergillus flavus has been demonstrated in several crops. The assumption is that some form of competition suppresses the fungus's ability to infect or produce aflatoxin when challenged. Intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition was demonstrated by others. This work investigates the mechanistic basis of that phenomenon. A toxigenic and atoxigenic isolate of A. flavus which exhibited intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition when grown together in suspended disc culture were not inhibited when grown in a filter insert-plate well system separated by a .4 or 3 µm membrane. Toxigenic and atoxigenic conidial mixtures (50?50) placed on both sides of these filters restored inhibition. There was ?50% inhibition when a 12 µm pore size filter was used. Conidial and mycelial diameters were in the 3.5-7.0 µm range and could pass through the 12 µm filter. Larger pore sizes in the initially separated system restored aflatoxin inhibition. This suggests isolates must come into physical contact with one another. This negates a role for nutrient competition or for soluble diffusible signals or antibiotics in aflatoxin inhibition. The toxigenic isolate was maximally sensitive to inhibition during the first 24 hrs of growth while the atoxigenic isolate was always inhibition competent. The atoxigenic isolate when grown with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) toxigenic isolate failed to inhibit aflatoxin indicating that there is specificity in the touch inhibiton. Several atoxigenic isolates were found which inhibited the GFP isolate. These results suggest that an unknown signaling pathway is initiated in the toxigenic isolate by physical interaction with an appropriate atoxigenic isolate in the first 24 hrs which prevents or down-regulates normal expression of aflatoxin after 3-5 days growth. We suspect thigmo-downregulation of aflatoxin synthesis is the mechanistic basis of intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition and the major contributor to biological control of aflatoxin contamination. PMID:21886793

Huang, Changwei; Jha, Archana; Sweany, Rebecca; DeRobertis, Catherine; Damann, Kenneth E

2011-01-01

180

VeA is associated with the response to oxidative stress in the aflatoxin producer Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Survival of fungal species depends on the ability of these organisms to respond to environmental stresses. Osmotic stress or high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause stress in fungi resulting in growth inhibition. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have developed numerous mechanisms to counteract and survive the stress in the presence of ROS. In many fungi, the HOG signaling pathway is crucial for the oxidative stress response as well as for osmotic stress response. This study revealed that while the osmotic stress response is only slightly affected by the master regulator veA, this gene, also known to control morphological development and secondary metabolism in numerous fungal species, has a profound effect on the oxidative stress response in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. We found that the expression of A. flavus homolog genes involved in the HOG signaling pathway is regulated by veA. Deletion of veA resulted in a reduction in transcription levels of oxidative stress response genes after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, analyses of the effect of VeA on the promoters of cat1 and trxB indicate that the presence of VeA alters DNA-protein complex formation. This is particularly notable in the cat1 promoter, where the absence of VeA results in abnormally stronger complex formation with reduced cat1 expression and more sensitivity to ROS in a veA deletion mutant, suggesting that VeA might prevent binding of negative transcription regulators to the cat1 promoter. Our study also revealed that veA positively influences the expression of the transcription factor gene atfB and that normal formation of DNA-protein complexes in the cat1 promoter is dependent on AtfB. PMID:24951443

Baidya, Sachin; Duran, Rocio M; Lohmar, Jessica M; Harris-Coward, Pamela Y; Cary, Jeffrey W; Hong, Sung-Yong; Roze, Ludmila V; Linz, John E; Calvo, Ana M

2014-08-01

181

150 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Variation in Competitive Ability Among Isolates of Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

competitive ability, sporulation, and aflatoxin reduction on target hosts. Aflatoxins, potent and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by fungi in Aspergillus section Flavi, are frequent contaminants of food and feed crops, including maize, cotton, peanut, and tree nuts (21). Levels of aflatoxins in food and feed crops

Cotty, Peter J.

182

Aroma enhancement in wines using co-immobilized Aspergillus niger glycosidases.  

PubMed

A major fraction of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids in young wines is conjugated to sugars representing a significant reservoir of aromatic precursors. To promote their release, ?-glucosidase, ?-arabinosidase, and ?-rhamnosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation, were immobilized onto acrylic beads. The aim of this work was the development and application of an immobilized biocatalyst, due to the well-known advantages over soluble enzyme preparations: control of the reaction progress and preparation of enzyme-free products. In addition, the obtained derivative showed increased stability in simile wine conditions. After the treatment of Muscat wine with the biocatalyst for 20days, free monoterpenes increased significantly (from 1119 to 2132?g/L, p<0.01) with respect to the control wine. Geraniol was increased 3,4-fold over its flavor thresholds, and accordingly its impact on sensorial properties was very relevant: nine of ten judges considered treated wine more intense in fruit and floral notes. PMID:24054229

González-Pombo, Paula; Farińa, Laura; Carrau, Francisco; Batista-Viera, Francisco; Brena, Beatriz M

2014-01-15

183

Refinement of the crystal structures of biomimetic weddellites produced by microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-crystal structures of four biomimetic weddellites CaC2O4 · (2 + x)H2O with different contents of zeolitic water ( x = 0.10-0.24 formula units) produced by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger were refined from X-ray diffraction data ( R = 0.029-0.038). The effect of zeolitic water content on the structural stability of weddellite was analyzed. The parameter a was shown to increase with increasing x due to the increase in the distance between water molecules along this direction. The water content and structural parameters of the synthesized weddellites are similar to those of weddellites from biofilms and kidney stones.

Rusakov, A. V.; Frank-Kamenetskaya, O. V.; Gurzhiy, V. V.; Zelenskaya, M. S.; Izatulina, A. R.; Sazanova, K. V.

2014-05-01

184

Substrate specificity and mode of action of a cellulase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

The mode of action and substrate specificity of a cellulase purified from Aspergillus niger were examined. The enzyme showed little capacity to hydrolyse highly ordered cellulose, but readily attacked soluble cellulose derivatives and amorphous alkali-swollen cellulose. Activity towards barley glucan and lichenin was greater than with CM-cellulose. Low activity was detected with CM-pachyman (a substituted beta-1,3-glucose polymer) and xylan. Activity towards yeast glucan, mannan, ethlene glycol chitin, glycol chitosan, laminarin, polygalacturonic acid and pectin could not be demonstrated. Cellobiose and p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside were not hydrolysed, whereas the rate of hydrolysis of the higher members of the reduced cellulodextrins increased with chain length. The central bonds of cellotetraosylsorbitol and cellopentaosylsorbitol were the preferred points of clevage. Kinetic data indicated that the specificity region of the cellulase is five glucose units in length. The evidence indicates that the cellulase is an endoglucanase. PMID:629761

Hurst, P L; Sullivan, P A; Shepherd, M G

1978-01-01

185

The non-metabolizable glucose analog D-glucal inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis and promotes kojic acid production in Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

Background Aflatoxins (AFs) are potent carcinogenic compounds produced by several Aspergillus species, which pose serious threats to human health. As sugar is a preferred carbohydrate source for AF production, we examined the possibility of using sugar analogs to inhibit AF biosynthesis. Results We showed that although D-glucal cannot be utilized by A. flavus as the sole carbohydrate source, it inhibited AF biosynthesis and promoted kojic acid production without affecting mycelial growth when applied to a glucose-containing medium. The inhibition occurred before the production of the first stable intermediate, norsolorinic acid, suggesting a complete inhibition of the AF biosynthetic pathway. Further studies showed that exogenous D-glucal in culture led to reduced accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and reduced glucose consumption, indicating that glycolysis is inhibited. Expression analyses revealed that D-glucal suppressed the expression of AF biosynthetic genes but promoted the expression of kojic acid biosynthetic genes. Conclusions D-glucal as a non-metabolizable glucose analog inhibits the AF biosynthesis pathway by suppressing the expression of AF biosynthetic genes. The inhibition may occur either directly through interfering with glycolysis, or indirectly through reduced oxidative stresses from kojic acid biosynthesis. PMID:24742119

2014-01-01

186

Use of response surface methodology to study the effect of media composition on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are one of the most important secondary metabolites. These extrolites are produced by a number of Aspergillus fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of media components and enhanced aflatoxin yield shown by A. flavus using response surface methodology in response to different nutrients. Different components of a chemically defined media that influence the aflatoxin production were monitored using Plackett-Burman experimental design and further optimized by Box-Behnken factorial design of response surface methodology in liquid culture. Interactions were studied with five variables, namely sorbitol, fructose, ammonium sulfate, KH(2)PO(4), and MgSO(4).7H(2)O. Maximum aflatoxin production was envisaged in medium containing 4.94 g/l sorbitol, 5.56 g/l fructose, 0.62 g/l ammonium sulfate, 1.33 g/l KH(2)PO(4), and 0.65 g/l MgSO(4)·7H(2)O using response surface plots and the point prediction tool of the DESIGN EXPERT 8.1.0 (Stat-Ease, USA) software. However, a production of 5.25 ?g/ml aflatoxin production was obtained, which was in agreement with the prediction observed in verification experiment. The other component (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) was found to be an insignificant variable. PMID:23334723

Ahmad, Mahboob; Ahmad, Malik M; Hamid, Rifat; Abdin, M Z; Javed, Saleem

2013-02-01

187

The Breeding of a Pigment Mutant Strain of Steroid Hydroxylation Aspergillus Flavus by Low Energy Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of the fermentation of steroid C11?-hydroxylgenation strain Aspergillus flavus AF-ANo208, a red pigment is derived, which will affect the isolation and purification of the target product. Low energy ion beam implantation is a new tool for breeding excellent mutant strains. In this study, the ion beam implantation experiments were performed by infusing two different ions: argon ion (Ar+) and nitrogen ion (N+). The results showed that the optimal ion implantation was N+ with an optimum dose of 2.08 × 1015 ions/cm2, with which the mutant strain AF-ANm16 that produced no red pigment was obtained. The strain had high genetic stability and kept the strong capacity of C11?-hydroxylgenation, which could be utilized in industrial fermentation. The differences between the original strain and the mutant strain at a molecular level were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results indicated that the frequency of variation was 7.00%, which would establish the basis of application investigation into the breeding of pigment mutant strains by low energy ion implantation.

Ye, Hui; Ma, Jingming; Feng, Chun; Cheng, Ying; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

2009-02-01

188

Biodegradation of chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl by Aspergillus niger in laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Two sulfonylurea herbicides, chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl, were studied under laboratory conditions, in order to elucidate the biodegradation pathway operated by Aspergillus niger, a common soil fungus, which is often involved in the degradation of xenobiotics. HPLC-UV was used to study the kinetic of degradation, whereas LC-MS was used to identify the metabolites structure. In order to avoid the chemical degradation induced by a decrease in pH, due to the production of citric acid by the fungus, the experiments were performed in a buffered neutral medium. No significant degradation for both compounds was observed in mineral medium with 0.2% sodium acetate. On the contrary, in a rich medium, after 28 days the degradations, chemical degradation excluded, were about 30% for chlorsulfuron and 33% for metsulfuron-methyl. The main microbial metabolites were obtained via cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge. In addition the fungus seems to be able to hydroxylate the aromatic ring of chlorsulfuron. In the case of metsulfuron-methyl the only detected metabolite was the triazine derivative, while the aromatic portion was completely degraded. Finally, the demethylation of the methoxy group on the triazine ring, previously observed with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, was not observed with A. niger. PMID:14649705

Boschin, Giovanna; D'Agostina, Alessandra; Arnoldi, Anna; Marotta, Ester; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Negri, Marco; Valle, Anna; Sorlini, Claudia

2003-11-01

189

Production of Proteolytic Enzymes by a Keratin-Degrading Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

A fungal isolate with capability to grow in keratinous substrate as only source of carbon and nitrogen was identified as Aspergillus niger using the sequencing of the ITS region of the rDNA. This strain produced a slightly acid keratinase and an acid protease during cultivation in feather meal. The peak of keratinolytic activity occurred in 48?h and the maximum proteolytic activity in 96?h. These enzymes were partly characterized as serine protease and aspartic protease, respectively. The effects of feather meal concentration and initial pH on enzyme production were evaluated using a central composite design combined with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were determined as pH 5.0 for protease and 7.8 for keratinase and 20?g/L of feather meal, showing that both models were predictive. Production of keratinases by A. niger is a less-exploited field that might represent a novel and promising biotechnological application for this microorganism. PMID:22007293

Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Silva, Lucas Andre Dedavid e; Tichota, Deise Michele; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Correa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano

2011-01-01

190

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Intracellular Invertase from Aspergillus niger with Transfructosylating Activity?  

PubMed Central

A novel subfamily of putative intracellular invertase enzymes (glycoside hydrolase family 32) has previously been identified in fungal genomes. Here, we report phylogenetic, molecular, and biochemical characteristics of SucB, one of two novel intracellular invertases identified in Aspergillus niger. The sucB gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and an invertase-negative strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme purified from E. coli lysate displayed a molecular mass of 75 kDa, judging from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Its optimum pH and temperature for sucrose hydrolysis were determined to be 5.0 and 37 to 40°C, respectively. In addition to sucrose, the enzyme hydrolyzed 1-kestose, nystose, and raffinose but not inulin and levan. SucB produced 1-kestose and nystose from sucrose and 1-kestose, respectively. With nystose as a substrate, products up to a degree of polymerization of 4 were observed. SucB displayed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with substrate inhibition on sucrose (apparent Km, Ki, and Vmax of 2.0 ± 0.2 mM, 268.1 ± 18.1 mM, and 6.6 ± 0.2 ?mol min?1 mg?1 of protein [total activity], respectively). At sucrose concentrations up to 400 mM, transfructosylation (FTF) activity contributed approximately 20 to 30% to total activity. At higher sucrose concentrations, FTF activity increased to up to 50% of total activity. Disruption of sucB in A. niger resulted in an earlier onset of sporulation on solid medium containing various carbon sources, whereas no alteration of growth in liquid culture medium was observed. SucB thus does not play an essential role in inulin or sucrose catabolism in A. niger but may be needed for the intracellular conversion of sucrose to fructose, glucose, and small oligosaccharides. PMID:17293485

Goosen, Coenie; Yuan, Xiao-Lian; van Munster, Jolanda M.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2007-01-01

191

Endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to the selective transcriptional downregulation of the glucoamylase gene in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

We describe a new endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated stress response in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The inhibition of protein folding within the ER leads to cellular responses known collectively as the unfolded protein response (UPR) and we show that the selective transcriptional downregulation of the gene encoding glucoamylase, a major secreted protein, but not two non-secreted proteins, is an additional consequence of ER stress. The transcriptional downregulation effect is shown by nuclear run-on studies to be at the level of transcription, rather than mRNA stability, and is found to be mediated through the promoter of glaA in a region more than 1 kb upstream of the translational start. The inhibition of protein folding in the ER can be induced in a variety of ways. We examined the effects of dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing agent that causes the formation of unfolded proteins. Although a general downregulation of transcription was seen with DTT treatment, we show that selective downregulation was observed with the glaA gene compared with genes encoding the non-secreted proteins gamma-actin and glyceraldehyde 3'-phosphate dehydrogenase. The DTT-treated fungal cells also showed evidence for the induction of the UPR because expression of bipA and pdiA, encoding an ER-resident chaperone and foldase, respectively, are upregulated and splicing of hacA, the gene encoding the transcription factor responsible for induction of the UPR, occurs allowing the production of an active HacA protein. As a preliminary attempt to investigate if the transcriptional downregulation effect was mediated through HacA (i.e. part of the UPR), we examined ER stress induced through antisense technology to lower the level of PDI in the ER of A. niger. Although the transcription of glaA was attenuated in that strain of A. niger, UPR was not evident, suggesting that the transcriptional downregulation mechanism is controlled differently from the UPR. PMID:15341651

Al-Sheikh, Hashem; Watson, Adrian J; Lacey, Georgina A; Punt, Peter J; MacKenzie, Donald A; Jeenes, David J; Pakula, Tiina; Penttilä, Merja; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Archer, David B

2004-09-01

192

Cell wall analysis in Aspergillus niger strains characterized by different tolerance to toxic compounds of beet molasses.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger strains, sensitive or resistant to toxic compounds of beet molasses, were the object of the present studies. Between the studied strains differences existed in the cell wall dry mass and wall components content, chitin synthesis, activity of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis, and in the wall ultrastructure. Higher content of proteins and lipids but lower of glucan and chitin; less or lack of fibrillar components, thinner cell wall as well as lower level of glucanase and chitinase, diminished [3H] glucosamine incorporation into cytoplasm and cell wall characterized the sensitive strains of A. niger. PMID:9271845

Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B; Kusewicz, D

1997-01-01

193

Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed reactor using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kumara, a starch-containing root crop grown extensively in New Zealand, has been used as a substrate for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation. When the process was operated in a packed-bed reactor, the bed loading was the most important operational parameter. The airflow rate and substrate particle size were also important but their net effects varied depending

Minyuan Lu; John D. Brooks; Ian S. Maddox

1997-01-01

194

Optimization of Citric Acid Production from a New Strain and Mutant of Aspergillus niger Using Solid State Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from soil and its mutant were used for citric acid production from carob under solid-state fermentation conditions. The parental strain produced 30 g\\/kg citric acid, while the mutant G4, selected after four rounds of gamma ray irradiation, produced 60 g\\/kg. Maximum citric acid production was obtained after 7 days of incubation, as the

Faiez Alani; Murray Moo-Young; William Anderson; Zakaria Bataine

2007-01-01

195

Transglycosylation activity of the endo-?-1,4-glucanase from Aspergillus niger IFO31125 and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endo-?-1,4-glucanase from Aspergillus niger was found to have an endo-type transglycosylation activity. The enzyme effectively transferred cellooligosaccharide residues to various 1-alkanols in the presence of cellopentaose as the oligosaccharide donor. By incubating the enzyme with 1-octanol and cellopentaose in the presence of acetonitrile, 1-octyl-cellotrioside was synthesized. The product was isolated by silica gel column chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry.

Shunichi Akiba; Kenji Yamamoto; Hidehiko Kumagai

1999-01-01

196

Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis in Aspergillus niger to enhance its microbial fermentation activity for industrial enzyme production  

Microsoft Academic Search

?- and ?-Galactosidases find application in food processing, health and nutrition. Aspergillus niger is one of the potent producer of these enzymes and was genotypically improved using gamma-ray induced mutagenesis. The mutant-derivative\\u000a produced two-fold higher ?- and ?-galactosidases. For testing genetic variability and its relationship with phenotypic properties\\u000a of the two organisms, DNA samples of the mutant and parental strains

M. Siddique Awan; Nabila Tabbasam; N. Ayub; M. E. Babar; Shahid Mahboob Rana; M. I. Rajoka

2011-01-01

197

In vitro effect of some fungicides on growth and aflatoxins production by Aspergillus flavus isolated from Capsicum powder.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of some pre-harvest fungicides on growth and aflatoxin (AF) production of three Aspergillus flavus strains found in Capsicum powder. Each isolate, previously isolated from paprika, chilli and smoked paprika, was inoculated on yeast extract sucrose agar and on a 3% paprika extract agar medium supplemented with different fungicides and incubated at 20 and 30°C during 7 days. Growth measurements were obtained on days 3, 5 and 7, and the AF production was determined on day 7. The significance of the effects of the factors (strain, medium, temperature, time and fungicides) and their interaction over colony diameter and AF production was determined. Temperature constrained the effectiveness of fungicides in reducing growth, the fungicides being most effective at 20°C. The efficacy of the fungicides over AF production depended on the medium used and temperature. The most effective fungicides in inhibiting growth and AF production, regardless of the strain tested or applied conditions, were tebuconazole 25% and mancozeb 80% applied at a concentration of 0.75 and 3.5 g l(-1), respectively. Care should thus be taken in the choice of a suitable fungicide because their effectiveness may depend on intra-specific variation and temperature. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account that the most efficient fungicide in reducing growth is not always the best choice for pre-harvest treatments because it may promote AF production. Thus, the best fungicide is the one that can simultaneous prevent growth and AF production. PMID:21120737

Santos, L; Marin, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

2011-01-01

198

Multi-objective optimization in Aspergillus niger fermentation for selective product enhancement.  

PubMed

A multi-objective optimization formulation that reflects the multi-substrate optimization in a multi-product fermentation is proposed in this work. This formulation includes the application of epsilon-constraint to generate the trade-off solution for the enhancement of one selective product in a multi-product fermentation, with simultaneous minimization of the other product within a threshold limit. The formulation has been applied to the fed-batch fermentation of Aspergillus niger that produces a number of enzymes during the course of fermentation, and of these, catalase and protease enzyme expression have been chosen as the enzymes of interest. Also, this proposed formulation has been applied in the environment of three control variables, i.e. the feed rates of sucrose, nitrogen source and oxygen and a set of trade-off solutions have been generated to develop the pareto-optimal curve. We have developed and experimentally evaluated the optimal control profiles for multiple substrate feed additions in the fed-batch fermentation of A. niger to maximize catalase expression along with protease expression within a threshold limit and vice versa. An increase of about 70% final catalase and 31% final protease compared to conventional fed-batch cultivation were obtained. Novel methods of oxygen supply through liquid-phase H2O2 addition have been used with a view to overcome limitations of aeration due to high gas-liquid transport resistance. The multi-objective optimization problem involved linearly appearing control variables and the decision space is constrained by state and end point constraints. The proposed multi-objective optimization is solved by differential evolution algorithm, a relatively superior population-based stochastic optimization strategy. PMID:16217656

Mandal, Chaitali; Gudi, Ravindra D; Suraishkumar, G K

2005-12-01

199

Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity  

PubMed Central

During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F?) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F? adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F? released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F? while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F? measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F? per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter?1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F? sink during RP solubilization and led to an F? concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F? and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F?, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Jose Ivo

2014-01-01

200

Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.  

PubMed

During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

2014-05-01

201

Synergistic effect of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme sets on the saccharification of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Plant-degrading enzymes can be produced by fungi on abundantly available low-cost plant biomass. However, enzymes sets after growth on complex substrates need to be better understood, especially with emphasis on differences between fungal species and the influence of inhibitory compounds in plant substrates, such as monosaccharides. In this study, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were evaluated for the production of enzyme sets after growth on two "second generation" substrates: wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). A. niger and T. reesei produced different sets of (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes after growth on WS and SCB. This was reflected in an overall strong synergistic effect in releasing sugars during saccharification using A. niger and T. reesei enzyme sets. T. reesei produced less hydrolytic enzymes after growth on non-washed SCB. The sensitivity to non-washed plant substrates was not reduced by using CreA/Cre1 mutants of T. reesei and A. niger with a defective carbon catabolite repression. The importance of removing monosaccharides for producing enzymes was further underlined by the decrease in hydrolytic activities with increased glucose concentrations in WS media. This study showed the importance of removing monosaccharides from the enzyme production media and combining T. reesei and A. niger enzyme sets to improve plant biomass saccharification. PMID:25116172

van den Brink, Joost; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; Zhou, Zhihua; Guimarăes, Valéria Monteze; de Vries, Ronald P

2014-10-01

202

Niger.  

PubMed

Niger is two-thirds Sahara desert and the rest savannah with an area irrigated by the Niger River valley. The 6.2 million people are therefore either nomadic herdsmen or subsistence farmers, coping with a hot, dry climate. There are 5 or more ethnic groups, 2 main languages other than the official French, and most people are Muslim. The growth rate is 3.1%; children make up 45% of the population; infant mortality is 145/1000; life expectancy is 44.5 years. The constitutional government has been suspended by a military regime. A multi-layered structure called "development society" has been instituted. Per capita income is about $265. Niger has uranium, coal, iron, tin and phosphates, and farm products include peanuts, millet, sorghum, beans, cotton, rice and cowpeas. Niger received assistance from France, US, West Germany, Canada, Saudi Arabia, as well as international organizations and military assistance from several countries. PMID:12177951

1987-06-01

203

Production of catalases by Aspergillus niger isolates as a response to pollutant stress by heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Isolates of Aspergillus niger, selected from the coal dust of a mine containing arsenic (As; 400 mg/kg) and from the river sediment of mine surroundings (As, 1651 mg/kg, Sb, 362 mg/kg), growing in minimal nitrate medium in the phase of hyphal development and spore formation, exhibited much higher levels of total catalase activity than the same species from the culture collection or a culture adapted to soil contaminated with As (5 mg/L). Electrophoretic resolution of catalases in cell-free extracts revealed three isozymes of catalases and production of individual isozymes was not significantly affected by stress environments. Exogenously added stressors (As{sup 5+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) at final concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/L and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (20 or 40 m(M)) mostly stimulated production of catalases only in isolates from mines surroundings, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Hg{sup 2+} caused the disappearance of the smallest catalase I. Isolates exhibited a higher tolerance of the toxic effects of heavy metals and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as monitored by growth, than did the strain from the culture collection.

Buckova, M.; Godocikova, J.; Simonovicova, A.; Polek, B. [Slovakian Academy of Science, Bratislava (Slovakia)

2005-04-15

204

Induction, purification and characterization of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Aspergillus Niger.  

