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1

Optimization of the production of thermostable endo-beta-1,4 mannanases from a newly isolated Aspergillus niger gr and Aspergillus flavus gr.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to establish optimal conditions for the maximum production of endo-beta-1,4 mannanases using cheaper sources. Eight thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from garden soil and compost samples collected in and around the Gulbarga University campus, India. Two strains were selected based on their ability to produce considerable endo-beta-1,4 mannanases activity while growing in liquid medium at 37 degrees C with locust bean gum (LBG) as the only carbon source. They were identified as Aspergillus niger gr and Aspergillus flavus gr. The experiment to evaluate the effect of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, temperatures and initial pH of the medium on maximal enzyme production was studied. Enzyme productivity was influenced by the type of polysaccharide used as the carbon source. Copra meal defatted with n-hexane showed to be a better substrate than LBG and guar gum for endo-beta-1,4 mannanases production by A. niger gr (40.011 U/ml), but for A. flavus gr (33.532 U/ml), the difference was not significant. Endo-beta-1,4 mannanases produced from A. niger gr and A. flavus gr have high optimum temperature (65 and 60 degrees C) and good thermostability in the absence of any stabilizers (maintaining 50% of residual activity for 8 and 6 h, respectively, at 60 degrees C) and are stable over in a wide pH range. These new strains offer an attractive alternative source of enzymes for the food and feed processing industries. PMID:18597050

Kote, Naganagouda V; Patil, Aravind Goud G; Mulimani, V H

2009-02-01

2

76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...studies, which monitored air and soil populations of Aspergillus flavus...g., peeling, shucking, washing, and cooking) should further...things, percolation through soil. Thus, EPA expects exposure...EPA. 2003. BPPD Review of Soil and Air Monitoring Studies...

2011-03-23

3

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

4

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

5

Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group colonization of deep-plowed, decomposing rye green manure cover crops in peanut field soils was studied in four fields during 1972 and 1973; colonization of decomposing peanut fruits was studied in 1972 in two fields. A. flavus colonization of rye and peanut fruits was greater in soils of heavy texture, and an A. flavus population as high as 165 propagules per g of soil was observed in soil adjacent to rye, whereas A. flavus populations in soils not associated with rye were 18 propagules per g of soil or lower. Highest A. flavus populations in soil adjacent to decomposing peanut fruits were usually comparable to populations associated with rye. Little decomposing rye or peanut fruit colonization was generally observed by the A. flavus competitor, A. niger group. A. flavus may maintain or increase its inoculum potential by colonization of these and other moribund plant tissues. PMID:823865

Griffin, G J; Garren, K H

1976-01-01

6

Biotransformation of agallochaexcoerin A by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Agallochaexcoerin A (1), a seco-manoyl oxide diterpenoid was metabolised by pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, in growth media to yield a new metabolite, termed agallochaexcoerin G (2). It was confirmed by using IR, UV, (1)H NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This microbial bioconversion was achieved by unusual dehydration at C-4 position. PMID:25515683

Sura, Madhu Babu; Ankireddy, Madhu; Gowri Ponnapalli, Mangala

2015-05-01

7

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

2009-01-01

8

An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger was obtained using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. Chromosomesized DNA was separated into four bands. Seven of the eight linkage groups could be correlated with specific chromosomal bands. For this purpose DNA preparations from seven transformant strains of A. niger each carrying the heterologous amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans on a different

Alfons J. M. Debets; Edu F. Holub; Klaas Swart; Henk W. J. Broek; Cees J. Bos

1990-01-01

9

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS 2006 #12;IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS: IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RESISTANT

Ray, David

10

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ...

11

Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

12

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

13

Population structure of Aspergillus flavus before and after biocontrol treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. Plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of which are ...

14

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS GENOMICS FOR STUDYING THE MECHANISM OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolisms produced by the molds, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These compounds are toxic and extremely carcinogenic. It poses a serious health hazard when they contaminate food and feed commodities. Sequencing and annotation of A. flavus ESTs identified 7,218 u...

15

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

16

Dye biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing dyes from an aqueous solution. In the study, the roles played by three major functional groups: carboxyl, amino and phosphate, and the lipid fraction in the biomass of A. niger in biosorption of four dyes, Basic Blue 9, Acid Blue 29, Congo Red and Disperse Red 1, were investigated. These functional groups in A.

Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan

2002-01-01

17

Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

2011-07-01

18

Population ecology of Aspergillus flavus associated with Mississippi Delta soils.  

PubMed

Understanding the source of Aspergillus flavus is required to manage aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.). Studies assessed A. flavus propagules, Fusarium spp., and total fungi associated with Mississippi Delta soils. Soils from 12 and 15 sites were collected in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The propagule density of A. flavus ranged from log(10) 2.0 to 4.3 colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) soil, while total fusaria ranged from log(10) 3.0 to 5.4 cfu g(-1) soil. The highest populations of A. flavus were associated with soils containing higher organic matter, especially in sites under a no-tillage management. The frequency of aflatoxin production in isolates ranged from 13 to 81% depending on soil. In 2001, there was a highly significant correlation between A. flavus and the history of maize cultivation. Soil fertility factors such as organic matter content, nitrate and extractable phosphorus correlated with the density of Aspergillus, Fusarium spp., and total fungi. The relationship between soil parameters and Aspergillus populations may be useful in predicting the contribution of soil microflora to aflatoxin contamination. PMID:17886181

Zablotowicz, R M; Abbas, H K; Locke, M A

2007-10-01

19

Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

20

Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

21

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

22

Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

23

Integrated Database for Functional Analysis in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the carcinogen, aflatoxin. Because of its economic importance and well characterized pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis, several labs are studying the development, metabolism, ecology and pathogenicity of this fungus. To facilitate...

24

Molecular characterization of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates collected in China.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus strains were isolated from peanut fields of Liaoning, Shandong, Hubei and Guangdong Provinces in China, and identified through phenotypic and molecular approaches. Of the 323 A. flavus strains isolated, 76 strains did not produce aflatoxins detectable by UPLC. The incidence of atoxigenic A. flavus strains decreased with increase in temperature and increased with increase in latitude in different geographical locations. Amplification of all the aflatoxin genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster in the atoxigenic isolates showed that there were 25 deletion patterns (A-Y), with 22 deletion patterns identified for the first time. Most of the atoxigenic A. flavus isolates with gene deletions (97%) had deletions in at least one of the four genes (aflT, nor-1, aflR, and hypB), indicating that these four genes could be targeted for rapid identification of atoxigenic strains. The atoxigenic isolates with gene deletions, especially the isolates with large deletions, are potential candidates for aflatoxin control. PMID:24879349

Wei, Dandan; Zhou, Lu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Zhang, Chushu; Xing, Fuguo; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

2014-07-01

25

Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. Many strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxins. In addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. A. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus Aspergillus. The

Patricia Cruz; Mark P. Buttner

2008-01-01

26

Lipids in Aspergillus flavus-maize interaction  

PubMed Central

In some filamentous fungi, the pathways related to the oxidative stress and oxylipins production are involved both in the process of host-recognition and in the pathogenic phase. In fact, recent studies have shown that the production of oxylipins in filamentous fungi, yeasts and chromists is also related to the development of the organism itself and to mechanisms of communication with the host at the cellular level. The oxylipins, also produced by the host during defense reactions, are able to induce sporulation and to regulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins in several pathogenic fungi. In A. flavus, the oxylipins play a crucial role as signals for regulating the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, the conidiogenesis and the formation of sclerotia. To investigate the involvement of an oxylipins based cross-talk into Z. mays and A. flavus interaction, we analyzed the oxylipins profile of the wild type strain and of three mutants of A. flavus that are deleted at the Aflox1 gene level also during maize kernel invasion. A lipidomic approach has been addressed through the use of LC-ToF-MS, followed by a statistical analysis of the principal components (PCA). The results showed the existence of a difference between the oxylipins profile generated by the WT and the mutants onto challenged maize. In relation to this, aflatoxin synthesis which is largely hampered in vitro, is intriguingly restored. These results highlight the important role of maize oxylipin in driving secondary metabolism in A. flavus. PMID:24578700

Scarpari, Marzia; Punelli, Marta; Scala, Valeria; Zaccaria, Marco; Nobili, Chiara; Ludovici, Matteo; Camera, Emanuela; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Fanelli, Corrado

2014-01-01

27

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS AND MICROARRAY AS TOOLS IN UNDERSTANDING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control aflatoxin production, identification of genes using A. flavus expressed sequence ...

28

Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

29

Comparison of different inoculating methods to evaluate the pathogenicity and virulence of Aspergillus niger on two maize hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of inoculation techniques on the aggressiveness of Aspergillus niger kernel infection in A. flavus resistant and susceptible maize hybrids. Ears were inoculated with the silk-channel, side-needle, and spray techniques 7 days after midsilk...

30

Biosorption of heavy metals on Aspergillus niger: Effect of pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pretreatment of Aspergillus niger biomass on biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper and nickel was studied. Pretreatment of live A. niger biomass using sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulphoxide and detergent resulted in significant improvements in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper in comparison with live A. niger cells. Pretreatment of A. niger reduced biosorption of nickel as compared

A. Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1998-01-01

31

Genetic variability of Aspergillus flavus isolates from a Mississippi corn field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Aspergillus flavus represents a major threat to food safety and food security on a worldwide scale. Corn, peanuts, cotton, rice and edible nuts, can be colonized by A. flavus strains that produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. A biological strategy for control of toxigenic A. flavus starins inv...

32

Genetic Analysis of the Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.), one of main crops in the world, is easily susceptible to Aspergillus flavus (Link: fr) infection, resulting huge loses worldwide. Breeding for A. flavus resistance has been proved an efficient way to solve the problem of aflatoxin contamination. Genetic analysis of the sources of resistance to A. flavus in maize is necessary for this purpose. The

De-xiang DENG; Si-xia JIANG; Yi-jun WANG; Yun-long BIAN; Jian-jian CHEN; Bo JIA

2009-01-01

33

Aspergillus flavus Genomics: Gateway to Human and Animal Health, Food Safety, and Crop Resistance to Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that has existed in nature for thousands of years. A. flavus is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It is also an allergen causing allergic reaction in humans. A. flavus in...

34

Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the two most important aflatoxin-producing fungi responsible for the contamination of agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here we examine the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can be distinguished morphologically and genetically, as well as by their mycotoxin profiles. Aspergillus flavus produces both B aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), B aflatoxins or CPA alone, or neither mycotoxin; Aspergillus parasiticus produces B and G aflatoxins or the aflatoxin precursor O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not CPA. Only four of forty-five attempted interspecific crosses between opposite mating types of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were fertile and produced viable ascospores. Single ascospore strains from each cross were shown to be recombinant hybrids using multilocus genotyping and array comparative genome hybridization. Conidia of parents and their hybrid progeny were haploid and predominantly monokaryons and dikaryons based on flow cytometry. Multilocus phylogenetic inference showed that experimental hybrid progeny were grouped with naturally occurring A. flavus L strain and A. parasiticus. Higher total aflatoxin concentrations in some F1 progeny strains compared to midpoint parent aflatoxin levels indicate synergism in aflatoxin production; moreover, three progeny strains synthesized G aflatoxins that were not produced by the parents, and there was evidence of allopolyploidization in one strain. These results suggest that hybridization is an important diversifying force resulting in the genesis of novel toxin profiles in these agriculturally important fungi. PMID:25773520

Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Horn, Bruce W; Moore, Geromy G; Singh, Rakhi; Monacell, James T; Dorner, Joe W; Stone, Eric A; Xie, De-Yu; Carbone, Ignazio

2015-04-01

35

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

36

Aspergillus flavus impairs antioxidative enzymes of Sternochetus mangiferae during mycosis.  

PubMed

Insects depend upon cuticular, humoral and cellular defenses to resist mycosis. However, entomopathogenic fungi through co-evolution have developed mechanisms to counter such defenses. Although a plethora of mechanisms of mycosis by entomopathogenic fungi are well-established, studies on the impairment of insects' antioxidative enzymes during mycosis remain elusive. Here, we used the interaction of Sternochetus mangiferae and its associated entomopathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, as a model to validate our hypothesis. Uninfected insects were exposed to fungal spores for infection to occur. We observed symptoms of mycosis within 48 h of incubation period. Biochemical studies on antioxidative enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase, in infected and uninfected insects revealed decreased activity of these enzymes. It appears that A. flavus disables the host's antioxidative enzyme system that plays a crucial role in elimination of oxidative toxins produced during mycosis. PMID:25446036

Jayanthi, Kamala P D; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Govindan, Selvakumar; Verghese, Abraham

2015-01-01

37

Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

38

Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection  

PubMed Central

Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Conclusion: Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity. PMID:24778920

Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

39

Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole.  

PubMed Central

A case of Aspergillus flavus keratitis treated successfully with 4% suspension of thiabendazole is reported. This seems to be the first case of successful treatment of keratomycosis with thiabendazole. All other reported cases treated with this drug either had their eyes removed or did not retain any useful vision. Its ability to penetrate ocular tissues, ability to remain in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration of many fungi, and broad spectrum of activity make it a worthwhile drug for further investigation in keratomycosis. Images PMID:6766732

Upadhyay, M P; West, E P; Sharma, A P

1980-01-01

40

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-11-01

41

Chronic bilateral otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic bilateral otomycosis in a 46-year-old female patient who was unresponsive to different drugs. The patient showed signs of erythema, otalgia, itching, otorrhoea and presence of greyish black coloured mass in both the ear canals. The direct microscopical examination of the ear debris in potassium hydroxide preparations, Giemsa, phase contrast and Gram revealed many thin, branched septate hyphae, condia and conidiophores morphologically indistinguishable from Aspergillus spp. The histopathological section of the ear wax mass by haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff techniques also showed similar fungal elements. The patient responded to 1% solution of mercurochrome. The use of mercurochrome in developing countries like India may be recommended to treat the fungal otitis in patients. We also emphasize that 'Narayan' stain should be routinely employed by microbiology and public health laboratories to study the morphology of pathogenic fungi. PMID:14998406

Mishra, G S; Mehta, Niral; Pal, M

2004-02-01

42

Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1?) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B?, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-?-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. PMID:22036292

Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

2011-11-01

43

Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

2014-01-01

44

Structure of the Aspergillus niger pel A gene and its expression in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger pectin lyases are encoded by a multigene family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the pectin lyase PLA-encoding gene pelA has been determined. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the deduced amino acid sequence of the other characterized pectin lyase, PLD, shows that the proteins share 69% amino acid identity. When grown on media with pectin as

Margo A. Kusters-van Someren; Jan A. M. Harmsen; Harry C. M. Kester; Jaap Visser

1991-01-01

45

Flocculation behavior and mechanism of bioflocculant produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In this study, the flocculation behavior and mechanism of a cation-independent bioflocculant IH-7 produced by Aspergillus flavus were investigated. Results showed 91.6% was the lowest flocculating rate recorded by IH-7 (0.5 mg L(-1)) at pH range 4-8. Moreover, IH-7 showed better flocculation performance than polyaluminum chloride (PAC) at a wide range of flocculant concentration (0.06-25 mg L(-1)), temperature (5-45 °C) and salinity (10-60% w/w). The current study found that cation addition did not significantly enhance the flocculating rate and IH-7 is a positively charged bioflocculant. These findings suggest that charge neutralization is the main flocculation mechanism of IH-7 bioflocculant. IH-7 was significantly used to flocculate different types of suspended solids such as activated carbons, kaolin clays, soil solids and yeast cells. PMID:25560664

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Idris, Azni; Al-joubory, Hamid Hussain Rijab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Ibn Abubakar, B S U

2015-03-01

46

A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

2014-10-01

47

Proteomic profile of Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus, a common contaminant of crops and stored grains, can produce aflatoxins that are harmful to humans and other animals. Water activity (aw) is one of the key factors influencing both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. In this study, we used the isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the effect of aw on the proteomic profile of A. flavus. A total of 3566 proteins were identified, of which 837 were differentially expressed in response to variations in aw. Among these 837 proteins, 403 were over-expressed at 0.99 aw, whereas 434 proteins were over-expressed at 0.93 aw. According to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the secretion of extracellular hydrolases increased as aw was raised, suggesting that extracellular hydrolases may play a critical role in induction of aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) categorizations, we identified an exportin protein, KapK, that may down-regulate aflatoxin biosynthesis by changing the location of NirA. Finally, we considered the role of two osmotic stress-related proteins (Sln1 and Glo1) in the Hog1 pathway and investigated the expression patterns of proteins related to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The data uncovered in this study are critical for understanding the effect of water stress on toxin production and for the development of strategies to control toxin contamination of agricultural products. PMID:25749363

Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Hong; Han, Xiaoyun; Guo, Zhenni; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Kunlong; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

2015-03-01

48

Recombination, balancing selection and geographic subdivision among worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a global agent of aflatoxin contamination of economically important crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of aflatoxin production, but basic knowledge of the evolutionary processes that maintain ...

49

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal; cotton, refined...

2013-07-01

50

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal; cotton, refined...

2010-07-01

51

Evaluation of Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus as Potential Biocontrol Agents for Aflatoxin in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic concern and public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling maize contamination are being investigated. Abilities of 11 naturally occurring atoxigenic strains in Nigeria to reduce aflatox...

52

Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

53

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2012-07-01

54

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2010-07-01

55

Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin occurrence and expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the oc- currence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues and ascertained the ecology of A. flavus in a Dundee silt loam soil. Samples of untilled

Cesare Accinelli; H. K. Abbas; R. M. Zablotowicz; J. R. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

56

Aspergillus flavus Genomic Data Mining Provides Clues for Its Use in Producing Biobased Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is notorious for its ability to produce aflatoxins. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that infects plants, animals and human beings. The ability to survive in the natural environment, living on plant tissues (leaves or stalks), live or dead insects make A. flavus a ubiquitous...

57

A two-dimenstional proteome reference map of the aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The description of A. flavus proteome provides insight into its basic biology and a basis for its future proteomic investigations. Aspergillus flavus is a widely distributed fungal pathogen that infects important agricultural commodities (maize, tree nuts, etc.) and contaminates them with aflatoxin...

58

Integrated database for identifying candate genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr, an opportunistic fungus that produces aflatoxin, is pathogenic to maize and other oilseed crops. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen, and its presence markedly reduces the value of grain. Understanding and enhancing host resistance to A. flavus infection and/or subsequent af...

59

EVALUATION OF INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION (ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS LINK) AND AFLATOXIN FORMATION IN SUSPENDED DISC CULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of two non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus (NRRL 32354; NRRL 29269) to interfere with aflatoxin production by A. flavus NRRL 32355 was examined using a replacement series with the suspended disc culture method (R.A. Norton, 1995). Individual glass fiber discs, affixed ...

60

NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

61

Integrated database for identifying candidate genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr, an opportunistic fungus that produces aflatoxin, is pathogenic to maize and other oilseed crops. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen, and its presence markedly reduces the value of grain. Understanding and enhancing host resistance to A. flavus infection and\\/or subsequent aflatoxin accumulation is generally considered an efficient means of reducing grain losses to aflatoxin. Different proteomic, genomic

Rowena Y Kelley; Cathy Gresham; Jonathan Harper; Susan M Bridges; Marilyn L Warburton; Leigh K Hawkins; Olga Pechanova; Bela Peethambaran; Tibor Pechan; Dawn S Luthe; J E Mylroie; Arunkanth Ankala; Seval Ozkan; W B Henry; W P Williams

2010-01-01

62

Aspergillus flavus Blast2GO gene ontology database: elevated growth temperature alters amino acid metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The availability of a representative gene ontology (GO) database is a prerequisite for a successful functional genomics study. Using online Blast2GO resources we constructed a GO database of Aspergillus flavus. Of the predicted total 13,485 A. flavus genes 8,987 were annotated with GO terms. The mea...

63

Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus, like approximately one- third of ascomycete fungi, is thought to be cosmopolitan and clonal because it has uniform asexual morphology. A. flavus produces af latoxin on nuts, grains, and cotton, and assump- tions about its life history are being used to develop strategies for its biological control. We tested the assumptions of clonality and conspecificity in a sample

DAVID M. GEISER; J OHN I. PITT; JOHN W. TAYLOR

1998-01-01

64

Molecular markers associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize: QTL and discriminant analyses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) grain caused by Aspergillus flavus is a serious health hazard to animals and humans. Resistance to infection by A. flavus is poorly understood. The objectives of this investigation were to identify potential candidate markers associated with resistance ...

65

Genetic Isolation among Sympatric Vegetative Compatibility Groups of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus, fungal pathogen of animals and both wild and economically important plants, is most recognized for producing aflatoxin, a cancer-causing secondary metabolite, that contaminates food and animal feed globally. A. flavus is asexual and has a vegetative incompatibility system that li...

66

Molasses Supplementation Promotes Conidiation but Suppresses Aflatoxin Production by Small Sclerotial Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: To find an agar medium ingredient that significantly promotes conidial production in small sclerotia (S strain) Aspergillus flavus isolates that normally produce lower numbers of conidia than large sclerotia (L strain) A. flavus isolates on routinely used growth media. Methods and Results: ...