PubMed

A set of filamentous fungi (42 strains) was screened for alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity, and a series of inducers and different cultivation conditions were tested. Enzyme production by the best producer Aspergillus niger CCIM K2 was optimized and scaled up. alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by cation exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and chromatofocusing, and basic biochemical data of the enzyme were determined: The native molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration to be approximately 440 kDa, the molecular weight of the subunit was determined to be 76 kDa and the pI = 4.8. The K (M) was 0.73 mmol/l for o-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (o-NP-alpha-GalNAc), and optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH 1.8 and 55 degrees C. This alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase is a retaining-type glycosidase, and it was N-deglycosylated without any loss of activity. PMID:18443780

Weignerová, L; Filipi, T; Manglová, D; Kren, V

2008-07-01

205

Purification and characterization of extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142.  

PubMed

Extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 was purified to homogeneity by employing an initial ultrafiltration step, followed by chromatography using ion exchange, gel filtration and chromatofocusing steps. The purified enzyme was an 84 kDa, monomeric protein. It possessed a temperature optimum of 65 degrees C, and a pH optimum of 5.0. Km and Vmax values of 100 microM and 7 nmol/s, respectively, were recorded and these values fall well within the range of those previously reported for microbial phytases. Substrate specificity studies indicated that, while the enzyme could hydrolyse a range of non-phytate-based phosphorylated substrates, its preferred substrate was phytate. Phytase activity was moderately stimulated in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Zn2+ and F- ions. Activity was not significantly affected by Fe2- or Fe3- and was moderately inhibited by Ca2+. The enzyme displayed higher thermostability at 80 degrees C than did two commercial phytase products. Initial characterisation of the purified enzyme suggested that it could be a potential candidate for use as an animal feed supplement. PMID:12653285

Casey, Anne; Walsh, Gary

2003-01-01

206

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from Aspergillus Niger. III. An enzyme of PL 365  

SciTech Connect

An endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) from Aspergillus niger was purified to homogeneity by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.15. The enzyme was active on soluble xylan, on insoluble xylan only after arabinosyl-initiated branch points were removed, and on xylooligosaccharides longer than xylotetraose. There was slight activity on carboxymethyl-cellulose, arabinogalactan, glucomannan, and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D- glucopyranoside. The main products of the hydrolysis of soluble and insoluble xylan were oligosaccharides of intermediate length, especially the tri- and pentasaccharides. The isolectric point of the enzyme was 3.65. It had a molecular weight of 2.8 x 10/sup 4/ by SDS-gel electrophoresis, and was high in acidic amino acids but low in those containing sulfur. Highest activity in a 20-min assay at pH 5 was between 40 and 45 degrees C, with an activation energy up to 40 degrees C of 11.1 kJ/mol. The optimum pH for activity was at 5.0. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca/sup 2 +/. 15 references.

Fournier, R.A.; Frederick, M.M.; Frederick, J.R.; Reilly, P.J.

1985-04-01

207

Effect of Trace Elements on Citric Acid Fermentation by Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Citric acid yields of 98.7% (sugar consumption basis) were reached in shaker flasks with mutant UV-ET-71-15 of Aspergillus niger in a resin-treated sucrose medium of the following composition (g/100 ml): sucrose, 14.0; NH4NO3, 0.20; KH2PO4, 0.10; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.025; and (mg/liter): FeSO4, 0.15 to 0.75; ZnSO4, 0.10; and CuSO4, 0.01. Yields of 75% were obtained in medium with resin-treated clarified syrup and 68% with ferrocyanide-treated blackstrap molasses. Optimal conditions included selection of appropriate pellets as inoculum at 3%, pH of 4.5, temperature at 30 C, agitation at 250 rev/min, and fermentation time of 8 days. The mutant tolerated high concentrations of trace elements. PMID:5492439

Sanchez-Marroquin, A.; Carreno, R.; Ledezma, M.

1970-01-01

208

Utilization of water hyacinth cellulose for production of cellobiase-rich preparation by Aspergillus niger 1.  

PubMed

Production of a cellobiase-rich preparation by Aspergillus niger 1 was achieved using water hyacinth cellulose as the sole carbon source in the culture medium. Production of cellobiase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMC-ase) and filter paper (FP)-cellulase was favoured by controlling the pH of the culture medium during fermentation at 5.0. Sodium citrate (0.5%), sodium phytate (0.1%), Tween-80 (0.2%, v/v) and asparagine (0.07%) had stimulating effects on the productivity of cellobiase, CMC-ase and FP-cellulase. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate doubled the yield of CMC-ase but had a slight effect on FP-cellulase and cellobiase. Wheat bran had a pronounced stimulating effect on the production of cellobiase and CMC-ase. The combined effects of these stimulators resulted in an enzyme preparation rich in cellobiase and contained 18.5, 0.29 and 2.21 U/ml of cellobiase, FP-cellulase and CMC-ase, respectively. A high cellobiase/FP-cellulase ratio of 63.8:1 was thus obtained with the fungal enzyme preparation. The cellobiase activity was maximal at pH 5.0 and showed good thermostability. PMID:8559082

Ismail, A M; Abdel-Naby, M A; Abdel-Fattah, A F

1995-01-01

209

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger in biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentations.  

PubMed

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger was compared in three different culture systems: biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentation. Biofilm and solid-state fermentations were carried out on perlite as inert support, and lactose was used as a carbon source in the three culture systems. In cryo-scanning electron microscopy, biofilm and solid-state cultures gave similar morphological patterns and confirmed that both spore first attachment and hyphal adhered growth are helped by the production of an adhesive extracellular matrix. Biofilm cultures produced higher cellulase activities than those in submerged and solid-state cultures (1,768, 1,165, and 1,174 U l(-1), respectively). Although biofilm cultures grew less than the other cultures, they produced significantly higher cellulase yields (370, 212, and 217 U g(-1) lactose, respectively) and volumetric productivities (24, 16, and 16 U l(-1) h(-1), respectively). Likewise, endoglucanase and xylanase activities were higher in biofilm cultures. Under the conditions tested, it seems that fungal attached growth on perlite may favor better enzyme production. Biofilms are efficient systems for cellulase production and may replace solid-state fermentation. Biofilm fermentation holds promise for further optimization and development. The results of this work reveal that fungal biofilms may be used for the commercial production of cellulase employing the technology developed for submerged fermentation at high cell densities. PMID:20354693

Gamarra, Norma N; Villena, Gretty K; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

2010-06-01

210

Thermostable sites and catalytic characterization of xylanase XYNB of Aspergillus niger SCTCC 400264.  

PubMed

In order to improve the expression of heat-resistant xylanase XYNB from Aspergillus niger SCTCC 400264, XynB has been cloned into Pichia pastoris secretary vector pPIC9K. The XynB production of recombinant P. pastoris was four times as E. coli, the Vmax and specific activity of XynB reached 2,547.7 ?mol/mg and 4,757 U/mg, respectively. And the XynB still had 74% residual enzyme activity after 30 min-heat treatment at 80°C. The van der Waals force analysis in XYNB (ACN89393 and AAS67299), there is one more oxygen radicals in AAS67299 in their catalytic site, indicating that the local cavity is much more free, and it is more optimal for substrate binding, affinity reaction, and proton transfer etc, and eventually increasing enzyme activity. The H-bonds analysis of XYNB indicated that there are two more H-bonds in 33rd Ser of XYNB (AAS67299) than 33rd Ala(ACN89393 ), two H-bonds between Ser70 and Asp67. PMID:24444997

Li, Xin Ran; Xu, Hui; Xie, Jie; Yi, Qiao Fu; Li, Wei; Qiao, Dai Rong; Cao, Yi; Cao, Yu

2014-04-01

211

Optimization of a natural medium for cellulase by a marine Aspergillus niger using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The components of a natural medium were optimized to produce cellulase from a marine Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation conditions by response surface methodology. Eichhornia crassipes and natural seawater were used as a major substrate and a source of mineral salts, respectively. Mineral salts of natural seawater could increase cellulase production. Raw corn cob and raw rice straw showed a significant positive effect on cellulase production. The optimum natural medium consisted of 76.9 % E. crassipes (w/w), 8.9 % raw corn cob (w/w), 3.5 % raw rice straw (w/w), 10.7 % raw wheat bran (w/w), and natural seawater (2.33 times the weight of the dry substrates). Incubation for 96 h in the natural medium increased the biomass to the maximum. The cellulase production was 17.80 U/g the dry weight of substrates after incubation for 144 h. The natural medium avoided supplying chemicals and pretreating substrates. It is promising for future practical fermentation of environment-friendly producing cellulase. PMID:22644643

Xue, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Hui-Yin; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

2012-08-01

212

Fluoride-Tolerant Mutants of Aspergillus niger Show Enhanced Phosphate Solubilization Capacity  

PubMed Central

P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs). Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F?). The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO4)2 and F?. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F?, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO4)2, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT). The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalăo, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F?, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F? tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources. PMID:25310310

Silva, Ubiana de Cassia; Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Silva, Nina Morena R. M.; Duarte, Josiane Leal; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Totola, Marcos Rogerio; Costa, Mauricio Dutra

2014-01-01

213

Sorption of heavy metals by the soil fungi 'Aspergillus niger' and Mucor rouxii  

SciTech Connect

Sorption of the nitrate salts of cadmium(II), copper(II), lanthanum(III) and silver(I) by two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii, was evaluated using Freundlich adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray electron microscopy. The linearized Freundlich isotherm described the metal sorption data well for metal concentrations of 5 microM-1 mM metal. Differences in metal binding were observed among metals, as well as between fungal species. Calculated Freundlich K values indicated that metal binding decreased in the order La(3+) > or = Ag(+) > Cu(2+) > Cd(2+). However, sorption of Ag(+) was greater than that of La(3+) from solutions of 0.1 and 1 mM metal and likely due to precipitation at the cell wall surface. At the 1 mM initial concentration, there were no significant differences between the two fungi in metal sorption, except for Ag(+) binding. At the 5 microM concentration, there was no difference between the fungi in their sorption capacities for the four metals. Electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that silver precipitated onto cells as colloidal silver. The results indicate that Freundlich isotherms may be useful for describing short-term metal sorption by fungal biomass and for comparison with other soil constituents in standardized systems. (Copyright (c) 1992 Pergamon Press plc.)

Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Beveridge, T.J.; Bailey, G.W.

1992-01-01

214

Fate and Role of Ammonium Ions during Fermentation of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Stoichiometric modeling of the early stages of the citric acid fermentation process by Aspergillus niger revealed that ammonium ions combine with a carbon-containing metabolite inside the cell, in a ratio 1:1, to form a nitrogen compound which is then excreted by the mycelium. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified glucosamine as the product of the relationship between glucose and ammonium during the early stages of the citric acid fermentation process. Slightly acidic internal pHs, extremely low ammonium ion concentrations inside the cell, and glucosamine synthesis come into direct contradiction with the earlier theory of the ammonium pool inside the cell, regarded as responsible for inhibition of the enzyme phosphofructokinase. At later fermentation stages, when the mycelium is involved in a process of fragmentation and regrowth, the addition of ammonium sulfate leads to a series of events: the formation and secretion of glucosamine in elevated amounts, the short inhibition of citrate synthesis, growth enhancement, the utilization of glucosamine, and finally, the enhancement of citric acid production rates. Obviously, the enzymatic processes underlining the phenomena need to be reexamined. As a by-product of the citric acid fermentation, glucosamine is reported for the first time here. Suitable process manipulations of the system described in this work could lead to successful glucosamine recovery at the point of its highest yield before degradation by the fungus occurs. PMID:16269757

Papagianni, Maria; Wayman, Frank; Mattey, Michael

2005-01-01

215

Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies for the quantification of potentially allergenic xylanase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Xylanase from Aspergillus niger (ANX) is widely used in bakeries as a processing aid since it stabilises and improves dough quality. An association between allergic symptoms among bakery workers and sensitisation to ANX has been reported, indicating that this enzyme is an occupational allergen. The presence of ANX in dough improvers and semi-finished goods is often hidden due to incomplete and unclear labelling. The quantification of microbial enzymes in these products is necessary and the determination of the actual concentration of ANX in workplaces is therefore essential to assess the occupational risk. To this purpose we have developed and characterised monoclonal antibodies to ANX. The monoclonal antibodies do not show any cross-reaction with other commonly used microbial enzymes, and they allow the detection of ANX in complex mixtures by ELISA inhibition assays down to the concentration limit of approximately 10 µg kg(-1). These mAbs are a valuable tool to detect and quantify ANX and to investigate its allergenic potential in the workplace. PMID:22823937

Sega, M; Zanetti, C; Rizzi, C; Olivieri, M; Chignola, R; Zoccatelli, G

2012-01-01

216

Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies. PMID:21210990

2011-01-01

217

Dynamics of mycotoxin and Aspergillus flavus levels in aging Bt and non-Bt corn residues under Mississippi no-till conditions.  

PubMed

Mycotoxin and Aspergillus flavus levels in soil-surface corn debris left by no-till agriculture methods (stover, cobs, and cobs with grain) were determined during the December-March fallow period for near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrid corn. By December, average mycotoxin levels in non-Bt corn were many times higher in cobs with grain than in grain harvested in September (total aflatoxins, 774 vs 211 ng/g; total fumonisins, 216 vs 3.5 microg/g; cyclopiazonic acid, 4102 vs 72.2 microg/g; zearalenone, 0.2 vs < 0.1 microg/g). No trichothecenes were detected. Levels of mycotoxins and A. flavus propagules were approximately 10- to 50-fold lower in cobs without grain and stover, respectively, for all mycotoxins except zearalenone. Mycotoxin levels in corn debris fractions decreased during winter but began to rise in March. Levels of all mycotoxins and A. flavus propagules were lower in harvested grain and debris from Bt than non-Bt corn, but differences were significant (p < 0.05) only for aflatoxins. PMID:18642924

Abbas, Hamed K; Accinelli, Cesare; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Abel, Craig A; Bruns, H Arnold; Dong, Yanhong; Shier, W Thomas

2008-08-27

218

Identification of genetic defects in the atoxigenic biocontrol strain Aspergillus flavus K49 reveals the presence of a competitive recombinant group in field populations.  

PubMed

Contamination of corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts by aflatoxins is a severe economic burden for growers. A current biocontrol strategy is to use non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains to competitively exclude field toxigenic Aspergillus species. A. flavus K49 does not produce aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and is currently being tested in corn-growing fields in Mississippi. We found that its lack of production of aflatoxins and CPA resulted from single nucleotide mutations in the polyketide synthase gene and hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptide synthase gene, respectively. Furthermore, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of the aflatoxin biosynthesis omtA gene and the CPA biosynthesis dmaT gene, we conclude that K49, AF36 and previously characterized TX9-8 form a biocontrol group. These isolates appear to be derived from recombinants of typical large and small sclerotial morphotype strains. This finding provides an easy way to select future biocontrol strains from the reservoir of non-aflatoxigenic populations in agricultural fields. PMID:22285533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Abbas, Hamed K; Weaver, Mark A; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Scharfenstein, Leslie L; Cotty, Peter J

2012-03-15

219

The proportion of non-aflatoxigenic strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex from meju by analyses of the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes.  

PubMed

Strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex are frequently isolated from meju, a fermented soybean product, that is used as the starting material for ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) production. In this study, we examined the aflatoxin producing capacity of A. flavus/oryzae strains isolated from meju. 192 strains of A. flavus/oryzae were isolated from more than 100 meju samples collected from diverse regions of Korea from 2008 to 2011, and the norB-cypA, omtA, and aflR genes in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster were analyzed. We found that 178 strains (92.7%) belonged to non-aflatoxigenic group (Type I of norB-cypA, IB-L-B-, IC-AO, or IA-L-B- of omtA, and AO type of aflR), and 14 strains (7.3%) belonged to aflatoxin-producible group (Type II of norB-cypA, IC-L-B+/B- or IC-L-B+ of omtA, and AF type of aflR). Only 7 strains (3.6%) in the aflatoxin-producible group produced aflatoxins on Czapek yeast-extract medium. The aflatoxin-producing capability of A. flavus/oryzae strains from other sources in Korea were also investigated, and 92.9% (52/56) strains from air, 93.9% (31/33) strains from rice straw, 91.7% (11/12) strains from soybean, 81.3% (13/16) strains from corn, 82% (41/50) strains from peanut, and 73.2% (41/56) strains from arable soil were included in the non-aflatoxigenic group. The proportion of non-aflatoxigenicity of meju strains was similar to that of strains from soybean, air and rice straw, all of which have an effect on the fermentation of meju. The data suggest that meju does not have a preference for non-aflatoxigenic or aflatoxin-producible strains of A. flavus/oryzae from the environment of meju. The non-aflatoxigenic meju strains are proposed to be named A. oryzae, while the meju strains that can produce aflatoxins should be referred to A. flavus in this study. PMID:24385353

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Samson, Robert A

2013-12-01

220

Genomic analysis of the secretion stress response in the enzyme-producing cell factory Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger have a high capacity secretory system and are therefore widely exploited for the industrial production of native and heterologous proteins. However, in most cases the yields of non-fungal proteins are significantly lower than those obtained for fungal proteins. One well-studied bottleneck appears to be the result of mis-folding of heterologous proteins in the ER during early stages of secretion, with related stress responses in the host, including the unfolded protein response (UPR). This study aims at uncovering transcriptional and translational responses occurring in A. niger exposed to secretion stress. Results A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of protein secretion-related stress responses was determined using Affymetrix DNA GeneChips and independent verification for selected genes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated stress was induced either by chemical treatment of the wild-type cells with dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin, or by expressing a human protein, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). All of these treatments triggered the UPR, as shown by the expression levels of several well-known UPR target genes. The predicted proteins encoded by most of the up-regulated genes function as part of the secretory system including chaperones, foldases, glycosylation enzymes, vesicle transport proteins, and ER-associated degradation proteins. Several genes were down-regulated under stress conditions and these included several genes that encode secreted enzymes. Moreover, translational regulation under ER stress was investigated by polysomal fractionation. This analysis confirmed the post-transcriptional control of hacA expression and highlighted that differential translation also occurs during ER stress, in particular for some genes encoding secreted proteins or proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis and assembly. Conclusion This is first genome-wide analysis of both transcriptional and translational events following protein secretion stress. Insight has been gained into the molecular basis of protein secretion and secretion-related stress in an effective protein-secreting fungus, and provides an opportunity to identify target genes for manipulation in strain improvement strategies. PMID:17561995

Guillemette, Thomas; van Peij, Noel NME; Goosen, Theo; Lanthaler, Karin; Robson, Geoffrey D; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Stam, Hein; Archer, David B

2007-01-01

221

Bioconversion of waste office paper to gluconic acid in a turbine blade reactor by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Gluconic acid production was investigated using an enzymatic hydrolysate of waste office automation paper in a culture of Aspergillus niger. In repeated batch cultures using flasks, saccharified solution medium (SM) did not show any inhibitory effects on gluconic acid production compared to glucose medium (GM). The average gluconic acid yields were 92% (SM) and 80% (GM). In repeated batch cultures using SM in a turbine blade reactor (TBR), the gluconic acid yields were 60% (SM) and 67% (GM) with 80-100 g/l of gluconic acid. When pure oxygen was supplied the production rate increased to four times higher than when supplying air. Remarkable differences in the morphology of A. niger and dry cell weight between SM and GM were observed. The difference in morphology may have caused a reduction of oxygen transfer, resulting in a decrease in gluconic acid production rate in SM. PMID:15979872

Ikeda, Yuko; Park, Enock Y; Okuda, Naoyuki

2006-05-01

222

Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.  

PubMed

We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23884844

Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

2014-01-01

223

Purification and physicochemical properties of polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 3323.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonases are the pectinolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of the polygalacturonic acid chain. In the present study, polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger (MTCC 3323) was purified. The enzyme precipitated with 60% ethanol resulted in 1.68-fold purification. The enzyme was purified to 6.52-fold by Sephacryl S-200 gel-filtration chromatography. On SDS-PAGE analysis, enzyme was found to be a heterodimer of 34 and 69 kDa subunit. Homogeneity of the enzyme was checked by NATIVE-PAGE and its molecular weight was found to be 106 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity in the presence of polygalacturonic acid at temperature of 45 °C, pH of 4.8, reaction time of 15 min. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 4.0-5.5 for 1 h. At 4 °C it retained 50% activity after 108 h but at room temperature it lost its 50% activity after 3h. The addition of Mn(2+), K(+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+) inhibited the enzyme activity; it increased in the presence of Mg(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Enzyme activity was increased on increasing the substrate concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%. The K(m) and V(max) values of the enzyme were found to be 0.083 mg/ml and 18.21 ?mol/ml/min. The enzyme was used for guava juice extraction and clarification. The recovery of juice of enzymatically treated pulp increased from 6% to 23%. Addition of purified enzyme increased the %T(650) from 2.5 to 20.4 and °Brix from 1.9 to 4.8. The pH of the enzyme treated juice decreased from 4.5 to 3.02. PMID:23069766

Kant, Shashi; Vohra, Anuja; Gupta, Reena

2013-01-01

224

The carbon starvation response of Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation: Insights from the transcriptome and secretome  

PubMed Central

Background Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications. To survive life-threatening starvation conditions, carbon from endogenous resources becomes mobilized to fuel maintenance and self-propagation. Key to understand the underlying cellular processes is the system-wide analysis of fungal starvation responses in a temporal and spatial resolution. The knowledge deduced is important for the development of optimized industrial production processes. Results This study describes the physiological, morphological and genome-wide transcriptional changes caused by prolonged carbon starvation during submerged batch cultivation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioreactor cultivation supported highly reproducible growth conditions and monitoring of physiological parameters. Changes in hyphal growth and morphology were analyzed at distinct cultivation phases using automated image analysis. The Affymetrix GeneChip platform was used to establish genome-wide transcriptional profiles for three selected time points during prolonged carbon starvation. Compared to the exponential growth transcriptome, about 50% (7,292) of all genes displayed differential gene expression during at least one of the starvation time points. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology, Pfam domain and KEGG pathway annotations uncovered autophagy and asexual reproduction as major global transcriptional trends. Induced transcription of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes was accompanied by increased secretion of hydrolases including chitinases, glucanases, proteases and phospholipases as identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusions This study is the first system-wide analysis of the carbon starvation response in a filamentous fungus. Morphological, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses identified key events important for fungal survival and their chronology. The dataset obtained forms a comprehensive framework for further elucidation of the interrelation and interplay of the individual cellular events involved. PMID:22873931

2012-01-01

225

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR. PMID:21892241

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wosten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

226

A high-throughput method for screening of Aspergillus niger mutants with high transglycosylation activity by detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel high-throughput method was established for rapid screening of large numbers of Aspergillus niger mutants with high transglucosylation activity by exploiting that yeast can hardly hydrolyze isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO).\\u000a Supernatants of A. niger fermentation were incubated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove glucose and maltose, and the remaining non-reducing sugars, which is positively correlated with the amount of IMO,\\u000a the products

Gui-guang ChenWei; Wei Li; Yun-kai Zhang; Yong-ling Qin; Kong-yang Wu; Zhi-qun Liang

2011-01-01

227

Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

1981-01-01

228

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity, and pH on Growth and Production of Ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian Grapes.  

PubMed

The growth of ochratoxigenic fungus and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and their derivatives can be caused by a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological factors. The determination of interactions between these factors and fungal species from different climatic regions is important in designing models for minimizing the risk of OTA in wine and grape juice. This study evaluated the influence of temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the development and production of OTA in a semisynthetic grape culture medium by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger strains. To analyze the growth conditions and production of OTA, an experimental design was conducted using response surface methodology as a tool to assess the effects of these abiotic variables on fungal behavior. A. carbonarius showed the highest growth at temperatures from 20 to 33°C, aw between 0.95 and 0.98, and pH levels between 5 and 6.5. Similarly, for A. niger, temperatures between 24 and 37°C, aw greater than 0.95, and pH levels between 4 and 6.5 were optimal. The greatest toxin concentrations for A. carbonarius and A. niger (10 ?g/g and 7.0 ?g/g, respectively) were found at 15°C, aw 0.99, and pH 5.35. The lowest pH was found to contribute to greater OTA production. These results show that the evaluated fungi are able to grow and produce OTA in a wide range of temperature, aw, and pH. However, the optimal conditions for toxin production are generally different from those optimal for fungal growth. The knowledge of optimal conditions for fungal growth and production of OTA, and of the stages of cultivation in which these conditions are optimal, allows a more precise assessment of the potential risk to health from consumption of products derived from grapes. PMID:25364929

Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Hernandes, Thais; Lopes, Noelly Alves; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Santiago, Wilder Douglas; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Batista, Luís Roberto

2014-11-01

229

Influence of kernel size on the presence of Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin content and moisture content in Dominican Republic grown peanuts  

E-print Network

Dajabon ? Santiago Rodriguez area. High aflatoxin content of pc anuts was usually correlated with high A. flavus infection. However, a high toxin content was sometimes found in the absence of this fungus. Con- versely, species of the A. flavus group... t basis! of samples co) looted in July from "-an Juan and Dajabon-Santiago Rodriguez areas. Moisture contents of kernels of three different izcs as determined by moisture meLer method (A) and oven method (B) Rate of water absorption by peanut kernels...

Herrera-Perez, Teodoro

2012-06-07

230

Atomistic details of effect of disulfide bond reduction on active site of Phytase B from Aspergillus niger: A MD Study  

PubMed Central

The molecular integrity of the active site of phytases from fungi is critical for maintaining phytase function as efficient catalytic machines. In this study, the molecular dynamics (MD) of two monomers of phytase B from Aspergillus niger, the disulfide intact monomer (NAP) and a monomer with broken disulfide bonds (RAP), were simulated to explore the conformational basis of the loss of catalytic activity when disulfide bonds are broken. The simulations indicated that the overall secondary and tertiary structures of the two monomers were nearly identical but differed in some crucial secondary–structural elements in the vicinity of the disulfide bonds and catalytic site. Disulfide bonds stabilize the ?-sheet that contains residue Arg66 of the active site and destabilize the ?-helix that contains the catalytic residue Asp319. This stabilization and destabilization lead to changes in the shape of the active–site pocket. Functionally important hydrogen bonds and atomic fluctuations in the catalytic pocket change during the RAP simulation. None of the disulfide bonds are in or near the catalytic pocket but are most likely essential for maintaining the native conformation of the catalytic site. Abbreviations PhyB - 2.5 pH acid phophatese from Aspergillus niger, NAP - disulphide intact monomer of Phytase B, RAP - disulphide reduced monomer of Phytase B, Rg - radius of gyration, RMSD - root mean square deviation, MD - molecular dynamics. PMID:24391358

Kumar, Kapil; Dixit, Mudit; Khire, JM; Pal, Sourav

2013-01-01

231

Genome-wide transcriptional response of Trichoderma reesei to lignocellulose using RNA sequencing and comparison with Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background A major part of second generation biofuel production is the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Many fungi produce enzymes that can saccarify lignocellulose and cocktails from several fungi, including well-studied species such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger, are available commercially for this process. Such commercially-available enzyme cocktails are not necessarily representative of the array of enzymes used by the fungi themselves when faced with a complex lignocellulosic material. The global induction of genes in response to exposure of T. reesei to wheat straw was explored using RNA-seq and compared to published RNA-seq data and model of how A. niger senses and responds to wheat straw. Results In T. reesei, levels of transcript that encode known and predicted cell-wall degrading enzymes were very high after 24 h exposure to straw (approximately 13% of the total mRNA) but were less than recorded in A. niger (approximately 19% of the total mRNA). Closer analysis revealed that enzymes from the same glycoside hydrolase families but different carbohydrate esterase and polysaccharide lyase families were up-regulated in both organisms. Accessory proteins which have been hypothesised to possibly have a role in enhancing carbohydrate deconstruction in A. niger were also uncovered in T. reesei and categories of enzymes induced were in general similar to those in A. niger. Similarly to A. niger, antisense transcripts are present in T. reesei and their expression is regulated by the growth condition. Conclusions T. reesei uses a similar array of enzymes, for the deconstruction of a solid lignocellulosic substrate, to A. niger. This suggests a conserved strategy towards lignocellulose degradation in both saprobic fungi. This study provides a basis for further analysis and characterisation of genes shown to be highly induced in the presence of a lignocellulosic substrate. The data will help to elucidate the mechanism of solid substrate recognition and subsequent degradation by T. reesei and provide information which could prove useful for efficient production of second generation biofuels. PMID:24060058

2013-01-01

232

Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels  

PubMed Central

A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70), labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36), to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays). Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (upto 73%) suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus. PMID:24734028

Hruska, Zuzana; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

233

Reduction of IgE binding and nonpromotion of Aspergillus flavus fungal growth by simultaneously silencing Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in peanut.  

PubMed

The most potent peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, were silenced in transgenic plants by RNA interference. Three independent transgenic lines were recovered after microprojectile bombardment, of which two contained single, integrated copies of the transgene. The third line contained multiple copies of the transgene. Ara h 2 expression was significantly suppressed in all three lines, whereas Ara h 6 was reduced in two lines. Expression of peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 was not noticeably affected. Significant reduction of human IgE binding to Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 also was observed. Seed weight and germination data from transgenic and nontransgenic segregants showed no significant differences. Data collected from in vitro Aspergillus flavus infection indicate no significant difference in fungal growth between the transgenic lines and the nontransgenic controls. These data suggest that silencing Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 is a feasible approach to produce hypoallergenic peanut. PMID:19007236

Chu, Ye; Faustinelli, Paola; Ramos, Maria Laura; Hajduch, Martin; Stevenson, Severin; Thelen, Jay J; Maleki, Soheila J; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

2008-12-10

234

Effect of Equisetum arvense and Stevia rebaudiana extracts on growth and mycotoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in maize seeds as affected by water activity.  

PubMed

Cereals are a very important part of the human and animal diets. However, agricultural products can be contaminated by moulds and their mycotoxins. Plant extracts, particularly those of Equisetum arvense and Stevia rebaudiana have been reported previously to contain antioxidant compounds which may have antifungal properties. In this study, E. arvense and S. rebaudiana extracts were tested for their control of mycotoxigenic fungi in maize. The extracts were tested separately and as a mixture for their effect on growth of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Extracts were added to unsterilised inoculated maize at different water activity (a(w)) levels (0.85-0.95). Moulds were inoculated and incubated for 30 days. Results confirmed that the extract of E. arvense and a mixture 1:1 of Equisetum-Stevia may be effective for the inhibition of both growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production at high water activity levels (pre-harvest conditions). In general, growth of the F. verticillioides was reduced by the use of plant extracts, especially at 0.95 a(w). However, fumonisin presence was not significantly affected. E. arvense and S. rebaudiana extracts could be developed as an alternative treatment to control aflatoxigenic mycobiota in moist maize. PMID:22104120

Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

2012-02-01

235

Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.  

PubMed

This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates. PMID:24291176

Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

2014-01-17

236

Enhanced hexadecane degradation and low biomass production by Aspergillus niger exposed to an electric current in a model system.  

PubMed

The effects of an electric current on growth and hexadecane (HXD) degradation by Aspergillus niger growth were determined. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15 g of perlite (inert biomass support) was inoculated with A. niger (2.0×10(7) spores (g of dry inert support)(-1)) and incubated for 12 days (30 °C; constant ventilation). 4.5 days after starting culture a current of 0.42 mA cm(-2) was applied for 24h. The current reduced (52±11%) growth of the culture as compared to that of a culture not exposed to current. However, HXD degradation was 96±1.4% after 8 days whereas it was 81±1.2% after 12 days in control cultures. Carbon balances of cultures not exposed to current suggested an assimilative metabolism, but a non-assimilative metabolism when the current was applied. This change can be related to an increase in total ATP content. The study contributes to the knowledge on the effects of current on the mycelial growth phase of A. niger, and suggests the possibility of manipulating the metabolism of this organism with electric current. PMID:20739180

Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; González, Ignacio; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano

2011-01-01

237

Contribution of cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway, catalyzed by the alternative oxidase, to citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In Aspergillus niger, a cyanide (CN)- and antimycin A-insensitive and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)-sensitive respiratory pathway exists besides the cytochrome pathway and is catalyzed by the alternative oxidase (AOX). In this study, A. niger WU-2223L, a citric acid-producing strain, was cultivated in a medium containing 120 g/l of glucose, which is the concentration usually needed for citric acid production, and the effects of 2% (v/v) methanol, an inducer of citric acid, 2 microM antimycin A, and 1 mM SHAM on AOX activities and citric acid production were investigated. The AOX activity, measured as duroquinol oxidase, was localized in the purified mitochondria regardless of the presence of any additives. When WU-2223L was cultivated with antimycin A or methanol, both citric acid production and citric acid productivity, shown as the ratio of production per mycelial dry weight, increased with the increase of both the activity of AOX and the rate of CN-insensitive and SHAM-sensitive respiration. On the other hand, when WU-2223L was cultivated with SHAM, an inhibitor of AOX, the CN-insensitive and SHAM-sensitive respiration was not detected and the citric acid production and the productivity drastically decreased, although mycelial growth was not affected. These results clearly indicated that the CN-insensitive and SHAM-sensitive respiration catalyzed by AOX, localized in the mitochondria, contributed to citric acid production by A. niger. PMID:11129572

Kirimura, K; Yoda, M; Shimizu, H; Sugano, S; Mizuno, M; Kino, K; Usami, S

2000-10-01

238

Comprehensive annotation of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and gene clusters of Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. oryzae  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary metabolite production, a hallmark of filamentous fungi, is an expanding area of research for the Aspergilli. These compounds are potent chemicals, ranging from deadly toxins to therapeutic antibiotics to potential anti-cancer drugs. The genome sequences for multiple Aspergilli have been determined, and provide a wealth of predictive information about secondary metabolite production. Sequence analysis and gene overexpression strategies have enabled the discovery of novel secondary metabolites and the genes involved in their biosynthesis. The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) provides a central repository for gene annotation and protein information for Aspergillus species. These annotations include Gene Ontology (GO) terms, phenotype data, gene names and descriptions and they are crucial for interpreting both small- and large-scale data and for aiding in the design of new experiments that further Aspergillus research. Results We have manually curated Biological Process GO annotations for all genes in AspGD with recorded functions in secondary metabolite production, adding new GO terms that specifically describe each secondary metabolite. We then leveraged these new annotations to predict roles in secondary metabolism for genes lacking experimental characterization. As a starting point for manually annotating Aspergillus secondary metabolite gene clusters, we used antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis SHell) and SMURF (Secondary Metabolite Unknown Regions Finder) algorithms to identify potential clusters in A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. oryzae, which we subsequently refined through manual curation. Conclusions This set of 266 manually curated secondary metabolite gene clusters will facilitate the investigation of novel Aspergillus secondary metabolites. PMID:23617571

2013-01-01

239

Colonization and Degradation of Thermally Oxidized High-Density Polyethylene by Aspergillus niger (ITCC No. 6052) Isolated from Plastic Waste Dumpsite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic materials, particularly polyethylene, are the potential source of environmental pollution. In the present study, a fungal strain was isolated from plastic waste dumpsites capable of adhering to high-density polyethylene (HDPE) surface. The fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus niger (ITCC no. 6052). A visible increase in the growth of the fungi was observed on the surface of the polyethylene

Garima Mathur; Ashwani Mathur; Ramasare Prasad

2011-01-01

240

Enhanced enzyme production from mixed cultures of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Aspergillus niger LMA grown as fed batch in a stirred tank bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the complete hydrolysis of cellulose, the cellulolytic fungi produce a whole set of commercially important enzymes called cellulases. The aim of this work was to investigate an approach to enhance the production of these enzymes by co-culturing Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger in a bioreactor to convert cellulose substrate into soluble sugars through a synergetic action of enzyme complex

Aftab Ahamed; Patrick Vermette

2008-01-01

241

Establishment of Two Ectomycorrhizal Shrub Species in a Semiarid Site after in Situ Amendment with Sugar Beet, Rock Phosphate, and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the addition of sugar beet, rock phosphate, and Aspergillus niger directly into the planting hole, and the mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings with Scleroderma verrucosum, for promotion of plant growth of Cistus albidus L. and Quercus coccifera L. and enhancement of soil physicochemical, biochemical, and biological properties, in a degraded

F. Caravaca; M. M. Alguacil; R. Azcón; J. Parladé; P. Torres; A. Roldán

2005-01-01

242

The effect of various food parameters on the activity and stability of catalase from Aspergillus niger and catalase from bovine liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a number of food relevant parameters on catalase activity and stability were studied. The direct responses of different combinations of the parameters ethanol, pH and ionic strength on bovine liver catalase and Aspergillus niger catalase activity were investigated in a full factorial 24 statistically designed experiment. Statistically significant effects (p = 0.001) on both types of catalases

Anne S. Meyer; Lćrke H. Pedersen; Anette Isaksen

1997-01-01

243

Differences in Efficacy and Cytokine Profiles following Echinocandin or Liposomal Amphotericin B Monotherapy or Combination Therapy for Murine Pulmonary or Systemic Aspergillus flavus Infections  

PubMed Central

Given the recent increase in aspergillosis caused by species other than Aspergillus fumigatus, micafungin, caspofungin, and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmBi) were investigated as monotherapy or combination therapy for murine systemic or pulmonary Aspergillus flavus infection. Treatment for 3 or 6 days was begun at 24 h (intravenous [i.v.], 2.8 × 104 conidia) or 2 h (intranasal, 4.1 × 106 to 6.75 × 106 conidia) postchallenge as follows: 5 or 10 mg/kg L-AmBi, 10 mg/kg caspofungin, 15 mg/kg micafungin, L-AmBi plus echinocandin, L-AmBi on days 1 to 3 and echinocandin on days 4 to 6, or echinocandin on days 1 to 3 and L-AmBi on days 4 to 6. Mice were monitored for survival, fungal burden, serum or tissue cytokines, and lung histopathology. In the systemic infection, micafungin or caspofungin was more effective than L-AmBi in prolonging survival (P < 0.05), and L-AmBi was associated with significantly elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), and IL-12 (P < 0.05). In contrast, L-AmBi was significantly more effective than the echinocandins in reducing fungal growth in most tissues (P < 0.05). Concomitant therapies produced significantly enhanced survival, reduction in fungal burden, and low levels of proinflammatory cytokines, while antagonism was seen with some sequential regimens. In comparison, in the pulmonary infection, L-AmBi was significantly better (P < 0.05) than caspofungin or the combination of L-AmBi and caspofungin in prolonging survival and reducing lung fungal burden. Caspofungin stimulated high lung levels of IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and IL-6, with extensive tissue damage. In summary, systemic A flavus infection was treated effectively with L-AmBi plus micafungin or caspofungin provided that the drugs were administered concomitantly and not sequentially, while pulmonary A. flavus infection responded well to L-AmBi but not to caspofungin. PMID:21968353

Olson, J. A.; Schwartz, J.; Hahka, D.; George, A.; Proffitt, R. T.

2012-01-01

244

Differences in efficacy and cytokine profiles following echinocandin or liposomal amphotericin B monotherapy or combination therapy for murine pulmonary or systemic Aspergillus flavus infections.  

PubMed

Given the recent increase in aspergillosis caused by species other than Aspergillus fumigatus, micafungin, caspofungin, and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmBi) were investigated as monotherapy or combination therapy for murine systemic or pulmonary Aspergillus flavus infection. Treatment for 3 or 6 days was begun at 24 h (intravenous [i.v.], 2.8 × 10(4) conidia) or 2 h (intranasal, 4.1 × 10(6) to 6.75 × 10(6) conidia) postchallenge as follows: 5 or 10 mg/kg L-AmBi, 10 mg/kg caspofungin, 15 mg/kg micafungin, L-AmBi plus echinocandin, L-AmBi on days 1 to 3 and echinocandin on days 4 to 6, or echinocandin on days 1 to 3 and L-AmBi on days 4 to 6. Mice were monitored for survival, fungal burden, serum or tissue cytokines, and lung histopathology. In the systemic infection, micafungin or caspofungin was more effective than L-AmBi in prolonging survival (P < 0.05), and L-AmBi was associated with significantly elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), and IL-12 (P < 0.05). In contrast, L-AmBi was significantly more effective than the echinocandins in reducing fungal growth in most tissues (P < 0.05). Concomitant therapies produced significantly enhanced survival, reduction in fungal burden, and low levels of proinflammatory cytokines, while antagonism was seen with some sequential regimens. In comparison, in the pulmonary infection, L-AmBi was significantly better (P < 0.05) than caspofungin or the combination of L-AmBi and caspofungin in prolonging survival and reducing lung fungal burden. Caspofungin stimulated high lung levels of IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and IL-6, with extensive tissue damage. In summary, systemic A flavus infection was treated effectively with L-AmBi plus micafungin or caspofungin provided that the drugs were administered concomitantly and not sequentially, while pulmonary A. flavus infection responded well to L-AmBi but not to caspofungin. PMID:21968353

Olson, J A; Schwartz, J; Hahka, D; George, A; Proffitt, R T; Adler-Moore, J P

2012-01-01

245

The intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate  

PubMed Central

Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is well-known as a producer of primary metabolites and extracellular proteins. For example, glucoamylase is the most efficiently secreted protein of Aspergillus niger, thus the homologous glucoamylase (glaA) promoter as well as the glaA signal sequence are widely used for heterologous protein production. Xylose is known to strongly repress glaA expression while maltose is a potent inducer of glaA promoter controlled genes. For a more profound understanding of A. niger physiology, a comprehensive analysis of the intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger AB1.13 growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate was carried out using 2-D gel electrophoresis/Maldi-ToF and nano-HPLC MS/MS. Results The intracellular proteome of A. niger growing either on xylose or maltose in well-aerated controlled bioreactor cultures revealed striking similarities. In both cultures the most abundant intracellular protein was the TCA cycle enzyme malate-dehydrogenase. Moreover, the glycolytic enzymes fructose-bis-phosphate aldolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and the flavohemoglobin FhbA were identified as major proteins in both cultures. On the other hand, enzymes involved in the removal of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin, were present at elevated levels in the culture growing on maltose but only in minor amounts in the xylose culture. The composition of the extracellular proteome differed considerably depending on the carbon substrate. In the secretome of the xylose-grown culture, a variety of plant cell wall degrading enzymes were identified, mostly under the control of the xylanolytic transcriptional activator XlnR, with xylanase B and ferulic acid esterase as the most abundant ones. The secretome of the maltose-grown culture did not contain xylanolytic enzymes, instead high levels of catalases were found and glucoamylase (multiple spots) was identified as the most abundant extracellular protein. Surprisingly, the intracellular proteome of A. niger growing on xylose in bioreactor cultures differed more from a culture growing in shake flasks using the same medium than from the bioreactor culture growing on maltose. For example, in shake flask cultures with xylose as carbon source the most abundant intracellular proteins were not the glycolytic and the TCA cycle enzymes and the flavohemoglobin, but CipC, a protein of yet unknown function, superoxide dismutase and an NADPH dependent aldehyde reductase. Moreover, vacuolar proteases accumulated to higher and ER-resident chaperones and foldases to lower levels in shake flask compared to the bioreactor cultures. Conclusions The utilization of xylose or maltose was strongly affecting the composition of the secretome but of minor influence on the composition of the intracellular proteome. On the other hand, differences in culture conditions (pH control versus no pH control, aeration versus no aeration and stirring versus shaking) have a profound effect on the intracellular proteome. For example, lower levels of ER-resident chaperones and foldases and higher levels of vacuolar proteases render shake flask conditions less favorable for protein production compared to controlled bioreactor cultures. PMID:20406453

2010-01-01

246

Potential of botanicals and biocontrol agents on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus infecting rice grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of certain plant extracts and biocontrol agents for the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in stored rice was investigated. Among the plant extracts tested, Syzigiumaromaticum (5g\\/kg) showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavus growth and AFB1 production. Curcumalonga, Alliumsativum and Ocimumsanctum also effectively inhibited the A.flavus growth (65–78%) and AFB1 production (72.2–85.7%) at 5g\\/kg concentration. Among the biocontrol agents, culture

K. R. N. Reddy; C. S. Reddy; K. Muralidharan

2009-01-01

247

The antifungal activity of Sarcococca saligna ethanol extract and its combination effect with fluconazole against different resistant Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Microbial resistance is a major drawback in chemotherapy of microbial or fungal infection disease. In this study, the antifungal activity of ethanol extract of a selected plant (Sarcococca saligna) has been investigated against clinical isolates of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus treus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Also, the enhancement of the antifungal activity of fluconazole by this extract was further evaluated against mentioned test strains. Conventional disk diffusion method was used to assay the antifungal activity of S. saligna ethanol extract in the absence and presence of fluconazole. The highest antifungal activity was observed against A. treus. The ethanol extract of S. saligna enhanced the antifungal activity of fluconazole against A. niger and A. treus and A. flavus. At the highest tested contents (4 mg/disk), 1.15-, 0.64-, and 2.47-fold increases in inhibition zone surface area were observed for A. niger, A. treus, and A. flavus, respectively. However, no enhancing effect was observed for this plant extract against Aspergillus fumigates at tested contents (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/disk). In a separate experiment, the general cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of S. saligna was examined with brine shrimp assay. This plant extract showed low cytotoxicity against Artemia salina (LC(50) = 186 microg/ml). PMID:19685213

Mollazadeh Moghaddam, Kamyar; Arfan, Mohammad; Rafique, Jamal; Rezaee, Sassan; Jafari Fesharaki, Parisa; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

2010-09-01

248

Purification and characterization of a ?-glucosidase from aspergillus niger and its application in the hydrolysis of geniposide to genipin.  

PubMed

An extracellular ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger Au0847 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, anion exchange, and gel filtration. The purified protein was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 110 and 120 kDa. Au0847 ?-glucosidase exhibited relatively high thermostability and pH stability, and its highest activity was obtained at 65°C and pH 4.6, respectively. As a potential metalloprotein, its enzymatic activity was potently stimulated by manganese ion and DTT. The ?-glucosidase displayed avid affinity and high catalytic efficiency for geniposide. Au0847 ?-glucosidase has potential value as an industrial enzyme for the hydrolysis of geniposide to genipin. PMID:24608563

Gong, Guohong; Zheng, Zhiming; Liu, Hui; Wang, Li; Diao, Jinshan; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai

2014-06-28

249

Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88  

SciTech Connect

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

2011-04-28

250

Role of Aspergillus niger acrA in Arsenic Resistance and Its Use as the Basis for an Arsenic Biosensor  

PubMed Central

Arsenic contamination of groundwater sources is a major issue worldwide, since exposure to high levels of arsenic has been linked to a variety of health problems. Effective methods of detection are thus greatly needed as preventive measures. In an effort to develop a fungal biosensor for arsenic, we first identified seven putative arsenic metabolism and transport genes in Aspergillus niger, a widely used industrial organism that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Among the genes tested for RNA expression in response to arsenate, acrA, encoding a putative plasma membrane arsenite efflux pump, displayed an over 200-fold increase in gene expression in response to arsenate. We characterized the function of this A. niger protein in arsenic efflux by gene knockout and confirmed that AcrA was located at the cell membrane using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion construct. Based on our observations, we developed a putative biosensor strain containing a construct of the native promoter of acrA fused with egfp. We analyzed the fluorescence of this biosensor strain in the presence of arsenic using confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The biosensor strain reliably detected both arsenite and arsenate in the range of 1.8 to 180 ?g/liter, which encompasses the threshold concentrations for drinking water set by the World Health Organization (10 and 50 ?g/liter). PMID:22467499

Choe, Se-In; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Al Abdallah, Qusai; Lee, Mark J.; Gibbs, Bernard F.

2012-01-01

251

Lipase Production in Solid-State Fermentation Monitoring Biomass Growth of Aspergillus niger Using Digital Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

Dutra, Julio C. V.; da Terzi, Selma C.; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C. T.; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A. P.; Senna, Lilian F.

252

Growth Kinetics and Mechanistic Action of Reactive Oxygen Species Released by Silver Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger on Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), the real silver bullet, are known to have good antibacterial properties against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study AgNPs were prepared from extracellular filtrate of Aspergillus niger. Characterization of AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrum reveals specific surface plasmon resonance at peak 416?nm; TEM photographs revealed the size of the AgNPs to be 20–55?nm. Average diameter of the produced AgNPs was found to be 73?nm with a zeta potential that was ?24?mV using Malvern Zetasizer. SEM micrographs showed AgNPs to be spherical with smooth morphology. EDS revealed the presence of pure metallic AgNPs along with carbon and oxygen signatures. Of the different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15??g/mL) used 10??g/mL were sufficient to inhibit 107?CFU/mL of E. coli. ROS production was measured using DCFH-DA method and the the free radical generation effect of AgNPs on bacterial growth inhibition was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. This paper not only deals with the damage inflicted on microorganisms by AgNPs but also induces cell death through the production of ROS released by AgNPs and also growth kinetics of E. coli supplemented with AgNPs produced by A. niger. PMID:25028666

Ninganagouda, Shivaraj; Rathod, Vandana; Singh, Dattu; Hiremath, Jyoti; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Mathew, Jasmine; ul-Haq, Manzoor

2014-01-01

253

Growth performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) meal fermented with Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Shea nut meal is a by-product of the shea fat industry in West Africa. The objective was to determine the effect of shea nut meal fermentation using Aspergillus niger on growth performance of broiler chickens. An expeller shea nut meal was fermented in a closed plastic container for 8 d after the addition of 0.25 g of A. niger spores per kg of shea nut meal in 2 parts of water. Each of the 2 shea nut meal samples (the unfermented and fermented meals) replaced wheatfeed in a control diet at 100 g/kg and fed to 128 Ross 308 male broiler chickens (22 to 36 d). There were 8 replicates per diet (2 shea nut meal samples and the control wheatfeed diet) and 4 birds per replicate in cages (0.6 m x 0.6 m x 0.9 m). Analysis of variance of data was used to compare the treatment means. The fermentation method reduced the concentrations of total soluble phenolics (21.9%), bound plus soluble proanthocyanidins (34.5%), soluble proanthocyanidins (24.7%), and hydrolysable tannins (52.9%) in the shea nut meal. Broilers fed the fermented meal exhibited higher (P < 0.001) growth performance than those fed the unfermented meal. However, the growth performance of broilers fed each of the shea nut meal-based diets was lower (P < 0.001) than that of broilers fed the control diet. Mean live weight gain of broilers fed the fermented shea nut meal diet was 82% of that of broilers fed the control diet. The fermentation of shea nut meal using A. niger has the potential to improve the nutritive value of shea nut meal for poultry, but requires further development. PMID:18753445

Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Amarowicz, R

2008-09-01

254

Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88  

SciTech Connect

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

2011-06-01

255

Effect of chemical modifications of cellulose on the activity of a cellulase from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five chemically modified forms of cellulose were prepared, characterized, and tested as substrates for a homogeneous glucanohydrolase from A. niger. The relative order of reactivity at pH 4.0 was DEAE = PEI more than benzyl DEAE more than cellulose more than P more than CM. This indicates that positively charged cellulose substrates are more susceptible to hydrolysis by the cellulase.