67

Methods to sample air borne propagules of Aspergillus flavus C.H. Bock1,2,  

E-print Network

viable conidia of A. flavus under controlled environment conditions, but not in the field, although-dispersed propagules of Aspergillus flavus can infect and colonize many agricultural products, including cottonseed. To help reduce the risk of toxin entering the food chain, aflatoxin content is strictly regulated by law

Cotty, Peter J.

68

Formation of Aspergillus flavus sclerotia on corn grown under different drought stress conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in corn, peanuts, tree nuts, cottonseed, spices and other crops. Many countries have strict limits on the amount of aflatoxins permitted in human commodities and animal feed. Sclerotia produced by A. flavus serve several f...

69

Community structure of Aspergillus flavus and persistence of the atoxigenic strain A flavus AF36 in applied fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by several fungi in Aspergillus Section Flavi that frequently contaminate crops. Aflatoxins impact the value of crops. The use of atoxigenic strains of A. flavus to displace aflatoxin producers is a proven method to reduce aflatoxin contamin...

70

On the safety of Aspergillus niger – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce\\u000a extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste

E. Schuster; N. Dunn-Coleman; J. Frisvad; P. van Dijck

2002-01-01

71

An alternative insect pathogenic strategy in an Aspergillus flavus auxotroph.  

PubMed

In order to study fungal pathogen evolution, we used a model system whereby the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus flavus was serially propagated through the insect (Galleria mellonella) larvae, yielding a cysteine/methionine auxotroph of A. flavus with properties of an obligate insect pathogen. The auxotroph exhibited insect host restriction but did not show any difference in virulence when compared with the wild-type (Scully LR, Bidochka MJ, 2006. Microbiology 152, 223-232). Here, we report that on 1% insect cuticle medium and synthetic Galleria medium, the auxotroph displayed increased extracellular protease production, a virulence factor necessary for insect pathogenesis. In the wild-type strain, protease production was deregulated during carbon (glucose), nitrogen (nitrate), or sulphate deprivation. If all three were present, protease production was vastly reduced. However, in the cysteine/methionine auxotroph, protease production was deregulated in complete medium. We suggest that the deficiency in sulphate assimilation in the auxotroph resulted in deregulation of protease production. The auxotroph exhibited delayed germination and slower hyphal growth when compared to the wild-type but there were no differences in virulence or cuticle penetration, suggesting a shift in pathogenic strategy that compensated decreased growth with increased virulence factor (extracellular protease) production. We concluded that the biosynthetic deficiency that mediated insect host restriction also increased protease production in the slow-growing auxotroph, resulting in an alternate, more host-specific pathogenic strategy. However, we argue that transmission is not necessarily correlated with virulence as competition bioassays in insect larvae showed that the wild-type generally out-competed the auxotroph by producing the majority of the conidia on the sporulating cadavers. This is one of the few examples that highlight the effect of genome decay on nutrition acquisition, virulence, and transmission in fungal pathogen evolution. PMID:19028580

Scully, Lisa R; Bidochka, Michael J

2009-02-01

72

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

73

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2010-04-01

74

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

75

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

76

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

77

Highly sensitive PCR-based detection method specific for Aspergillus flavus in wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is frequently found in food, producing a wide variety of toxins, aflatoxins being the most relevant in food safety. A specific PCR-based protocol for this species is described which allowed discrimination from other closely related species having different profiles of secondary metabolites from the Aspergillus Section Flavi, particularly A. parasiticus. The specific primers were designed on the multi-copy

Amaia González-Salgado; Teresa González-Jaén; Covadonga Vázquez; Belén Patiño

2008-01-01

78

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

79

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

80

Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25? and 37?. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100? and 121?. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10. PMID:24015075

Chang, Injeong

2007-01-01

81

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

82

Production of citric acid with immobilized Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spores of Aspergillus niger were entrapped in calcium-alginate beads and precultivated in growth media with various amounts of nitrogen. During the following citric acid production in shaking cultures an optimum of acid formation and yield was observed after the precultivation with 100–200 mg\\/l NH4NO3. The productivity of the immobilized Aspergillus was found to be 1.5 times higher than in

H. Eikmeier; H. J. Rehm

1984-01-01

83

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY FOR OBSERVING SPECTRAL SIGNATURE CHANGE IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contaminated corn is dangerous for domestic animals when used as feed and cause liver cancer when consumed by human beings. Therefore, the ability to detect A. flavus and its toxic metabolite, aflatoxin, is important. The objective of this study is to measure A. flavus growth using hyper...

84

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

85

Stable accumulation of Aspergillus niger phytase in transgenic tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase from Aspergillus niger increases the availability of phos- phorus from feed for monogastric animals by releasing phosphate from the substrate phytic acid. A phytase cDNA was constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicofiana tabacum) plants. Secre- tion of the protein to the extracellular fluid was established by use of the signal sequence from the tobacco pathogen-related protein S. lhe specific

Theo C. Verwoerd; Paridon van P. A; Oosen van A. J. J; Lent van J. W. M; André Hoekema; Jan Pen

1995-01-01

86

Glucoamylase production by a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger 57 was studied in complex and synthetic media under stationary vs. submerged conditions. Stationary cultivation resulted in significantly greater yields than did submerged culture. Crude enzyme activity was optimum at 60 degrees and pH 4.0.

Sinkar, V.P.; Lewis, N.F.

1982-01-01

87

Novel metabolites in phenanthrene and pyrene transformation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger, isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was examined for its potential to degrade phenanthrene and pyrene. Two novel metabolites, 1-methoxyphenanthrene and 1-methoxypyrene, were identified by conventional chemical techniques. Minor metabolites identified were 1- and 2-phenanthrol and 1-pyrenol. No 14CO2 evolution was observed in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene cultures. PMID:9212437

Sack, U; Heinze, T M; Deck, J; Cerniglia, C E; Cazau, M C; Fritsche, W

1997-01-01

88

Flavone Biotransformation by Aspergillus niger and the Characterization of Two Newly Formed Metabolites  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger isolated from Allium sativum was used at large scale fermentation (150 mg flavone/200 ml medium) to obtain suitable amounts of the products, efficient for identification. Then spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and mass spectrometry were performed for the two products, which contributed to the identification process. The metabolite (1) was identified as 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, and the metabolite (2) was identified as 2'-hydroxyphenylmethylketone, which were more active than flavone itself. Antioxidant activities of the two isolated metabolites were tested compared with ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity of metabolite (1) was recorded 64.58% which represented 79% of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid, and metabolite (2) was recorded 54.16% (67% of ascorbic acid activity). However, the antioxidant activity of flavone was recorded 37.50% which represented 46% of ascorbic acid activity. The transformed products of flavone have antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans, with MIC was recorded 250 µg/ml for metabolite (2) against all three organism and 500, 300, and 300 µg/ml for metabolite (1) against tested microorganisms (P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumonia, Fusarium moniliforme, A. flavus, Saccharomyces cerviceae, Kluveromyces lactis and C. albicans) at this order. PMID:23990746

Assawah, Suzan W.; El-Sharkawy, Saleh H.; Abdel-Salam, Amal

2008-01-01

89

Bisulfite Sequencing Reveals That Aspergillus flavus Holds a Hollow in DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus first gained scientific attention for its production of aflatoxin. The underlying regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been serving as a theoretical model for biosynthesis of other microbial secondary metabolites. Nevertheless, for several decades, the DNA methylation status, one of the important epigenomic modifications involved in gene regulation, in A. flavus remains to be controversial. Here, we applied bisulfite sequencing in conjunction with a biological replicate strategy to investigate the DNA methylation profiling of A. flavus genome. Both the bisulfite sequencing data and the methylome comparisons with other fungi confirm that the DNA methylation level of this fungus is negligible. Further investigation into the DNA methyltransferase of Aspergillus uncovers its close relationship with RID-like enzymes as well as its divergence with the methyltransferase of species with validated DNA methylation. The lack of repeat contents of the A. flavus' genome and the high RIP-index of the small amount of remanent repeat potentially support our speculation that DNA methylation may be absent in A. flavus or that it may possess de novo DNA methylation which occurs very transiently during the obscure sexual stage of this fungal species. This work contributes to our understanding on the DNA methylation status of A. flavus, as well as reinforces our views on the DNA methylation in fungal species. In addition, our strategy of applying bisulfite sequencing to DNA methylation detection in species with low DNA methylation may serve as a reference for later scientific investigations in other hypomethylated species. PMID:22276181

Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Huang, Shu-Jia; Luo, Yan-Feng; Sun, Ji-Hua; Zhou, Jian-Xiang; Yan, Shu-Jing; He, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jun; He, Zhu-Mei

2012-01-01

90

Function of Conserved Tryptophans in the Aspergillus niger Glucoamylase 1 Starch Binding Domain  

E-print Network

Function of Conserved Tryptophans in the Aspergillus niger Glucoamylase 1 Starch Binding Domain of tryptophan residues in the granular starch binding domain (SBD) of glucoamylase 1 from Aspergillus niger. Wild-type SBD and three variant (W563K, W590K, and W615K) proteins were produced using an A. niger

Williamson, Mike P.

91

Biochemical Engineering Journal 8 (2001) 187193 Enhanced heterologous protein production in Aspergillus niger through  

E-print Network

in Aspergillus niger through pH control of extracellular protease activity Dara O'Donnella, Liping Wanga 2000; accepted 15 February 2001 Abstract The extracellular protease activity of Aspergillus niger AB4 glucose in the culture medium had been completely utilized. When grown at pH 6, A. niger protease activity

Gu, Tingyue

92

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound to -cyclodextrin  

E-print Network

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound the catalytic domains of hydrolytic enzymes. Glucoamylase 1 (G1) from Aspergillus niger, an enzyme used widely of insoluble polysaccharides. Results: The solution structure of the SBD of A. niger G1 bound to -cyclodextrin

Williamson, Mike P.

93

Testing the efficacy of eGFP-transformed Aspergillus flavus as biocontrol strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control methods to prevent pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of corn, cottonseed, and ground and tree nuts involve field inoculation of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus. To date, the efficacy of this approach requires annual reapplication of the biocontrol agent. The reason ...

94

Time Course Study of Substrate Utilization by Aspergillus flavus in Medium Simulating Corn (Zea mays) Kernels  

E-print Network

Utilization of the three major corn reserve materials, starch, triglycerides (refined corn oil), and zein kernels changed little over the first 18 h. Subsequently, hydrolysis of both starch and triglycerides such as starch or triglycerides. KEYWORDS: Aflatoxin; Aspergillus flavus; corn lipids; cornstarch; Zea mays; zein

Cotty, Peter J.

95

Hyperspectral image classification and development of fluorescence index for single corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

96

Isolation of maize soil and rhizosphere bacteria with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial isolates from Mississippi maize field soil and maize rhizosphere samples were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Isolated strains were screened for antagonistic activities in liquid co-culture against A. flav...

97

Inhibitory effects of gossypol-related compounds on growth of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypolone demonstrated growth inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus isolate AF13. Growth inhibition was concentration dependent, with a 50% effective dose of 90 µg gossypolone per mL of medium (165 µM). Growth inhibition levels of up to 95% were achieved with gossypolone concentrations ...

98

Comparison of Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination is generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin....

99

Application of biotechnology towards the enhancement of maize resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of maize with aflatoxins by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This important fact and the regulations instituted in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed have stimulated rese...

100

Aspergillus flavus whole genome and EST sequence releases and construction of homologous gene search blast server  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites. These compounds, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed...

101

Aspergillus flavus Genomics as a Tool for Studying the Mechanism of Aflatoxin Formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a pathogen that infects plants, animals, and humans. It produces the most potent carcinogens, known as aflatoxins, when it infects agricultural crops. In order to devise strategies to control aflatoxin contamination of pre-harvest agricultural crops and post harvest grains du...

102

The inhibitory effect of Bacillus megaterium on aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene expression in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is one of the major fungal mold that colonize peanut in the field and during storage. The impacts to human and animal health and to economy in agriculture and commerce are significant since this mould produces the most potent natural toxins, aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic, mut...

103

Role of Ostrinia Nubilalis in Vectoring Aspergillus Flavus in a Corn Field in northern Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of corn in Europe and in several agricultural areas of the USA. In addition to direct yield losses, the ECB is expected to act as a vector for carrying spores of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Therefore the object...

104

Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro a  

E-print Network

Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro, 29122, Piacenza, Italy b U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, School of Plant, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122, Piacenza, Italy a b s t r a c ta r t i c

Cotty, Peter J.

105

Immunohistochemical investigation of cotton carpel tissue exposed to xylanolytic hydrolases of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton carpel tissue (35-45 dpa) that had been treated with a mixture of xylanolytic hydrolases derived from Aspergillus flavus was subjected to immunocytochemical analysis. Microscopic examination of treated tissues revealed severe degradation of the secondary wall structure. Control tissue cells...

106

Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus, is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the occurrence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues, and ascertained the ecology ...

107

Anti-fungal activity of maize silk proteins and role of chitinases in Aspergillus flavus resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteins were extracted from silks of two Aspergillus flavus resistant maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds, two susceptible inbreds, and one intermediately-resistant inbred grown in the field. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to identify and compare expression patterns of the proteins in the m...

108

Effect of Aspergillus flavus inoculation methods and environmental conditions on aflatoxin accumulation in corn hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Aspergillus flavus spray inoculation technique was compared with the side-needle technique and natural infection for inducing aflatoxin contamination in commercial corn hybrids in two soil types from 2000 to 2006. Hybrids inoculated using the side-needle technique consistently had high levels of ...

109

Ear Rot, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Fungal Biomass in Maize after Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fries, occurs naturally in maize (Zea mays L.). Aflatoxin is a potent human carcinogen and is toxic to livestock, pets, and wildlife. When contaminated with aflatoxin, the value of maize grain is markedly reduced. Eight germplasm l...

110

Virulence and Cultural Characteristics of Two Aspergillus flavus Strains Pathogenic on Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotty, P. J. 1989. Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillusjlavus strains pathogenic on cotton. Phytopathology 79:808-814. Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of sclerotial size, cultural characteristics, and virulence to cotton. Strain L isolates produced large sclerotia (over 400 \\/lm in diameter), and strain S isolates produced small

P. J. Cotty

1989-01-01

111

Managing and Monitoring of Aspergillus flavus in Corn Using Bioplastic-based Formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of bioplastic-based formulations for delivering a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus and for monitoring Aspergilli with the final objective of controlling aflatoxin contamination in corn. Field application of inoculated bioplastic granules show...

112

Influence of Gene Expression on Variable Aflatoxin Production by Different Strains of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a globally distributed fungus. It causes disease in human and crop plants due to the production of numerous conidia dispersed by air movement and possibly by insects. The fungus is an economically important food contaminant because it produces the most potent natural carcinogen...

113

Identification of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates to reduce aflatoxin contamination of maize in Kenya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute aflatoxin poisonings (aflatoxicosis) in Kenya have led to the deaths of several hundred people between 2004 and 2006. Etiology of contamination in the outbreak districts (Eastern Province) identified an unusual fungal community structure dominated by the highly toxigenic Aspergillus flavus S s...

114

Identification of novel metabolites from Aspergillus flavus by high resolution and multiple stage mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus contains more than 55 gene clusters which are predicted to encode proteins involved in secondary metabolite production. One of these, cluster 27, contains a polyketide synthase (pks27) gene which encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the aflatoxin cluster PKS. Comparative...

115

Development of non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus Flavus for control of Aflatoxin in maize.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin (AF), produced by Aspergillus flavus, can be a major problem in Mississippi Delta maize (Zea mays L.) causing economic losses if levels of contamination are high. Although research has been directed at reducing maize AF contamination, no consistent control methods are available. This manus...

116

Aflatoxigenesis induced in Aspergillus flavus by oxidative stress and reduction by phenolic antioxidants from tree nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Almonds, pistachios, and walnuts grown in California have an aggregate value of over $3.3 billion, with a large proportion of the crop being exported. However, these tree nuts can be subject to contamination by aflatoxins, metabolites produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus, and im...

117

A maize lectin-like protein with antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus, causes an ear rot on maize and produces a mycotoxin, aflatoxin, in colonized maize kernels. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans and animals upon ingestion. The presence of aflatoxins in food and feed is strictly regulated by several governmental agenci...

118

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

119

Expression and sequence comparison of the Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubigensis genes encoding polygalacturonase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and expression of the polygalacturonase-encoding pgaII genes of two recently recognized species, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubigensis, was investigated. While the structure of the pgaII genes is very similar, showing 83% DNA sequence identity and 94% identity at the amino acid level, they have diverged significantly. The NH2-terminal sequence suggests that these PGs are made as pre pro-proteins

Hendrik J. D. Bussink; Frank P. Buxton; Jaap Visser

1991-01-01

120

Fractionation of ?-Glucosidases and Related Extracellular Enzymes from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Industrial concentrates from Aspergillus niger culture filtrates were fractionated by ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography. Several other types of hydrolases were completely removed. Eight partially purified components were obtained. Using specific activity as an estimate of purification, one aryl-?-glucosidase was purified 35-fold. Another component showed 147-fold purification using a viscosimetric assay with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The aryl-?-glucosidase was distinctly more thermolabile than the carboxymethylcellulase. PMID:13930396

Li, L.-h.; King, K. W.

1963-01-01

121

Aspergillus niger mutants with increased glucose oxidase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger NRRL-3, an organism used for the industrial scale production of d-gluconic acid and glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4), was subjected to mutagenesis and selection for acid production on diagnostic media containing methyl red. The plates contained 0.1 M d-glucose, a concentration that does not produce a color change in the medium surrounding mycelia of the parental strain under the

John Markwell; Laura G. Frakes; Eugene C. Brott; John Osterman; Fred W. Wagner

1989-01-01

122

Purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase  

SciTech Connect

..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.

Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

1980-01-01

123

Regulation of the glaA gene of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glucoamylase gene of Aspergillus niger, glaA, is expressed at high levels in the presence of starch. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of 1966 bp of the 5' flanking region of the glaA gene and have begun to identify sequences important for the control of glaA expression by deletion analysis. Constructs containing deletions extending into the glaA gene promotor

Timothy Fowler; Randy M. Berka; Michael Ward

1990-01-01

124

ASSESSING THE COLONIZATION POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS STRAINS ON CORN UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS USING A PIN BAR INOCULATION TECHNIQUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to assess the colonization potential of Aspergillus flavus strains as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination. Corn ears were inoculated at growth stage R4 with various A. flavus strains using a pin-bar inoculation technique in 2004 and 2005. Non-aflatox...

125

Genome Sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a Strain That Causes Aflatoxin Contamination of Food and Feed.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised human patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain NRRL 3357. PMID:25883274

Nierman, William C; Yu, Jiujiang; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie D; Losada, Liliana; Cleveland, Thomas E; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Bennett, Joan W; Dean, Ralph; Payne, Gary A

2015-01-01

126

Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Development of Strategies to Interrupt Aflatoxin Formation and Discovery of Fungal Enzymes for Biofuel Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus produces toxic and the most carcinogenic mycotoxins, the aflatoxins. The primary objectives of our A. flavus genomics program are to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination in food and feed and control fungal infection in preharvest crops such as corn, cotton, peanut and tre...

127

Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and other fungi of public health concern in food and organic matter in southwest Nigeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six Aspergillus flavus isolates out of 17 fungal isolates were sampled from diverse food and organic matter in southwest Nigeria. All the A. flavus samples produced aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid. These six isolates constitute a ready mycobank of toxigenic species for analytical research involving...

128

Genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a strain that causes aflatoxin contamination of food and feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immune compromised human patients. Here we report th...

129

Transcriptomic profiles of Aspergillus flavus CA42, a strain that produces small sclerotia, by decanal treatment and after recovery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous saprophyte and is capable of producing many secondary metabolites including the carcinogenic aflatoxins. The A. flavus population that produces small sclerotia (S strain) has been implicated as the culprit for persistent aflatoxin contamination of crops in fields. ...

130

The role of Aspergillus flavus veA in the production of extracellular proteins during growth on starch substrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aflatoxin-producer and opportunistic plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is responsible for the contamination of corn and other important agricultural commodities. In order to obtain nutrients from the host A. flavus produces a variety of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Int...

131

EFFECTS OF XENIA ON EXPRESSION OF RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN ACCUMULATION IN MAIZE INBREDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination pose an economic threat to maize (Zea mays L.) producers of the United States. Efforts to identify germplasm resistant to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation have raised questions regarding the role of xenia, the paternal effect, i...