R. F. Boyer; M. A. Redmond

1983-01-01

256

Large crystal growth by thermal control allows combined X-ray and neutron crystallographic studies to elucidate the protonation states in Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase  

PubMed Central

Urate oxidase (Uox) catalyses the oxidation of urate to allantoin and is used to reduce toxic urate accumulation during chemotherapy. X-ray structures of Uox with various inhibitors have been determined and yet the detailed catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Neutron crystallography can provide complementary information to that from X-ray studies and allows direct determination of the protonation states of the active-site residues and substrate analogues, provided that large, well-ordered deuterated crystals can be grown. Here, we describe a method and apparatus used to grow large crystals of Uox (Aspergillus flavus) with its substrate analogues 8-azaxanthine and 9-methyl urate, and with the natural substrate urate, in the presence and absence of cyanide. High-resolution X-ray (1.05–1.20 Ĺ) and neutron diffraction data (1.9–2.5 Ĺ) have been collected for the Uox complexes at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and the Institut Laue-Langevin, respectively. In addition, room temperature X-ray data were also collected in preparation for joint X-ray and neutron refinement. Preliminary results indicate no major structural differences between crystals grown in H2O and D2O even though the crystallization process is affected. Moreover, initial nuclear scattering density maps reveal the proton positions clearly, eventually providing important information towards unravelling the mechanism of catalysis. PMID:19586953

Oksanen, E.; Blakeley, M. P.; Bonnete, F.; Dauvergne, M. T.; Dauvergne, F.; Budayova-Spano, M.

2009-01-01

257

Silencing of the Aflatoxin Gene Cluster in a Diploid Strain of Aspergillus flavus Is Suppressed by Ectopic aflR Expression  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a 70-kb cluster of genes in Aspergillus flavus. The cluster genes are coordinately regulated and reside as a single copy within the genome. Diploids between a wild-type strain and a mutant (649) lacking the aflatoxin gene cluster fail to produce aflatoxin or transcripts of the aflatoxin pathway genes. This dominant phenotype is rescued in diploids between a wild-type strain and a transformant of the mutant containing an ectopic copy of aflR, the transcriptional regulator of the aflatoxin biosynthetic gene cluster. Further characterization of the mutant showed that it is missing 317 kb of chromosome III, including the known genes for aflatoxin biosynthesis. In addition, 939 kb of chromosome II is present as a duplication on chromosome III in the region previously containing the aflatoxin gene cluster. The lack of aflatoxin production in the diploid was not due to a unique or a mis-expressed repressor of aflR. Instead a form of reversible silencing based on the position of aflR is likely preventing the aflatoxin genes from being expressed in 649 × wild-type diploids. Gene expression analysis revealed the silencing effect is specific to the aflatoxin gene cluster. PMID:17565943

Smith, Carrie A.; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Robertson, Dominique; Payne, Gary A.

2007-01-01

258

Shifting the pH Profile of Aspergillus niger PhyA Phytase To Match the Stomach pH Enhances Its Effectiveness as an Animal Feed Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution by phosphorus from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals, such as swine, poultry, and fish, cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely used as a feed additive to hydrolyze phytate-phosphorus. However, it has the lowest relative activity at the

Taewan Kim; Edward J. Mullaney; Jesus M. Porres; Karl R. Roneker; Sarah Crowe; Sarah Rice; Taegu Ko; Abul H. J. Ullah; Catherine B. Daly; Ross Welch; Xin Gen Lei

2006-01-01

259

Application of a multi-layer packed-bed reactor to citric acid production in solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation, using the fungus Aspergillus niger, has been employed for the production of citric acid from kumara, a starch-containing root crop. A multi-layer packed-bed reactor was designed and operated in an attempt to understand mass and heat transfer during the fermentation. Although only a limited understanding was obtained, the multi-layer packed-bed reactor improved the mass transfer considerably compared with

M. Y. Lu; I. S. Maddox; J. D. Brooks

1998-01-01

260

Enzymatic resolution of racemic phenyloxirane by a novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger SQ6 and its fed-batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microorganism with the ability to catalyze the resolution of racemic phenyloxirane was isolated and identified as Aspergillus niger SQ-6. Chiral capillary electrophoresis was successfully applied to separate both phenyloxirane and phenylethanediol. The\\u000a epoxide hydrolase (EH) involved in this resolution process was (R)-stereospecific and constitutively expressed. When whole cells were used during the biotransformation process, the optimum\\u000a temperature and pH

Yanbin Liu; Qian Sha; Sheng Wu; Jianjun Wang; Liu Yang; Wanru Sun

2006-01-01

261

Evaluation of glucosidases of Aspergillus niger strain comparing with other glucosidases in transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenosides Rg3  

PubMed Central

The transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into a specific minor ginsenoside using Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239, as well as the identification of the transformed products and the pathway via thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated to develop a new biologically active material. The conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 generated Rd, Rg3, Rh2, and compound K although the reaction rates were low due to the low concentration. In enzymatic conversion, all of the ginsenoside Rb1 was converted to ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3 after 24 h of incubation. The crude enzyme (?-glucosidase) from A. niger KCCM 11239 hydrolyzed the ?-(1?6)-glucosidic linkage at the C-20 of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3. Our experimental demonstration showing that A. niger KCCM 11239 produces the ginsenoside-hydrolyzing ?-glucosidase reflects the feasibility of developing a specific bioconversion process to obtain active minor ginsenosides. PMID:24558310

Chang, Kyung Hoon; Jo, Mi Na; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2013-01-01

262

Enhanced production of Aspergillus niger laccase-like multicopper oxidases through mRNA optimization of the glucoamylase expression system.  

PubMed

In filamentous fungi, most of the strategies used for the improvement of protein yields have been based on an increase in the transcript levels of a target gene. Strategies focusing at the translational level have been also described, but are far less explored. Here the 5' untranslated sequence of the glaA mRNA, a widely used expression system for the expression of recombinant proteins, was modified by the introduction of different nucleotide elements that have positive role in the translation process. Five Aspergillus niger laccase-like multicopper oxidases (MCOs) coding genes were fused to the native glaA 5'UTR and the three synthetic versions (sUTR1, sUTR2, and sUTR3) as well, and placed under the control of the glucoamylase gene promoter. Afterwards, a total of 20 fungal transformations were done using A. niger N593 as a recipient strain and 50 transformants per transformation were isolated and analyzed. The result of the incorporation of the synthetic 5'UTRs on the overall productivity of the transformants was assessed, on one hand by monitoring the laccase activity of all the isolated transformants, and on the other hand by quantifying and comparing the activity of those secreting the highest level of each MCO. For this purpose, a high-throughput method for the screening and selection of the best producers was developed. Once the best transformants producing the highest yield of McoA, McoB, McoC, McoD, and McoJ laccases were selected, their production level was quantified in supernatants of liquid cultures. The results obtained in this work indicate that modifications in the native glaA 5'UTR can lead to improvements in protein yields. PMID:22949265

Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Barends, Sharief; de Lange, Dennis; de Jel, Annemarie; Verhaert, Raymond; de Graaff, Leo

2013-02-01

263

Production of Lytic Enzymes by Trichoderma Isolates during in vitro Antagonism with Aspergillus Niger, The Causal Agent of Collar ROT of Peanut  

PubMed Central

Twelve isolates of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, five of T. viride, one of T. virens), which reduced variably the incidence of collar rot disease caused in peanut by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, were evaluated for their potential to produce lytic enzymes during in vitro antagonism. T. viride 60 inhibited highest (86.2%) growth of test fungus followed by T. harzianum 2J (80.4%) at 6 days after inoculation (DAI) on PDA media. The specific activities of chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase and protease were 11, 3.46 and 9 folds higher in T6 antagonist (T. viride 60 and A. niger interactions) followed by 8.72, 2.85 and 9 folds in T8antagonist (T. harzianum 2J and A. niger interactions), respectively, compared to the activity produced by control petri plate T13 (A. niger alone) at 6 DAI. Activity of these lytic enzymes induced in antagonists’ plates comprises the growth of Trichoderma isolates. However, cellulase and poly galacturonase were found least amount in these antagonists treatment. A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) between percentage growth inhibition of test fungus and lytic enzymes – (chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase and protease) in the culture medium of antagonist treatment established a relationship to inhibit growth of fungal pathogen by increasing the levels of these enzymes. Among the Trichoderma isolates, T. viride 60 was found best strain to be used in biological control of plant pathogen A. niger. PMID:24031802

Gajera, H. P.; Vakharia, D. N.

2012-01-01

264

The Transcriptomic Signature of RacA Activation and Inactivation Provides New Insights into the Morphogenetic Network of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

RacA is the main Rho GTPase in Aspergillus niger regulating polarity maintenance via controlling actin dynamics. Both deletion and dominant activation of RacA (RacG18V) provoke an actin localization defect and thereby loss of polarized tip extension, resulting in frequent dichotomous branching in the ?racA strain and an apolar growing phenotype for RacG18V. In the current study the transcriptomics and physiological consequences of these morphological changes were investigated and compared with the data of the morphogenetic network model for the dichotomous branching mutant ramosa-1. This integrated approach revealed that polar tip growth is most likely orchestrated by the concerted activities of phospholipid signaling, sphingolipid signaling, TORC2 signaling, calcium signaling and CWI signaling pathways. The transcriptomic signatures and the reconstructed network model for all three morphology mutants (?racA, RacG18V, ramosa-1) imply that these pathways become integrated to bring about different physiological adaptations including changes in sterol, zinc and amino acid metabolism and changes in ion transport and protein trafficking. Finally, the fate of exocytotic (SncA) and endocytotic (AbpA, SlaB) markers in the dichotomous branching mutant ?racA was followed, demonstrating that hyperbranching does not per se result in increased protein secretion. PMID:23894378

Kwon, Min Jin; Nitsche, Benjamin M.; Arentshorst, Mark; J?rgensen, Thomas R.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Meyer, Vera

2013-01-01

265

Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid. PMID:23961184

Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

2012-01-01

266

Production of cellulases from Aspergillus niger NS-2 in solid state fermentation on agricultural and kitchen waste residues.  

PubMed

Various agricultural and kitchen waste residues were assessed for their ability to support the production of a complete cellulase system by Aspergillus niger NS-2 in solid state fermentation. Untreated as well as acid and base-pretreated substrates including corn cobs, carrot peelings, composite, grass, leaves, orange peelings, pineapple peelings, potato peelings, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, saw dust, wheat bran, wheat straw, simply moistened with water, were found to be well suited for the organism's growth, producing good amounts of cellulases after 96 h without the supplementation of additional nutritional sources. Yields of cellulases were higher in alkali treated substrates as compared to acid treated and untreated substrates except in wheat bran. Of all the substrates tested, wheat bran appeared to be the best suited substrate producing appreciable yields of CMCase, FPase and ?-glucosidase at the levels of 310, 17 and 33 U/g dry substrate respectively. An evaluation of various environmental parameters demonstrated that appreciable levels of cellulases could be produced over a wide range of temperatures (20-50 °C) and pH levels (3.0-8.0) with a 1:1.5 to 1:1.75 substrate to moisture ratio. PMID:22503148

Bansal, Namita; Tewari, Rupinder; Soni, Raman; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

2012-07-01

267

Encapsulation in a sol-gel matrix of lipase from Aspergillus niger obtained by bioconversion of a novel agricultural residue.  

PubMed

Lipase from Aspergillus niger was obtained from the solid-state fermentation of a novel agroindustrial residue, pumpkin seed flour. The partially purified enzyme was encapsulated in a sol-gel matrix, resulting in an immobilization yield of 71.4 %. The optimum pH levels of the free and encapsulated enzymes were 4.0 and 3.0, respectively. The encapsulated enzyme showed greater thermal stability at temperatures of 45 and 60 °C than the free enzyme. The positive influence of the encapsulation process was observed on the thermal stability of the enzyme, since a longer half-life t 1/2 and lower deactivation constant were obtained with the encapsulated lipase when compared with the free lipase. Kinetic parameters were found to follow the Michaelis-Menten equation. The K m values indicated that the encapsulation process reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and the V max was about 31.3 % lower than that obtained with the free lipase. The operational stability was investigated, showing 50 % relative activity up to six cycles of reuse at pH 3.0 at 37 °C. Nevertheless, the production of lipase from agroindustrial residue associated with an efficient immobilization method, which promotes good catalytic properties of the enzyme, makes the process economically viable for future industrial applications. PMID:24556978

Zubiolo, Claudia; Santos, Rafaela Cristiane Andrade; Carvalho, Nayara Bezerra; Soares, Cleide Mara Faria; Lima, Alvaro Silva; de Aquino Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins

2014-09-01

268

An inducible hydrolase from Aspergillus niger, acting on carbon-carbon bonds, for phlorrhizin and other C-acylated phenols  

PubMed Central

1. An inducible enzyme catalysing the hydrolysis of phloretin to form phloroglucinol and phloretic acid has been extracted from the acetone-dried powders of the mycelial felts of an Aspergillus niger strain grown in the presence of phlorrhizin. The enzyme was partially purified by treatment with protamine sulphate, ammonium sulphate fractionation, negative adsorption on tricalcium phosphate gel, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. 2. The hydrolytic activity on phloretin appeared to be maximal at about pH9.6. However, the characteristics of the enzyme were studied at pH7.2, because of the lability of the product, phloroglucinol, under alkaline conditions. 3. The apparent Km value at pH7.2 was about 0.3–0.4mm for phloretin and 0.15mm for 3?-methylphloracetophenone. 4. Maximum activity of the enzyme was obtained without the addition of any cofactor or metal ion. The involvement of thiol groups in the reaction was demonstrated by the potent inhibitory action of both heavy-metal ions and p-chloromercuribenzoate. 5. The enzyme showed a rather broad substrate specificity, and some other C-acylated phenols related to phloretin were hydrolysed. It was found that 3?-methylphloracetophenone, phloracetophenone and 2?,4,4?-trihydroxydihydrochalcone were attacked more efficiently than phloretin. We propose the systematic name C-acylphenol acylhydrolase for the enzyme. This enzyme belongs to EC group 3.7.1. PMID:5441377

Minamikawa, T.; Jayasankar, N. P.; Bohm, B. A.; Taylor, I. E. P.; Towers, G. H. N.

1970-01-01

269

Uncovering the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Responses of the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger to Lignocellulose Using RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

A key challenge in the production of second generation biofuels is the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into fermentable sugars. Enzymes, particularly those from fungi, are a central part of this process, and many have been isolated and characterised. However, relatively little is known of how fungi respond to lignocellulose and produce the enzymes necessary for dis-assembly of plant biomass. We studied the physiological response of the fungus Aspergillus niger when exposed to wheat straw as a model lignocellulosic substrate. Using RNA sequencing we showed that, 24 hours after exposure to straw, gene expression of known and presumptive plant cell wall–degrading enzymes represents a huge investment for the cells (about 20% of the total mRNA). Our results also uncovered new esterases and surface interacting proteins that might form part of the fungal arsenal of enzymes for the degradation of plant biomass. Using transcription factor deletion mutants (xlnR and creA) to study the response to both lignocellulosic substrates and low carbon source concentrations, we showed that a subset of genes coding for degradative enzymes is induced by starvation. Our data support a model whereby this subset of enzymes plays a scouting role under starvation conditions, testing for available complex polysaccharides and liberating inducing sugars, that triggers the subsequent induction of the majority of hydrolases. We also showed that antisense transcripts are abundant and that their expression can be regulated by growth conditions. PMID:22912594

Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Kokolski, Matthew; Malla, Sunir; Blythe, Martin J.; Ibbett, Roger; Campbell, Maria; Liddell, Susan; Aboobaker, Aziz; Tucker, Gregory A.; Archer, David B.

2012-01-01

270

Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were i) to determine the effects of the interactions of water activity, temperature and incubation time on the co-production of AFB1 and CPA by isolates of Aspergillus flavus with different profile of mycotoxin production and ii) to identify the aW and temperature limiting conditions for the production of both mycotoxins. Fungi used in this study were selected because they belonged to different chemotypes: chemotype I (AFB1+/CPA+), III (AFB1+/CPA-) and IV (AFB1-/CPA+), respectively. Two culture media were used; Czapek yeast agar (CYA) and corn extract agar (CEM), at different incubated temperatures (10-40 °C) and aW levels (0.80-0.98). AFB1 and CPA production were analyzed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation. Significant differences were observed with respect to mycotoxin production depending on the media evaluated. The AFB1 production occurred more favorably on CYA while the highest CPA concentrations were recorded on CEM. Within the range of aW evaluated in this study, 0.83 was the limiting level for both toxins production. The optimum conditions for AFB1 production occurred at 0.96 aW and 30 °C after 21 days of incubation, regardless of the media and isolate. Although different amounts of toxins were produced in each medium, the limiting and optimum conditions for their production were similar in both. No differences in the response of the three isolates to the abiotic factors discussed were observed despite belonging to different chemotypes. The determination of the thresholds of mycotoxins co-production, especially in the case of data obtained with the corn extract medium can be useful to avoid the conditions conducive to co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in corn. PMID:24290652

Astoreca, Andrea; Vaamonde, Graciela; Dalcero, Ana; Marin, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio

2014-04-01

271

Comparison of major biocontrol strains of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus for the reduction of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid in maize.  

PubMed

Biological control of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in maize through competitive displacement by non-aflatoxigenic strains was evaluated in a series of field studies. Four sets of experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to assess the competitiveness of non-aflatoxigenic strains when challenged against toxigenic strains using a pin-bar inoculation technique. In three sets of experiments the non-aflatoxigenic strain K49 effectively displaced toxigenic strains at various concentrations or combinations. The fourth study compared the relative competitiveness of three non-aflatoxigenic strains (K49, NRRL 21882 from Afla-Guard®, and AF36) when challenged on maize against two aflatoxin- and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing strains (K54 and F3W4). These studies indicate that K49 and NRRL 21882 are superior to AF36 in reducing total aflatoxin contamination. Neither K49 nor NRRL 21882 produce CPA and when challenged with K54 and F3W4, CPA and aflatoxins were reduced by 84-97% and 83-98%, respectively. In contrast, AF36 reduced aflatoxins by 20% with F3W4 and 93% with K54 and showed no reduction in CPA with F3W4 and only a 62% reduction in CPA with K54. Because AF36 produces CPA, high levels of CPA accumulate when maize is inoculated with AF36 alone or in combination with F3W4 or K54. These results indicate that K49 may be equally effective as NRRL 21882 in reducing both aflatoxins and CPA in maize. PMID:21259141

Abbas, H K; Zablotowicz, R M; Horn, B W; Phillips, N A; Johnson, B J; Jin, X; Abel, C A

2011-02-01

272

Development of RFLP-PCR method for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme MwoI  

PubMed Central

In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species.

Diba, K.; Mirhendi, H.; Kordbacheh, P.; Rezaie, S.

2014-01-01

273

Kinetic characterization of glucose aerodehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger EMS-150-F after optimizing the dose of mutagen for enhanced production of enzyme  

PubMed Central

In the present study enhanced production of glucose aerodehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger has been achieved after optimizing the dose of chemical mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) that has not been reported earlier. Different doses of mutagen were applied and a strain was developed basing upon the best production. The selected strain Aspergillus niger EMS-150-F was optimized for nutrient requirements in order to produce enzyme through fermentation and the results showed the best yield at 2% corn steep liquor (CSL), 36 hours fermentation time, pH 5, 30°C temperature, 0.3% KH2PO4, 0.3% urea and 0.06% CaCO3. The enzyme was then purified and resulted in 57.88 fold purification with 52.12% recovery. On kinetic characterization, the enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 6 and temperature 30°C. The Michaelis-Menton constants (Km, Vmax, Kcat and Kcat/Km) were 20 mM, 45.87 U mL?1, 1118.81 s?1 and 55.94 s?1 mM?1, respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermaly stable and the enthalpy and free energy showed an increase with increase in temperature and ?S* was highly negative proving the enzyme from A. niger EMS-150-F resistant to temperature and showing a very little disorderliness. PMID:24688499

Umbreen, Huma; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Rasul, Samreen

2013-01-01

274

Trehalose synthesis in Aspergillus niger: characterization of six homologous genes, all with conserved orthologs in related species  

PubMed Central

Background The disaccharide trehalose is a major component of fungal spores and is released upon germination. Moreover, the sugar is well known for is protective functions, e.g. against thermal stress and dehydration. The properties and synthesis of trehalose have been well investigated in the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In filamentous fungi, such knowledge is limited, although several gene products have been identified. Results Using Aspergillus niger as a model fungus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of all genes involved in trehalose synthesis. This fungus has three potential trehalose-6-phosphate synthase encoding genes, tpsA-C, and three putative trehalose phosphate phosphatase encoding genes, tppA-C, of which two have not previously been identified. Expression of all six genes was confirmed using real-time PCR, and conserved orthologs could be identified in related Aspergilli. Using a two-hybrid approach, there is a strong indication that four of the proteins physically interact, as has previously been shown in S. cerevisiae. When creating null mutants of all the six genes, three of them, ?tpsA, ?tppA and ?tppB, had lower internal trehalose contents. The only mutant with a pronounced morphological difference was ?tppA, in which sporulation was severely reduced with abnormal conidiophores. This was also the only mutant with accumulated levels of trehalose-6-phosphate, indicating that the encoded protein is the main phosphatase under normal conditions. Besides ?tppA, the most studied deletion mutant in this work was ?tppB. This gene encodes a protein conserved in filamentous Ascomycota. The ?tppB mutant displayed a low, but not depleted, internal trehalose content, and conidia were more susceptible to thermal stress. Conclusion A. niger contains at least 6 genes putatively involved in trehalose synthesis. Gene expressions related to germination have been quantified and deletion mutants characterized: Mutants lacking tpsA, tppA or tppB have reduced internal trehalose contents. Furthermore, tppA, under normal conditions, encodes the functional trehalose-6-phosphate-phosphatase. PMID:24725382

2014-01-01

275

Improvement of growth and nutritive value in chicks with non-genetically modified phytase product from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

1. Non-genetically modified (non-GM) phytase product derived from Aspergillus niger possesses various side active enzymes including alpha-amylase, protease, cellulase and hemicellulase. In contrast, the product of genetically modified (GM) phytase product has much less side active enzyme since the capacity of phytase production is reinforced by gene modification. In the present study we have tried to determine whether the difference of side enzyme activity of phytase product affects growth performances and nutritive value in chicks; in addition we tried to characterise the physiological change induced by the difference of side active enzymes. 2. Single Comb White Leghorn male chicks at 7 d of age were fed on experimental barley-based diets for 10 d. The feeding trial was of a factorial design (3 x 2 x 2), having three types of dietary phytase products (control, non-GM or GM phytase products derived from A. niger at 1000 U/kg diet), two levels of dietary available P supplement (0 or 6 g/kg diet) and two levels of dietary protein (CP 180 or 120 g/kg). 3. The non-GM phytase product caused a 6% increase in final body weight and feed efficiency compared with the control and the GM phytase product without interacting with dietary protein and available P level. However, in birds given available P-free diet, both non-GM and GM phytase products induced a 20% increase in plasma P concentration, suggesting no difference in phytase activity between the non-GM and GM phytase products. 4. The balance study showed that the metabolisable energy of the non-GM phytase product (15.6 +/- 0.05 kJ/g diet) was significantly higher among the treatments (control, 15.1 +/- 0.05; GM phytase product 15.3 +/- 0.07). The non-GM phytase product also increased the rate of food passage through the crop, and caused a drastic reduction in intestinal weight, perhaps as a consequence of digestion of non-starch polysaccharides. 5. We conclude that the side active enzymes in non-GM phytase product improve growth performance and nutritive value of the diet in chicks. However, the efficacy of phytase activity should not be different between non-GM and GM phytase products. PMID:12555893

Murai, A; Kobayashi, T; Okada, T; Okumura, J

2002-12-01

276

Bioconversion of oil palm frond by Aspergillus niger to enhances it's fermentable sugar production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the fermentable sugars at laboratory scales Using Oil Palm Frond (OPF) as substrate in Solid State Fermentation (SSF). OPF waste generated by oil palm plantations is a major problem in terms of waste management. However, this lignocellulosic waste material is a cheap source of cellulose. We used OPF as substrate to produce fermentable sugars. The high content of cellulose in OPF promises the high fermentable sugars production in SSF. Saccharification of OPF waste by A. niger USMAI1 generates fermentable sugars and was evaluated through a solid state fermentation. Physical parameters, e.g., inoculum size, initial substrate moisture, initial pH, incubation temperature and the size of substrate were optimized to obtain the maximum fermentable sugars from oil palm fronds. Up to 77 mg of fermentable sugars per gram substrate was produced under the optimal physical parameter conditions. Lower productivity of fermentable sugars, 32 mg fermentable sugars per gram substrate was obtained under non optimized conditions. The results indicated that about 140.6% increase in fermentable sugar production after optimization of the physical parameters. Glucose was the major end component amongst the fermentable sugars obtained. This study indicated that under optimum physical parameter conditions, the OPF waste can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars which then convert into other products such as alcohol. PMID:24502148

Lim, Sheh-Hong; Ibrahim, Darah

2013-09-15

277

Trancriptional landscape of Aspergillus niger at breaking of conidial dormancy revealed by RNA-sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide analysis was performed to assess the transcriptional landscape of germinating A. niger conidia using both next generation RNA-sequencing and GeneChips. The metabolism of storage compounds during conidial germination was also examined and compared to the transcript levels from associated genes. Results The transcriptome of dormant conidia was shown to be highly differentiated from that of germinating conidia and major changes in response to environmental shift occurred within the first hour of germination. The breaking of dormancy was associated with increased transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of proteins, RNA turnover and respiratory metabolism. Increased transcript levels of genes involved in metabolism of nitrate at the onset of germination implies its use as a source of nitrogen. The transcriptome of dormant conidia contained a significant component of antisense transcripts that changed during germination. Conclusion Dormant conidia contained transcripts of genes involved in fermentation, gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle. The presence of such transcripts in dormant conidia may indicate the generation of energy from non-carbohydrate substrates during starvation-induced conidiation or for maintenance purposes during dormancy. The immediate onset of metabolism of internal storage compounds after the onset of germination, and the presence of transcripts of relevant genes, suggest that conidia are primed for the onset of germination. For some genes, antisense transcription is regulated in the transition from resting conidia to fully active germinants. PMID:23577966

2013-01-01

278

Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

2012-01-01

279

Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks. PMID:20170700

Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

2010-05-01

280

Effect of low shear modeled microgravity on phenotypic and central chitin metabolism in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum.  

PubMed

Phenotypic and genotypic changes in Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum, spore forming filamentous fungi, with respect to central chitin metabolism were studied under low shear modeled microgravity, normal gravity and static conditions. Low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) response showed a similar spore germination rate with normal gravity and static conditions. Interestingly, high ratio of multiple germ tube formation of A. niger in LSMMG condition was observed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of calcofluor flurophore stained A. niger and P. chrysogenum showed no significant variations between different conditions tested. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed number of mitochondria increased in P. chrysogenum in low shear modeled microgravity condition but no stress related-woronin bodies in fungal hyphae were observed. To gain additional insight into the cell wall integrity under different conditions, transcription level of a key gene involved in cell wall integrity gfaA, encoding the glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase enzyme, was evaluated using qRT-PCR. The transcription level showed no variation among different conditions. Overall, the results collectively indicate that the LSMMG has shown no significant stress on spore germination, mycelial growth, cell wall integrity of potentially pathogenic fungi, A. niger and P. chrysogenum. PMID:24803238

Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Lee, Hyun Mi; Rajagopal, Kalyanaraman; Im, Chan Ki; Lee, Yang Soo

2014-08-01

281

Expression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant calcium-binding equine lysozyme secreted by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger: comparisons with the production of hen and human lysozymes.  

PubMed

Equine lysozyme (EqL) has been expressed from a synthetic gene and secreted from a heterologous host, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. By including 100 mM Ca2+ in the growth medium, secreted yields of more than 50 mg/liter could be achieved using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) complete medium. In a soya medium yields of up to 150 mg/liter were achieved. The production of recombinant human lysozyme (HuL) from A. niger with yields of over 40 mg/liter was also achieved using PVP medium. Addition of Ca2+ to the growth medium reduced the yield of both HuL and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Sequence differences between the three lysozymes, EqL, HuL, and HEWL, resulted in different susceptibilities to cleavage by A. niger proteases. An improved procedure for the purification of EqL and HuL from A. niger allowed separation of the proteins from pigments produced by the fungus. Detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 2D 1H NMR, for recombinant EqL and recombinant HuL confirm that both proteins possess their native structure and are purified to homogeneity. PMID:10336875

Spencer, A; Morozov-Roche, L A; Noppe, W; MacKenzie, D A; Jeenes, D J; Joniau, M; Dobson, C M; Archer, D B

1999-06-01

282

Effect of Spumol K on cell wall of Aspergillus niger strains characterized by different tolerance to toxic compounds of beet molasses.  

PubMed

Cell walls in the mycelium of Aspergillus niger strains sensitive or resistant to toxic molasses compounds growing in the presence of Spumol K were the object of the present studies. Although the inhibitory effect of Spumol K on the cell wall was noticed in studied mycelia the sensitive strains reacted more strongly. In sensitive strains in Spumol K presence lower content of cell wall was accomplished by higher amount of proteins but lower of lipids as well as structural polymers i.e. of glucans and chitin in this wall. A weaker synthesis of chitin and lower level of cell wall enzymes, especially chitinase, were observed in these strains. The described changes seem to be responsible for the growth inhibition and mycelium sinking in sensitive strains of A. niger. PMID:9429292

Gabara, B; Zakowska, Z

1997-01-01

283

Tailoring fungal morphology of Aspergillus niger MYA 135 by altering the hyphal morphology and the conidia adhesion capacity: biotechnological applications  

PubMed Central

Current problems of filamentous fungi fermentations and their further successful developments as microbial cell factories are dependent on control fungal morphology. In this connection, this work explored new experimental procedures in order to quantitatively check the potential of some culture conditions to induce a determined fungal morphology by altering both hyphal morphology and conidia adhesion capacity. The capacity of environmental conditions to modify hyphal morphology was evaluated by examining the influence of some culture conditions on the cell wall lytic potential of Aspergillus niger MYA 135. The relative value of the cell wall lytic potential was determined by measuring a cell wall lytic enzyme activity such as the mycelium-bound ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (Mb-NAGase). On the other hand, the quantitative value of conidia adhesion was considered as an index of its aggregation capacity. Concerning microscopic morphology, a highly negative correlation between the hyphal growth unit length (lHGU) and the specific Mb-NAGase activity was found (r?=?-0.915, P?

2013-01-01

284

Production of GFP and glucoamylase by recombinant Aspergillus niger: effects of fermentation conditions on fungal morphology and protein secretion.  

PubMed

The effect of filamentous fungal morphology on heterologous protein secretion was investigated using the recombinant Aspergillus niger strain AB4.1[pgpdAGLAGFP], which contained the gene coded for the GLA-GFP (glucoamylase-green fluorescence protein) fusion protein. Three culturing systems were studied to develop different morphological forms of the fungus. Free-cell cultures in conventional stirred-tank bioreactors grew in pellet form with various sizes depending on culturing conditions. Cells immobilized on cotton cloth grew in mycelial form in a rotating fibrous bed (RFB) and a static fibrous bed (SFB) bioreactors. The expression of the fusion protein was growth-associated and dependent on the fungal morphology. Immobilized cells produced 10-fold more GFP and glucoamylase than well-oxygenated free-cell pellets. In free-cell cultures, excretion of the fusion protein occurred mainly from cell autolysis, when oxygen or nutrient were depleted, whereas protein secretion took place from the beginning of the fermentation in immobilized-cell cultures. Also, protein secretion was found to be strongly dependent on morphology. Small pellets of a 1-mm size secreted 82% of GFP produced, whereas 43% of GFP remained intracellular in larger pellets of 5 mm. Complete secretion of GFP was obtained with cells immobilized on the fibrous matrix. The improvement in heterologous protein synthesis and secretion can be attributed to the filamentous mycelial morphology since protein secretion occurred predominantly at the tips of growing hyphae. Secretion of proteases occurred mainly in the stationary phase or when cell autolysis were induced by nutrient depletion and was not dependent on morphology, although immobilizing the cells also reduced protease activity. The RFB bioreactor gave the best fermentation performance because of its ability to control the cell morphology that was amenable to efficient oxygen transfer and protein secretion. PMID:16209542

Talabardon, Mylene; Yang, Shang-Tian

2005-01-01

285

Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84% of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms. PMID:24719047

Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

2014-08-01

286

The role of carbon starvation in the induction of enzymes that degrade plant-derived carbohydrates in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that the transcriptional response after 6 h of exposure to wheat straw was very different from the response at 24 h of exposure to the same substrate. For example, less than half of the genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes that were induced after 24 h of exposure to wheat straw, were also induced after 6 h exposure. Importantly, over a third of the genes induced after 6 h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6 h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. We show, using proteomics, that carbon-starved cultures indeed release CAZymes with predicted activity on plant polysaccharides. Analysis of the enzymatic activity and the reaction products, indicates that these proteins are enzymes that can degrade various plant polysaccharides to generate both known, as well as potentially new, inducers of CAZymes. PMID:24792495

van Munster, Jolanda M.; Daly, Paul; Delmas, Stephane; Pullan, Steven T.; Blythe, Martin J.; Malla, Sunir; Kokolski, Matthew; Noltorp, Emelie C.M.; Wennberg, Kristin; Fetherston, Richard; Beniston, Richard; Yu, Xiaolan; Dupree, Paul; Archer, David B.

2014-01-01

287

Cloning, expression of Aspergillus niger JL-15 endo-polygalacturonase A gene in Pichia pastoris and oligo-galacturonates production.  

PubMed

The endo-galacturonase A gene (pgaA) was cloned using the cDNAs synthesized from total RNA of Aspergillus niger JL-15 by reverse transcription as template. The open reading frame (ORF) of pgaA was 1113bp, encoding a peptide of 370 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 38.8kDa. The pgaA was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 under the control of AOX1 promoter. After induction by methanol for 96h, the activity of the recombinant endo-galacturonase A (rePgaA) in culture supernatant was 2091.0U/mg. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular mass of rePgaA was about 40.0kDa. Enzymatic properties assays showed that the optimum temperature and pH for rePgaA were 50°C and pH 5.0, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximal velocity (Vmax) of rePgaA for citrus pectin were 3.20mgml(-1) and 40.97?molmin(-1)ml(-1), respectively. The rePgaA mediated a rapid decrease in viscosity of pectin solution with release of small amount of reducing sugar. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that digalacturonate (G2) and trigalalcturonate (G3) were the main hydrolysis products released from pectin by rePgaA. The rePgaA showed very low activity on G2 and G3, which suggested it was a typical endo-acting enzyme. PMID:24231374

Liu, Ming-Qi; Dai, Xian-Jun; Bai, Lan-Fang; Xu, Xin

2014-02-01

288

A new member of the DMATS superfamily from Aspergillus niger catalyzes prenylations of both tyrosine and tryptophan derivatives.  

PubMed

A putative prenyltransferase gene of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) family, An13g01840, was identified in the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger. The deduced polypeptide CAK41583 consists of 465 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.7 kDa. To evaluate gene function, the coding sequence was cloned into pET28a and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble His6-fusion protein was purified to near homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose and used for enzyme assays with diverse aromatic substrates in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate. HPLC analysis revealed product formation in the incubation mixtures with L-tyrosine and five derivatives thereof. Structure elucidation of the enzyme products by NMR and MS analyses confirmed O-prenylations and proved the identification of a tyrosine O-prenyltransferase (TyrPT). As in the case of SirD from Leptosphaeria maculans, TyrPT also accepted 4-amino-L-phenylalanine for an N-prenylation and L-tryptophan for a C7-prenylation. The K M values of TyrPT for L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) were found to be 0.24, 0.19, and 0.71 mM, respectively. The k cat of L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan reactions were determined at 0.58 and 0.0053 s(-1), respectively. The results presented in this study enhance the relationship of tyrosine O- and tryptophan C7-prenyltranferases and provide meanwhile a new enzyme for production of prenylated derivatives. In comparison to the known tyrosine prenyltransferase SirD, TyrPT showed significantly higher catalytic activity for several substrates, e.g., 4-amino-L-phenylalanine as well as 4- and 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan. PMID:24970457

Fan, Aili; Chen, Huizhi; Wu, Rui; Xu, Hui; Li, Shu-Ming

2014-12-01

289

Semi-solid-state fermentation of Eicchornia crassipes biomass as lignocellulosic biopolymer for cellulase and ?-glucosidase production by cocultivation of Aspergillus niger RK3 and Trichoderma reesei MTCC164  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aquatic weed biomass, Eicchornia crassipes, present in abundance and leading to a threatening level of water pollution was used as substrate for cellulase and ?-glucosidase\\u000a production using wild-type strain Aspergillus niger RK3 that was isolated from decomposing substrate. Alkali treatment of the biomass (10%) resulted in a 60–66% increase in\\u000a endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and ?-glucosidase production by the A. niger

Raj Kumar; R. P. Singh

2001-01-01

290

E-Test Method for Testing Susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. to the New Triazoles Voriconazole and Posaconazole and to Established Antifungal Agents: Comparison with NCCLS Broth Microdilution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

NCCLS document M38-P describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic activities (MICs) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds). This study evaluated the in vitro susceptibilities of 15 Aspergillus flavus isolates, 62 A. fumigatus isolates, and 10 isolates each of A. niger, A. nidulans, and A. terreus to voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B by the E-test and NCCLS M38-P

Ana Espinel-Ingroff; A. Rezusta

2002-01-01

291

Bioconversion of Agave tequilana fructans by exo-inulinases from indigenous Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010 enhances ethanol production from raw Agave tequilana juice.  

PubMed

Agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. Fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. We previously described the isolation of Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010, an indigenous strain that produces extracellular inulinases. Here we evaluated the potential application of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases for the bioconversion of A. tequilana fructans, and its impact on the production of ethanol. Inulinases were analyzed by Western blotting and thin layer chromatography. Optimal pH and temperature conditions for inulinase activity were determined. The efficiency of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases was compared with commercial enzymes and with acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysates obtained were subsequently fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the efficiency of ethanol production. Results indicate that A. niger CH-A-2010 predominantly produces an exo-inulinase activity. Optimal inulinase activity occurred at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Hydrolysis of raw agave juice by CH-A-2010 inulinases yielded 33.5 g/l reducing sugars, compared with 27.3 g/l by Fructozyme(®) (Novozymes Corp, Bagsvćrd, Denmark) and 29.4 g/l by acid hydrolysis. After fermentation of hydrolysates, we observed that the conversion efficiency of sugars into ethanol was 97.5 % of the theoretical ethanol yield for enzymatically degraded agave juice, compared to 83.8 % for acid-hydrolyzed juice. These observations indicate that fructans from raw Agave tequilana juice can be efficiently hydrolyzed by using A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases, and that this procedure impacts positively on the production of ethanol. PMID:23160922

Huitrón, Carlos; Pérez, Rosalba; Gutiérrez, Luís; Lappe, Patricia; Petrosyan, Pavel; Villegas, Jesús; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Blancas, Abel

2013-01-01

292

Elicitation of Necrosis in Vigna unguiculata Walp. by Homogeneous Aspergillus niger Endo-Polygalacturonase and by ?-d-Galacturonate Oligomers 1  

PubMed Central

Endo-polygalacturonase (PG) was purified from a commercial preparation of Aspergillus niger pectinase by means of carboxymethylcellulose chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, and gel permeation through Sephadex G-50. The enzyme was electrophoretically homogeneous and consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 33,500. The enzyme exhibited a specific activity significantly higher than those of purified polygalacturonases from phytopathogenic fungi. Galacturonate oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than four appeared quickly as products of the enzymic hydrolysis of Napolygalacturonate. The oligomers were later degraded to di- and monogalacturonate. The homogeneous enzyme and growing mycelium of Aspergillus niger separately elicited a necrotic response in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) pods. Heat-inactivated PG and PG inactivated with specific antibodies did not elicit necrosis, suggesting that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is necessary for its function as an elicitor. The PG-released oligosaccharides from Vigna cell wall and the galacturonides with a degree of polymerization greater than four separately elicited necrosis, whereas di- and monogalacturonate did not. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665750

Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Degrŕ, Luisa; Salvi, Giovanni

1987-01-01

293

Malting of barley with combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, Rhizopus oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum to enhance malt quality.  

PubMed

Good quality malt is characterised by the presence of high levels of fermentable sugars, amino acids and vitamins. To reach the starch-rich endosperm of the kernel, ?-glucan- and arabinoxylan-rich cell walls have to be degraded. ?-Glucanase is synthesized in vast quantities by the aleurone layer and scutellum during germination. Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is often stimulated by addition of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3) during germination. We have shown an enhanced ?-glucanase and ?-amylase activity in malt when germinating barley was inoculated with a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of Aspergillus niger MH1, Rhizopus oligosporus MH2 or Trichoderma reesei MH3, and L. plantarum B.S1.6 combined with cell-free culture supernatants from each of these fungi. Highest malt ?-glucanase activity (414 Units/kg malt) was recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of A. niger MH1. Highest ?-amylase activities were recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of R. oligosporus MH2 (373 Ceralpha Units/g malt). Highest FAN levels were recorded when L. plantarum was inoculated in combination with spores of either R. oligosporus MH2 or T. reesei MH3 (259 and 260 ppm, respectively). This is the first study showing that cell-free culture supernatants of Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Trichoderma have a stimulating effect on ?-glucanase and ?-amylase production during malting. A combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6, and spores of A. niger MH1 and R. oligosporus MH2 may be used as starter cultures to enhance malt quality. PMID:24412956

Hattingh, M; Alexander, A; Meijering, I; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

2014-03-01

294

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is ubiquitous and commonly found on decaying plant material. A. niger has a saprophytic lifestyle and plays an important role in  

E-print Network

produces a variety of hydrolytic enzymes. Many of the secreted enzymes of A. niger, like amylases, proteases, pectinases, xylanases andlipases find applications in the baking, starch, textile, food a threat to the cell, and the eukaryotic cell responds to it by the activation of a stress response

Hille, Sander

295

76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of...Dated: March 11, 2011. Keith A. Matthews, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

2011-03-23

296

Discovery and Characterization of a Silent Gene Cluster that Produces Azaphilones from Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 Reveal a Hydroxylation-Mediated Pyran-Ring Formation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Azaphilones are a class of fungal metabolites characterized by a highly oxygenated pyrano-quinone bicyclic core and exhibits a broad range of bioactivities. While widespread among various fungi, their biosynthesis has not been thoroughly elucidated. By activation of a silent (aza) gene cluster in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, we have discovered six new azaphilone compounds, azanigerones A-F (1, 3-7). Transcriptional analysis and deletion of a key polyketide synthase (PKS) gene further confirmed the involvement of the aza gene cluster. The biosynthetic pathway was shown to involve the convergent actions of a highly-reducing and a non-reducing PKSs. Most significantly, in vitro reaction of a key flavin-dependent monooxygenase encoded in the cluster with an early benzaldehyde intermediate revealed its roles in hydroxylation and pyran-ring formation to afford the characteristic bicylic core shared by azaphilones. PMID:22921072

Zabala, Angelica O.; Xu, Wei; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Tang, Yi

2012-01-01

297

New Sphingolipids with a Previously Unreported 9-Methyl-C 20 -sphingosine Moiety from a Marine Algous Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus niger EN13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asperamides A (1) and B (2), a sphingolipid and their corresponding glycosphingolipid possessing a hitherto unreported 9-methyl-C20-sphingosine moiety, were characterized from the culture extract of Aspergillus niger EN-13, an endophytic fungus isolated from marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (2S,2?R,3R,3?E,4E,8E)-N-(2?-hydroxy-3?-hexadecenoyl)-9-methyl-4,8-icosadien-1,3-diol (1) and 1-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(2S,2?R,3R,3?E,4E,8E)-N-(2?-hydroxy-3?-hexadecenoyl)-9-methyl-4,8-icosadien-1,3-diol (2). In the antifungal assay, asperamide A (1)

Yi Zhang; Song Wang; Xiao-Ming Li; Chuan-Ming Cui; Chao Feng; Bin-Gui Wang

2007-01-01

298

Site-directed mutagenesis improves the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of Aspergillus niger N25 phytase mutated by I44E and T252R.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA) has been used as a feed supplement to improve the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus to swine and poultry. However, it is unable to maintain its stability due to high temperature during the feed pelleting process. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis in the Aspergillus niger N25 phyA (m) gene at residue 44I and 252 T, and they were replaced by glutamic acid and arginine. Single-site mutants I44E-PhyA and T252R-PhyA, as well as double-site mutant I44E/T252R-PhyA, were constructed to improve the thermostability of PhyA through hydrogen bondings and ionic interactions. The three mutant enzymes all showed more than 20 % improvement in thermostability compared to the wild-type enzyme after being heated at 80 °C for 10 min. Their melting temperatures (T m) were increased by 1, 1, and 1.2 °C, respectively. The k m values of I44E-PhyA, T252R-PhyA, and I44E/T252R-PhyA for sodium phytate were 78, 44, and 79 % lower (P <0.05) than that of the wild-type enzyme. Overall catalytic efficiency (k cat/k m) of I44E-PhyA, T252R-PhyA, and I44E/T252R-PhyA was improved by 310, 155, and 84 % (P <0.05) than that of the wild type, respectively. The catalytic efficiency did not seem to be negatively affected by the improvement in thermostability. PMID:23907680

Liao, Yan; Li, Chun-Mei; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qi; Shan, Zhi; Han, Xue-Yi

2013-10-01

299

Comparative sequence analysis of citrate synthase and 18S ribosomal DNA from a wild and mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with various fungi  

PubMed Central

A mutation was induced in Aspergillus niger wild strain using ethidium bromide resulting in enhanced expression of citric acid by three folds and 112.42 mg/mL citric acid was produced under optimum conditions with 121.84 mg/mL of sugar utilization. Dendograms of 18S rDNA and citrate synthase from different fungi including sample strains were made to assess homology among different fungi and to study the correlation of citrate synthase gene with evolution of fungi. Subsequent comparative sequence analysis revealed strangeness between the citrate synthase and 18S rDNA phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, the citrate synthase movement suggests that the use of traditional marker molecule of 18S rDNA gives misleading information about the evolution of citrate synthase in different fungi as it has shown that citrate synthase gene transferred independently among different fungi having no evolutionary relationships. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis was also employed to study genetic variation between wild and mutant strains of A. niger and only 71.43% similarity was found between both the genomes. Keeping in view the importance of citric acid as a necessary constituent of various food preparations, synthetic biodegradable detergents and pharmaceuticals the enhanced production of citric acid by mutant derivative might provide significant boost in commercial scale viability of this useful product. Abbreviations CS - Citrate synthase, CA - Citric acid, RAPD - Random amplified polymorphic DNA, TAF - Total amplified fragments, PAF - Polymorphic amplified fragments, CAF - Common amplified fragments. PMID:24516318

Mustafa, Ghulam; Tahir, Aisha; Asgher, Muhammad; Rahman, Mehboob-ur; Jamil, Amer

2014-01-01

300

Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CHI) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OV) in the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3728 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 on laboratory media and on grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) and its influence on the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days). The application of mixtures of different CHI and OV concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungi. The application of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations (CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/4 MIC; CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/2 MIC) inhibited spore germination and caused morphological changes in fungal spores and mycelia, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the assayed fungi strains in artificially infected grapes as well as the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperature. In general, the application of a coating composed of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical and physicochemical attributes, while some of their sensory attributes improved throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, R. stolonifer and A. niger in grapes. PMID:22986200

dos Santos, Nereide Serafim Timóteo; Athayde Aguiar, Ana Júlia Alves; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Veríssimo de Sales, Camila; de Melo E Silva, Silvanda; Sousa da Silva, Rosana; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

2012-12-01

301

[Evaluation of the antimicrobial action of honey against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Aspergillus niger. Evaluation of its microbiological charge].  

PubMed

The evaluation of the microbiological charge present in Costa Rican samples as the evaluation of its antimicrobial activity over different microorganisms, including those associated to wound infections, will allow to emit criteria referred to its use in therapeutic treatments, specially as alternative therapy for cases involving antibiotic resistant bacteria. The microbiological charge of 25 honey samples, acquired in Costa Rican markets was evaluated through several indicators including total plate aerobic count, total plate anaerobic count, total aerobic spore count, total anaerobic spore count and molds and yeast count. Also, samples were inoculated in tubes with chopped meat media and plated in egg yolk agar in order to determine the presence of Clostridium botulinum. For the antimicrobial activity evaluation, the diffusion method in Muller Hinton agar was performed, testing different honey concentrations (100, 75, 50, 25, 12,5 and 6,25 % v/v) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (UCR 2902), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Aspergillus niger. The results obtained for the microbiological characterization of honey show that 91% of samples had counts equal or lower than 1,0 x 10(1) CFU/g. No positive result was obtained for the isolation of C. botulinum. 24 of the samples analyzed inhibited the growth of S. aureus even in a 25% v/v concentration, nevertheless, A. niger was no inhibited by any of the samples tested. PMID:16335227

Estrada, Heylin; Gamboa, María del Mar; Arias, Maria Laura; Chaves, Carolina

2005-06-01

302

Fusion of a family 1 carbohydrate binding module of Aspergillus niger to the Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase for efficient softwood kraft pulp biobleaching.  