132

Genetic structure of Aspergillus flavus populations in human and avian isolates.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is the second leading cause of allergic, invasive, and colonizing fungal diseases in humans, and also the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. Currently, it is not known whether there is a link between the environmental isolates and/or human isolates of A. flavus and those responsible for aspergillosis in birds. Microsatellite typing was used to analyze 29 A. flavus clinical and environmental avian isolates and 63 human clinical isolates collected from patients with a variety of aspergillosis diseases. The combination of all six markers yielded 77 different genotypes with a 0.98 D value. A. flavus genotypes obtained from avian isolates were compared with those obtained from human clinical and environmental samples. The standardized indices of association I (A) and rBarD were significantly different from zero (p?flavus isolates. The human environmental population was significantly differentiated from environmental and clinical avian populations (F (st)?>?0.25). The avian clinical subpopulation exchanged few strains with the environmental human (N (m)?=?7.24) and avian (N (m)?=?6.60) populations. The minimum spanning tree analysis identified three A. flavus genotype clusters that were highly structured according to the isolation source (p?

Hadrich, I; Amouri, I; Neji, S; Mahfoud, N; Ranque, S; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

2013-02-01

133

Analytical and computational approaches to define the Aspergillus niger secretome  

SciTech Connect

We used computational and mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the Aspergillus niger secretome. The 11,200 gene models predicted in the genome of A. niger strain ATCC 1015 were the data source for the analysis. Depending on the computational methods used, 691 to 881 proteins were predicted to be secreted proteins. We cultured A. niger in six different media and analyzed the extracellular proteins produced using mass spectrometry. A total of 222 proteins were identified, with 39 proteins expressed under all six conditions and 74 proteins expressed under only one condition. The secreted proteins identified by mass spectrometry were used to guide the correction of about 20 gene models. Additional analysis focused on extracellular enzymes of interest for biomass processing. Of the 63 glycoside hydrolases predicted to be capable of hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose or pectin, 94% of the exo-acting enzymes and only 18% of the endo-acting enzymes were experimentally detected.

Tsang, Adrian; Butler, Gregory D.; Powlowski, Justin; Panisko, Ellen A.; Baker, Scott E.

2009-03-01

134

In vitro susceptibility of 188 clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus flavus for the new triazole isavuconazole and seven other antifungal drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently isavuconazole, an experimental triazole agent, was found to be active against Aspergillus species. As Aspergillus flavus is the second-most common Aspergillus species isolated from human infection and the fungus has not been widely tested against the drug, we studied a large collection of clinical (n = 178) and environmental (n = 10) strains of A. flavus against isavuconazole and

M. R. Shivaprakash; E. Geertsen; A. Chakrabarti; J. W. Mouton; J. F. G. M. Meis

2011-01-01

135

Detection of Aspergillus flavus in Stored Peanuts Using Real-Time PCR and the Expression of Aflatoxin Genes in Toxigenic and Atoxigenic A. flavus Isolates.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is the main species from section Flavi responsible for aflatoxin accumulation in stored peanuts. Rapid methods to detect A. flavus could help to prevent aflatoxins from entering the food chain. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTi-PCR) assay was standardized for rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of A. flavus in stored peanuts. A. flavus was detected in 53.6% and 50% of peanut samples by RTi-PCR and A. flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus agar culture, respectively, with 95% agreement between them. Twenty-two A. flavus isolates were screened using high-performance liquid chromatography for their capacity to produce aflatoxin AFB1 (B1). B1 was produced by >72% of the isolates. Sixteen isolates produced B1 at concentrations ranging from 1.64 to 109.18??g/mL. Four aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, and aflQ) were evaluated using PCR and reverse-transcription PCR in 22 A. flavus isolates from peanut kernels with the aim of rapidly and accurately differentiating toxigenic and atoxigenic isolates. The PCR amplification of genes did not correlate with aflatoxin production capability. The expression of aflD and aflQ was a good marker for differentiating toxigenic from atoxigenic isolates. PMID:25621617

Mahmoud, Mohamed A

2015-04-01

136

Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over twenty five-fold higher levels of itaconic acid and show a twenty-fold increase in yield compared to a strain expressing only CadA. PMID:24438100

2014-01-01

137

Marine isolates of Aspergillus flavus: denizens of the deep or lost at sea?  

PubMed Central

Most fungal species from marine environments also live on land. It is not clear whether these fungi reach the sea from terrestrial sources as spores or other propagules, or if there are separate ecotypes that live and reproduce in the sea. The emergence of marine diseases has created an urgency to understand the distribution of these fungi. Aspergillus flavus is ubiquitous in both terrestrial and marine environments. This species is an opportunistic pathogen in many hosts, making it a good model to study the relationship between genetic diversity and specificity of marine fungi. In this study, an intraspecific phylogeny of A. flavus isolates based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) was used to determine if terrestrial and marine isolates form discrete populations, and to determine if phylogeny predicts substratum specificity. Results suggest lack of population structure in A. flavus. All isolates may compose a single population, with no clade particular to marine environments. PMID:21076639

ZULUAGA-MONTERO, Anabella; RAMÍREZ-CAMEJO, Luis; RAUSCHER, Jason; BAYMAN, Paul

2010-01-01

138

Global survey of canonical Aspergillus flavus G protein-coupled receptors.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane receptors that relay signals from the external environment inside the cell, allowing an organism to adapt to its surroundings. They are known to detect a vast array of ligands, including sugars, amino acids, pheromone peptides, nitrogen sources, oxylipins, and light. Despite their prevalence in fungal genomes, very little is known about the functions of filamentous fungal GPCRs. Here we present the first full-genome assessment of fungal GPCRs through characterization of null mutants of all 15 GPCRs encoded by the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. All strains were assessed for growth, development, ability to produce aflatoxin, and response to carbon sources, nitrogen sources, stress agents, and lipids. Most GPCR mutants were aberrant in one or more response processes, possibly indicative of cross talk in downstream signaling pathways. Interestingly, the biological defects of the mutants did not correspond with assignment to established GPCR classes; this is likely due to the paucity of data for characterized fungal GPCRs. Many of the GPCR transcripts were differentially regulated under various conditions as well. The data presented here provide an extensive overview of the full set of GPCRs encoded by A. flavus and provide a framework for analysis in other fungal species. Importance: Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops and animals, including humans, and it produces a carcinogenic toxin called aflatoxin. Because of this, A. flavus accounts for food shortages and economic losses in addition to sickness and death. Effective means of combating this pathogen are needed to mitigate its deleterious effects. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often used as therapeutic targets due to their signal specificity, and it is estimated that half of all drugs target GPCRs. In fungi such as A. flavus, GPCRs are likely necessary for sensing the changes in the environment, including food sources, developmental signals, stress agents, and signals from other organisms. Therefore, elucidating their functions in A. flavus could identify ideal receptors against which to develop antagonists. PMID:25316696

Affeldt, Katharyn J; Carrig, Joseph; Amare, Meareg; Keller, Nancy P

2014-01-01

139

Molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from corn grains.  

PubMed

Twelve species from six fungal genera were found to be associated with corn (Zea mays L.) grain samples collected from three main regions of Saudi Arabia. The average frequencies of the most common genera were Aspergillus (11.4%), Fusarium (9.5%), Penicillium (5.1%), and Alternaria (5.8%). Fifteen isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened by HPLC for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AF). The percentage of aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was 53%. Eight isolates produced AF, at concentrations ranging 0.7-2.9 ppb. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to genetically characterize isolates of A. flavus and to discriminate between the aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates. RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the A. flavus population, which was useful for genetic characterization. The clustering in the RAPD and ISSR dendrograms obtained was unrelated to geographic origin. The RAPD and ISSR markers could not discriminate between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates, but the ISSR primers were somewhat better. PMID:25501147

Mahmoud, M A; Ali, H M; El-Aziz, A R M; Al-Othman, M R; Al-Wadai, A S

2014-01-01

140

Trailing or paradoxical growth of Aspergillus flavus exposed to caspofungin is independent of genotype.  

PubMed

There are limited data on in vitro susceptibility testing of echinocandins against Aspergillus species. The objective of this study was to describe the phenotypes of Aspergillus flavus observed on exposure to caspofungin in vitro and to test whether these phenotypes were associated with A. flavus genotypes. The caspofungin MICs of 37 A. flavus clinical isolates collected from 14 patients with invasive aspergillosis were determined using Etest assays. Caspofungin MICs ranged from 0.012 to 0.064 mg l(-1); the modal MIC was 0.023 mg l(-1) and the MIC?? and MIC?? were 0.032 and 0.064 mg l(-1), respectively. A clear end point was noted in 24 (65?%) isolates, whereas seven (19?%) displayed a trailing effect and six (16?%) showed paradoxical growth when exposed to caspofungin. In these A. flavus isolates, the absence of a significant population structure or genetic differentiation indicated that trailing or paradoxical growth phenotypes were independent of microsatellite genotype. PMID:25210202

Hadrich, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali; Elloumi, Moez; Ranque, Stéphane

2014-12-01

141

Comparison of Aflatoxigenic and Nonaflatoxigenic Isolates of Aspergillus flavus using DNA Amplification Fingerprinting Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus that produces mycotoxins in many food and feed crops, such as maize (Zea mays L.). Isolates were analyzed for toxin production by nucleic acid profiles in an attempt to differentiate aflatoxigenic from\\u000a nonaflatoxigenic isolates. A total of 41 aflatoxigenic and 34 nonalfatoxigenic isolates were included in the study. The isolates\\u000a were evaluated initially using

R. E. Baird; R. N. Trigiano; G. Windham; P. Williams; R. Kelley; H. K. Abbas; J. K. Moulton; M. L. Scruggs

2006-01-01

142

Structural assessment of peanut cultivars for pod resistance to Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

. (May 1991) Russelyn Dee Henson, B. S. , Tarleton State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert E. Pettit Aspergillus flavus (Link) ex Fries is a soil and airborne fungus which colonizes many seed crops, including peanuts (Arachis hypogaea... Experiments A. Selection of Test Cultivars. . . . B. Maturity Indexing Peanut Shells. . . . . . C. Shell Preparation for Sectioning. . . . . D. Microtechnique. E. Microscopic Examination. . . . . II. Field Studies A. Selection of Test Cultivars...

Henson, Russelyn Dee

1991-01-01

143

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

2011-01-01

144

Genetic Variability of Aspergillus flavus Isolates from a Mississippi Corn Field  

PubMed Central

A nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain, K49, is currently being tested as a biological control agent in corn fields in the Mississippi Delta. However, little is known about the overall genetic diversity of A. flavus from year to year in corn fields and specifically in Mississippi. Our objective was to assess the genetic variability of A. flavus isolates from different seasons, inoculum sources, and years, from a no-till corn field. Of the 175 A. flavus isolates examined, 74 and 97 had the typical norB-cypA type I (1.5?kb) and type II (1.0?kb) deletion patterns, respectively. Variability in the sequence of the omtA gene of the majority of the field isolates (n = 118) was compared to strain K49. High levels of haplotypic diversity (24 omtA haplotypes; Hd = 0.61 ± 0.04) were found. Among the 24 haplotypes, two were predominant, H1 (n = 71), which consists of mostly toxigenic isolates, and H49 (n = 18), which consists of mostly atoxigenic isolates including K49. Toxigenic isolates were prevalent (60%) in this natural population. Nonetheless, about 15% of the population likely shared the same ancestral origin with K49. This study provides valuable information on the diversity of A. flavus. This knowledge can be further used to develop additional biological control strains. PMID:25478591

Solorzano, Cesar D.; Abbas, Hamed K.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Jones, Walker A.

2014-01-01

145

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

146

Investigations on the Antifungal Effect of Nerol against Aspergillus flavus Causing Food Spoilage  

PubMed Central

The antifungal efficacy of nerol (NEL) has been proved against Aspergillus flavus by using in vitro and in vivo tests. The mycelial growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited at concentrations of 0.8??L/mL and 0.1??L/mL NEL in the air at contact and vapor conditions, respectively. The NEL also had an evident inhibitory effect on spore germination in A. flavus along with NEL concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition. The NEL presented noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by A. flavus, totally restraining AFB1 production at 0.6??L/mL. In real food system, the efficacy of the NEL on resistance to decay development in cherry tomatoes was investigated in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit groups to NEL vapor at different concentration. NEL vapors at 0.1??L/mL air concentration significantly reduced artificially contaminated A. flavus and a broad spectrum of fungal microbiota. Results obtained from presented study showed that the NEL had a great antifungal activity and could be considered as a benefit and safe tool to control food spoilage. PMID:24453813

Tian, Jun; Zeng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Hong; Feng, Zhaozhong; Miao, Xiangmin; Peng, Xue

2013-01-01

147

Removal of cadmium, chromium, lead and copper from urban sewage by Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens have the ability to absorb heavy metals during the stationary phase of growth. To improve the removal the efficiency of the oxidation ditch, we have introduced Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens to the traditional Carrousel oxidation ditch process and the comparative experimental study were carried out when the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was 36h. According

Haihua Li; Guoqiang Bai; Yingying Fu; Yanyan Jin

2011-01-01

148

Influence of manganese on morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger during citric acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger were studied under conditions of manganese sufficient or deficient cultivation in an otherwise citric acid producing medium. Omission of Mn2+ (less than 10-7 M) from the nutrient medium of Aspergillus niger results in abnormal morphological development which is characterized by increased spore swelling, and squat, bulbeous hyphae. Fractionation and analysis of manganese

Monika Kisser; C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

149

Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

150

Streptomyces-Aspergillus flavus interactions: impact on aflatoxin B accumulation.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Streptomyces sp. as biocontrol agents against aflatoxins in maize. As such, we assumed that Streptomyces sp. could provide a complementary approach to current biocontrol systems such as Afla-guard(®) and we focused on biocontrol that was able to have an antagonistic contact with A. flavus. A previous study showed that 27 (out of 38) Streptomyces sp. had mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus. Among these, 16 Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin content to below 17% of the residual concentration. We selected six strains to understand the mechanisms involved in the prevention of aflatoxin accumulation. Thus, in interaction with A. flavus, we monitored by RT-qPCR the gene expression of aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS. All the Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin concentration (24.0-0.2% residual aflatoxin B1). They all impacted on gene expression, but only S35 and S38 were able to repress expression significantly. Indeed, S35 significantly repressed aflM expression and S38 significantly repressed aflR, aflM and aflP. S6 reduced aflatoxin concentrations (2.3% residual aflatoxin B1) and repressed aflS, aflM and enhanced aflR expression. In addition, the S6 strain (previously identified as the most reducing pure aflatoxin B1) was further tested to determine a potential adsorption mechanism. We did not observe any adsorption phenomenon. In conclusion, this study showed that Streptomyces sp. prevent the production of (aflatoxin gene expression) and decontamination of (aflatoxin B1 reduction) aflatoxins in vitro. PMID:25632796

Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Zhu, Y; Mathieu, F

2015-04-01

151

Samenvatting Aspergillus niger is a filamenteuze schimmel die wereldwijd verspreid is en veelvuldig  

E-print Network

Samenvatting Aspergillus niger is a filamenteuze schimmel die wereldwijd verspreid is en veelvuldig voorkomt op rottend planten materiaal. Als een saprophyt speelt A. niger een, scheidt A. niger een scala aan hydrolytische enzymen uit. Veel van de extracellulaire enzymen van A

Hille, Sander

152

Bioremediation of CCA-C treated wood by Aspergillus niger fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove copper, chromium, and arsenic from waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative. The removal of heavy metals by A. niger was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, A. niger was cultivated in carbohydrates media in order to produce large quantities of oxalic

S. N. Kartal; T. Kakitani; Y. Imamura

2004-01-01

153

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose – Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

154

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

155

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

156

Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths  

SciTech Connect

It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

157

Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in crops: advantages and limitations  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus is a diverse assemblage of strains that include aflatoxin-producing and non-toxigenic strains with cosmopolitan distribution. The most promising strategy currently being used to reduce preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxin is to introduce non-aflatoxin (biocontrol) A. flavus into the crop environment. Whether or not introduction of biocontrol strains into agricultural fields is enough to reduce aflatoxin contamination to levels required for acceptance of the contaminated food as fit for consumption is still unknown. There is no question that biocontrol strains are able to reduce the size of the populations of aflatoxin-producing strains but the available data suggests that at most only a four- to five-fold reduction in aflatoxin contamination is achieved. There are many challenges facing this strategy that are both short term and long term. First, the population biology of A. flavus is not well understood due in part to A. flavus’s diversity, its ability to form heterokaryotic reproductive forms, and its unknown ability to survive for prolonged periods after application. Second, biocontrol strains must be selected that are suitable for the environment, the type of crop, and the soil into which they will be introduced. Third, there is a need to guard against inadvertent introduction of A. flavus strains that could impose an additional burden on food safety and food quality, and fourth, with global warming and resultant changes in the soil nutrients and concomitant microbiome populations, the biocontrol strategy must be sufficiently flexible to adapt to such changes. Understanding genetic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for developing a robust biocontrol strategy and it is unlikely that a “one size fits all” strategy will work for preharvest aflatoxin reduction. PMID:24575088

Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

2014-01-01

158

Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in crops: advantages and limitations.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a diverse assemblage of strains that include aflatoxin-producing and non-toxigenic strains with cosmopolitan distribution. The most promising strategy currently being used to reduce preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxin is to introduce non-aflatoxin (biocontrol) A. flavus into the crop environment. Whether or not introduction of biocontrol strains into agricultural fields is enough to reduce aflatoxin contamination to levels required for acceptance of the contaminated food as fit for consumption is still unknown. There is no question that biocontrol strains are able to reduce the size of the populations of aflatoxin-producing strains but the available data suggests that at most only a four- to five-fold reduction in aflatoxin contamination is achieved. There are many challenges facing this strategy that are both short term and long term. First, the population biology of A. flavus is not well understood due in part to A. flavus's diversity, its ability to form heterokaryotic reproductive forms, and its unknown ability to survive for prolonged periods after application. Second, biocontrol strains must be selected that are suitable for the environment, the type of crop, and the soil into which they will be introduced. Third, there is a need to guard against inadvertent introduction of A. flavus strains that could impose an additional burden on food safety and food quality, and fourth, with global warming and resultant changes in the soil nutrients and concomitant microbiome populations, the biocontrol strategy must be sufficiently flexible to adapt to such changes. Understanding genetic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for developing a robust biocontrol strategy and it is unlikely that a "one size fits all" strategy will work for preharvest aflatoxin reduction. PMID:24575088

Ehrlich, Kenneth C

2014-01-01

159

Spatial Relationships of Soil Texture and Crop Rotation to Aspergillus flavus Community Structure in South Texas.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspergillus flavus, the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed, is a natural inhabitant of soils. A. flavus can be divided into the S and L strains, of which the S-strain isolates, on average, produce greater quantities of aflatoxins than the L-strain isolates. Aflatoxin contamination can be severe in several crops in South Texas. The structure of A. flavus communities residing in soils of South Texas was determined from 326 soil samples collected from 152 fields located from the Rio Grande Valley in the south to Fort Bend County in the north from 2001 through 2003. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences in the incidence of A. flavus isolates belonging to the S strain (percent S) among regions. The Coastal Bend (30.7%) and Upper Coast (25.5%) regions had significantly higher percent S incidence than the Rio Grande Valley (4.8%). No significant differences in percent S among years were detected. The CFU per gram of soil were not significantly different among regions. Strain S incidence was positively correlated with clay content and negatively correlated with sand content. Fields cropped to cotton the previous year had a higher S-strain incidence, whereas fields cropped to corn had greater total quantities of A. flavus propagules. Maps of S-strain patterns show that the S strain constitutes >30% of the overall A. flavus community in the area extending from the central Coastal Bend region to the central Upper Coast region. The west Rio Grande Valley had the lowest S-strain incidence (<10%). Geographic variation in S-strain incidence may influence the distribution of aflatoxin contamination in South Texas. PMID:18943177

Jaime-Garcia, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

2006-06-01

160

Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of Aspergillus flavus isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Within the genus Aspergillus, A. flavus is the second most important species of clinical significance. It is predominantly associated with infections involving sinuses, eye and skin, mostly in geographic regions with hot and arid climate, including the Middle East. Recent reports on emergence of resistance to triazoles among Aspergillus spp. is a cause of concern for treatment of patients with invasive aspergillosis. In this study we present data on genetic characterization and antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical and environmental isolates of A. flavus. Methods Ninety-nine Aspergillus section Flavi isolates, originating from clinical (n=92) and environmental (n=7) sources, initially identified by morphological characteristics, were analyzed by partial sequencing of ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene fragments and their susceptibilities to six antifungal agents was determined by Etest on RPMI1640 and Muller-Hinton agar media. Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B and voriconazole were also compared with zone of inhibition diameters obtained by disc diffusion test on RPMI agar medium. Results The identity of all clinical and environmental isolates was confirmed as A. flavus species by combined analysis of ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The mean MIC90 (?g/ml) values on RPMI medium for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, micafungin and caspofungin were 3, 0.25, 0.25, 0.002, 0.002 and 0.032, respectively. No environmental isolate exhibited MIC value of >2 ?g/ml for amphotericin B. For clinical isolates, the zone of inhibition diameters for amphotericin B and voriconazole ranged from 7–16 mm and 24–34 mm, respectively. Linear regression analysis between Etest MIC values and disk diffusion diameters revealed a significant inverse correlation with amphotericin B (p <0.001) and voriconazole (p<0.003). Conclusions The ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences confirmed that all 92 clinical isolates identified phenotypically belonged to A. flavus taxon, thus suggesting that the other species within Aspergillus section Flavi are of little clinical significance. Triazoles and echinocandins showed very good in vitro activity against the A. flavus, however, 10% clinical isolates showed MICs of >2 ?g/ml for amphotericin B. PMID:23496810

2013-01-01

161

RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity (aw) on growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus has been previously studied. Here we found the strains under 0.93 aw exhibited decreased conidiation and aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to that under 0.99 aw. When RNA-Seq was used to delineate gene expression profile under different water activities, 23,320 non-redundant unigenes, with an average length of 1297 bp, were yielded. By database comparisons, 19,838 unigenes were matched well (e-value < 10?5) with known gene sequences, and another 6767 novel unigenes were obtained by comparison to the current genome annotation of A. flavus. Based on the RPKM equation, 5362 differentially expressed unigenes (with |log2Ratio| ? 1) were identified between 0.99 aw and 0.93 aw treatments, including 3156 up-regulated and 2206 down-regulated unigenes, suggesting that A. flavus underwent an extensive transcriptome response during water activity variation. Furthermore, we found that the expression of 16 aflatoxin producing-related genes decreased obviously when water activity decreased, and the expression of 11 development-related genes increased after 0.99 aw treatment. Our data corroborate a model where water activity affects aflatoxin biosynthesis through increasing the expression of aflatoxin producing-related genes and regulating development-related genes. PMID:25421810

Zhang, Feng; Guo, Zhenni; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Sen; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Shihua

2014-01-01

162

Role of Oxidative Stress in Sclerotial Differentiation and Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

We show here that oxidative stress is involved in both sclerotial differentiation (SD) and aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus. Specifically, we observed that (i) oxidative stress regulates SD, as implied by its inhibition by antioxidant modulators of reactive oxygen species and thiol redox state, and that (ii) aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and SD are comodulated by oxidative stress. However, aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis is inhibited by lower stress levels compared to SD, as shown by comparison to undifferentiated A. flavus. These same oxidative stress levels also characterize a mutant A. flavus strain, lacking the global regulatory gene veA. This mutant is unable to produce sclerotia and aflatoxin B1. (iii) Further, we show that hydrogen peroxide is the main modulator of A. flavus SD, as shown by its inhibition by both an irreversible inhibitor of catalase activity and a mimetic of superoxide dismutase activity. On the other hand, aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis is controlled by a wider array of oxidative stress factors, such as lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl and thiyl radicals. PMID:25002424

Grintzalis, Konstantinos; Vernardis, Spyros I.; Klapa, Maria I.

2014-01-01

163

Studies of In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole and Itraconazole against Aspergillus Hyphae Using Viability Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of voriconazole and itraconazole for five clinical isolates each of Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were determined by a broth macrodilution method. Conidial suspensions as inocula were compared to hyphae as inocula since the invasive form of aspergillosis is manifested by the appearance of hyphal structures. In addition, cell viability staining

CORNELIA LASS-FLORL; MARKUS NAGL; CORNELIA SPETH; HANNO ULMER; MANFRED P. DIERICH; REINHARD WURZNER

2001-01-01

164

Aspergillus flavus infection induces transcriptional and physical changes in developing maize kernels  

PubMed Central

Maize kernels are susceptible to infection by the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus flavus. Infection results in reduction of grain quality and contamination of kernels with the highly carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin. To understanding host response to infection by the fungus, transcription of approximately 9000 maize genes were monitored during the host-pathogen interaction with a custom designed Affymetrix GeneChip® DNA array. More than 4000 maize genes were found differentially expressed at a FDR of 0.05. This included the up regulation of defense related genes and signaling pathways. Transcriptional changes also were observed in primary metabolism genes. Starch biosynthetic genes were down regulated during infection, while genes encoding maize hydrolytic enzymes, presumably involved in the degradation of host reserves, were up regulated. These data indicate that infection of the maize kernel by A. flavus induced metabolic changes in the kernel, including the production of a defense response, as well as a disruption in kernel development. PMID:25132833

Dolezal, Andrea L.; Shu, Xiaomei; OBrian, Gregory R.; Nielsen, Dahlia M.; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Boston, Rebecca S.; Payne, Gary A.

2014-01-01

165

A lectin from Spatholobus parviflorus inhibits Aspergillus flavus ?-amylase: enzyme kinetics and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a commonly found fungal pathogen which produces structurally related and highly toxic secondary metabolites, aflatoxins. It has been proposed that ?-amylase inhibitors may limit the ability of the fungus to produce aflatoxins. Hence, this enzyme is a potent target for the development of antifungal agents. In this study, it was found that Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin (SPL) can inhibit the growth of A. flavus with a MIC value of 1.5 mg/mL. The enzyme kinetics, molecular modeling and isothermal titration calorimetric studies suggest that SPL can inhibit ?-amylase with Ki value of 0.0042 mm. Hence, it is suggested that the antifungal activity of SPL might be partly due to its ability to inhibit the enzyme ?-amylase. PMID:24460654

Tintu, Ignatius; Abhilash, Joseph; Dileep, Kalarickal V; Augustine, Anu; Haridas, Madathilkovilakath; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu

2014-07-01

166

Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum  

SciTech Connect

With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

1984-04-01

167

Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger?  

PubMed Central

A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water. PMID:19251882

Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

2009-01-01

168

Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep.  

PubMed

A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek) and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy. PMID:19653520

Botha, C J; Truter, M; Bredell, T; Lange, L; Mülders, M S G

2009-03-01

169

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

170

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

2014-01-01

171

Induction of contour sensing in Aspergillus niger by stress and its relevance to fungal growth mechanics and hyphal tip structure  

E-print Network

Induction of contour sensing in Aspergillus niger by stress and its relevance to fungal growth to investigate the thigmotropic reactions of the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus niger. This organism not appear to demonstrate thigmotropic growth under normal conditions. Our results show that A. niger undergoes significant

Davidson, Fordyce A.

172

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by  

E-print Network

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

Gu, Tingyue

173

Antifungal properties and inhibitory effects upon aflatoxin production of Thymus vulgaris L. by Aspergillus flavus Link.  

PubMed

The antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic properties of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) were evaluated upon Aspergillus flavus "in vitro". Suspension containing 10(6) of A. flavus were cultivated with TEO in concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ?g/mL. TEO reached minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) at 250 ?g/mL. Inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was detected at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL of TEO. Morphological evaluation performed by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that antifungal activity of TEO could be detected starting at a concentration of 50 ?g/mL and the fungicide effect at a concentration of 250 ?g/mL. TEO completely inhibited production of both B1 and B2 aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) at a concentration of 150 ?g/mL. This way, fungal biomass development and aflatoxin production were dependent on TEO concentration. Therefore, TEO was capable of controlling the growth of A. flavus and its production of aflatoxins. PMID:25466118

Kohiyama, Cássia Yumie; Yamamoto Ribeiro, Milene Mayumi; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Bando, Erika; Bomfim, Natália da Silva; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira; Grespan, Renata; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel

2015-04-15

174

Antifungal Activity of a Liposomal Itraconazole Formulation in Experimental Aspergillus flavus Keratitis with Endophthalmitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical application of a liposomal formulation of itraconazole for the treatment of experimental keratitis with endophthalmitis caused by Aspergillus flavus. The liposomes were obtained by the lipid film hydration method followed by sonication. Adult female Wistar rats (weighing 200-220 g) were immunosuppressed by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide 3 days before infection by exposure to the fungus A. flavus (10(7) spores/ml). Forty-eight hours later, the animals were treated with the liposomal formulation. For comparison, one group of animals (n = 6) was treated with the same drug not encapsulated. At the end of the experiment, the animals were evaluated for clinical signs and number of colony forming units (CFU/g), along with direct microscopic examination. The results indicated that the liposomal formulation of itraconazole has better antifungal activity than the unencapsulated drug in the treatment of fungal keratitis with endophthalmitis caused experimentally by A. flavus in Wistar rats. PMID:25431088

Leal, André Ferraz Goiana; Leite, Melyna Chaves; Medeiros, Caroline Sanuzi Quirino; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves; Santos Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Neves, Rejane Pereira

2015-04-01

175

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

176

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava [Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Biological Sciences Division, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata, West Bengal-700108 (India); Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Gogoi, Robin [Plant Pathology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S. [Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India)

2010-10-04

177

Biotransformation of germacranolide from Onopordon leptolepies by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives to prevent fungal growth. Herein, we describe the microbial transformation of onopordopicrin (1) by Aspergillus niger. Four product 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (2), 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (3), 3?-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (4), and 14-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (5) were obtained. Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All the four compounds were novel. PMID:22186324

Esmaeili, Akbar; Moazami, Nasrin; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

2012-01-01

178

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by an ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system.

Kamath, A.; Vaidyanathan, C.S. (Indiana Institute of Science, Bangalore (India))

1990-01-01

179

A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities. PMID:25401948

Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

2015-02-01

180

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

181

In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

2014-09-01

182

New PCR method to differentiate species in the Aspergillus niger aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA that encodes the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA and the two intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the two proposed type strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate (A. niger and Aspergillus tubingensis) have been sequenced. By comparison of sequences we have found that both species could be differentiated by RsaI digestion of the PCR products of the

F. Accensi; J. Cano; L. Figuera; M. L. Abarca; F. J. Cabañes

1999-01-01

183

Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

2012-01-01

184

Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism.  

PubMed

A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their kinetic properties were characterized. For the other enzymes of the pathway the kinetic data were available from the literature. The metabolic model was used to analyze flux and metabolite concentration control of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway. The model demonstrated that flux control does not reside at the enzyme following the intermediate with the highest concentration, L-arabitol, but is distributed over the first three steps in the pathway, preceding and following L-arabitol. Flux control appeared to be strongly dependent on the intracellular L-arabinose concentration. At 5 mM intracellular L-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients for L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes or proteins. PMID:16321042

de Groot, Marco J L; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, Jaap; Ruijter, George J G

2005-01-01

185

[Lipid metabolism in Aspergillus niger under conditions of heat shock].  

PubMed

The processes of lipid synthesis and decomposition in Aspergillus niger under conditions of heat shock (HS) were studied in a pulse-chase experiment with 14C-labeled sodium acetate. HS (60 min) resulted in the synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids intensified compared tothe.control, as was evident from incorporation of the labeled substrate. The same pattern was observed for neutral lipids, especially for triacylglycerides, while incorporation of the label into sterols remained almost the same. Further cultivation for 3 h in the medium without the labeled substrate resulted in a significant decrease of the label content in the membrane lipids of both the control and the experiment, although under HS conditions this decrease was much more pronounced, especially for phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. A threefold increase of the label content in phosphatidic acids was observed only under HS conditions. These results indicate more intense metabolism of the membrane lipids under heat shock and suggest the degradation of the major cell phospholipids as the factor responsible for the increased level of phosphatidic acids in A. niger mycelium. PMID:25509390

Tereshina, V M; Memorskaia, A S; Kotlova, E R

2013-01-01

186

Aspergillus flavus induces granulomatous cerebral aspergillosis in mice with display of distinct cytokine profile.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is one of the leading Aspergillus spp. resulting in invasive aspergillosis of central nervous system (CNS) in human beings. Immunological status in aspergillosis of central nervous system remains elusive in case of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Since cytokines are the major mediators of host response, evaluation of disease pathology along with cytokine profile in brain may provide snapshots of neuro-immunological response. An intravenous model of A. flavus infection was utilized to determine the pathogenicity of infection and cytokine profile in the brain of male BALB/c mice. Enumeration of colony forming units and histopathological analyses were performed on the brain tissue at distinct time periods. The kinetics of cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-6, IL-23, IL-17A and IL-4) was evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h post infection (hPI) in brain homogenates using murine cytokine specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Histological analysis exhibited the hyphae with leukocyte infiltrations leading to formation of granulomata along with ischemia and pyknosis of neurons in the brain of infected mice. Diseased mice displayed increased secretion of IFN-?, IL-12p40 and IL-6 with a concomitant reduction in the secretion of Th2 cytokine IL-4, and Th17 promoting cytokine, IL-23 during the late phase of infection. A.flavus induced inflammatory granulomatous cerebral aspergillosis in mice, characterized by a marked increase in the Th1 cytokines and neurons undergoing necrosis. A marked increase in necrosis of neurons with concurrent inflammatory responses might have led to the host mortality during late phase of infection. PMID:25647272

Anand, R; Shankar, J; Tiwary, B N; Singh, A P

2015-04-01

187

Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.  

PubMed

Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. PMID:25084661

Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

2014-12-01

188

Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.  

PubMed

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound. PMID:25108759

Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

2014-10-17

189

Apple pomace: A potential substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple pomace was used as a fsubstrate for citric acid production by five strains of Aspergillus niger. A. niger NRRL 567 produced the greatest amount of citric acid from apple pomace in the presence of 4% methanol. The yield was 88% based on the amount of sugar consumed.

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams

1984-01-01

190

Optimization of medium composition for the production of glucosyltransferase by Aspergillus niger with response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger CCRC 31494 produced an extracellular glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.24) with a high transglucosylating activity. For production of glucosyltransferase by A. niger, yeast extract was the best nitrogen source after cultivation for 7 days. Addition of minerals to the medium showed no significant increase in the production of glucosyltransferase. A significant decrease in the production of glycosyltransferase was obtained when

Shiow-Ling Lee; Wen-Chang Chen

1997-01-01

191

Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus from Iran reveals the first cases of Aspergillus minisclerotigenes associated with human infection  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus flavus is intensively studied for its role in infecting crop plants and contaminating produce with aflatoxin, but its role as a human pathogen is less well understood. In parts of the Middle East and India, A. flavus surpasses A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis and is a significant cause of cutaneous, sinus, nasal and nail infections. Methods A collection of 45 clinical and 10 environmental A. flavus isolates from Iran were analysed using Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) markers with MICROSAT and goeBURST to determine their genetic diversity and their relatedness to clinical and environmental A. flavus isolates from Australia. Phylogeny was assessed using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing, and mating type was determined by PCR. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on selected isolates using a reference microbroth dilution method. Results There was considerable diversity in the A. flavus collection, with no segregation on goeBURST networks according to source or geographic location. Three Iranian isolates, two from sinus infections and one from a paranasal infection grouped with Aspergillus minisclerotigenes, and all produced B and G aflatoxin. Phylogenic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing confirmed two of these as A. minisclerotigenes, while the third could not be differentiated from A. flavus and related species within Aspergillus section flavi. Based on epidemiological cut-off values, the A. minisclerotigens and A. flavus isolates tested were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. Conclusions This is the first report of human infection due to A. minisclerotigenes, and it raises the possiblity that other species within Aspergillus section flavi may also cause clinical disease. Clinical isolates of A. flavus from Iran are not distinct from Australian isolates, indicating local environmental, climatic or host features, rather than fungal features, govern the high incidence of A. flavus infection in this region. The results of this study have important implications for biological control strategies that aim to reduce aflatoxin by the introduction of non-toxigenic strains, as potentially any strain of A. flavus, and closely related species like A. minisclerotigenes, might be capable of human infection. PMID:24986045

2014-01-01

192

Transformation of Aspergillus niger using the homologous orotidine-5?-phosphate-decarboxylase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A homologous transformation system for the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has been developed, based on the orotidine-5'-phosphate-decarboxylase gene. A. niger Pyr- mutants have been selected from 5-fluoroorotic acid resistant mutants. These mutants were found to comprise two complementation groups, pyrA and pyrB. The A. niger OMP-decarboxylase gene was isolated from a gene library by heterologous hybridization with the Neurospora crassa

Theo Goosen; Gerda Bloemheuvel; Christoph Gysler; Dick A. Bie; Henk W. J. Broek; Klaas Swart

1987-01-01

193

Development of a homologous transformation system for Aspergillus niger based on the pyrG gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a homologous transformation system for Aspergillus niger is described. The system is based on the use of an orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase deficient mutant (pyrG) and a vector, pAB4-1, which contains the functional A. niger pyrG gene as a selection marker. Transformation of the A. niger pyrG mutant with pAB4-1 resulted in the appearance of stable Pyr+ transformants at

Wim van Hartingsveldt; Ineke E. Mattern; Cora M. J. Zeijl; Peter H. Pouwels; Cees A. M. J. J. Hondel

1987-01-01

194

Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance and susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted...

195

Characterization of a maize association mapping panel for new sources of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) susceptibility to ear rot and aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus (Link:Fr) causes significant economic and human health damage worldwide. Although host plant resistance is an ideal solution to the problem, no commercial varieties display sufficient levels of resistance ...

196

Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: Potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection of the maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus and consequent contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxin is a persistent and serious agricultural problem causing disease and significant crop losses worldwide. The rachis (cob) is an important structure of maize ear ...

197

EFFECT OF EAR BAGGING SYSTEMS ON ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS KERNEL INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF CORN HYBRIDS GROWN IN THE FIELD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies were conducted for 4 years in Mississippi to determine the effect of various ear bagging systems on Aspergillus flavus kernel infection and aflatoxin production in developing ears of corn hybrids. Each year, three corn hybrids were grown on Myatt loam (low water-holding capacity) and a...

198

Evaluation of recycled bioplastic pellets and a sprayable formulation for application of an Aspergillus flavus biocontrol strain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus using inoculated bioplastic granules has been proven to be effective under laboratory and field conditions. In the present study, the use of low-density pellets from recycled bioplastic as a biocontrol strain carrier was evaluated. Applying recycled bioplastic pell...

199

Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus in soil by antagonistic Pseudomonas strains reduces the potential for airborne spore dispersal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain JP1015 and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain JP2175 were previously isolated from Mississippi cornfield soil samples and selected for their growth inhibition of Aspergillus flavus in laboratory culture. In this study, the antifungal activity of these bacterial strains a...

200

Evidence for geographic isolation and distinct patterns of recombination in the aflatoxin gene cluster of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic compounds produced by several Aspergillus species that contaminate food crops worldwide. A. flavus is the most common agent of aflatoxin contamination of corn, peanuts, cottonseed, figs and tree nuts in the US. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory m...

201

Fluorescent viability stains to probe the metabolic status of aflatoxigenic fungus in dual culture of Aspergillus flavus and Pichia anomala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The metabolic activity of aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala was examined using several vital stains. Both the FUN-1 stain and the combined use of DiBAC4(5) with CDFA-AM stains demonstrated that P. anomala inactivated the ATP generating syst...

202

Direct genetic evidence to support the presence of sexual recombination within the life cycle of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus contaminates many important crops worldwide and is the major producer of aflatoxins, which are cancer-causing secondary metabolites. In the United States, mycotoxins have been estimated to cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually, with aflatoxin contamin...

203

8ioconlrol Sci~flCt! and Technology (1995) 5. 175-184 Formulating Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus for Field  

E-print Network

of Aspergillus ftavus in alginate pellets for seeding into agricultural fields in Qrder to reduce aflatoxin A. flavus strains 10 furrow-irrigated cotton in desert environments, where aflatoxin contamination & Stoloff, 1983). Since then, methods to detect and prevent or 0958-31571951fr20175-10 (11995 Journals

Cotty, Peter J.

204

Development of a GFP-Expressing Aspergillus flavus Strain to Study Fungal Invasion, Colonization, and Resistance in Cottonseed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton bolls were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus (strain 70) to monitor fungal growth, mode of entry, colonization of cottonseeds and production of aflatoxins. The GFP strain and the wild type did not differ significantly in pathogen aggressiveness a...

205

Use of a Granular Bioplastic Formulation for Carrying Conidia of a Non-aflatoxigenic Strain of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research demonstrated that aflatoxin contamination in corn grown in Mississippi is reduced by field application of wheat grains pre-inoculated with the non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 30797. To facilitate field applications of the biocontrol isolate, a series of laboratory ...

206

Tight control of mycotoxin biosynthesis gene expression in Aspergillus flavus by temperature as revealed by RNA-seq  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To better understand the effect of temperature on mycotoxin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq technology was used to profile the Aspergillus flavus transcriptome under different temperature conditions. This approach allowed us to quantify transcript abundance for over 80% of fungal genes including 1,153 genes ...

207

Comparison of the side-needle and knife techniques for inducing Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in corn hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin in corn grain is a problem in many areas of the world. Any combination of environmentally stressful or agronomically unfavorable conditions can increase the likelihood of Aspergillus flavus infection and production of aflatoxin in the corn grain. In the absence of a consistent natural A....