PubMed

Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase was fused to the C-terminal linker and carbohydrate binding module (CBM) of Aspergillus niger cellobiohydrolase B (CBHB). The chimeric enzyme of molecular mass 100 kDa was successfully produced in A. niger. Laccase-CBM was further purified to determine its main biochemical properties. The Michaelis-Menten constant and pH activity profile were not modified, but the chimeric enzyme was less thermostable than either the P. cinnabarinus laccase or the recombinant laccase produced in the same strain. Laccase-CBM was able to bind to a cellulosic substrate and, to a greater extent, to softwood kraft pulp. Binding to the pulp was shown to be mainly time and temperature-dependent. Laccase-CBM was further investigated for its softwood kraft pulp biobleaching potential and compared with the P. cinnabarinus laccase. Addition of a CBM was shown to greatly improve the delignification capabilities of the laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). In addition, ClO(2) reduction using 5 U of chimeric enzyme per gram of pulp was almost double than that observed using 20 U of P. cinnabarinus laccase per gram of pulp. We demonstrated that conferring a carbohydrate binding capability to the laccase could significantly enhance its biobleaching properties. PMID:19414054

Ravalason, Holy; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Record, Eric; Bertaud, Frédérique; Grisel, Sacha; de Weert, Sandra; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Asther, Marcel; Petit-Conil, Michel; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2009-07-15

303

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

2014-01-01

304

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F.; Martinez-Hernandez, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodriguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

2014-01-01

305

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

306

Invasive Aspergillus infections in hematologic malignancy patients.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive Aspergillus (IA) infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase. The most common species include Aspergillus fumigatus (approximately 90% of cases), A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans. Most infections involve the pulmonary parenchyma, though systemic dissemination of the fungus from a primary pulmonary focus or the paranasal sinuses after hyphal invasion into blood vessels is frequent. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients afflicted with this condition. The definitive diagnosis of IA is based on showing the hyphal invasion in tissue specimens together with a positive culture for Aspergillus species from the same specimen. The detection of circulating fungal antigens and DNA seems to be a promising, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of aspergillosis. The current antifungals available for the treatment of IA include amphotericin B deoxycholate and lipid formulations, itraconazole and caspofungin acetate. New investigational antifungal drugs include the triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole and ravuconazole, liposomal nystatin, and 2 echinocandin derivatives (anidulafungin [VER-002] and micafungin [FK463]). Preventive measures include reduction of environmental exposure of patients from sources of infection and anti-fungal prophylaxis. Specialized air-handling systems capable of excluding Aspergillus spores, such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration with or without laminar air flow ventilation has proven to be very efficacious. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis for hematologic patients who are at high risk for developing invasive fungal infections is not currently standardized. PMID:12070828

Perea, Sofia; Patterson, Thomas F

2002-06-01

307

Cloning of an epoxide hydrolase-encoding gene from Aspergillus niger M200, overexpression in E. coli, and modification of activity and enantioselectivity of the enzyme by protein engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding an epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been cloned and its sequence determined. The gene is interrupted by seven introns, one exon being only nine nucleotides long. The non-coding 5?- and 3?-regions of the mRNA are composed of 47 and 76 nucleotides, respectively. Overexpression of the fungal epoxide hydrolase in E. coli TOP10 has led to

Michael Kotik; Václav Št?pánek; Pavel Kyslík; Helena Marešová

2007-01-01

308

Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of several nitrogen sources, growth\\/product promoters, minerals and enzyme inducers for the production of alpha-galactosidase by Aspergillus niger MRSS 234 in solid state fermentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sources of nitrogen, six minerals, six enzyme inducers and one each of growth as well as product promotors were screened by Plackett-Burman design, consisting of a total of 20 experiments for the above 19 sources\\/categories of medium ingredients, for their effect on the production of alpha-galactosidase by Aspergillus niger MRSS 234 in solid state fermentation system. The enzyme production

M. R. S. Srinivas; Nagin Chand; B. K. Lonsane

1994-01-01

309

Simultaneous purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger xylanase on the reversibly soluble polymer Eudragit TM L-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-covalent immobilization of a commercial preparation of xylanase from A. niger was carried out on a reversibly soluble-insoluble enteric polymer EudragitTM L-100. The immobilization of the xylanase activity by adsorption was simultaneously accompanied by removal of cellulase activity since the latter did not bind to the polymer. Thus, the soluble enzyme derivative may be useful for treatment of paper

Meryam Sardar; Ipsita Roy; Munishwar N Gupta

2000-01-01

310

Influence of acarbose and maltose on the reactivity of individual tryptophanyl residues in glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tryptophanyl residues of A niger glucoamylase G2 (EC 3.2.1.3) involved in substrate and inhibitor binding have been identified\\u000a following N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) treatment in the presence and absence of protective ligands. Appropriate proteolytic cleavages\\u000a of the glucoamylase derivatives enabled isolation of individual peptide fragments containing the 15 thytophan positions and\\u000a the extent of tryptophan oxidation was measured employing normal and 2nd

Birte Svensson; Anthony J. Clarke; Ib Svendsen

1986-01-01

311

Talaflavuterpenoid A, a new nardosinane-type sesquiterpene from Talaromyces flavus.  

PubMed

Talaflavuterpenoid A (1), a new nardosinane-type sesquiterpene, was isolated from the wetland soil-derived fungus Talaromyces flavus BYD07-13, and its structure was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparing the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum with the calculated ECD spectra. Its cytotoxic effects on five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480), and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger were evaluated. This is the first report of the presence of nardosinane-type sesquiterpene in Talaromyces sp. PMID:25082104

He, Jun-Wei; Liang, Hao-Xian; Gao, Hao; Kuang, Run-Qiao; Chen, Guo-Dong; Hu, Dan; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Li, Yan; Yao, Xin-Sheng

2014-10-01

312

The Transcriptional Repressor TupA in Aspergillus niger Is Involved in Controlling Gene Expression Related to Cell Wall Biosynthesis, Development, and Nitrogen Source Availability  

PubMed Central

The Tup1-Cyc8 (Ssn6) complex is a well characterized and conserved general transcriptional repressor complex in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of the Tup1 (TupA) homolog in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger in a genetic screen for mutants with a constitutive expression of the agsA gene. The agsA gene encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase, which is induced in response to cell wall stress in A. niger. Apart from the constitutive expression of agsA, the selected mutant was also found to produce an unknown pigment at high temperatures. Complementation analysis with a genomic library showed that the tupA gene could complement the phenotypes of the mutant. Screening of a collection of 240 mutants with constitutive expression of agsA identified sixteen additional pigment-secreting mutants, which were all mutated in the tupA gene. The phenotypes of the tupA mutants were very similar to the phenotypes of a tupA deletion strain. Further analysis of the tupA-17 mutant and the ?tupA mutant revealed that TupA is also required for normal growth and morphogenesis. The production of the pigment at 37°C is nitrogen source-dependent and repressed by ammonium. Genome-wide expression analysis of the tupA mutant during exponential growth revealed derepression of a large group of diverse genes, including genes related to development and cell wall biosynthesis, and also protease-encoding genes that are normally repressed by ammonium. Comparison of the transcriptome of up-regulated genes in the tupA mutant showed limited overlap with the transcriptome of caspofungin-induced cell wall stress-related genes, suggesting that TupA is not a general suppressor of cell wall stress-induced genes. We propose that TupA is an important repressor of genes related to development and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:24205111

Schachtschabel, Doreen; Arentshorst, Mark; Nitsche, Benjamin M.; Morris, Sam; Nielsen, Kristian F.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Klis, Frans M.; Ram, Arthur F. J.

2013-01-01

313

d-Xylose Concentration-Dependent Hydrolase Expression Profiles and the Function of CreA and XlnR in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is an important organism for the production of industrial enzymes such as hemicellulases and pectinases. The xylan-backbone monomer, d-xylose, is an inducing substance for the coordinate expression of a large number of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. In this study, the responses of 22 genes to low (1 mM) and high (50 mM) d-xylose concentrations were investigated. These 22 genes encode enzymes that function as xylan backbone-degrading enzymes, accessory enzymes, cellulose-degrading enzymes, or enzymes involved in the pentose catabolic pathway in A. niger. Notably, genes encoding enzymes that have a similar function (e.g., xylan backbone degradation) respond in a similar manner to different concentrations of d-xylose. Although low d-xylose concentrations provoke the greatest change in transcript levels, in particular, for hemicellulase-encoding genes, transcript formation in the presence of high concentrations of d-xylose was also observed. Interestingly, a high d-xylose concentration is favorable for certain groups of genes. Furthermore, the repressing influence of CreA on the transcription and transcript levels of a subset of these genes was observed regardless of whether a low or high concentration of d-xylose was used. Interestingly, the decrease in transcript levels of certain genes on high d-xylose concentrations is not reflected by the transcript level of their activator, XlnR. Regardless of the d-xylose concentration applied and whether CreA was functional, xlnR was constitutively expressed at a low level. PMID:22344641

Mach-Aigner, Astrid R.; Omony, Jimmy; Jovanovic, Birgit; van Boxtel, Anton J. B.

2012-01-01

314

Changes in dehydrogenases activity, number and ultrastructure of mitochondria in Aspergillus niger mycelium growing on molasses media.  

PubMed

Effects of toxic molasses compounds and of the antifoamer (Spumol BJ) on dehydrogenases activity, on the number and ultrastructure of mitochondria in A. niger mycelium of two strains characterized by different tolerance to toxic agents, were observed. In spite of significantly higher dehydrogenases activity in the intolerant strain (R-16) mycelia developing both on productive molasses in the presence of the defoamer and on non-productive molasses are characterized by marked reduction in the activity of these enzymes. Changes in respiratory enzymes activity are partly correlated with the number of mitochondria but mostly with abnormalities in their ultrastructure. PMID:7504876

Gabara, B; Zakowska, Z

1993-01-01

315

Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oil From Alborz Mountain Against Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and hepatocarcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species. Some natural products are known to kill fungi and destroy toxins and toxin-producing agents. Objectives The purpose of this study is to provide experimental data on the antifungal activity of cumin oils and their components that could be considered suitable for application in foods and drugs. Materials and Methods The essential oil (EO) of Cuminum cyminum L. collected from Alborz Mountain, Iran, was obtained by hydro-distillation. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the oil was studied with regard to the inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus flavus PICC-AF39 , Aspergillus flavus PICC-AF24, Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 and Aspergillus niger. The minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oil were determined. Results ?–Pinene (29.2%), limonene (21.7%), 1,8-cineole (18.1%), linalool (10.5%), linalyl acetate (4.8%), and ?-terpineole (3.17%) were the major components of the essential oil from C. cyminum L., and the oil showed a strong inhibitory effect on fungal growth. Conclusions Essential oils could be safely used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals as well as health and food products to protect them against toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:24624154

Mohammadpour, Hossein; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Alipoor Astaneh, Shakiba; Shehni Moosaie, Sara; Jalili, Zeynab

2012-01-01

316

Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens.  

PubMed

A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

Apata, David Friday

2011-01-01

317

Screening of microbes for novel acidic cutinases and cloning and expression of an acidic cutinase from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88.  

PubMed

Isolates from gardening waste compost and 38 culture collection microbes were grown on agar plates at pH 4.0 with the cutinase model substrate polycaprolactone as a carbon source. The strains showing polycaprolactone hydrolysis were cultivated in liquid at acidic pH and the cultivations were monitored by assaying the p-nitrophenyl butyrate esterase activities. Culture supernatants of four strains were analyzed for the hydrolysis of tritiated apple cutin at different pHs. Highest amounts of radioactive hydrolysis products were detected at pHs below 5. The hydrolysis of apple cutin by the culture supernatants at acidic pH was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis of the hydrolysis products. On the basis of screening, the acidic cutinase from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 was chosen for heterogeneous production in Pichia pastoris and for analysis of the effects of pH on activity and stability. The recombinant enzyme showed activity over a broad range of pHs with maximal activity between pH 5.0 and 6.5. Activity could be detected still at pH 3.5. PMID:23540930

Nyyssölä, Antti; Pihlajaniemi, Ville; Järvinen, Riikka; Mikander, Saara; Kontkanen, Hanna; Kruus, Kristiina; Kallio, Heikki; Buchert, Johanna

2013-04-10

318

Production of cellulosic ethanol and enzyme from waste fiber sludge using SSF, recycling of hydrolytic enzymes and yeast, and recombinant cellulase-producing Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Bioethanol and enzymes were produced from fiber sludges through sequential microbial cultivations. After a first simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with yeast, the bioethanol concentrations of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 45.6 and 64.7 g/L, respectively. The second SSF, which included fresh fiber sludges and recycled yeast and enzymes from the first SSF, resulted in ethanol concentrations of 38.3 g/L for sulfate fiber sludge and 24.4 g/L for sulfite fiber sludge. Aspergillus niger carrying the endoglucanase-encoding Cel7B gene of Trichoderma reesei was grown in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysates. The cellulase activities obtained with spent hydrolysates of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 2,700 and 2,900 nkat/mL, respectively. The high cellulase activities produced by using stillage and the significant ethanol concentrations produced in the second SSF suggest that onsite enzyme production and recycling of enzyme are realistic concepts that warrant further attention. PMID:24862324

Cavka, Adnan; Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Jönsson, Leif J

2014-08-01

319

Digital gene expression analysis of mature seeds of transgenic maize overexpressing Aspergillus niger phyA2 and its non-transgenic counterpart.  

PubMed

The next generation sequencing technologies have been recently used for transcriptome analysis in many organisms because of the decreased sequencing cost and increased sequence output. In this study, we used digital gene expression (DGE) technique to compare the transcriptomic changes in mature seeds between transgenic maize overexpressing Aspergillus niger phyA2 and its non-transgenic counterpart. Deep sequencing of DGE libraries of the transgenic and its non-transgenic counterpart seeds generated 3,783,500 and 3,790,500 reads of 21-nucleotide, respectively, with frequencies spanning over four orders of magnitude. In transgenic maize, 53.97% of the unambiguous signature tags were mapped to the maize B73 reference genome, and 46.47% of genes were detected by at least two reads; in non-transgenic maize, the corresponding numbers were 51.38% and 47.39%. Compared with non-transgenic counterpart, about 12% of detected genes were differentially expressed in the transcriptome of transgenic maize seeds. Among these differentially expressed genes, there were 23 transcription factors in 14 families and no allergen genes. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 21 pathways were significantly affected by the transgenic event, in which the pathway involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum was the most significantly affected. Results from this study indicated that both intended and unintended transcriptomic changes occurred in the transgenic maize, thus emphasizing the importance of transcriptome profiling in risk assessment of transgenic events. PMID:23836108

Rao, Jun; Yang, Litao; Wang, Congmao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

2013-01-01

320

Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611  

PubMed Central

The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R2) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO3, 1.5?mM (v/v) Zn+2, and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

2013-01-01

321

Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

Apata, David Friday

2011-01-01

322

The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 ?L/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 ?L/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 ?L/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 ?L/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

2008-01-01

323

A novel glucose dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: production in Aspergillus niger and physicochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme.  

PubMed

Data on glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are scarce and availability of these enzymes for application purposes is limited. This paper describes a new GDH from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 that is the first reported GDH from a white-rot fungus belonging to the Basidiomycota. The enzyme was recombinantly produced in Aspergillus niger, a well-known fungal host producing an array of homologous or heterologous enzymes for industrial applications. The full-length gene that encodes GDH from P. cinnabarinus (PcGDH) consists of 2,425 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 620 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. The corresponding complementary DNA was cloned and placed under the control of the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. The signal peptide of the glucoamylase prepro sequence of A. niger was used to target PcGDH secretion into the culture medium, achieving a yield of 640 mg L(-1), which is tenfold higher than any other reported value. The recombinant PcGDH was purified twofold to homogeneity in a one-step procedure with a 41 % recovery using a Ni Sepharose column. The identity of the recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunodetection using western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of the native PcGDH was 130 kDa, suggesting a homodimeric form. Optimal pH and temperature were found to be similar (5.5 and 60 °C, respectively) to those determined for the previously characterized GDH, i.e., from Glomerella cingulata. However PcGDH exhibits a lower catalytic efficiency of 67 M(-1) s(-1) toward glucose. This substrate is by far the preferred substrate, which constitutes an advantage over other sugar oxidases in the case of blood glucose monitoring. The substrate-binding domain of PcGDH turns out to be conserved as compared to other glucose-methanol-choline (GMCs) oxidoreductases. In addition, the ability of PcGDH to reduce oxidized quinones or radical intermediates was clearly demonstrated, which raises prospects for applying this enzyme to detoxify toxic compounds formed during the degradation of lignin. PMID:24965558

Piumi, François; Levasseur, Anthony; Navarro, David; Zhou, Simeng; Mathieu, Yann; Ropartz, David; Ludwig, Roland; Faulds, Craig B; Record, Eric

2014-12-01

324

Changes in development and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger mycelium, strain with increased tolerance to toxic substances from beet molasses.  

PubMed

Effects of a defoamer and toxic molasses compounds on development and ultrastructure of A. niger mycelium, strain Z, characterized by high tolerance to these substances and producing citric acid in surface fermentation on proper molasses media with 70% yield were presented. Spumol BJ in concentration of 5 microliters/100 cm3 as well as toxic molasses compounds stimulated the process of swelling and germinating of conidia. Moreover, giant conidia, unable to germinate, appeared. Developing mycelium with dispersed hyphae became mucilaginous after 17-20 h culture, which indicated the process of sinking but after 24 h some part of the mycelium developed normally. Electron microscopic observations of mycelium developing in the presence of the toxic substances showed along with electron-transparent cytoplasm in a consequence of decrease in ribosome number, changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria. It may be assumed that one of the reasons of the above described abnormalities in development and ultrastructure of mycelium was a disturbance of respiration processes. The appearance of deposits of electron-dense material in mitochondria suggested the existence of a defence mechanism, eliminating toxic substances. PMID:1726624

Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B

1991-01-01

325

Formation of 1-octen-3-ol from Aspergillus flavus conidia is accelerated after disruption of cells independently of Ppo oxygenases, and is not a main cause of inhibition of germination.  

PubMed

Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, are ubiquitous among fungi. They are the volatiles critical for aroma and flavor of fungi, and assumed to be signals controlling germination of several fungi. In this study, we found that intact Aspergillus flavus conidia scarcely synthesized C8 volatiles but repeated freeze-thaw treatment that made the cell membrane permeable promoted (R)-1-octen-3-ol formation. Loss or down regulation of any one of five fatty acid oxygenases (PpoA, PpoB, PpoC, PpoD or lipoxygenase) hypothesized contribute to 1-octen-3-ol formation had little impact on production of this volatile. This suggested that none of the oxygenases were directly involved in the formation of 1-octen-3-ol or that compensatory pathways exist in the fungus. Germination of the conidia was markedly inhibited at high density (1.0 × 10(9)spores mL(-1)). It has been postulated that 1-octen-3-ol is an autoinhibitor suppressing conidia germination at high density. 1-Octen-3-ol at concentration of no less than 10 mM was needed to suppress the germination while the concentration of 1-octen-3-ol in the suspension at 1.0 × 10(9) mL(-1) was under the detection limit (<1 µM). Thus, 1-octen-3-ol was not the principal component responsible for inhibition of germination. Instead, it was evident that the other heat-labile factor(s) suppressed conidial germination. PMID:24883255

Miyamoto, Kana; Murakami, Tomoko; Kakumyan, Pattana; Keller, Nancy P; Matsui, Kenji

2014-01-01

326

Formation of 1-octen-3-ol from Aspergillus flavus conidia is accelerated after disruption of cells independently of Ppo oxygenases, and is not a main cause of inhibition of germination  

PubMed Central

Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, are ubiquitous among fungi. They are the volatiles critical for aroma and flavor of fungi, and assumed to be signals controlling germination of several fungi. In this study, we found that intact Aspergillus flavus conidia scarcely synthesized C8 volatiles but repeated freeze-thaw treatment that made the cell membrane permeable promoted (R)-1-octen-3-ol formation. Loss or down regulation of any one of five fatty acid oxygenases (PpoA, PpoB, PpoC, PpoD or lipoxygenase) hypothesized contribute to 1-octen-3-ol formation had little impact on production of this volatile. This suggested that none of the oxygenases were directly involved in the formation of 1-octen-3-ol or that compensatory pathways exist in the fungus. Germination of the conidia was markedly inhibited at high density (1.0 × 109spores mL?1). It has been postulated that 1-octen-3-ol is an autoinhibitor suppressing conidia germination at high density. 1-Octen-3-ol at concentration of no less than 10 mM was needed to suppress the germination while the concentration of 1-octen-3-ol in the suspension at 1.0 × 109 mL?1 was under the detection limit (<1 µM). Thus, 1-octen-3-ol was not the principal component responsible for inhibition of germination. Instead, it was evident that the other heat-labile factor(s) suppressed conidial germination. PMID:24883255

Miyamoto, Kana; Murakami, Tomoko; Kakumyan, Pattana; Keller, Nancy P.

2014-01-01

327

Enzymatic resolution of racemic phenyloxirane by a novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger SQ-6 and its fed-batch fermentation.  

PubMed

A microorganism with the ability to catalyze the resolution of racemic phenyloxirane was isolated and identified as Aspergillus niger SQ-6. Chiral capillary electrophoresis was successfully applied to separate both phenyloxirane and phenylethanediol. The epoxide hydrolase (EH) involved in this resolution process was (R)-stereospecific and constitutively expressed. When whole cells were used during the biotransformation process, the optimum temperature and pH for stereospecific vicinal diol production were 35 degrees C and 7.0, respectively. After a 24-h conversion, the enantiomer excess of (R)-phenylethanediol produced was found to be >99%, with a conversion rate of 56%. In fed-batch fermentations at 30 degrees C for 44 h, glycerol (20 g L(-1)) and corn steep liquor (CSL) (30 g L(-1)) were chosen as the best initial carbon and nitrogen sources, and EH production was markedly improved by pulsed feeding of sucrose (2 g L(-1) h(-1)) and continuous feeding of CSL (1 g L(-1) h(-1)) at a fermentation time of 28 h. After optimization, the maximum dry cell weight achieved was 24.5+/-0.8 g L(-1); maximum EH production was 351.2+/-13.1 U L(-1) with a specific activity of 14.3+/-0.5 U g(-1). Partially purified EH exhibited a temperature optimum at 37 degrees C and pH optimum at 7.5 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. This study presents the first evidence for the existence of a predicted epoxide racemase, which might be important in the synthesis of epoxide intermediates. PMID:16320035

Liu, Yanbin; Sha, Qian; Wu, Sheng; Wang, Jianjun; Yang, Liu; Sun, Wanru

2006-04-01

328

Cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of a thermostable GH5 mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger BK01  

PubMed Central

Background Mannans are key components of lignocellulose present in the hemicellulosic fraction of plant primary cell walls. Mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidases (1,4-?-D-mannanases) catalyze the random hydrolysis of ?-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of ?-mannans. Biodegradation of ?-mannans by the action of thermostable mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase offers significant technical advantages in biotechnological industrial applications, i.e. delignification of kraft pulps or the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass rich in mannan for the production of second generation biofuels, as well as for applications in oil and gas well stimulation, extraction of vegetable oils and coffee beans, and the production of value-added products such as prebiotic manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). Results A gene encoding mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase or 1,4-?-D-mannan mannanohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.78), commonly termed ?-mannanase, from Aspergillus niger BK01, which belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5), was cloned and successfully expressed heterologously (up to 243 ?g of active recombinant protein per mL) in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was secreted by P. pastoris and could be collected from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme appeared glycosylated as a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of approximately 53 kDa. The recombinant ?-mannanase is highly thermostable with a half-life time of approximately 56 h at 70°C and pH 4.0. The optimal temperature (10-min assay) and pH value for activity are 80°C and pH 4.5, respectively. The enzyme is not only active towards structurally different mannans but also exhibits low activity towards birchwood xylan. Apparent Km values of the enzyme for konjac glucomannan (low viscosity), locust bean gum galactomannan, carob galactomannan (low viscosity), and 1,4-?-D-mannan (from carob) are 0.6 mg mL-1, 2.0 mg mL-1, 2.2 mg mL-1 and 1.5 mg mL-1, respectively, while the kcat values for these substrates are 215 s-1, 330 s-1, 292 s-1 and 148 s-1, respectively. Judged from the specificity constants kcat/Km, glucomannan is the preferred substrate of the A. niger ? -mannanase. Analysis by thin layer chromatography showed that the main product from enzymatic hydrolysis of locust bean gum is mannobiose, with only low amounts of mannotriose and higher manno-oligosaccharides formed. Conclusion This study is the first report on the cloning and expression of a thermostable mannan endo-1,4-?-mannosidase from A. niger in Pichia pastoris. The efficient expression and ease of purification will significantly decrease the production costs of this enzyme. Taking advantage of its acidic pH optimum and high thermostability, this recombinant ?-mannanase will be valuable in various biotechnological applications. PMID:19912637

2009-01-01

329

Inhibition of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase by aureobasidin A in Candida and Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase is an enzyme common to fungi and plants that catalyzes the transfer of phosphoinositol from phosphatidylinositol to ceramide to form IPC. The reaction is a key step in fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis and the target of the antibiotics galbonolide A, aureobasidin A, and khafrefungin. As a first step toward understanding the antifungal spectrum of IPC synthase inhibitors, we examined the sensitivity of IPC synthase to aureobasidin A in membrane preparations of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus). As expected, preparations from the five Candida species, all exquisitely susceptible to aureobasidin A (MICs, <2 microgram/ml), had IPC synthase activity (specific activity, 50 to 400 pmol/min/mg of protein) sensitive to aureobasidin A (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC(50)s], 2 to 4 ng/ml). Surprisingly, preparations from the four Aspergillus species, including A. fumigatus and A. flavus, which are intrinsically resistant to aureobasidin A (MICs, >50 microgram/ml), had IPC synthase activity (specific activity, 1 to 3 pmol/min/mg of protein) also sensitive to aureobasidin A (IC(50)s, 3 to 5 ng/ml). The mammalian multidrug resistance modulators verapamil, chlorpromazine, and trifluoperazine lowered the MIC of aureobasidin A for A. fumigatus from >50 microgram/ml to 2 to 3 microgram/ml, suggesting that the resistance of this major fungal pathogen is the result of increased efflux. PMID:10681333

Zhong, W; Jeffries, M W; Georgopapadakou, N H

2000-03-01

330

The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. PMID:23892063

de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvęa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-11-01

331

Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in Japan, has been sequenced. The ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system have facilitated the use of A. oryzae in modern biotechnology. Although both A. oryzae and Aspergillus flavus belong to the section Flavi of

Masayuki Machida; Kiyoshi Asai; Motoaki Sano; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Goro Terai; Ken-Ichi Kusumoto; Toshihide Arima; Osamu Akita; Yutaka Kashiwagi; Keietsu Abe; Katsuya Gomi; Hiroyuki Horiuchi; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Michio Takeuchi; David W. Denning; James E. Galagan; William C. Nierman; Jiujiang Yu; David B. Archer; Joan W. Bennett; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland; Natalie D. Fedorova; Osamu Gotoh; Hiroshi Horikawa; Akira Hosoyama; Masayuki Ichinomiya; Rie Igarashi; Kazuhiro Iwashita; Praveen Rao Juvvadi; Masashi Kato; Yumiko Kato; Taishin Kin; Akira Kokubun; Hiroshi Maeda; Noriko Maeyama; Jun-Ichi Maruyama; Hideki Nagasaki; Tasuku Nakajima; Ken Oda; Kinya Okada; Ian Paulsen; Kazutoshi Sakamoto; Toshihiko Sawano; Mikio Takahashi; Kumiko Takase; Yasunobu Terabayashi; Jennifer R. Wortman; Osamu Yamada; Youhei Yamagata; Hideharu Anazawa; Yoji Hata; Yoshinao Koide; Takashi Komori; Yasuji Koyama; Toshitaka Minetoki; Sivasundaram Suharnan; Akimitsu Tanaka; Katsumi Isono; Satoru Kuhara; Naotake Ogasawara; Hisashi Kikuchi

2005-01-01

332

Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

2014-01-01

333

Two-stage statistical medium optimization for augmented cellulase production via solid-state fermentation by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-1 and application of crude cellulase consortium in hydrolysis of rice straw.  