208

Integrated database for identifying candidate genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in maize  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr, an opportunistic fungus that produces aflatoxin, is pathogenic to maize and other oilseed crops. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen, and its presence markedly reduces the value of grain. Understanding and enhancing host resistance to A. flavus infection and/or subsequent aflatoxin accumulation is generally considered an efficient means of reducing grain losses to aflatoxin. Different proteomic, genomic and genetic studies of maize (Zea mays L.) have generated large data sets with the goal of identifying genes responsible for conferring resistance to A. flavus, or aflatoxin. Results In order to maximize the usage of different data sets in new studies, including association mapping, we have constructed a relational database with web interface integrating the results of gene expression, proteomic (both gel-based and shotgun), Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) genetic mapping studies, and sequence data from the literature to facilitate selection of candidate genes for continued investigation. The Corn Fungal Resistance Associated Sequences Database (CFRAS-DB) (http://agbase.msstate.edu/) was created with the main goal of identifying genes important to aflatoxin resistance. CFRAS-DB is implemented using MySQL as the relational database management system running on a Linux server, using an Apache web server, and Perl CGI scripts as the web interface. The database and the associated web-based interface allow researchers to examine many lines of evidence (e.g. microarray, proteomics, QTL studies, SNP data) to assess the potential role of a gene or group of genes in the response of different maize lines to A. flavus infection and subsequent production of aflatoxin by the fungus. Conclusions CFRAS-DB provides the first opportunity to integrate data pertaining to the problem of A. flavus and aflatoxin resistance in maize in one resource and to support queries across different datasets. The web-based interface gives researchers different query options for mining the database across different types of experiments. The database is publically available at http://agbase.msstate.edu. PMID:20946609

2010-01-01

209

Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin occurrence and expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes in soil.  

PubMed

The carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the occurrence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues and ascertained the ecology of A. flavus in a Dundee silt loam soil. Samples of untilled soil (0-2 cm) and residues were collected in March 2007 from plots previously planted with a corn isoline containing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxin gene or the parental non-Bt isoline. AFB1 levels were significantly different in various corn residues. The highest AFB1 levels were observed in cobs containing grain, with 145 and 275 ng.g-1 in Bt and non-Bt, respectively (P > or = F = 0.001). Aflatoxin levels averaged 3.3 and 9.6 ng.g-1 in leaves and (or) stalks and cobs without grain, respectively. All soils had AFB1 ranging from 0.6 to 5.5 ng.g-1 with similar levels in plots from Bt and non-Bt corn. Based on cultural methods, soil contained from log10 3.1 to 4.5 A. flavus cfu.g-1 with about 60% of isolates producing aflatoxin. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that AFB1 is rapidly degraded in soil at 28 degrees C (half-life < or = 5 days). The potential of the soil A. flavus to produce aflatoxins was confirmed by molecular methods. Transcription of 5 aflatoxin biosynthesis genes, including aflD, aflG, aflP, aflR, and aflS, were detected by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction analysis in soil. Although AFB1 appears to be transient in soils, it is clear that AFB1 is produced in surface soil in the presence of corn residues, as indicated by A. flavus cfu levels, AFB1 detection, and expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. PMID:18449222

Accinelli, Cesare; Abbas, H K; Zablotowicz, R M; Wilkinson, J R

2008-05-01

210

The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), ?-turmerone (23.5%) and ?-turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0%?v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5%?v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants. PMID:24367241

Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski Junior, Miguel

2013-01-01

211

Chemical stabilization of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger against thermal inactivation.  

PubMed

The applicability of crosslinking an enzyme to an oxidized polysaccharide by reductive alkylation to enhance thermostability has been investigated for glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. Direct covalent coupling of the enzyme to periodate-oxidized dextran in the presence of NaBH(3)CN results in a conjugate which has thermal properties similar to those of the native enzyme. Our working hypothesis postulates that enhancement of thermostability will result from rigidification of the protein's conformation subsequent to the formation of multiple covalent bonds between the protein and the support. On the basis of the known characteristics of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger, it would seem necessary to introduce additional amino groups in the polypeptide chain of the protein. The incorporation of new amino groups was performed in two phases. First, the glycosidic part of glucoamylase was oxidized by periodate and the resulting aldehyde groups were reductively aminated by a diaminoalkane and NaBH(3)CIM. Secondly, additional amino groups were introduced on carboxyl functions into the previously aminated glucoamylase by a diaminoalkane and a water-soluble carbodiimide in the presence of maltose to protect the active site. The final derivative was then coupled to periodate-oxidized dextran T-70 in the presence of NaBH(3)CN. Starting with native glucoamylase, three successive operations give rise to a conjugate which retained 27% of the initial activity when measured with soluble starch and 39% when measured with maltopentaose. Using substrates of various sizes, it was observed that steric hindrance at the active site may result from covalent coupling to dextran T-70. It was demonstrated in heat inactivation experiments that the thermostability of the conjugate was in all cases superior to that of the native enzymes. Finally, it was observed that the operational stability of the conjugate was at least twice that of native glucoamylase at 70 degrees C on 18% maltodextrin. Additional experiments rule out the possibility that thermosta-bilization of the complex is due to other reasons than the increase in the amino content of the protein prior to crosslinking. Neither chemical modification, reticulation nor change in the net charge of the protein resulted in a derivative of glucoamylase which presented enhanced thermostability after conjugation. We conclude that for enzymes which have a low content of available amino groups, the thermostabilization method proposed previously by the present authors may still be applicable if additional amino groups are introduced into the protein prior to its crosslinking to an oxidized polysaccharide. This new example reinforces the generality of this method of stabilization. PMID:18584602

Lenders, J P; Crichton, R R

1988-02-20

212

In vitro comparative analysis of monocrotophos degrading potential of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp.  

PubMed

Fungal degradation is emerging as a new powerful tool for the removal of potent neurotoxin pesticide, monocrotophos. Therefore, the present study is aimed at comparative characterization of monocrotophos degrading ability of three different fungal strains. Fungal strains were isolated from local agricultural soil by enrichment culture method, screened by gradient culture and identified as Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. Growth kinetics revealed a direct positive influence of monocrotophos on the viability of fungal isolates. Fungal degradation was studied in phosphorus free liquid culture medium supplemented with 150 mg L(-1) concentration of monocrotophos for a period of 15 days under optimized culture conditions. Degradation of MCP followed first order kinetics with kdeg of 0.007, 0.002 and 0.005 day(-1) and half life (t1/2) of 4.21, 12.64 and 6.32 days for A. flavus, F. pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report signifying the potential of monocrotophos degradation by Fusarium and Macrophomina sp. The results were further confirmed by HPTLC and FTIR which indicates disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. Degradation of monocrotophos by fungal isolates was accompanied by the release of extracellular alkaline phosphatases, inorganic phosphates and ammonia. The overall comparative analysis followed the order of A. flavus > Macrophomina sp. > F. pallidoroseum. Therefore, it could be concluded from the study that these three different fungal strains could be effectively used as a potential candidate for the removal of monocrotophos from contaminated sites. PMID:24179090

Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Yadav, Deepak

2014-06-01

213

Substrate depletion during formation of aflatoxin and kojic acid on corn inoculated with Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Depletion of sugar and starch carbon sources and concomitant formation of secondary fungal metabolites, aflatoxin and kojic acid, were examined in growing corn inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. Kernels from control and inoculated ears were removed and analyzed after 16, 24, 48, 96 and 168 hrs. Reducing sugars were not significantly different for inoculated and control non-inoculated samples, but after 168 hrs (seven days) starch content was 20% lower in inoculated than in control samples. Kojic acid was detected before aflatoxins formed. Kojic acid, the oxidized product of kojic acid, and aflatoxin were all present in samples two days from inoculation. The formation of this oxidation product may influence toxin levels. PMID:3086727

Lee, L S; Parrish, F W; Jacks, T J

1986-02-01

214

Nectaries as Entry Sites for Aspergillus flavus in Developing Cotton Bolls  

PubMed Central

Cotton flowers in replicate plots in two fields near Phoenix, Ariz., were tagged in June at the beginning of the flowering period. Flowers or developing bolls from these tagged flowers were inoculated on the involucral (bracteal) nectaries with dry spores of Aspergillus flavus. The bolls were harvested as they matured in August, and the seeds were assessed for the presence of the fungus. The number of infected seed from flowers and bolls inoculated up to 25 days after anthesis was significantly higher than that in uninoculated controls. Seeds from bolls inoculated after 25 days postanthesis did not differ significantly from controls in degree of infection. We postulate that the sharp decline in the ability of the fungus to infect the plant and seed is a result of physical or biochemical changes in the boll as it reaches physiological maturity or biochemical changes in the entire plant as it develops. PMID:16346880

Klich, M. A.; Chmielewski, M. A.

1985-01-01

215

Global Survey of Canonical Aspergillus flavus G Protein-Coupled Receptors  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane receptors that relay signals from the external environment inside the cell, allowing an organism to adapt to its surroundings. They are known to detect a vast array of ligands, including sugars, amino acids, pheromone peptides, nitrogen sources, oxylipins, and light. Despite their prevalence in fungal genomes, very little is known about the functions of filamentous fungal GPCRs. Here we present the first full-genome assessment of fungal GPCRs through characterization of null mutants of all 15 GPCRs encoded by the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. All strains were assessed for growth, development, ability to produce aflatoxin, and response to carbon sources, nitrogen sources, stress agents, and lipids. Most GPCR mutants were aberrant in one or more response processes, possibly indicative of cross talk in downstream signaling pathways. Interestingly, the biological defects of the mutants did not correspond with assignment to established GPCR classes; this is likely due to the paucity of data for characterized fungal GPCRs. Many of the GPCR transcripts were differentially regulated under various conditions as well. The data presented here provide an extensive overview of the full set of GPCRs encoded by A. flavus and provide a framework for analysis in other fungal species. PMID:25316696

Affeldt, Katharyn J.; Carrig, Joseph; Amare, Meareg

2014-01-01

216

In silico analysis of ?-mannanases and ?-mannosidase from Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma virens UKM1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gene encoding an endo-?-1,4-mannanase from Trichoderma virens UKM1 (manTV) and Aspergillus flavus UKM1 (manAF) was analysed with bioinformatic tools. In addition, A. flavus NRRL 3357 genome database was screened for a ?-mannosidase gene and analysed (mndA-AF). These three genes were analysed to understand their gene properties. manTV and manAF both consists of 1,332-bp and 1,386-bp nucleotides encoding 443 and 461 amino acid residues, respectively. Both the endo-?-1,4-mannanases belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 and contain a carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1). On the other hand, mndA-AF which is a 2,745-bp gene encodes a protein sequence of 914 amino acid residues. This ?-mannosidase belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 2. Predicted molecular weight of manTV, manAF and mndA-AF are 47.74 kDa, 49.71 kDa and 103 kDa, respectively. All three predicted protein sequences possessed signal peptide sequence and are highly conserved among other fungal ?-mannanases and ?-mannosidases.

Yee, Chai Sin; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu

2013-11-01

217

An opportunistic human pathogen on the fly: strains of Aspergillus flavus vary in virulence in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Aspergilloses are fungal diseases in humans and animals that is caused by members of the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus flavus is an important opportunistic pathogen, second only to A. fumigatus as a cause of human aspergillosis. Differences in virulence among A. flavus isolates from clinical and other substrates and mating types are not well known. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become a model organism for investigating virulence of human pathogens due to similarities between its immune system and that of mammals. In this study we used D. melanogaster as a model host to compare virulence among A. flavus strains obtained from clinical sources as compared with other substrates, between isolates of different mating types, and between isolates of A. flavus and A. fumigatus. Anesthetized flies were infected with A. flavus; mortality ranged from 15% to >90%. All strains were virulent, but some were significantly more so than others, which in turn led to the wide mortality range. Clinical strains were significantly less virulent than environmental strains, probably because the clinical strains were from culture collections and the environmental strains were recent isolates. Mean virulence did not differ between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating types and the phylogeny of A. flavus isolates did not predict virulence. A. flavus was on average significantly more virulent than A. fumigatus on two lines of wild-type flies, Canton-S and Oregon-R. D. melanogaster is an attractive model to test pathogenicity and could be useful for identifying genes involved in virulence. PMID:24577003

Ramírez-Camejo, Luis A; Torres-Ocampo, Ana P; Agosto-Rivera, José L; Bayman, Paul

2014-02-01

218

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

219

ROLE OF COMPETITION AND ADVERSE CULTURE CONDITIONS IN PREVENTING THE LOSS OF A AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS DURING SERIAL TRANSFERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is genetically unstable when repeatedly transferred in culture. Serial transfers often result in loss of aflatoxin production and in associated morphological changes such as reduced sporulation, proliferation of aerial hyphae and an inability to produce sclerotia. However, degene...

220

Aspergillus flavus genetic diversity of corn fields treated with non-toxigenic strain afla-guard in the southern U.S  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus genetic diversity of corn fields treated with the non-toxigenic strain Afla-Guard (NRRL 21882) was determined for 384 A. flavus isolates from 14 locations within 6 states in the southern U.S. ELISA test has determined low levels of toxigenic strains (only 91 positive). Nearly hal...

221

Volatile profiles and aflatoxin production by toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus grown on sterile and non-sterile cracked corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus which can grow on corn and produce aflatoxins which render it unsafe for food and feed consumption. In this study, aflatoxin and non-aflatoxin producing isolates of A. flavus were grown separately on wet (20% water added), sterile or non-sterile cracked co...

222

Functional characterization of a veA-dependent polyketide synthase gene in Aspergillus flavus necessary for the synthesis of asparasone, a sclerotium-specific pigment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus, produces the toxic and carcinogenic, polyketide synthase (PKS)-derived family of secondary metabolites termed aflatoxins. While analysis of the A. flavus genome has identified many other PKSs capable of producing secondary metabolites, to date, only a few ...

223

Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus,

Liliana de Aguirre; Steven F. Hurst; Jong Soo Choi; Jong Hee Shin; Hans Peter Hinrikson; Christine J. Morrison

2004-01-01

224

Facile production of Aspergillus niger ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in yeast.  

PubMed

?-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase (?-GalNAc-ase; EC.3.2.1.49) is an exoglycosidase specific for the hydrolysis of terminal ?-linked N-acetylgalactosamine in various sugar chains. The cDNA corresponding to the ?-GalNAc-ase gene was cloned from Aspergillus niger, sequenced, and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ?-GalNAc-ase gene contains an open reading frame which encodes a protein of 487 amino acid residues. The molecular mass of the mature protein deduced from the amino acid sequence of this reading frame is 54 kDa. The recombinant protein was purified to apparent homogeneity and biochemically characterized (pI4.4, K(M) 0.56 mmol/l for 2-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-galactopyranoside, and optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH2.0-2.4 and 50-55°C). Its molecular weight was determined by analytical ultracentrifuge measurement and dynamic light scattering. Our experiments confirmed that the recombinant ?-GalNAc-ase exists as two distinct species (70 and 130 kDa) compared to its native form, which is purely monomeric. N-Glycosylation was confirmed at six of the eight potential N-glycosylation sites in both wild type and recombinant ?-GalNAc-ase. PMID:21982820

Mrázek, Hynek; Benada, Old?ich; Man, Petr; Van?k, Ond?ej; K?en, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel; Weignerová, Lenka

2012-01-01

225

Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem  

PubMed Central

One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

2013-01-01

226

A volatile relationship: profiling an inter-kingdom dialogue between two plant pathogens, Ralstonia Solanacearum and Aspergillus Flavus.  

PubMed

Microbes in the rhizosphere have a suite of extracellular compounds, both primary and secondary, that communicate with other organisms in their immediate environment. Here, we describe a two-way volatile interaction between two widespread and economically important soil-borne pathogens of peanut, Aspergillus flavus and Ralstonia solanacearum, a fungus and bacterium, respectively. In response to A. flavus volatiles, R. solanacearum reduced production of the major virulence factor extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). In parallel, A. flavus responded to R. solanacearum volatiles by reducing conidia production, both on plates and on peanut seeds and by increasing aflatoxin production on peanut. Volatile profiling of these organisms using solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (SPME-GCMS) provided a first glimpse at the compounds that may drive these interactions. PMID:24801606

Spraker, Joseph E; Jewell, Kelsea; Roze, Ludmila V; Scherf, Jacob; Ndagano, Dora; Beaudry, Randolph; Linz, John E; Allen, Caitilyn; Keller, Nancy P

2014-05-01

227

Comparison of expression of secondary metabolite biosynthesis cluster genes in Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. oryzae.  

PubMed

Fifty six secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted to be in the Aspergillus flavus genome. In spite of this, the biosyntheses of only seven metabolites, including the aflatoxins, kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, have been assigned to a particular gene cluster. We used RNA-seq to compare expression of secondary metabolite genes in gene clusters for the closely related fungi A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, and A. flavus S and L sclerotial morphotypes. The data help to refine the identification of probable functional gene clusters within these species. Our results suggest that A. flavus, a prevalent contaminant of maize, cottonseed, peanuts and tree nuts, is capable of producing metabolites which, besides aflatoxin, could be an underappreciated contributor to its toxicity. PMID:24960201

Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Mack, Brian M

2014-06-01

228

A two-step bioconversion process for vanillin production from ferulic acid combining Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step bioconversion process of ferulic acid to vanillin was elaborated combining two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. In the first step, A. niger transformed ferulic acid to vanillic acid and in the second step vanillic acid was reduced to vanillin by P. cinnabarinus. Ferulic acid metabolism by A. niger occurred essentially via the propenoic chain degradation to

Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Michel Delattre; Mireille Haon; Jean-François Thibault; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Pascal Brunerie; Marcel Asther

1996-01-01

229

Genetic Similarity among One Aspergillus flavus Strain Isolated from a Patient Who Underwent Heart Surgery and Two Environmental Strains Obtained from the Operating Room  

PubMed Central

We report the simultaneous isolation of one Aspergillus flavus strain from the aortic prosthesis of a heart surgery patient and another two isolates recovered from a dual-reservoir cooler-heater used in the operating room where this patient was operated on. Genetic typing of these three isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed identical genotypes. Eight unrelated control strains of A. flavus had eight different genotypes. These results clearly indicated the nosocomial origin of the A. flavus strain isolated from the patient. We suggest that the RAPD technique is a rapid and reliable tool to ascertain the epidemiology of infections caused by A. flavus. PMID:10835021

Diaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gaztelurrutia, Lourdes; Navarro, Jose Ignacio Villate; Tudela, Juan L. Rodríguez

2000-01-01

230

Genetic similarity among one Aspergillus flavus strain isolated from a patient who underwent heart surgery and two environmental strains obtained from the operating room.  

PubMed

We report the simultaneous isolation of one Aspergillus flavus strain from the aortic prosthesis of a heart surgery patient and another two isolates recovered from a dual-reservoir cooler-heater used in the operating room where this patient was operated on. Genetic typing of these three isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed identical genotypes. Eight unrelated control strains of A. flavus had eight different genotypes. These results clearly indicated the nosocomial origin of the A. flavus strain isolated from the patient. We suggest that the RAPD technique is a rapid and reliable tool to ascertain the epidemiology of infections caused by A. flavus. PMID:10835021

Diaz-Guerra, T M; Mellado, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Gaztelurrutia, L; Navarro, J I; Tudela, J L

2000-06-01

231

Invasive Aspergillus niger complex infections in a Belgian tertiary care hospital.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive infections caused by the Aspergillus niger species complex was 0.043 cases/10 000 patient-days in a Belgian university hospital (2005-2011). Molecular typing was performed on six available A. niger complex isolates involved in invasive disease from 2010 to 2011, revealing A. tubingensis, which has higher triazole minimal inhibitory concentrations, in five out of six cases. PMID:24102876

Vermeulen, E; Maertens, J; Meersseman, P; Saegeman, V; Dupont, L; Lagrou, K

2014-05-01

232

Improved transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger using the homologous nia D gene for nitrate reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger transformation frequencies of up to 1,176 transformants per µg DNA were achieved using the plasmid vector pSTA10 containing the A. niger nitrate reductase structural gene. Analysis of genomic endonuclease cleaved DNA from nitrate utilising transformants by DNA hybridisation, showed that most integration events are as a result of homologous recombination. The niaD transformation system was used successfully for

Edward I. Campbell; Shiela E. Unkles; Janet A. Macro; Cees van den Hondel; Roland Contreras; James R. Kinghorn

1989-01-01

233

Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of synteny was observed with other aspergilli sequenced. Strong function predictions were made for 6,506 of

Herman J Pel; Johannes H de Winde; David B Archer; Paul S Dyer; Gerald Hofmann; Peter J Schaap; Geoffrey Turner; Ronald P de Vries; Richard Albang; Kaj Albermann; Mikael R Andersen; Jannick D Bendtsen; Jacques A E Benen; Marco van den Berg; Stefaan Breestraat; Mark X Caddick; Roland Contreras; Michael Cornell; Pedro M Coutinho; Etienne G J Danchin; Alfons J M Debets; Peter Dekker; Piet W M van Dijck; Alard van Dijk; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Arnold J M Driessen; Christophe d'Enfert; Steven Geysens; Coenie Goosen; Gert S P Groot; Piet W J de Groot; Thomas Guillemette; Bernard Henrissat; Marga Herweijer; Johannes P T W van den Hombergh; Cees A M J J van den Hondel; Rene T J M van der Heijden; Rachel M van der Kaaij; Frans M Klis; Harrie J Kools; Christian P Kubicek; Patricia A van Kuyk; Jürgen Lauber; Xin Lu; Marc J E C van der Maarel; Rogier Meulenberg; Hildegard Menke; Martin A Mortimer; Jens Nielsen; Stephen G Oliver; Maurien Olsthoorn; Karoly Pal; Arthur F J Ram; Ursula Rinas; Johannes A Roubos; Cees M J Sagt; Monika Schmoll; Jibin Sun; David Ussery; Janos Varga; Wouter Vervecken; Holger Wedler; Han A B Wösten; An-Ping Zeng; Albert J J van Ooyen; Jaap Visser; Hein Stam

2007-01-01

234

Heterologous protein secretion from Aspergillus niger in phosphate-buffered batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger was grown in batch culture containing various initial concentrations of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5). A wild-type strain of A. niger and a transformed strain producing hen egg-white lysozyme were studied. The maximum cell yield was attained in medium not supplemented with phosphate. In those cultures acidification of the medium resulted in a minimum of pH 2.0 before

David B. Archer; Ian N. Roberts; Donald A. MacKenzie

1990-01-01

235

Biosorption of phenol from an aqueous solution by Aspergillus niger biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenols in trace quantities are usually present in the treated effluent of many wastewater-treatment plants. Phenol contamination of drinking water even at 1 ?g\\/l concentration can cause significant taste and odor problems. This study investigates the use of non-viable pretreated cells of Aspergillus niger to remove phenol from an aqueous solution. Five types of non-viable pretreated A. niger biomass powders

J. R Rao; T Viraraghavan

2002-01-01

236

Use of a granular bioplastic formulation for carrying conidia of a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research demonstrated that aflatoxin contamination in corn is reduced by field application of wheat grains pre-inoculated with the non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 30797. To facilitate field applications of this biocontrol isolate, a series of laboratory studies were conducted on the reliability and efficiency of replacing wheat grains with the novel bioplastic formulation Mater-Bi® to serve as a carrier

Cesare Accinelli; M. Ludovica Saccà; Hamed K. Abbas; Robert M. Zablotowicz; Jeffery R. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

237

Use of Aspergillus flavus to evaluate relative nutritive value of barley cultivars intended for incorporation in animal diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrity-six barley cultivars were analyzed for relative nutritive value, using the fungusAspergillus flavus. The protein content ranged from 7.8 to 14.7% and dye-binding capacity (DBC) ranged between 180 to 260. When additional glucose was not supplied in the medium containing barley samples at equal nitrogen level the biomass was low (76.3 mg average) and the correlation between the biomass and

M. Mohyuddin; A. J. Lewis; J. P. Bowland

1978-01-01

238

Development and evaluation of ITS- and aflP-based LAMP assays for rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus in food samples.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous studies focused mainly on the detection of A. flavus or aflatoxin separately. Here, we developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS)- and aflP-based rapid detection of A. flavus in food samples using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region of A. flavus and the aflatoxin-encoding gene aflP were used as target regions. The detection limits of A. flavus and aflP were 10 fg and 1 pg pure DNA, respectively, which allows aflatoxin-contaminated samples to be differentiated from infected samples and reduces false-negative or false-positive results. For specificity testing, DNA extracted from 7 A. flavus, 5 different Aspergillus spp., and 21 other fungi were used, and our results showed that A. flavus strains are detected by ITS-based detection and aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains are detected by aflP-based detection. Furthermore, the ITS- and aflP-based LAMP assays were used for detection analysis of DNA from food samples artificially and naturally contaminated with A. flavus. Our results showed that the detection rate of A. flavus based on the multi-ITS-based LAMP detection is 100% and that the aflatoxigenic strains in all A. flavus are detected by the aflP-based LAMP assay. The LAMP protocol described in our study represents a rapid and highly specific and sensitive diagnostic method for A. flavus detection, which can be used as a diagnostic tool that simplifies A. flavus monitoring and guarantees the quality and safety of foods. PMID:25126831

Liu, Peiqing; Li, Benjin; Yin, Rongmei; Weng, Qiyong; Chen, Qinghe

2014-09-01

239

Characterization of species of the Aspergillus section Nigri from corn field isolates co-infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus species and the potential for ochratoxin A production.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri, known as black-spored aspergilli, can contaminate several substrates including maize. Although some species within the group can produce plant disease symptoms such as black mold in onions and maize ear rot, the main concern with A. niger aggregate contamina...

240

Inhibition of aflatoxin metabolism and growth of Aspergillus flavus in liquid culture by a DNA methylation inhibitor.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of highly oxygenated polyketidese-derived toxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, whose biosynthesis mechanisms are extremely sophisticated. Methylation is known as the major form of epigenetic regulation, which is correlated with gene expression. As the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AC) blocks AF production, we studied AFB1 metabolism and morphological changes of A. flavus by treatment with 5-AC in liquid culture. The results show that 5-AC caused a decrease in AF production and concurrent changes in morphology. In addition, we isolated a non-aflatoxigenic mutant of A. flavus, showing a significant reduction in pigment production, after 5-AC treatment. This mutant showed significant reduction in the expression of genes in the AF biosynthesis pathway, and conidia formation. Furthermore, as AF biosynthesis and oxidative stress are intimately related events, we assessed the viability of A. flavus to oxidative stress after treatment with 5-AC, which showed that the mutant was more sensitive to the strong oxidant hydrogen peroxide. We found that the non-aflatoxigenic mutant showed a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolites indicative of oxidative stress, which may be caused by the disruption of the defence system against excessive ROS formation after 5-AC treatment. These data indicate that 5-AC, as an inactivator of DNA methyltransferase, plays a very important role in AFB1 metabolism and the development of A. flavus, which might provide an effective strategy to pre- or post-harvest control of AFs. PMID:25312249

Yang, Kunlong; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Zhang, Feng; Song, Fengqin; Zhong, Hong; Ran, Fanlei; Yu, Song; Xu, Gaopo; Lan, Faxiu; Wang, Shihua

2015-04-01

241

Identification of a major xylanase from Aspergillus flavus as a 14-kD protein.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus K49 secreted at least two xylanase activities when grown on a medium containing larch (wood) xylan as a sole carbon source. Enzyme activity was assayed using an agar medium containing Remazol Brilliant Blue R conjugated oat spelt xylan as substrate. Crude enzyme preparations were inhibited by Hg(+2), with an ED(50) of 17.5 mM and maximum inhibition of 83% at 50 mM. A concentrated sample of A. flavus K49 xylanase preparation was subjected to gel filtration chromatography on a P-30 column. A small protein peak coinciding with the major peak of xylanase activity was separated from the other secreted fungal proteins. An additional peak of xylanase activity was observed in fractions containing multiple fungal proteins. Analysis by denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of fractions containing the smaller molecular weight xylanase revealed a major and minor protein band in the vicinity of 14 kD. Analysis of these same fractions by acidic native PAGE revealed a single band. Confirmation of identity for the isolated xylanase was provided by isolation of a protein band from a SDS-PAGE gel, followed by trypsin digestion/analysis by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the peptide library derived from this protein band with sequence data from the A. oryzae genomic data base provided a solid match with an endo-1,4-?-xylanase, XlnA. This identification is consistent with a low molecular weight protein associated with the major xylanolytic activity. XlnA may be a highly mobile (diffusible), plant wall hemicellulose degrading factor with significant activity during plant infection. PMID:21479830

Mellon, Jay E; Cotty, Peter J; Callicott, Kenneth A; Abbas, Hamed

2011-10-01

242

Distribution of mating-type genes correlates with genetic recombination and aflatoxin chemotype diversity in worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that contaminate food crops worldwide. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of aflatoxin contamination of oil-rich crops. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered and convert acetat...

243

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers for Aspergillus flavus: Emphasis on Variability of Isolates from the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Aspergillus flavus expressed sequence tag (EST) database to conduct an analysis of genetic relationships of Aspergillus isolates from numerous host species and geographical regions, but primarily from the United States. Twenty-nine primers wer...

244

Use of Pyrosequencing to Quantify Incidence of a Specific Aspergillus flavus Strain Within Complex Fungal Communities Associated with Commercial Cotton Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens produced by several species of Aspergillus, and its presence in foods causes chronic health effects including immune-system suppression, growth retardation, cancer, and death in both humans and domestic animals. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have b...

245

Mycotoxin occurrence and Aspergillus flavus soil propagules in a corn and cotton glyphosate-resistant cropping systems.  

PubMed

The effects of cotton-corn rotation and glyphosate use on levels of soil-borne Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in corn and cotton seed were determined during 2002-2005 in Stoneville, Mississippi (USA). There were four rotation systems (continuous cotton, continuous corn, cotton-corn and corn-cotton) for both glyphosate-resistant (GR) and non-GR cultivars-herbicide system arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Aspergillus flavus populations in surface (5-cm depth) soil, sampled before planting (March/April), mid-season June) and after harvest (September), ranged from 1.47 to 2.99 log (10) cfu g(-1) soil in the four rotation systems. Propagules of A. flavus were higher in the continuous corn system compared to the continuous cotton system on three sample dates, and cotton rotated with corn decreased A. flavus propagules in three of nine sample dates. Propagules of A. flavus were significantly greater in plots with GR cultivars compared to non-GR cultivars in three samples. In cotton seed, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels were similar (< or = 4 microg kg(-1) and non-detectable, respectively) regardless of rotation and glyphosate. In corn grain, aflatoxin was above the regulatory level (> or = 20 microg kg(-1)) only in GR cultivar in 2004 and 2005. Fumonisin was higher in non-GR cultivar (4 mg kg(-1)) regardless of rotation in 2004; however, in 2002, 2003 and 2005, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels were similar regardless of rotation and glyphosate. These results indicate the potential for increased aflatoxin and fumonisin levels (1 of 4 years) in corn; however, climatic conditions encountered during this study did not allow for mycotoxin production. In laboratory incubation studies, fairly high concentrations of glyphosate were required to inhibit A. flavus growth; however no short-term effect of soil treatment with glyphosate on A. flavus populations were observed. These data suggest that altered populations of A. flavus or higher aflatoxin concentrations in corn grain were due to indirect effects of the GR cropping system. PMID:17917911

Reddy, K N; Abbas, H K; Zablotowicz, R M; Abel, C A; Koger, C H

2007-12-01

246

Molecular Technique to Fingerprint Aspergillus flavus Causing Aflatoxin Contamination in Food  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A retrotransposon, AFLAV (A. flavus retrotransposon), has been recently characterized in A. flavus. Complete DNA sequence of 7784 bp containing the AFLAV has been submitted to GenBank (accession number AY485785). Multicopies of this transposon are dispersed in the chromosomes of A. flavus. PCR pri...

247

Reduction of Aflatoxin in Pistachio Through Biological Control of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A retrotransposon, AFLAV (A. flavus retrotransposon), has been recently characterized in A. flavus. Complete DNA sequence of 7784 bp containing the AFLAV has been submitted to GenBank (accession number AY485785). Multicopies of this transposon are dispersed in the chromosomes of A. flavus. PCR pr...

248

Cloning and expression of a second Aspergillus niger pectin lyase gene ( pel A): Indications of a pectin lyase gene family in A. niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the previously cloned Aspergillus niger N756 pectin lyase D gene as a probe, the corresponding pelD gene has been isolated from a genomic library of the loboratory strain A. niger N400. This gene encodes PLD, previously described as PLI, which is one of the two major pectin lyases isolated from the commeriial pectinase preparation Ultrazym®. Heterologous hybridization of the

J. A. M. Harmsen; M. A. Kusters-van Someren; J. Visser

1990-01-01

249

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

250

SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY THE SOIL FUNGI ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND MUCOR ROUXII  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption of the nitrate salts of cadmium(II), copper (II), lanthanum(III) and silver (I) by two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii, was evaluated using Fruendlich adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray electron microscopy. The linearized Freundlich isotherm descr...

251

Characterization of the fumonisin B2 biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus niger and A. awamori.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus niger and A. awamori strains isolated from grapes cultivated in Mediterranean basin were examined for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production and presence/absence of sequences within the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster. Presence of 13 regions in the fum cluster was evaluated by PCR assay...

252

Conversion of fusaric acid to fusarinol by Aspergillus niger: A detoxification reaction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes wilt diseases of plants and produces a potent phytotoxin fusaric acid (FA) which is also toxic to many microorganisms. An Aspergillus strain with high tolerance to FA was isolated from soil. HPLC analysis of culture filtrates from A. niger grown with the addition...

253

Enzymatic Comparisons of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 Phytases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was to compare three phytase activity assays and kinetics of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases expressed in Pichia pastoris at the observed stomach pH of 3.5. In Experiment 1, equivalent phytase activities in the crude preparations of PhyA and AppA2 were tested ...

254

NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

255

Identification and characterization of a second polygalacturonase gene of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger produces several endopolygalacturonases that are involved in the degradation of pectin. PGI, the enzyme representing the second most abundant activity in a commmercial enzyme preparation, was further characterized and the corresponding gene was isolated. The nucleotide sequence of the pgaI gene was determined and the protein coding region was found to be interrupted by two

H. J. D. Bussink; K. B. Brouwer; L. H. Graaff; H. C. M. Kester; J. Visser

1991-01-01

256

Isolation and characterization of mutants of Aspergillus niger deficient in extracellular proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the extracellular protease activity in a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was investigated and mutant strains deficient in the production of extracellular proteases were isolated. The major protease, which is responsible for 80–85% of the total activity, is aspergillopepsin A, a protein of ca. 43 kDa, the activity of which is inhibited by pepstatin.

Ineke E. Mattern; Johannes M. van Noort; Paul van den Berg; David B. Archer; Ian N. Roberts; Cees A. M. J. J. Hondel

1992-01-01

257

The effect of the sugar source on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under otherwise identical fermentation conditions, the sugar source has been shown to have a marked effect on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Sucrose was the most favourable source, followed by glucose and fructose and then lactose. No citric acid was produced from galactose. Strong relationships were observed between citric acid production and the activities of certain enzymes in myccelial

M. Hossain; J. D. Brooks; I. S. Maddox

1984-01-01

258

Systemic analysis of the response of Aspergillus niger to ambient pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an exceptionally efficient producer of organic acids, which is one of the reasons for its relevance to industrial processes and commercial importance. While it is known that the mechanisms regulating this production are tied to the levels of ambient pH, the reasons and mechanisms for this are poorly understood. METHODS: To cast

Mikael R Andersen; Linda Lehmann; Jens Nielsen

2009-01-01

259

Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 Rhamnoside Hydrolase, a New Type of Flavonoid Glycoside Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

A novel rutin-?-l-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing ?-l-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the ?-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13. PMID:22544243

Liu, Tingqiang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira

2012-01-01

260

Unfolding and Refolding of Aspergillus Niger PhyB Phytase: Role of Disulfide Bridges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Role of disulfide bridges in folding of Aspergillus niger phytase pH 2.5-optimum (PhyB) was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Guanidinium chloride (GuCl) at 1.0 M unfolded phytase; however, its removal by dialysis refolded the protein. Thiol reagent, tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphin...

261

Effect of climate change on Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production  

PubMed Central

This review considers the available information on the potential impact of key environmental factors and their interactions on the molecular ecology, growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in vitro and in maize grain. The recent studies which have been carried out to examine the impact of water activity × temperature on aflatoxin biosynthesis and phenotypic aflatoxin production are examined. These have shown that there is a direct relationship between the relative expression of key regulatory and structural genes under different environmental conditions which correlate directly with aflatoxin B1 production. A model has been developed to integrate the relative expression of 10 biosynthetic genes in the pathway, growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production which was validated under elevated temperature and water stress conditions. The effect of interacting conditions of aw × temperature × elevated CO2 (2 × and 3 × existing levels) are detailed for the first time. This suggests that while such interacting environmental conditions have little effect on growth they do have a significant impact on aflatoxin biosynthetic gene expression (structural aflD and regulatory aflR genes) and can significantly stimulate the production of AFB1. While the individual factors alone have an impact, it is the combined effect of these three abiotic factors which have an impact on mycotoxin production. This approach provides data which is necessary to help predict the real impacts of climate change on mycotoxigenic fungi. PMID:25101060

Medina, Angel; Rodriguez, Alicia; Magan, Naresh

2014-01-01

262

Indole Diterpenoids and Isocoumarin from the Fungus, Aspergillus flavus, Isolated from the Prawn, Penaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Two new indole-diterpenoids (1 and 2) and a new isocoumarin (3), along with the known ?-aflatrem (4), paspalinine (5), leporin B (6), ?-cyclopiazonic acid (7), iso-?-cyclopiazonic acid (8), ditryptophenaline (9), aflatoxin B1 (10), 7-O-acetylkojic acid (11) and kojic acid (12), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus flavus OUCMDZ-2205. The structures of Compounds 1–12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, quantum ECD calculations and the chemical method. New Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 20.5 ?M. Both new Compounds 1 and 2 could arrest the A549 cell cycle in the S phase at a concentration of 10 ?M. Compound 1 showed PKC-beta inhibition with an IC50 value of 15.6 ?M. In addition, the absolute configurations of the known compounds, 4–6 and leporin A (6a), were also determined for the first time. PMID:24983640

Sun, Kunlai; Li, Ye; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Weiming

2014-01-01

263

Expression, purification and characterization of a feruloyl esterase A from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Feruloyl esterases are key enzymes involved in the complete hydrolysis of hemicellulose. In the present study, the encoding sequence of putative feruloyl esterase A (AfFaeA) was cloned from genomic DNA from Aspergillus flavus and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified recombinant AfFaeA had apparent relative molecular mass of about 40,000 and had an optimum pH of 6.0, although it was stable at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8.0. The optimum temperature for AfFaeA was 58°C. AfFaeA had hydrolytic activity toward methyl caffeate, methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. Substrate specificity profiling of AfFaeA demostrated it is a type-A feruloyl esterase. The good performance of AfFaeA to release ferulic acid from steam exploded corn stalk in concert with Geobacillus stearothermophilus xylanase mutant indicated it is a promising biocatalyst for biomass degradation. PMID:23981381

Zhang, Shuai-Bing; Zhai, Huan-Chen; Wang, Le; Yu, Guang-Hai

2013-11-01

264

Nutritional changes in powdered red pepper upon in vitro infection of Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

Quantitative losses in various biochemical constituents like capsaicin, carotenes, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, mineral matter, sugars (soluble and insoluble), protein and fat were estimated after the successful growth of Aspergillus flavus for 30 days on powdered red pepper. The fungal biomass was measured by ergosterol content and Aflatoxin B1 by HPLC. Amongst the various nutritional constituents evaluated for nutritional losses and changes the highest nutritional loss was reported in total carotenoids (88.55%) followed by total sugars (85.5%). The protein content of the infected sample increased from 18.01% to 23%. The nutritional profile of chilli powder (Capsicum annum var. sannam L.) shows highest share of total soluble sugars (32.89%) and fiber content (21.05%), followed by protein (18.01%) and fat (13.32%) making it an ideal solid- substrate for mould growth. At the end of incubation the fungal biomass was 192. 25 mg / 100 gram powder, total plate count 17.5 X 10 4 CFU/g and Aflatoxin B1 content was 30.06 ?g / kg. PMID:24031333

Tripathi, Smita; Mishra, H.N.

2009-01-01

265

Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of quaternary derivatives of chitosan on Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Two series of new chitosan derivatives were synthesized by reaction of deacetylated chitosan (CH) with propyl (CH-Propyl) and pentyl (CH-Pentyl) trimethylammonium bromides to obtain derivatives with increasing degrees of substitution (DS). The derivatives were characterized by (1)H NMR and potentiometric titration techniques and their antifungal activities on the mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus were investigated in vitro. The antifungal activities increase with DS and the more substituted derivatives of both series, CH-Propyl and CH-Pentyl, exhibited antifungal activities respectively three and six times higher than those obtained with commercial and deacetylated chitosan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h by varying the polymer concentration from 0.5 to 16 g/L and the results showed that the quaternary derivatives inhibited the fungus growth at polymer concentrations four times lower than that obtained with deacetylated chitosan (CH). The chitosans modified with pentyltrimethylammonium bromide exhibited higher activity and results are discussed taking into account the degree of substitution (DS). PMID:22819383

de Oliveira Pedro, Rafael; Takaki, Mirelle; Gorayeb, Teresa Cristina Castilho; Del Bianchi, Vanildo Luiz; Thomeo, João Cláudio; Tiera, Marcio José; de Oliveira Tiera, Vera Aparecida

2013-01-15

266

Morphological transitions governed by density dependence and lipoxygenase activity in Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus differentiates to produce asexual dispersing spores (conidia) or overwintering survival structures called sclerotia. Results described here show that these two processes are oppositely regulated by density-dependent mechanisms and that increasing the cell density (from 10(1) to 10(7) cells/plate) results in the lowest numbers of sclerotial and the highest numbers of conidial. Extract from spent medium of low-cell-density cultures induced a high-sclerotium-number phenotype, whereas high-cell-density extract increased conidiation. Density-dependent development is also modified by changes in lipid availability. Exogenous linoleic acid increased sclerotial production at intermediate cell densities (10(4) and 10(5) cells/plate), whereas oleic and linolenic acids inhibited sclerotium formation. Deletion of Aflox encoding a lipoxygenase (LOX) greatly diminished density-dependent development of both sclerotia and conidia, resulting in an overall increase in the number of sclerotia and a decrease in the number of conidia at high cell densities (>10(5) cells/plate). Aflox mutants showed decreased linoleic acid LOX activity. Taken together, these results suggest that there is a quorum-sensing mechanism in which a factor(s) produced in dense cultures, perhaps a LOX-derived metabolite, activates conidium formation, while a factor(s) produced in low-density cultures stimulates sclerotium formation. PMID:18658287

Horowitz Brown, S; Zarnowski, R; Sharpee, W C; Keller, N P

2008-09-01

267

In vitro activity of isavuconazole against 208 Aspergillus flavus isolates in comparison with 7 other antifungal agents: assessment according to the methodology of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is the second most common species causing invasive aspergillosis after A. fumigatus. In certain countries like India, Sudan, and Saudi Arabia, A. flavus is most frequently isolated from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis and endophthalmitis. A. flavus exhibit an increased resistance to antifungal agents compared to A. fumigatus. We determined the in vitro activity of isavuconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole,

Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy; Arunaloke Chakrabarti; Erik Geertsen; Johan W. Mouton; Jacques F. Meis

2011-01-01

268

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

269

Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.  