PubMed

Cellulolytic enzyme production by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-1 was statistically optimized using Plackett-Burman and central composite design (CCD). Optimum concentrations of 2, 0.40, 0.01, and 0.60 g L (-1) for KH2PO4, urea, trace elements solution, and CaCl2·2H2O, respectively, were suggested by Design-Expert software. The two-stage optimization process led to a 3- and 2-fold increases in the filter paper cellulase (FP) and ?-glucosidase activities, respectively. FP, ?-glucosidase, endoglucanase, exopolygalaturonase, cellobiohydrolase, xylanase, ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, ?-xylosidase, and xylan esterase activities of 36.7 ± 1.54 FPU gds(-1), 252.3 ± 7.4 IU gds(-1), 416.3 ± 22.8 IU gds(-1), 111.2 ± 5.4 IU gds(-1), 8.9 ± 0.50 IU gds(-1), 2593.5 ± 78.9 IU gds(-1), 79.4 ± 4.3 IU gds(-1), 180.8 ± 9.3 IU gds(-1), and 288.7 ± 11.8 IU gds(-1), respectively, were obtained through solid-state fermentation during the validation studies. Hydrolysis of alkali-treated rice straw with crude cellulases resulted in about 84% glucan to glucose, 89% xylan to xylose, and 91% arabinan to arabinose conversions, indicating potential for biomass hydrolysis by the crude cellulase consortium obtained in this study. PMID:24328069

Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Babbar, Neha; Miglani, Kanupriya; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar

2013-12-26

334

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

335

Significance of Aspergillus species isolated from respiratory secretions in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.  

PubMed Central

To determine the significance of Aspergillus species isolated from sputum or other respiratory secretions with respect to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, the clinical records and radiographs of all patients whose respiratory secretion cultures yielded an Aspergillus species between 1972 and 1978 were reviewed. All known predispositions to invasive aspergillosis, e.g., presence of cancer or granulocytopenia, and therapy with corticosteroids, antibiotics, and cytotoxic drugs, were significantly associated with proven or probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Most notable were patients with acute leukemia and granulocytopenia. Prolonged duration of hospitalization between initial isolation (greater than 2 weeks) and multiple isolates (greater than three isolates) were also significantly associated with a high frequency of proven or probable disease. Isolation of A. niger was only rarely associated with proven or probable disease (one of eight patients). The isolation of A. fumigatus and A. flavus from respiratory secretions does not usually represent laboratory contamination and must be interpreted in the light of known predispositions to aspergillosis. In some situations, e.g., granulocytopenic patients with acute leukemia, even a single isolation carries a high likelihood of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:7372799

Nalesnik, M A; Myerowitz, R L; Jenkins, R; Lenkey, J; Herbert, D

1980-01-01

336

Polyphasic approach to the identification of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use a polyphasic approach to identify Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts collected in the Amazon forest: investigation of macro- and microscopic morphology, production of extrolites, heat-resistance fungi, and sequencing of DNA regions. The following Aspergillus section Flavi species were identified: Aspergillus flavus (75.5%), Aspergillus nomius (22.3%), and Aspergillus parasiticus (2.2%). All A. nomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced aflatoxins B and G, but not cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A. flavus isolates were more diversified and a high frequency of mycotoxigenic strains was observed. The polyphasic approach permitted the reliable identification of section Flavi species. The rate of mycotoxigenic strains was high (92.7%) and mainly included A. flavus strains producing elevated levels of aflatoxins and CPA. These results highlight the possibility of co-occurrence of both toxins, increasing their potential toxic effect in this commodity. PMID:23561218

Baquiăo, Arianne Costa; de Oliveira, Maitę Martins Melo; Reis, Tatiana Alves; Zorzete, Patricia; Diniz Atayde, Danielle; Correa, Benedito

2013-08-15

337

EUCAST Testing of Isavuconazole Susceptibility in Aspergillus: Comparison of Results for Inoculum Standardization Using Conidium Counting versus Optical Density.  

PubMed

The EUCAST E.DEF9.1 standard recommends standardization of the inoculum concentration by conidium counting using a hemocytometer rather than a spectrophotometer. In this study, we investigated whether the choice of these methods influenced isavuconazole MICs. A blinded collection of 30 molecularly characterized azole-resistant isolates and 10 wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was shared with four different laboratories. Additionally, each laboratory selected approximately 100 A. fumigatus isolates and 50 isolates each of A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus (1,237 isolates in total). Three laboratories (laboratories 1 to 3) used conidium counting. One laboratory standardized the inoculum using a spectrophotometer (that is, by use of the optical density [OD]) and is referred to as the OD laboratory. Correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and essential agreement were calculated, and 2-log-unit differences were assessed (paired t test). The MIC range for the blinded collection was 0.25 to 16 mg/liter, and a 1-dilution-step difference between the MIC50 and MIC90 across the four laboratories was detected and a 2-dilution-step difference between the modal MICs was detected. Compared to the results for laboratories 1 and 2, a significant correlation was found for the OD laboratory MIC data (correlation coefficients, 0.85 and 0.93, respectively; intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.88 and 0.96, respectively). The number of mutant isolates whose MICs overlapped those of the wild-type isolates was the lowest for the OD laboratory (14/30 [46.7%] mutant isolates), whereas the numbers were 18/30 (60%) isolates for laboratory 1, 17/30 (56.7%) isolates for laboratory 2, and 21/30 (70%) isolates for laboratory 3. For the A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus isolates, comparative analysis again defined the MIC distributions from the OD laboratory to be in excellent agreement with those from laboratories 1 and 2 across all five Aspergillus spp. The findings suggest that EUCAST testing using OD determination is an appropriate alternative for standardization of Aspergillus inoculum concentrations. PMID:25136005

Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Howard, Susan; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mouton, Johan W; Meletiadis, Joseph; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

2014-11-01

338

In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp.: Comparison of Etest and Reference Microdilution Methods for Determining Voriconazole and Itraconazole MICs  

PubMed Central

The performance of the Etest for voriconazole and for itraconazole susceptibility testing of 376 isolates of Aspergillus spp. was assessed in comparison with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) proposed standard microdilution broth method. The NCCLS method employed RPMI 1640 broth medium, and MICs were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. The isolates included A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. glaucus, A. nidulans, A. ustus, and A. sydowii. Overall agreement percentages between the Etest and microdilution MICs were 97.6% for voriconazole and 95.8% for itraconazole. Where a discrepancy was observed between Etest and the reference method, the Etest tended to give lower values with voriconazole and higher values with itraconazole. The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining the voriconazole and itraconazole susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. PMID:12624040

Pfaller, J. B.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.; Diekema, D. J.; Pfaller, M. A.

2003-01-01

339

Understanding nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae : a windfall of aflatoxin biosynthesis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical\\u000a relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce aflatoxins. This review addresses the\\u000a relationship between A. sojae and

Perng-Kuang Chang; Kenichiro Matsushima; Tadashi Takahashi; Jiujiang Yu; Keietsu Abe; Deepak Bhatnagar; Gwo-Fang Yuan; Yasuji Koyama; Thomas E. Cleveland

2007-01-01

340

The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

The red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. EUCAST methodology was applied and extracts showed antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. flavus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were <0.15 mg ml(-1) and the highest were >5 mg ml(-1) for Aspergillus spp. tested. Agar diffusion assays confirmed antifungal activity of A. taxiformis extracts in Aspergillus species. PMID:23437896

Genovese, Giuseppa; Leitner, Sandra; Minicante, Simona A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

2013-09-01

341

Decolourisation and dephenolisation potential of selected Aspergillus section Nigri strains – Aspergillus tubingensis in olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Nigri strains Aspergillus aculeatus Ege-K 258, A.\\u000a foeditus var. pallidus Ege-K156, A. niger Ege-K 4 and A. tubingensis Ege-K 265 were used to treat olive mill wastewater (OMW) in an investigation aimed at exploring their dephenolisation and\\u000a decolourisation ability and, consequently, the economic feasibility of using any or all of these strains in a pre-treatment\\u000a step in the

Gaye Öngen; Gaye Güngör; Bahar Kanberoglu

2007-01-01

342

Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.  

PubMed

This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2010-03-01

343

[Preliminary study on citral impaires the Aspergillus flavus membrane].  

PubMed

Compared with the normally growing A. flauas, the content as below was determined: the utilization ratio to protein and reducing sugar of hyphostroma poisened by citral, the activity of [Na+, K+]-ATPase capable of decomposition ATP, and the seepagevity ratio of electrolyte. In addition, the shape change in spore was observed via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the fast multi-channel micro-spectrophotomer (FMCM). The result above all suggested facts as following after it's poised by the citral in MIC. The surface of hyphostroma and spore turned into be porous and rough. The pass trace on spore shriveled and closed. The rate of conduct electricity increased by 52.8%. The utilization ratio to protein and reducing sugar respectively decreased 61.5% and 44.3%. The rate of spore's sprout dropped to 61.4%. The molecular structure of membrane was so distinctly changed that it lost the selective permeability. There was inhibition on hyphostroma growth and spore sprout. PMID:12552830

Luo, M; Jiang, L; Wu, Z

2001-12-01

344

Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.  

PubMed

Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/?l by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

2011-04-01

345

A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. Transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validate the performance of the microarray. Gene comparisons of all three species and cross-analysis with the expression data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XlnR-binding site to be 5?-GGNTAAA-3?. The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross-species evolutionary studies within a genus using comparative transcriptomics. PMID:18332432

Andersen, Mikael R.; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita P.; Lehmann, Linda; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

346

Niger Vallis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 24 September 2003

Named for a great river in Africa, the martian version is a system of eroding channels that empties into the Hellas impact basin. One style of erosion is evident in this image, where the upper branches of the Niger are merging. Some process weakens the crust until it founders, producing large slump blocks that continue to erode. This process enlarges the channels and ultimately may lead to a single upper channel.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.7, Longitude 92.6 East (267.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

347

Divergence of West African and North American Communities of Aspergillus Section Flavi  

PubMed Central

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management. PMID:10224034

Cotty, Peter J.; Cardwell, Kitty F.

1999-01-01

348

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to their ability to produce toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is dependent upon a basic understanding of their diversity in agricultural ecosystems. This review summarizes our current knowledge

Bruce W. Horn

2007-01-01

349

Targeting antioxidative signal transduction and stress response system: control of pathogenic Aspergillus with phenolics that inhibit mitochondrial function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of this study was to show whether antioxidative response sys- tems are potentially useful molecular targets for control of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Selected phenolic agents are used in target-gene-based bioassays to determine their impact on mitochondrial respiration. Methods and Results: Vanillyl acetone, vanillic acid, vanillin, cinnamic acid, veratraldehyde, m-coumaric acid (phenolic agents to which Saccharomyces

J. H. Kim; B. C. Campbell; N. Mahoney; K. L. Chan; G. S. May

2006-01-01

350

Aspergillus Genomes and the Aspergillus Cloud  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus Genomes is a public resource for viewing annotated genes predicted by various Aspergillus sequencing projects. It has arisen from the union of two significant resources: the Aspergillus/Aspergillosis website and the Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE). The former has primarily served the medical community, providing information about Aspergillus and associated diseases to medics, patients and scientists; the latter has focused on the fungal genomic community, providing a central repository for sequences and annotation extracted from Aspergillus Genomes. By merging these databases, genomes benefit from extensive cross-linking with medical information to create a unique resource, spanning genomics and clinical aspects of the genus. Aspergillus Genomes is accessible from http://www.aspergillus-genomes.org.uk. PMID:19039001

Mabey Gilsenan, Jane E.; Atherton, Graham; Bartholomew, Jennifer; Giles, Peter F.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul

2009-01-01

351

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

352

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

353

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri  

PubMed Central

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa. PMID:21892239

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Kocsube, S.; Brankovics, B.; Toth, B.; Szigeti, G.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

354

Distribution and mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Nigri species in naturally contaminated almonds.  

PubMed

In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples contained high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potential mycotoxin content of almonds, Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from these samples and assayed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2). The majority of isolates (117 strains, 68%) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, which do not produce either mycotoxin. Of the 47 Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori isolates, 34 strains (72%) produced FB2 on CY20S agar, and representative strains produced lower but measurable amounts of FB2 on almond meal agar. No OTA-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were detected. Almond pick-out samples contained no measurable FB2, suggesting that properly dried and stored almonds are not conducive for FB2 production by resident A. niger and A. awamori populations. However, 3 of 21 samples contained low levels (<1.5 ng/g) of OTA, indicating that sporadic OTA contamination may occur but may be caused by OTA-producing strains of other Aspergillus species. PMID:23575138

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L

2013-04-01

355

Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching. In comparison to the results from the three control experiments, the solubilized Mg from the contact and separation experiments were higher. The concentration of magnesium was pH-dependent both in the contact and separation experiments. The Mg/Si atomic ratio in the solution was about 6-8 in the contact experiments, which may indicate that T. flavus is more attracted to magnesium when deteriorating serpentine group mineral. SEM analyses of the minerals at the conclusion of experiments revealed that the minerals were extensively etched. Moreover, fungal hyphae-mineral aggregates manifest physical process accelerated the degradation of serpentine group mineral. These observations may imply that the fungal leaching of serpentine group mineral could potentially serve as a method for mineral carbonation.

Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

2011-12-01

356

Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. The median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. Comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). Sites of infection included the spine (49%), base of the skull, paranasal sinuses and jaw (18%), ribs (9%), long bones (9%), sternum (5%), and chest wall (4%). The most common infecting species were Aspergillus fumigatus (55%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), and Aspergillus nidulans (7%). Sixty-two per cent of the individual cases were treated with a combination of an antifungal regimen and surgery. Amphotericin B was the antifungal drug most commonly used, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Several combination or sequential therapies were also used experimentally. The overall crude mortality rate was 25%. PMID:24303995

Gabrielli, E; Fothergill, A W; Brescini, L; Sutton, D A; Marchionni, E; Orsetti, E; Staffolani, S; Castelli, P; Gesuita, R; Barchiesi, F

2014-06-01

357

Incidence of fumonisin B2 production within Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from California raisins.  

PubMed

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri occur frequently and in high populations on grapes. Species within this section include Aspergillus niger, A. tubingensis, and A. carbonarius, and they are potential sources for mycotoxins including ochratoxin A and fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) in grapes and grape products. Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from California raisins to examine the frequency and extent of FB(2) production. Of 392 strains isolated, 197 strains were identified as A. niger, 131 of which produced FB(2). These strains produced from 1.2 to 27 ?g/ml FB(2) in culture. PCR amplification of fum1 and fum19 gene fragments showed that all FB(2)-producing strains and nearly all nonproducing strains of A. niger contain these genes. An additional 175 strains were identified as A. tubingensis, none of which produced FB(2). PCR with fum1 and fum19 primers amplified gene fragments of 14 and 25% of A. tubingensis strains, respectively, suggesting that putative orthologs of A. niger fumonisin biosynthetic genes might occur in A. tubingensis. These results indicate that FB(2) production is common among field isolates of A. niger and suggest that the potential for FB(2) contamination of California raisins should be addressed further. PMID:21477486

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; McGarvey, Jeffery A

2011-04-01

358

Binding of furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice to Aspergillus niger hyphae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furanocoumarins (FCs) in grapefruit are involved in the “grapefruit\\/drug interactions” in humans, in which the FCs inhibit\\u000a the intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) activity responsible for metabolizing certain prescribed medications. These interactions\\u000a have adversely affected the grapefruit industry and have led a need to develop a process to remove the FCs from grapefruit\\u000a juice (GFJ) in a manner that

Kyung Myung; John A. Manthey; Jan A. Narciso

2008-01-01

359

Inhibition of extracellular protease secretion by Aspergillus niger using cell  

E-print Network

during fermentation. A metal-coated pad of polyester latex felt was used to immobilize the cells in shake as a model system in this study. The fermentation medium was YM broth (Difco) having the following composition (g/L): 3 yeast extract, 3 malt extract, 5 peptone, and 10 dex- trose. Culture conditions Shake

Gu, Tingyue

360

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN INTRACELLULAR ?-GLUCOSIDASE WITH HIGH TRANSGLYCOSYLATION ACTIVITY FROM A. niger M-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intracellular ?-glucosidase with high transglycosylation activity was purified from a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger M-1 by sequential chromatography using a DEAE-cellulose 52 column, a DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column, and a Sephadex G-100 column. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be 116 kD with no subunits and a pI of 5.23. Maximal ?-glucosidase activity occurred at pH

Yun-kai Zhang; Wei Li; Kong-yang Wu; Gui-guang Chen; Zhi-qun Liang

2011-01-01

361

Recombinant Aspergillus ?-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.  

PubMed

Galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. The nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct conditions. In this study, we present the recombinant expression and purification of two previously uncharacterized ?-galactosidases from Aspergillus nidulans as well as one ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. All enzymes were active toward p-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and displayed similar temperature and pH optima. The purified recombinant galactosidases digested various complex substrates containing terminal galactose ?-1,4 linked to either N-acetylglucosamine or fucose, such as N-glycans derived from bovine fibrin and Caenorhabditis elegans. In our comparative study of the recombinant galactosidases with the commercially available galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, all enzymes also displayed various degrees of activity toward complex oligosaccharides containing ?-1,3-linked terminal galactose residues. All recombinant enzymes were found to be robust in the presence of various organic solvents, temperature variations, and freeze/thaw cycles and were also tested for their ability to synthesize galactooligosaccharides. Furthermore, the use of fermentors considerably increased the yield of recombinant galactosidases. Taken together, we demonstrate that purified recombinant galactosidases from A. niger and from A. nidulans are suitable for various glycobiological and biotechnological applications. PMID:24037406

Dragosits, Martin; Pflügl, Stefan; Kurz, Simone; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Wilson, Iain B H; Rendic, Dubravko

2014-04-01

362

Epidemiology of Aspergillus keratitis at a tertiary care eye hospital in South India and antifungal susceptibilities of the causative agents.  

PubMed

In recent years, Aspergillus species are reported frequently as aetiological agents of fungal keratitis in tropical countries such as India. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological features of Aspergillus keratitis cases over a 3-year period in a tertiary eye care hospital and to determine the antifungal susceptibilities of the causative agents. This study included culture proven Aspergillus keratitis cases diagnosed between September 2005 and August 2008. Data including prevalence, predisposing factors and demography were recorded, the isolates were identified by morphological and molecular methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents towards the isolates were determined by the microdilution method. Two hundred Aspergillus isolates were identified among 1737 culture proven cases. Most of the aspergilli (75%) proved to be A. flavus, followed by A. fumigatus (11.5%). Sixteen (8%) isolates belonged to species that are recently identified causative agents of mycotic keratitis. Most of the infected patients (88%) were adults ranging from 21 to 70 years of age. Co-existing ocular disease was confirmed in 16.5% of the patients. Econazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole were notably active against A. flavus. Aspergillus keratitis is a significant problem in patients with ocular lesions in South-Indian States, warranting early diagnosis and initiation of specific antifungal therapy to improve outcome. PMID:22487304

Manikandan, Palanisamy; Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Anita, Raghavan; Revathi, Rajaraman; Németh, Tibor Mihály; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László

2013-01-01

363

Genes encoding cytochrome P450 and monooxygenase enzymes define one end of the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster in Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of overlapping cosmids resulted in the discovery of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene cluster in\\u000a Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. This finding led to the cloning and characterization of one regulatory and 16 structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis,\\u000a including the most recent report on the gene, ordA, which has been identified to be involved in the formation

J. Yu; P.-K. Chang; D. Bhatnagar; T. E. Cleveland

2000-01-01

364

Sequence comparison of aflR from different Aspergillus species provides evidence for variability in regulation of aflatoxin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin contamination of foods and feeds is a world-wide agricultural problem. Aflatoxin production requires expression of the biosynthetic pathway regulatory gene, aflR, which encodes a Cys6Zn2-type DNA-binding protein. Homologs of aflR from Aspergillus nomius, bombycis, parasiticus, flavus, and pseudotamarii were compared to investigate the molecular basis for variation among aflatoxin-producing taxa in the regulation of aflatoxin production. Variability was found

Kenneth C. Ehrlich; Beverly G. Montalbano; Peter J. Cotty

2003-01-01

365

Evaluation of an indirect hemagglutination inhibition technique for identifying antibody in animals experimentally and naturally exposed to fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbits were exposed to aerosols containing spores of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, or of a Penicillium sp. Sera from these rabbits were tested by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and by IHA inhibition. The serologic reactions with the rabbit sera were compared to reactions with sera from cattle naturally exposed to airborne microorganisms. By three months of age, most cattle

John R. Thurston; George W. Pugh; John L. Richard

1984-01-01

366

Mucilaginibacter flavus sp. nov., isolated from wetland.  

PubMed

A non-motile, pale yellow, colony-forming strain, designated HME6839(T), was isolated from the wetland of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The major fatty acids of strain HME6839(T) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), iso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?1?5c. The DNA G+C content was 41.2 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HME6839(T) formed a lineage within the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain HME6839 (T) [corrected] was closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii (96.7?%), Mucilaginibacter polysacchareus (96.5?%) and Mucilaginibacter lappiensis (96.3?%). On the basis of the chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic results presented in this study, strain HME6839(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter flavus sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HME6839(T) (?=?KCTC 23441(T)?=?CECT 7857(T)). PMID:24425737

Joung, Yochan; Kim, Haneul; Lee, Beom-Il; Kang, Heeyoung; Kim, Tae-Su; Kim, Seung Bum; Joh, Kiseong

2014-04-01

367

The Aspergillus Genome Database: multispecies curation and incorporation of RNA-Seq data to improve structural gene annotations  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; http://www.aspgd.org) is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for Aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. In addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, AspGD hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available Aspergillus genomes. AspGD curators perform gene product annotation based on review of the literature for four key Aspergillus species: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. We have iteratively improved the structural annotation of Aspergillus genomes through the analysis of publicly available transcription data, mostly expressed sequenced tags, as described in a previous NAR Database article (Arnaud et al. 2012). In this update, we report substantive structural annotation improvements for A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus genomes based on recently available RNA-Seq data. Over 26 000 loci were updated across these species; although those primarily comprise the addition and extension of untranslated regions (UTRs), the new analysis also enabled over 1000 modifications affecting the coding sequence of genes in each target genome. PMID:24194595

Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Arnaud, Martha B.; Inglis, Diane O.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Binkley, Jonathan; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Wymore, Farrell; Sherlock, Gavin; Wortman, Jennifer R.

2014-01-01

368

Assessment of the ochratoxin A production ability of Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus frequently isolated from different agricultural products, including grapes. Conflicting results have been published in recent years about its ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), a potent nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This study re-examined six A. tubingensis strains deposited in international culture collections for OTA production. OTA could not be detected in any A. tubingensis extract using HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector (FLD), whereas it was easily detected in ochratoxigenic A. niger extracts used as positive control. The same outcome was obtained using LC-MS. The presence of other metabolites with retention times similar to the OTA signal in the A. tubingensis extracts or background noise of the growth media may be reasons for the misinterpretation of the chromatograms obtained by HPLC-FLD. PMID:22827810

Storari, M; Bigler, L; Gessler, C; Broggini, G A L

2012-01-01

369

Genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus: association with aflatoxin production and morphology  

E-print Network

; Schroeder and Bolle:r 1973) because of !he treme:ndous importance of aflaďż˝ toxins as contaminants of foods and feeds (Niyo 1990) and as mutagens and carcinogens (Dvorackova 1990). Diversity was also noted

Cotty, Peter J.

370

948 Plant Disease / Vol. 98 No. 7 Evaluation of the Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain AF36  

E-print Network

are significant and valuable to the pistachio industry. Aflatoxins, which are potent toxins and carcinogens, are widely regulated by governments, with the tolerances set very low in food (43). Aflatoxins are mainly

Cotty, Peter J.

371

Development of a GFP-Expressing Aspergillus flavus Strain to Study Fungal Invasion, Colonization, and Resistance  

E-print Network

+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Cotton bolls were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein (GFP aggressiveness as indicated by similar reductions in inoculated locule weight. GFP fluorescence was at least 10, Klich and her colleagues [6­8] concluded that the fungus might gain entry through the vascular bundles

Cotty, Peter J.

372

Aspergillus flavus AF36 Biopesticides Registration Action Document Final July 03, 2003  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Dietary Exposure and Risk Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Occupational and Residential Exposure and Risk Characterization . . . 21 5. Drinking Water Exposure and Risk Particularly Infants and Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7. Aggregate

Cotty, Peter J.

373

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS TO  

E-print Network

of limited commercial acreage in Arizona during the 1996 cotton season. Economics ofaflatoxin contamination aflatoxin levels differ over the cotton belt. In Arizona, losses due to aflatoxin contamination havebeen multiple crops are affected bycontamination (i.e. corn, cotton, and peanuts), treatments to one crop may

Cotty, Peter J.

374

Ecology of the aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus species infecting crops in Mexico  

E-print Network

COQITIE TT 1. INT. . ODUCTIOZ 2. LITEPiAT(JZc. SEVIE:1 3. IRATE. =iIALS AZD i'. THODS Ji. 3 SULTS ~ ~ ~ ~ 5. DISCUSSION QO LITERATURE CITED 7. VITA 55 I. IST CF TCHrw'S 1. Funri isolated. from Toluca crops 23 2. Fungi is: abed f om Veracruz c ops... COQITIE TT 1. INT. . ODUCTIOZ 2. LITEPiAT(JZc. SEVIE:1 3. IRATE. =iIALS AZD i'. THODS Ji. 3 SULTS ~ ~ ~ ~ 5. DISCUSSION QO LITERATURE CITED 7. VITA 55 I. IST CF TCHrw'S 1. Funri isolated. from Toluca crops 23 2. Fungi is: abed f om Veracruz c ops...

Ulloa-Sosa, Miguel Armando

2012-06-07

375

Aspergillus flavus AF36 FOR USE ONLY IN THE STATES OF ARIZONA AND TEXAS  

E-print Network

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS HAZARD TO HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS CAUTION: Harmful if inhaled. Avoid breathing dust in accordance with the requirements of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit this product to sewer systems without previously notifying the local sewage treatment plant auth

Cotty, Peter J.

376

Structural assessment of peanut cultivars for pod resistance to Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

. Florunner and Starr are characterized by thin, brittle shells, and known to be susceptible to pod rotting fungi. They were included for the purpose of compaidson. Full-sized, sound pods were collected from field plots, classified into nine developmental.... Florunner and Starr are characterized by thin, brittle shells, and known to be susceptible to pod rotting fungi. They were included for the purpose of compaidson. Full-sized, sound pods were collected from field plots, classified into nine developmental...

Henson, Russelyn Dee

2012-06-07

377

Biological control of Botrytis, Aspergillus and Rhizopus rots on table and wine grapes in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and twenty-nine strains of epiphytic micro-organisms, isolated from table and wine grapes in Israel, were screened for antagonistic activity against Botrytis cinerea on table grapes. Two isolates (Candida guilliermondii, strain A42 and Acremonium cephalosporium, strain B11) were further evaluated for the control of decay in grapes caused by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Decay incidence caused by Botrytis

Tirtza Zahavi; Lea Cohen; Batia Weiss; Leonardo Schena; Avinoam Daus; Tania Kaplunov; Johanan Zutkhi; Ruth Ben-Arie; Samir Droby

2000-01-01

378

Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for constitutive accumulation of an Aspergillus phytase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aspergillus niger phytase-encoding gene (phyA) has been constitutively expressed in wheat. Transgenic wheat lines were generated by microprojectile bombardment of immature embryos, using the bar-Bialaphos selection system. The bar and the phyA gene expression were controlled by the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter. To ensure secretion and glycosylation of the microbial phytase, an expression cassette was designed (Ubi-SP-Phy) where an a-amylase

Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Annette Olesen; Sřren K. Rasmussen; Preben B. Holm

2000-01-01

379

Immunoperoxidase staining for identification of Aspergillus species in routinely processed tissue sections.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of an immunoperoxidase stain using the monoclonal antibody EB-A1 to detect Aspergillus species in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue. METHODS: The monoclonal antibody EB-A1 directed against galactomannan was used to detect Aspergillus species in 23 patients with suspected or confirmed invasive aspergillosis. Immunostaining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue using the streptavidin-biotin method and compared with conventional haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Gomori-Grocott stains. Results of immunostaining were semiquantitatively analysed with regard to both intensity of staining and number of positively staining micro-organisms. Tissue sections from 16 patients with confirmed invasive mycoses due to Candida species, Apophysomyces elegans, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudallescheria boydii and Histoplasma capsulatum were used as controls. RESULTS: In 19 (83%) of 23 cases invasive aspergillosis was confirmed by both histological examination and culture (18 Aspergillus fumigatus and one A flavus). Immunoperoxidase stains were positive in 17 (89%) of 19 cases including one case of disseminated infection due to A flavus. Furthermore, the immunoperoxidase stain was positive in a culture negative tissue section with histological evidence of mycelial development, indicating the presence of Aspergillus species. Some cross-reactivity was observed with the highly related fungus P boydii, although the number of mycelial elements that stained was low. CONCLUSIONS: Immunoperoxidase staining using the monoclonal antibody EB-A1 performs well on routinely processed tissue sections and permits detection and generic identification of Aspergillus species, although it was no better than conventional histopathology in identifying the presence of an infection. An additional advantage is that the immunostain may help to provide an aetiological diagnosis when cultures remain negative. Images PMID:8943743

Verweij, P E; Smedts, F; Poot, T; Bult, P; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A; Meis, J F

1996-01-01

380

Withanolides from hyoscyamus niger seeds  

PubMed

Three withanolide class steroids were isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. Two of them were identified as daturalactone-4 (1) and Nic-3 (which is now named hyoscyamilactol) (2). The new compound was elucidated as 16alpha-acetoxyhyoscyamilactol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic properties and X-ray crystallographic analysis. PMID:10543915

Ma; Williams; Che

1999-10-01

381

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

382

Uranium deposits in the Republic of Niger  

SciTech Connect

Niger is located at the southern edge of the Sahara desert in north-central Africa. The country covers a territory of 1,267,000 square kilometers (489,191 square miles), or about three times the size of California, with a population exceeding 7.5 million people. In 1989, Niger abandoned 16 years of military rule and is now on the way to a democratic system; the first multiparty elections are schedules for 1992. Mining industries are the primary base for Niger`s economy. Uranium is the leading export commodity, with revenues accounting for about one-third of Niger`s export earnings. Other mineral products include coal, tin, and small amounts of gold.

NONE

1992-03-01

383

Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

2012-03-01

384

Immunoevasive Aspergillus virulence factors.  

PubMed

Individuals with structural lung disease or defective immunity are predisposed to Aspergillus-associated disease. Manifestations range from allergic to cavitary or angio-invasive syndromes. Despite daily spore inhalation, immunocompetence facilitates clearance through initiation of innate and adaptive host responses. These include mechanical barriers, phagocyte activation, antimicrobial peptide release and pattern recognition receptor activation. Adaptive responses include Th1 and Th2 approaches. Understanding Aspergillus virulence mechanisms remains critical to the development of effective research and treatment strategies to counteract the fungi. Major virulence factors relate to fungal structure, protease release and allergens; however, mechanisms utilized to evade immune recognition continue to be important in establishing infection. These include the fungal rodlet layer, dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin, detoxifying systems for reactive oxygen species and toxin release. One major immunoevasive toxin, gliotoxin, plays a key role in mediating Aspergillus-associated colonization in the context of cystic fibrosis. Here, it down-regulates vitamin D receptor expression which following itraconazole therapy is rescued concurrent with decreased Th2 cytokine (IL-5 and IL-13) concentrations in the CF airway. This review focuses on the interaction between Aspergillus pathogenic mechanisms, host immune responses and the immunoevasive strategies employed by the organism during disease states such as that observed in cystic fibrosis. PMID:24972669

Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Mirkovic, Bojana; Lavelle, Gillian M; McElvaney, Noel G

2014-12-01

385

Some Fungi Attacking Corn  

E-print Network

. Experiments carried out by the writer show the I spores of Aspergillus flavus to be capable of germin­ ation after passing thru the digestive tract of rabbits and horses. Considerable quantities of pure cultures M of Aspergillus niger, A. flavus... characteristic to ren­ der their recognition in many oases possible by both farmers and veterinarians. It shall be the purpose of this paper, after brief ly reviewing the 1 iterative concerning the toxic end pnthogenic properties of the moulds, to describe...

Haslam, Thomas Powell

1910-01-01

386

Effect of fungi–termite interaction on the chlorophyll content of three rice varieties grown on ultisol soil of Ikenne, south-west Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fungi–termite interaction on three rice varieties was conducted in a screen house at the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 10 fungi species (Fusarium verticilloides, Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Macrophoma sp., Neurospora sp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp. and Sclerotium rolfsii) isolated from termites, soil and rice plants, F. verticilloides, Trichoderma sp.

Olumoye E. Oyetunji; Cecilia O. Peluola; Francis E. Nwilene; Gbenga Akinwale; Abou Togola; Tolulope A. Agunbiade; Abiodun O. Claudius-Cole

2012-01-01

387

Antifungal effect of Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against population of Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Antifungal activity of Allium tuberosum (AT), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli, P) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and Aspergillus oryzae was tested at 2 water activity levels (aw : 0.95 and 0.98). Main components of tested essential oils were: allyl trisulfide 40.05% (AT), cinnamaldehyde 87.23% (CC), and patchouli alcohol 44.52% (P). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant essential oils against A. flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and A. oryzae was 250 ppm (A. tuberosum and C. cassia), whereas Patchouli essential oil inhibited fungi at concentration > 1500 ppm. The essential oils exhibited suppression effect on colony growth at all concentrations (100, 175, and 250 ppm for A. tuberosum; 25, 50, and 75 for C. cassia; 100, 250, and 500 for P. cablin essential oil). Results of the study represent a solution for possible application of essential oil of C. cassia in different food systems due to its strong inhibitory effect against tested Aspergillus species. In real food system (table grapes), C. cassia essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity compared to cinnamaldehyde. PMID:23647469

Kocevski, Dragana; Du, Muying; Kan, Jianquan; Jing, Chengjun; La?anin, Ines; Pavlovi?, Hrvoje

2013-05-01

388

Aspergillus Oxylipin Signaling and Quorum Sensing Pathways Depend on G Protein-Coupled Receptors  

PubMed Central

Oxylipins regulate Aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in Aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. Despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative GPCRs have been identified in the Aspergilli. Here, we present evidence that oxylipins stimulate a burst in cAMP in A. nidulans, and that loss of an A. nidulans GPCR, gprD, prevents this cAMP accumulation. A. flavus undergoes an oxylipin-mediated developmental shift when grown at different densities, and this regulates spore, sclerotial and aflatoxin production. A. flavus encodes two putative GprD homologs, GprC and GprD, and we demonstrate here that they are required to transition to a high-density development state, as well as to respond to spent medium of a high-density culture. The finding of GPCRs that regulate production of survival structures (sclerotia), inoculum (spores) and aflatoxin holds promise for future development of anti-fungal therapeutics. PMID:23105976

Affeldt, Katharyn J.; Brodhagen, Marion; Keller, Nancy P.

2012-01-01

389

An evaluation of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production in Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

To date, edible fungi such as Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae (A. oryzae) has been considered as safe. However, some strains can produce mycotoxins. Thus, the biosynthetic ability to produce mycotoxins should be reevaluated to determine the safety of edible fungi. We analyzed the production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) from edible fungi such as A. oryzae isolated from various Korean foods using multiplex PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the multiplex PCR analysis of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes omtB, aflR, ver-1, and omtA, 5 of 19 Aspergillus strains produced all PCR products. Among them, aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 were detected from only A. flavus KACC 41403 by HPLC. Aflatoxins were not detected from the other four strains that produced all positive PCR bands. Aflatoxin also was not detected from 12 strains that had PCR patterns without aflR or ver-1 and from 2 strains that did not produce any of the expected PCR products. Only the seven A. oryzae strains that produced all of the positive PCR bands including the CPA biosynthetic genes maoA, dmaT, and pks-nrps produced CPA. CPA and aflatoxin production must be evaluated before A. oryzae strains are used for the development of fermented foods. PMID:24853527

Kim, Nam Yeun; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Ji, Geun Eog

2014-06-01

390

Twenty-five coregulated transcripts define a sterigmatocystin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed Central

Sterigmatocystin (ST) and the aflatoxins (AFs), related fungal secondary metabolites, are among the most toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic natural products known. The ST biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus nidulans is estimated to involve at least 15 enzymatic activities, while certain Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nomius strains contain additional activities that convert ST to AF. We have characterized a 60-kb region in the A. nidulans genome and find it contains many, if not all, of the genes needed for ST biosynthesis. This region includes verA, a structural gene previously shown to be required for ST biosynthesis, and 24 additional closely spaced transcripts ranging in size from 0.6 to 7.2 kb that are coordinately induced only under ST-producing conditions. Each end of this gene cluster is demarcated by transcripts that are expressed under both ST-inducing and non-ST-inducing conditions. Deduced polypeptide sequences of regions within this cluster had a high percentage of identity with enzymes that have activities predicted for ST/AF biosynthesis, including a polyketide synthase, a fatty acid synthase (alpha and beta subunits), five monooxygenases, four dehydrogenases, an esterase, an 0-methyltransferase, a reductase, an oxidase, and a zinc cluster DNA binding protein. A revised system for naming the genes of the ST pathway is presented. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643646

Brown, D W; Yu, J H; Kelkar, H S; Fernandes, M; Nesbitt, T C; Keller, N P; Adams, T H; Leonard, T J

1996-01-01

391

Aspergillus: sex and recombination.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

2014-12-01

392

A polyphasic approach to the identification of ochratoxin A-producing black Aspergillus isolates from vineyards in Sicily.  

PubMed

Aspergillus strains belonging to section Nigri isolated during a two year survey in eight Sicilian vineyards located on the slopes of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy) were analysed analyzed in order to characterize species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes. The polyphasic approach permitted analysis of biodiversity of Aspergillus isolates in relation to their morphology, ochratoxigenicity and genetic variability. We assessed OTA production by A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. japonicus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A. carbonarius isolates were the strongest OTA producers. A subset of 66 representative strains was selected for further DNA-based characterization. PCR assays using species-specific primers discriminated between A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. japonicus on the basis of the target sequences for each species. The PCR-based methods matched morphological characterization in identifying all the black aspergilli (BA) isolates tested, whereas RFLP analysis with RsaI of isolates positive to PCRs with A. niger specific primers identified three A. tubingensis isolates. The identification of thirteen isolates was further confirmed by ITS analysis. By this method, each of the isolates was identified and assigned to an Aspergillus species. The fAFLP analysis of 40 isolates highlighted the power of this technique to discriminate different species and single strains, to verify the presence of mixed populations in the same vineyard, through homogeneous species clusters. No correlation was observed between the clusters and OTA production level or origin. PMID:18687497

Oliveri, C; Torta, L; Catara, V

2008-09-30

393

Inactivation of mildew in rough rice and wheat by gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rough rice and wheat were irradiated by gamma ray ( 60Co) with different doses and the mildew inactivation efficacy was investigated after 0, 6 and 12 month storage. Five genera of mildew in rough rice and wheat were detected, including Alternaria, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus. For Aspergillus, four genera of mold were detected, including Aspergillus Kawachii, Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus. Detection rates of the five genera of mildew and four genera of Aspergillus were all reduced with increasing dose after 0, 6 and 12 months storage. The detection rates of the other four genera of mildew had no significant change during storage.

Wang, Jun; Yu, Yong

2010-06-01

394

The effect of humidity after gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B-1 production of A. Flavus in ground nutmeg and peanut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of humidity of 75 up to 97% after irradiation on radiosensitivity and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Indonesian nutmeg were examined. Irradiation doses used were 0;0.5;1 and 3 kGy. Mould free ground nutmeg and peanut were used as the growth media, and about 10 8 of spores were used to contaminate each of the media. Aflatoxin productions were measured after having incubated 3 days up to 5 months under humidity of 91 and 97%. Prior to HPLC analysis, aflatoxin was cleaned-up using an immunoaffinity column. The results were: (1) A. flavus indicated no or almost no growth under RH of 85% or less. (2) Under 91-97% RH, growth of mycelium and toxin production were inhibited more or less by irradiation up to 1 kGy, although the effectiveness of irradiation varied with different RH and media during postirradiation incubation. (3) By 3 kGy or more, both mycelium growth and toxin production of the mould were found to be completely inhibited. (4) The production of aflatoxin in nutmeg began after having incubated for 25 and 45 days and in peanut for 3 and 6 days under 97 and 91% RH, respectively.

Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Matsuyama, A.

1995-02-01

395

Molecular Cloning and Transcriptional Regulation of the Aspergillus nidulans xlnD Gene Encoding a ?-Xylosidase  

PubMed Central

The xlnD gene encoding the 85-kDa ?-xylosidase was cloned from Aspergillus nidulans. The deduced primary structure of the protein exhibits considerable similarity to the primary structures of the Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei ?-xylosidases and some similarity to the primary structures of the class 3 ?-glucosidases. xlnD is regulated at the transcriptional level; it is induced by xylan and d-xylose and is repressed by d-glucose. Glucose repression is mediated by the product of the creA gene. Although several binding sites for the pH regulatory protein PacC were found in the upstream regulatory region, it was not clear from a Northern analysis whether PacC is involved in transcriptional regulation of xlnD. PMID:9546179

Perez-Gonzalez, Jose A.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Bezoen, Alja; Maccabe, Andrew P.; Ramon, Daniel; de Graaff, Leo H.

1998-01-01

396

Terrein biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus and its impact on phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. Although it is produced by Aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. Here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a PKS gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for Aspergilli. The gene, ATEG_00145, here named terA, is essential for terrein biosynthesis and heterologous production of TerA in Aspergillus niger revealed an unusual plasticity in the products formed, yielding a mixture of 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyranone, orsellinic acid, and 6,7-dihydroxymellein. Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses indicate a low extension cycle specificity of TerA. Furthermore, 6-hydroxymellein was identified as a key intermediate in terrein biosynthesis. We find that terrein production is highly induced on plant-derived media, that terrein has phytotoxic activity on plant growth, and induces lesions on fruit surfaces. PMID:24816227

Zaehle, Christoph; Gressler, Markus; Shelest, Ekaterina; Geib, Elena; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

2014-06-19

397

The Aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353 activates the cell wall integrity pathway and perturbs calcium homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. Results We determined an AFPNN5353 hypersensitive phenotype of non-functional A. nidulans mutants in the protein kinase C (Pkc)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mpk) signalling pathway and the induction of the ?-glucan synthase A (agsA) promoter in a transgenic A. niger strain which point at the activation of the cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) and the remodelling of the cell wall in response to AFPNN5353. The activation of the CWIP by AFPNN5353, however, operates independently from RhoA which is the central regulator of CWIP signal transduction in fungi. Furthermore, we provide evidence that calcium (Ca2+) signalling plays an important role in the mechanistic function of this antifungal protein. AFPNN5353 increased about 2-fold the cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) of a transgenic A. niger strain expressing codon optimized aequorin. Supplementation of the growth medium with CaCl2 counteracted AFPNN5353 toxicity, ameliorated the perturbation of the [Ca2+]c resting level and prevented protein uptake into Aspergillus sp. cells. Conclusions The present study contributes new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of the A. giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353. We identified its antifungal activity, initiated the investigation of pathways that determine protein toxicity, namely the CWIP and the Ca2+ signalling cascade, and studied in detail the cellular uptake mechanism in sensitive target fungi. This knowledge contributes to define new potential targets for the development of novel antifungal strategies to prevent and combat infections of filamentous fungi which have severe negative impact in medicine and agriculture. PMID:21943024

2011-01-01

398

Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium  

PubMed Central

Background.?Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness. Methods.?RNA was extracted from 110 patients with corneal ulcers in southern India within 1 week of infection with either Fusarium solani or Aspergillus flavus, and gene expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Posttransplant corneas from later stage disease (>2 weeks after infection) were also examined. Results.?Expression of Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP)3 messenger RNA was elevated >1000-fold compared with uninfected donor corneas, whereas Dectin-2 was constitutively expressed in uninfected corneas. Furthermore, interleukin 1? (IL-1?) expression was elevated >1000-fold, whereas IL-1? expression was not increased. Expression of IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor ? was also elevated. CD3+and CD4+ T cells were detected in infected posttransplant corneas. Expression of IL-17 and interferon ? was elevated but not that of IL-4. There were no significant differences in the host response between Aspergillus- and Fusarium-infected corneas at any time point. Conclusions.?There is a common innate and adaptive immune response to these filamentous fungi, which includes the generation of T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 cells. PMID:21828275

Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Lalitha, Prajna

2011-01-01

399

Cryptic Aspergillus nidulans Antimicrobials?  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolite (SM) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. However, most SM clusters are “silent” when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these SM cluster products. Recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in Aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic SM gene clusters. Systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from this mutant identified an emodin derivate with efficacy against both human fungal pathogens (inhibiting both spore germination and hyphal growth) and several bacteria. The ability of catalase to diminish this antimicrobial activity implicates reactive oxygen species generation, specifically, the generation of hydrogen peroxide, as the mechanism of emodin hydroxyl activity. PMID:21478304

Giles, Steve S.; Soukup, Alexandra A.; Lauer, Carrie; Shaaban, Mona; Lin, Alexander; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

400

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arne, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anais; Femenia, Francoise; Nieguitsila, Adelaide; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, Rene; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

401

Single-Dose Pharmacodynamics of Amphotericin B against Aspergillus Species in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model  

PubMed Central

Conventional MIC testing of amphotericin B results in narrow MIC ranges challenging the detection of resistant strains. In order to discern amphotericin B pharmacodynamics, the in vitro activity of amphotericin B was studied against Aspergillus isolates with the same MICs by using a new in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model that simulates amphotericin B human plasma levels. Clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus, and A. flavus with the same Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute modal MICs of 1 mg/liter were exposed to amphotericin B concentrations following the plasma concentration-time profile after single-bolus administration with Cmax values of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 mg/liter. Fungal growth was monitored for up to 72 h based on galactomannan production. Complete growth inhibition was observed only against A. fumigatus with amphotericin B with a Cmax of ?2.4 mg/liter. At the lower Cmax values 0.6 and 1.2 mg/liter, significant growth delays of 34 and 52 h were observed, respectively (P < 0.001). For A. flavus, there was no complete inhibition but a progressive growth delay of 1 to 50 h at an amphotericin B Cmax of 0.6 to 4.8 mg/liter (P < 0.001). For A. terreus, the growth delay was modest (up to 8 h) at all Cmaxs (P < 0.05). The Cmax (95% confidence interval) associated with 50% activity for A. fumigatus was 0.60 (0.49 to 0.72) mg/liter, which was significantly lower than for A. flavus 3.06 (2.46 to 3.80) mg/liter and for A. terreus 7.90 (5.20 to 12.29) mg/liter (P < 0.001). A differential in vitro activity of amphotericin B was found among Aspergillus species despite the same MIC in the order A. fumigatus > A. flavus > A. terreus in the in vitro PK/PD model, possibly reflecting the different concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory/killing activities amphotericin B exerted against these species. PMID:23716054

Al-Saigh, Rafal; Siopi, Maria; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Velegraki, Aristea; Zerva, Loukia

2013-01-01

402

Production of Fungal ?-amylase and Amyloglucosidase on Some Nigerian Agricultural Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium oxysporium, and Penicillium frequestans isolated from common Nigerian agricultural residues like cassava, yam, banana, and plantain peels and brewery spent grains\\u000a (BSG) were screened for their ability to produce ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase using submerged and solid-state cultivation\\u000a regimens. Enzyme activity (EU) was determined by estimating the amount of reducing sugars produced as a

H. A. Adeniran; S. H. Abiose; A. O. Ogunsua

2010-01-01