PubMed

The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

2014-06-01

270

Characterization of a fungistatic substance produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from soil and its significance in nature.  

PubMed

A fungus capable of using vegetable tissues for multiplication in soil was isolated and identified as Aspergillus flavus based on morphological characteristics and sequence similarity of ITS and 28S. When grown in liquid medium prepared from the same vegetable tissues used in soil amendment, the isolate of A. flavus produced a substance capable of preventing disease development of black leaf spot of mustard cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicola and inhibiting the germination of A. brassicicola conidia. The inhibitory substance was fungistatic, and was very stable under high temperature and high or low pH value. It was soluble in ethanol or methanol, moderately soluble in water, and insoluble in acetone, ethyl acetate or ether. The inhibitor is not a protein and has no charges on its molecule. This is the first discovery of the production of a fungistatic substance by this deleterious fungus. Results from this study suggest the possession of a strong competitive saprophytic ability by A. flavus, which in turn may explain the widespread occurrence of this fungus in soils. Production of a fungistatic substance when A. flavus was grown in medium prepared from vegetable tissues suggests the importance of antibiotic production in its competitive saprophytic colonization of organic matters in soils. PMID:21334470

Chen, Yen-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ju; Yang, Ching-Hui; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

2011-10-01

271

The effects of agitation and aeration on the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

The effects of agitation and aeration in the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger from a glucose medium were investigated. Experiments were conducted at aeration rates of 5.0 and 10.0 L/min. Four different agitation speeds were investigated for each aeration rate. Gluconic acid concentration and biomass concentration were analyzed, and the rate of consumption of substrate by A. niger was noted. The main purpose of this work was to find the optimal conditions of agitation and aeration for the growth of A. niger and production of gluconic acid in submerged culture in a batch fermentor at a bench-top scale. The oxygen-transfer rates at different agitation and aeration rates were calculated. The gluconic acid concentration and rate of growth of A. niger increased with increase in the agitation and aeration rates.

Dronawat, S.N.; Svihla, C.K.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

272

Toolkit for visualization of the cellular structure and organelles in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is extensively used in industrial fermentations for protein expression and the production of organic acids. Inherent biosynthetic capabilities, such as the capacity to secrete these biomolecules in high amounts, make A. niger an attractive production host. Although A. niger is renowned for this ability, the knowledge of the molecular components that underlie its production capacity, intercellular trafficking processes and secretion mechanisms is far from complete. Here, we introduce a standardized set of tools, consisting of an N-terminal GFP-actin fusion and codon optimized eforRed chromoprotein. Expression of the GFP-actin construct facilitates visualization of the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas expression of the chromoprotein construct results in a clearly distinguishable red phenotype. These experimentally validated constructs constitute the first set of standardized A. niger biomarkers, which can be used to study morphology, intercellular trafficking, and secretion phenomena. PMID:25524108

Buren, Emiel B J Ten; Karrenbelt, Michiel A P; Lingemann, Marit; Chordia, Shreyans; Deng, Ying; Hu, JingJing; Verest, Johanna M; Wu, Vincen; Gonzalez, Teresita J Bello; Heck, Ruben G A van; Odoni, Dorett I; Schonewille, Tom; Straat, Laura van der; Graaff, Leo H de; Passel, Mark W J van

2014-12-19

273

VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture.  

PubMed

Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger maximizes the diameter of the vesicle and the spore chain length. The length and width of the conidiophore stalk and vesicle were reduced nearly twofold in a ?veA strain. The latter implies a fourfold reduced surface area to develop chains of spores. Over and above this, the conidial chain length was approximately fivefold reduced. The calculated 20-fold reduction in formation of conidia by ?veA fits the 8- to 17-fold decrease in counted spore numbers. Notably, morphology of the ?veA conidiophores of A. niger was very similar to that of wild-type Aspergillus sydowii. This suggests that VeA is key in conidiophore architecture diversity in the fungal kingdom. The finding that biomass formation of the A. niger ?veA strain was reduced twofold shows that VeA not only impacts dispersion capacity but also colonization capacity of A. niger. PMID:25367340

Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

2015-01-01

274

Development of a GFP-Expressing Aspergillus flavus Strain to Study Fungal Invasion, Colonization, and Resistance  

E-print Network

of corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts. Aflatoxins frequently contaminate these agricultural commodities. flavus [4, 5]. This process is favored by moist, warm conditions during boll maturation, harvesting

Cotty, Peter J.

275

The intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is well-known as a producer of primary metabolites and extracellular proteins. For example, glucoamylase is the most efficiently secreted protein of Aspergillus niger, thus the homologous glucoamylase (glaA) promoter as well as the glaA signal sequence are widely used for heterologous protein production. Xylose is known to strongly repress glaA expression while maltose is

Xin Lu; Jibin Sun; Manfred Nimtz; Josef Wissing; An-Ping Zeng; Ursula Rinas

2010-01-01

276

Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint caused by Aspergillus flavus infection as a complication of otitis externa.  

PubMed

Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a very rare complication of otitis externa that can lead to ankylosis and destruction of the joint. We report the case of a 74-year-old man who developed aspergillosis of the TMJ following otitis externa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of TMJ septic arthritis secondary to otitis externa caused by Aspergillus flavus. The patient was successfully managed with condylectomy, debridement, and drug treatment with voriconazole. PMID:25738723

Varghese, Lalee; Chacko, Rabin; Varghese, George M; Job, Anand

2015-03-01

277

Production of ( R)-1-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-ethanol by locally isolated Aspergillus niger using ram horn peptone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger EBK-9 was isolated from soil sample. This isolate was evaluated for production of (R)-1-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-ethanol 2 from 1-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-ethanone 1. In this work, the production of the 2 was achieved via fermenter. Glucose, yeast extract and ram horn peptone as medium in fermenter for growth of A. niger was used. A. niger EBK-9 isolate was found to be an effective

Kani Zilbeyaz; Esabi B. Kurbanoglu

2008-01-01

278

EVALUATION OF A BIOPESTICIDE, PICHIA ANOMALA WRL-076 TO CONTROL ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN A COMMERCIAL ORCHARD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existing literatures indicate that wounds in plant tissues provide the entry to A. flavus. By mechanically wounding pistachio nut-fruits, sufficient number of nut-fruits conducive to A. flavus and fungal infection are generated. The wounded nut-fruits are easily recognized for sampling. Two experim...

279

The promoter of the glucoamylase-encoding gene of Aspergillus niger functions in Ustilago maydis.  

PubMed

Promoter sequences from the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase-encoding gene (glaA) were linked to the bacterial hygromycin (Hy) phosphotransferase-encoding gene (hph) and this chimeric marker was used to select Hy-resistant (HyR) Ustilago maydis transformants. This is an example of an Ascomycete promoter functioning in a Basidiomycete. HyR transformants varied with respect to copy number of integrated vector, mitotic stability, and tolerance to Hy. Only 216 bp of glaA promoter sequence is required for expression in U. maydis but this promoter is not induced by starch as it is in Aspergillus spp. The transcriptional start points are the same in U. maydis and A. niger. PMID:2112106

Smith, T L; Gaskell, J; Berka, R M; Yang, M; Henner, D J; Cullen, D

1990-04-16

280

Thermal Characterization of Purified Glucose Oxidase from A Newly Isolated Aspergillus Niger UAF-1  

PubMed Central

An intracellular glucose oxidase was isolated from the mycelium extract of a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger UAF-1. The enzyme was purified to a yield of 28.43% and specific activity of 135 U mg?1 through ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme showed high affinity for D-glucose with a Km value of 2.56 mM. The enzyme exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.5. Temperature optimum for glucose oxidase, catalyzed D-glucose oxidation was 40°C. The enzyme showed a high thermostability having a half-life 30 min, enthalpy of denaturation 99.66 kJ mol?1 and free energy of denaturation 103.63 kJ mol?1. These characteristics suggest the use of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger UAF-1 as an analytical reagent and in the design of biosensors for clinical, biochemical and diagnostic assays. PMID:18193107

Anjum Zia, Muhammad; Khalil-ur-Rahman; K. Saeed, Muhammad; Andaleeb, Fozia; I. Rajoka, Muhammad; A. Sheikh, Munir; A. Khan, Iftikhar; I. Khan, Azeem

2007-01-01

281

Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Metabolites of Phoma glomerata PG41 Isolated From Natural Substrate Colonized by Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), produced by Aspergillus flavus, is one of the most life threatening food contaminants causing significant economic losses worldwide. Biological AFB1 degradation by microorganisms, or preferably microbial enzymes, is considered as one of the most promising approaches. Objectives: The current work aimed to study the AFB1-degrading metabolites, produced by Phoma glomerata PG41, sharing a natural substrate with aflatoxigenic A. flavus, and the preliminary determination of the nature of these metabolites. Materials and Methods: The AFB1-degrading potential of PG41 metabolites was determined by a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of residual AFB1 after 72 hours incubation at 27ºC. The effects of pH, heat, and protease treatment on the AFB1-destroying activity of extracellular metabolites were examined. Results: The AFB1-degrading activity of protein-enriched fractions, isolated from culture liquid filtrate and cell-free extract, is associated with high-molecular-weight components, is time- and pH-dependent, thermolabile, and is significantly reduced by proteinase K treatment. The AFB1 degradation efficiency of these fractions reaches 78% and 66%, respectively. Conclusions: Phoma glomerata PG41 strain sharing natural substrate with toxigenic A. flavus secretes metabolites possessing a significant aflatoxin-degrading activity. The activity is associated mainly with a protein-enriched high-molecular-weight fraction of extracellular metabolites and appears to be of enzymatic origin. PMID:25789135

Shcherbakova, Larisa; Statsyuk, Natalia; Mikityuk, Oleg; Nazarova, Tatyana; Dzhavakhiya, Vitaly

2015-01-01

282

Variation in competitive ability among isolates of Aspergillus flavus from different vegetative compatibility groups during maize infection.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspergillus flavus, the primary causal agent of aflatoxin contamination, includes many genetically diverse vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Competitive ability during infection of living maize kernels was quantified for isolates from 38 VCGs. Kernels were inoculated with both a common VCG, CG136, and another VCG; after 7 days (31 degrees C), conidia were washed from kernels, and aflatoxins and DNA were extracted from kernels and conidia separately. CG136-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms were quantified by pyrosequencing; VCGs co-inoculated with CG136 produced 46 to 85 and 51 to 84% of A. flavus DNA from kernels and conidia, respectively. Co-inoculation with atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin up to 90% and, in some cases, more than predicted by competitive exclusion alone. Conidia contained up to 42 ppm aflatoxin B(1), indicating airborne conidia as potentially important sources of environmental exposure. Aflatoxin-producing potential and sporulation were negatively correlated. For some VCGs, sporulation during co-infection was greater than that predicted by kernel infection, suggesting that some VCGs increase dispersal while sacrificing competitive ability during host tissue colonization. The results indicate both life strategy and adaptive differences among A. flavus isolates and provide a basis for selection of biocontrol strains with improved competitive ability, sporulation, and aflatoxin reduction on target hosts. PMID:20055649

Mehl, H L; Cotty, P J

2010-02-01

283

Comparing phosphorus mobilization strategies using Aspergillus niger for the mineral dissolution of three phosphate rocks.  

PubMed

Phosphorus deficiencies are limiting crop production in agricultural soils worldwide. Locally available sources of raw phosphate rock (PR) are being recognized for their potential role in soil fertility improvement. Phosphorus bioavailability is essential for the efficiency of PRs and can be increased by acid treatments. The utilization of organic acid producing micro-organisms, notably Aspergillus niger, presents a sustainable alternative to the use of strong inorganic acids, but acid production of A. niger strongly depends on the mineral content of the growth media. This study compared the phosphorus mobilization efficiency of two biological treatments, namely addition of acidic cell-free supernatants from A. niger cultivations to PRs and the direct cultivation of A. niger with PRs. The results show that addition of PR to cultivations leads to significant differences in the profile of organic acids produced by A. niger. Additions of PR, especially igneous rocks containing high amounts of iron and manganese, lead to reduced citric acid concentrations. In spite of these differences, phosphorus mobilization was similar between treatments, suggesting that the simpler direct cultivation method was not inferior. In addition to citric acid, it is suggested that oxalic acid contributes to PR solubilization in direct cultivations with A. niger, which would benefit farmers in developing countries where conventional fertilizers are not adequately accessible. PMID:19709342

Schneider, K D; van Straaten, P; de Orduña, R Mira; Glasauer, S; Trevors, J; Fallow, D; Smith, P S

2010-01-01

284

Production of inulinase using tap roots of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various inulin containing vegetal substrates were evaluated for inulinase production by an indigenous isolate, Aspergillus niger NK-126. Highest inulinase activity was observed with dandelion tap root extract (52.3IU\\/ml). The enzyme activity was fourfold higher than that observed in media containing pure chicory inulin (12.3IU\\/ml). The fungus showed good growth on a medium containing 40% (v\\/v) of dandelion tap root extract

Naveen Kango

2008-01-01

285

Cell Bound and Extracellular Glucose Oxidases from Aspergillus niger BTL: Evidence for a Secondary Glycosylation Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two glucose oxidase (GOX) isoforms where purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the mycelium extract (GOXI) and the extracellular medium (GOXII) of Aspergillus niger BTL cultures. Both enzymes were found to be homodimers with nonreduced molecular masses of 148 and 159 kDa and pI values\\u000a of 3.7 and 3.6 for GOXI and GOXII, respectively. The substrate specificity and the kinetic characteristics of

Dimitris G. Hatzinikolaou; Diomi Mamma; Paul Christakopoulos; Dimitris Kekos

2007-01-01

286

Screening, mutagenesis and protoplast fusion of Aspergillus niger for the enhancement of extracellular glucose oxidase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various strains of Aspergillus niger were screened for extracellular glucose oxidase (GOD) activity. The most effective producer, strain FS-3 (15.9 U mL?1), was mutagenized using UV-irradiation or ethyl methane sulfonate. Of the 400 mutants obtained, 32 were found to be resistant to 2-deoxy d-glucose, and 17 of these exhibited higher GOD activities (from 114.5 to 332.1%) than the original FS-3 strain. Following

A. A. Khattab; W. A. Bazaraa

2005-01-01

287

Lipase production from Aspergillus niger by solid-state fermentation using gingelly oil cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural conditions for the production of lipase by Aspergillus niger strain MTCC 2594 by solid-state fermentation using gingelly oil cake were standardized. A lipase activity of 363·6 U\\/g of dry substrate was obtained at 72 h under optimum conditions. Addition of various nitrogen sources, carbohydrates and inducers to the substrate was found to be ineffective. The enzyme was optimally active

N. R. Kamini; J. G. S. Mala; R. Puvanakrishnan

1998-01-01

288

Bioleaching of spent refinery processing catalyst using Aspergillus niger with high-yield oxalic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spent refinery processing catalyst was physically and chemically characterized, and subjected to one-step and two-step bioleaching processes using Aspergillus niger. During bioleaching of the spent catalysts of various particle sizes (“as received”, 100–150?m, <37?m, and x¯=2.97 (average) ?m) and pulp densities, the biomass dry weight and pH were determined. The corresponding leach liquor was analysed for excreted organic acids

Deenan Santhiya; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

289

Production of cellulase and xylanase in a bubble gum column using immobilized Aspergillus niger KKS  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger KKS, isolated from a farmland near Suwon, was immobilized on Celite and polyurethane foams. Enzyme activities produced by the immobilized cell system in a bubble column were higher than that of shake-flask culture. The enzyme productivities were twice as high. {Beta}-Glucosidase, {Beta}-xylosidase, and xylanase activities obtained in a bubble column were significant when the ground rice straw was used as a substrate. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kang, Seong-Woo; Kim, Seung-Woo [Univ. of Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Suk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-05-01

290

Removal of Congo Red from an aqueous solution by fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement the present dye removal processes from dye wastewater. In this study, removal of an anionic disazo direct dye, Congo Red, from an aqueous solution by biosorption on dead fungus, Aspergillus niger, was investigated. Pretreatment with NaHCO3 was found to be the most effective with a biosorption capacity of 14.72 mg\\/g

Yuzhu Fu; T. Viraraghavan

2002-01-01

291

Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA )i n Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA )i nSaccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase's activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene

YANMING HAN; DAVID B. WILSON; XIN GEN LEI

1999-01-01

292

The role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinations of the momentary levels of various intermediates related to the activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle have been made during citric acid production in high-accumulating (manganese deficient) and lowaccumulating (manganese supplemented) mycelia of Aspergillus niger. During the growth period the levels of almost all TCA cycle acids, with the exception of 2-oxo-acids, were unusually high; during the induction phase

C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

1978-01-01

293

Morphological development of Aspergillus niger immobilized in Ca-alginate and K-carrageenan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological development of citric acid producing Aspergillus niger immobilized in Ca-alginate and K-carrageenan was studied. The fungus normally developed a dense mycelium layer below and on the gel bead surfaces so that substrate and oxygen in this area had direct contact with mycelia. By this way mycelia are not only immobilized by entrapment but also in a “pellet-like” matter.

H. Eikmeier; F. Westmeier; H. J. Rehm

1984-01-01

294

Nitrogen, carbon, and pH regulation of extracellular acidic proteases of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger secretes a number of enzymes, including proteases, into its culture fluid. The regulation of the two major acidic extracellular proteases, pepA and pepB, was investigated using Northern analyses. Our data suggest that the regulation of pepA and pepB expression occurs predominantly at the level of mRNA content and that, while they are regulated in a similar manner, differences

Gabor Jarai; Frank Buxton

1994-01-01

295

The use of Aspergillus niger for the bioconversion of olive mill waste-waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill waste-water was used for protein production in small-scale experiments, using non-sterilized medium without pH control. A 14 g\\/1 concentration of proteins, 61% chemical oxygen demand removal and a 58% reduction in total phenolic compounds were obtained using an Aspergillus niger strain. The removal of phenolic compounds resulted in a change in the colour of the waste-water from black

Moktar Hamdi; Abdelkader Khadir; Jean-Louis Garcia

1991-01-01

296

Sorption of heavy metals by the soil fungi 'Aspergillus niger' and Mucor rouxii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of the nitrate salts of cadmium(II), copper(II), lanthanum(III) and silver(I) by two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii, was evaluated using Freundlich adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray electron microscopy. The linearized Freundlich isotherm described the metal sorption data well for metal concentrations of 5 microM-1 mM metal. Differences in metal binding were observed among metals, as well as

M. D. Mullen; D. C. Wolf; T. J. Beveridge; G. W. Bailey

1992-01-01

297

Production and characterization of a highly active cellobiase from Aspergillus niger grown in solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Aspergillus niger produced extracellular cellobiase when grown on different lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation. The enzyme activity and yield were variable according to the carbon source. In Vogel’s medium, the cellobiase productivity was significantly higher on wheat bran, followed by Leptochloa fusca (kallar grass) straw augmented with corn steep liquor. Maximum yield of cellobiase\\/g wheat bran was significantly

Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka; Muhammad Waheed Akhtar; Atif Hanif; A. M. Khalid

2006-01-01

298

Citric acid production from carob pod extract by cell recycle of Aspergillus niger atcc 9142  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of citric acid from carob pod extract by cell recycle of Aspergillus niger at different pHs was investigated. Best results in terms of citric acid concentration, productivity, yield and sugar utilization were obtained with a substrate pH of 5.0. The citric acid concentration (85.5 g\\/l) and the productivity (4 g\\/ld) remained constant up to the second and third

T. Roukas

1998-01-01

299

Sub-inhibitory concentration of biogenic selenium nanoparticles lacks post antifungal effect for Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans and stimulates the growth of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background The antifungal activity of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) prepared by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been reported previously for different fungi. In the present study, freshly prepared Se NPs produced by K. pneumoniae were purified and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and its post antifungal effects for two fungi were evaluated. Materials and Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Se NPs, determined by serial dilution were 250 µg/ml for Aspergillus niger and 2,000 µg/ml for Candida albicans. The effect of exposure of A. niger and C. albicans to Se NPs on later growth was evaluated by incubating the fungi for 1 hour at 25 °C in media containing 0, 1, 2 and 4 x MIC of Se NPs and diluting the cultures 100 times with Se free medium. The kinetics of growth of the fungi in control cultures and in non-toxic Se NPs concentration of, 0.01 × MIC, 0.02 × MIC or 0.04 × MIC were measured. Results The exposure of A. niger and C. albicans to 2 and 4 x MIC of Se NPs stimulated the growth of both fungi in the absence of toxic concentrations of Se. The strongest stimulation was observed for A. niger. Conclusion It is concluded that exposure to high concentration of the Se NPs did not have any post-inhibitory effect on A. niger and C. albicans and that trace amounts of this element promoted growth of both fungi in a dose- dependent-manner. The role of nanoparticles serving as needed trace elements and development of microorganism tolerance to nanoparticles should not be dismissed while considering therapeutic potential. PMID:23466957

Kazempour, Zahra Bahri; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Rafii, Fatemeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

2013-01-01

300

Production of a bioflocculant from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent as carbon source.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the potential of bioflocculant production from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as carbon source. The bioflocculant named PM-5 produced by A. niger showed a good flocculating capability and flocculating rate of 76.8% to kaolin suspension could be achieved at 60 h of culture time. Glutamic acid was the most favorable nitrogen source for A. niger in bioflocculant production at pH 6 and temperature 35 °C. The chemical composition of purified PM-5 was mainly carbohydrate and protein with 66.8% and 31.4%, respectively. Results showed the novel bioflocculant (PM-5) had high potential to treat river water from colloids and 63% of turbidity removal with the present of Ca(2+) ion. PMID:25189510

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Osman, Noridah Binti; Yusup, Suzana

2014-11-01

301

Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of synteny was observed with other aspergilli sequenced. Strong function predictions were made for 6,506 of the 14,165 open reading frames identified. A detailed description of the components of the protein secretion pathway was made and striking differences in the hydrolytic enzyme spectra of aspergilli were observed. A reconstructed metabolic network comprising 1,069 unique reactions illustrates the versatile metabolism of A. niger. Noteworthy is the large number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and fungal zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors, and the presence of putative gene clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis. PMID:17259976

Pel, Herman J; de Winde, Johannes H; Archer, David B; Dyer, Paul S; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J; Turner, Geoffrey; de Vries, Ronald P; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R; Bendtsen, Jannick D; Benen, Jacques A E; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne G J; Debets, Alfons J M; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W M; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J M; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Goosen, Coenie; Groot, Gert S P; de Groot, Piet W J; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P T W; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; van der Heijden, Rene T J M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Klis, Frans M; Kools, Harrie J; Kubicek, Christian P; van Kuyk, Patricia A; Lauber, Jürgen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noël N M E; Ram, Arthur F J; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A; Sagt, Cees M J; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; van de Vondervoort, Peter J J; Wedler, Holger; Wösten, Han A B; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J J; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein

2007-02-01

302

Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

1988-03-01

303

Enantioselective behavior of lipases from Aspergillus niger immobilized in different supports.  

PubMed

Considering the extraordinary microbial diversity and importance of fungi as enzyme producers, the search for new biocatalysts with special characteristics and possible applications in biocatalysis is of great interest. Here, we report the performance in the resolution of racemic ibuprofen of a native enantioselective lipase from Aspergillus niger, free and immobilized in five types of support (Accurel EP-100, Amberlite MB-1, Celite, Montmorillonite K10 and Silica gel). Amberlite MB-1 was found to be the best support, with a conversion of 38.2%, enantiomeric excess of 50.7% and enantiomeric ratio (E value) of 19 in 72 h of reaction. After a thorough optimization of several parameters, the E value of the immobilized Aspergillus niger lipase was increased (E = 23) in a shorter reaction period (48 h) at 35 degrees C. Moreover, the immobilized Aspergillus niger lipase maintained an esterification activity of at least 80% after 8 months of storage at 4 degrees C and could be reused at least six times. PMID:19390883

da Silva, Vania Castriani Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia

2009-07-01

304

Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst. PMID:23270588

2012-01-01

305

Fumonisin B(2) production by Aspergillus niger from grapes and natural occurrence in must.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger has been recently found to produce fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)). Thirty-one strains belonging to four Aspergillus species isolated from grape were evaluated for FB(2) production on agar plates. Four out of eight strains of A. niger produced FB(2) (29-293 microg g(-1)). None of the strains of A. uvarum (n = 7), A. tubingensis (8) and A. carbonarius (8) produced detectable amounts of toxin. The capability to produce FB(2) was also confirmed by some A. niger strains artificially inoculated on grape berries. Natural occurrence of FB(2), at levels of 0.01 and 0.4 microg ml(-1), was found in two samples of must collected in Apulian cellars in 2007. This is the first report of FB(2) contamination in must. These findings suggest that there is a potential risk of exposure to FB(2) in the grape-wine chain for consumers and that A. niger may represent the major fumonisin-producing species among black Aspergilli occurring on grapes. PMID:19742356

Logrieco, A; Ferracane, R; Haidukowsky, M; Cozzi, G; Visconti, A; Ritieni, A

2009-11-01

306

Optimization of process parameters influencing the submerged fermentation of extracellular lipases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at optimization, production and partial purification of lipases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. Various nutritional and physical parameters affecting lipase production such as carbon and nitrogen supplements, pH, temperature, agitation speed and incubation time were studied. Refined sunflower oil (1% v/v) and tryptone at a pH of 6.2 favored maximum lipase production in Pseudomonas at 30 degrees C and 150 rpm, when incubated for 5 days. In C. albicans refined sunflower oil (3% v/v) and peptone resulted in maximum lipase production at pH 5.2, 30 degrees C and 150 rpm, when incubated for 5 days. In A. flavus coconut oil (3% v/v) and peptone yielded maximum lipase at pH 6.2, 37 degrees C, 200 rpm after an incubation period of 5 days. The lipases were partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. In P. aeruginosa enzyme activity of the dialyzed fraction was found to be 400 U mL-' and for C. albicans 410 U mL(-1). The dialysed lipase fraction from A. flavus demonstrated an activity of 460 U mL(-1). The apparent molecular weights of the dialyzed lipases were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The dialyzed lipase fraction obtained from P. aeruginosa revealed molecular weights of 47, 49 and 51 kDa, whereas, lipases from C. albicans and A. flavus demonstrated 3 bands (16.5, 27 and 51 kDa) and one band (47 kDa), respectively. These extracellular lipases may find wide industrial applications. PMID:22514878

Padhiar, Jigita; Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav

2011-11-15

307

Non-pheromonal control of navel orangeworm as a promising method toward decreasing contamination of Aspergillus flavus in California tree nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The navel orangeworm (NOW) is a major insect pest of tree nuts and is a vector of Aspergillus flavus – a fungus responsible for aflatoxin contamination of California tree nuts. Despite the presence of NOW throughout a typical season, the identification of particular VOCs, or their potential role as ...

308

Effect of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on aflatoxin contamination of wounded peanut seeds inoculated with agricultural soil containing natural fungal populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts and other seed and grain crops are commonly contaminated with carcinogenic aflatoxins, secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in the field can be reduced by 77 to 98% with biological control through the application of nont...

309

Effect of exogenous jasmonic acid application on Aspergillus flavus kernel infection and aflatoxin production in two maize hybrids (Zea mays L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jasmonic acid (JA), produced by the octadecanoid pathway, is a phytohormone that triggers induced resistance against certain pathogens and arthropod herbivores. The octadecanoid pathway has been implicated in playing a role in the Aspergillus flavus-maize seed interaction. In field studies, the ef...

310

A public platform for the verification of the phenotypic effect of candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and Aspergillus flavus infection in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A public candidate gene testing pipeline for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection in maize is presented here. The pipeline consists of steps for identifying, testing, and verifying the association of any maize gene sequence with resistance under field conditions. Reso...

311

Postharvest Aspergillus flavus colonization in responding to preharvest field condition of drought stress and oligo-macroarray profiling of developing corn kernel gene expression under drought stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drought stress is a major factor known to contribute to preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels. Aspergillus flavus infection of maize kernels occurs earlier than aflatoxin accumulation in developing kernels. Recent studies have demonstrated higher concentration of defense or stress-rela...

312

Comparison of major biocontrol strains of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus for the reduction of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological control of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in maize through competitive displacement by non-aflatoxigenic strains was evaluated in a series of field studies. Four sets of experiments were conducted between 2007 to 2009 to assess the competitiveness of non-aflatoxigenic strains when challen...

313

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr vegetative compatibility groups in preventing aflatoxin contamination in maize (Zea mays L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Competitive exclusion of aflatoxin producers by endemic atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is a proven tool for aflatoxin management being adapted for use in Africa. Field efficacy of an experimental formulation consisting of four native atoxigenic strains (La3303, La3304, La3279 and Ka16127) ...

314

Unraveling Reciprocal Lipid-Mediated Communication between Maize Seed and Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

defensive role for LOX3 against A. flavus colonization. An unexpected major finding from this study is that JA biosynthesis genes appear to promote aflatoxin accumulation. Results provide evidence that the fungal LOX gene is required for normal colonization...

Borrego, Eli James

2014-07-31

315

Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose  

SciTech Connect

Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

1991-12-31

316

Aspergillus fumigatus and related species.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

Sugui, Janyce A; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J

2015-02-01

317

Spatial and Developmental Differentiation of Mannitol Dehydrogenase and Mannitol-1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger?†  

PubMed Central

The presence of a mannitol cycle in fungi has been subject to discussion for many years. Recent studies have found no evidence for the presence of this cycle and its putative role in regenerating NADPH. However, all enzymes of the cycle could be measured in cultures of Aspergillus niger. In this study we have analyzed the localization of two enzymes from the pathway, mannitol dehydrogenase and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the expression of their encoding genes in nonsporulating and sporulating cultures of A. niger. Northern analysis demonstrated that mpdA was expressed in both sporulating and nonsporulating mycelia, while expression of mtdA was expressed only in sporulating mycelium. More detailed studies using green fluorescent protein and dTomato fused to the promoters of mtdA and mpdA, respectively, demonstrated that expression of mpdA occurs in vegetative hyphae while mtdA expression occurs in conidiospores. Activity assays for MtdA and MpdA confirmed the expression data, indicating that streaming of these proteins is not likely to occur. These results confirm the absence of the putative mannitol cycle in A. niger as two of the enzymes of the cycle are not present in the same part of A. niger colonies. The results also demonstrate the existence of spore-specific genes and enzymes in A. niger. PMID:20305000

Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Blom, Dirk; Solomon, Peter S.; Vinck, Arman; Kindt, Frits; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Vries, Ronald P.

2010-01-01

318

Cloning and Expression of Gumboro VP2 Antigen in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes a highly immunosuppressive disease in chickens and is a pathogen of major economic importance to the poultry industry worldwide. The VP2 protein is the major host-protective immunogen of IBDV and has been considered as a potential subunit vaccine against the disease. VP2 coding sequence was cloned in an inducible fungal vector and the protein was expressed in Aspergillus niger (A. niger). Methods Aiming at a high level of expression, a multicopy AMA1-pyrG-based episomal construct driven by a strong inducible promoter, glaA, was prepared and used in transformation of A. niger pyrG-protoplasts. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis was carried out to confirm the expression of the protein. Results A number of pyrG + positive transformants were isolated and the presence of expression cassette was confirmed. Western blot analysis of one of these recombinant strains using monospecific anti-VP2 antibodies demonstrated the successful expression of the protein. The recombinant protein was also detected by serum obtained from immunized chicken. Conclusion In the present study, we have generated a recombinant A. niger strain expressing VP2 protein intracellulary. This recombinant strain of A. niger may have potential applications in oral vaccination against IBDV in poultry industry. PMID:23626875

Azizi, Mohammad; Yakhchali, Bagher; Ghamarian, Abdolreza; Enayati, Somayeh; Khodabandeh, Mahvash; Khalaj, Vahid

2013-01-01

319

Ochratoxin A production and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger strains isolated from grapes in Italy.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological traits. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genomic DNA sequences (rRNA, calmodulin, and beta-tubulin genes) to identify 77 black aspergilli isolated from grape berries collected in a 2-year survey in 16 vineyards throughout Italy. Four main clusters were distinguished, and they shared an AFLP similarity of <25%. Twenty-two of 23 strains of A. carbonarius produced ochratoxin A (6 to 7,500 microg/liter), 5 of 20 strains of A. tubingensis produced ochratoxin A (4 to 130 microg/liter), 3 of 15 strains of A. niger produced ochratoxin A (250 to 360 microg/liter), and none of the 19 strains of Aspergillus "uniseriate" produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (4 microg/liter). These findings indicate that A. tubingensis is able to produce ochratoxin and that, together with A. carbonarius and A. niger, it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination of wine in Italy. PMID:16391107

Perrone, Giancarlo; Mulè, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Logrieco, Antonio

2006-01-01

320

Ochratoxin A Production and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger Strains Isolated from Grapes in Italy  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological traits. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genomic DNA sequences (rRNA, calmodulin, and ?-tubulin genes) to identify 77 black aspergilli isolated from grape berries collected in a 2-year survey in 16 vineyards throughout Italy. Four main clusters were distinguished, and they shared an AFLP similarity of <25%. Twenty-two of 23 strains of A. carbonarius produced ochratoxin A (6 to 7,500 ?g/liter), 5 of 20 strains of A. tubingensis produced ochratoxin A (4 to 130 ?g/liter), 3 of 15 strains of A. niger produced ochratoxin A (250 to 360 ?g/liter), and none of the 19 strains of Aspergillus “uniseriate” produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (4 ?g/liter). These findings indicate that A. tubingensis is able to produce ochratoxin and that, together with A. carbonarius and A. niger, it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination of wine in Italy. PMID:16391107

Perrone, Giancarlo; Mulè, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Logrieco, Antonio

2006-01-01

321

Mutualistic interaction between Salmonella enterica and Aspergillus niger and its effects on Zea mays colonization  

PubMed Central

Salmonella?Typhimurium inhabits a variety of environments and is able to infect a broad range of hosts. Throughout its life cycle, some hosts can act as intermediates in the path to the infection of others. Aspergillus niger is a ubiquitous fungus that can often be found in soil or associated to plants and microbial consortia. Recently, S. Typhimurium was shown to establish biofilms on the hyphae of A. niger. In this work, we have found that this interaction is stable for weeks without a noticeable negative effect on either organism. Indeed, bacterial growth is promoted upon the establishment of the interaction. Moreover, bacterial biofilms protect the fungus from external insults such as the effects of the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Thus, the Salmonella–Aspergillus interaction can be defined as mutualistic. A tripartite gnotobiotic system involving the bacterium, the fungus and a plant revealed that co-colonization has a greater negative effect on plant growth than colonization by either organism in dividually. Strikingly, co-colonization also causes a reduction in plant invasion by S. Typhimurium. This work demonstrates that S. Typhimurium and A. niger establish a mutualistic interaction that alters bacterial colonization of plants and affects plant physiology. PMID:25351041

Balbontín, Roberto; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

2014-01-01

322

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is ubiquitous and commonly found on decaying plant material. A. niger has a saprophytic lifestyle and plays an important role in  

E-print Network

Summary Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is ubiquitous and commonly into smaller molecules that can be taken up and serve as energy and nutrient sources, the fungus is therefore of great importance for future optimisation of heterologous protein production in the fungus

Hille, Sander

323

Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri  

PubMed Central

Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23-dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time. PMID:24736731

Frisvad, Jens C.; Petersen, Lene M.; Lyhne, E. Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas O.

2014-01-01

324

The inhibitory effect of Bacillus megaterium on aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid biosynthetic pathway gene expression in Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is one of the major moulds that colonize peanut in the field and during storage. The impact to human and animal health, and to the economy in agriculture and commerce, is significant since this mold produces the most potent known natural toxins, aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, and teratogenic. A strain of marine Bacillus megaterium isolated from the Yellow Sea of East China was evaluated for its effect in inhibiting aflatoxin formation in A. flavus through down-regulating aflatoxin pathway gene expression as demonstrated by gene chip analysis. Aflatoxin accumulation in potato dextrose broth liquid medium and liquid minimal medium was almost totally (more than 98 %) inhibited by co-cultivation with B. megaterium. Growth was also reduced. Using expression studies, we identified the fungal genes down-regulated by co-cultivation with B. megaterium across the entire fungal genome and specifically within the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster (aflF, aflT, aflS, aflJ, aflL, aflX). Modulating the expression of these genes could be used for controlling aflatoxin contamination in crops such as corn, cotton, and peanut. Importantly, the expression of the regulatory gene aflS was significantly down-regulated during co-cultivation. We present a model showing a hypothesis of the regulatory mechanism of aflatoxin production suppression by AflS and AflR through B. megaterium co-cultivation. PMID:24652062

Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Yu, Jiujiang; Shan, Shihua; Li, Qiyu; Li, Qianting; Guan, Bin; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

2014-06-01

325

Removal of silver nanoparticles using live and heat shock Aspergillus niger cultures.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are extensively used in many industrial and medical applications; however, the impact of their release in the environment is still considered an understudied field. In the present work, SNPs present in aqueous lab waste water (average size of 30 nm) were used to determine their impact on microflora if released in soil rhizosphere and sewage waste water. The results showed that 24 h incubation with different SNP concentrations resulted in a 2.6-fold decrease for soil rhizosphere microflora and 7.45-fold decrease for sewage waste water microflora, both at 24 ppm. Live and heat shock (50 and 70 °C) Aspergillus niger cultures were used to remove SNP waste, the results show 76.6, 81.74 and 90.8 % SNP removal, respectively after 3 h incubation. There was an increase in the log total bacterial count again after SNP removal by A. niger in the following order: live A. niger < 50 °C heat shock A. niger < 70 °C heat shock A. niger. The pH value decreased from 5.8 to 3.8 in the same order suggesting the production of an acid in the culture media. Scanning electron microscopy images showed agglomeration and/or complexation of SNP particles, in a micron size, in between the fungal mycelia, hence settling on and in between the mycelial network. The results suggest that silver was reduced again and agglomerated and/or chelated together in its oxidized form by an acid in A. niger media. More studies are recommended to determine the acid and the heat shock proteins to confirm the exact mode of action. PMID:24415500

Gomaa, Ola M

2014-06-01

326

The transcriptomic fingerprint of glucoamylase over-expression in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger are well known for their exceptionally high capacity for secretion of proteins, organic acids, and secondary metabolites and they are therefore used in biotechnology as versatile microbial production platforms. However, system-wide insights into their metabolic and secretory capacities are sparse and rational strain improvement approaches are therefore limited. In order to gain a genome-wide view on the transcriptional regulation of the protein secretory pathway of A. niger, we investigated the transcriptome of A. niger when it was forced to overexpression the glaA gene (encoding glucoamylase, GlaA) and secrete GlaA to high level. Results An A. niger wild-type strain and a GlaA over-expressing strain, containing multiple copies of the glaA gene, were cultivated under maltose-limited chemostat conditions (specific growth rate 0.1 h-1). Elevated glaA mRNA and extracellular GlaA levels in the over-expressing strain were accompanied by elevated transcript levels from 772 genes and lowered transcript levels from 815 genes when compared to the wild-type strain. Using GO term enrichment analysis, four higher-order categories were identified in the up-regulated gene set: i) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane translocation, ii) protein glycosylation, iii) vesicle transport, and iv) ion homeostasis. Among these, about 130 genes had predicted functions for the passage of proteins through the ER and those genes included target genes of the HacA transcription factor that mediates the unfolded protein response (UPR), e.g. bipA, clxA, prpA, tigA and pdiA. In order to identify those genes that are important for high-level secretion of proteins by A. niger, we compared the transcriptome of the GlaA overexpression strain of A. niger with six other relevant transcriptomes of A. niger. Overall, 40 genes were found to have either elevated (from 36 genes) or lowered (from 4 genes) transcript levels under all conditions that were examined, thus defining the core set of genes important for ensuring high protein traffic through the secretory pathway. Conclusion We have defined the A. niger genes that respond to elevated secretion of GlaA and, furthermore, we have defined a core set of genes that appear to be involved more generally in the intensified traffic of proteins through the secretory pathway of A. niger. The consistent up-regulation of a gene encoding the acetyl-coenzyme A transporter suggests a possible role for transient acetylation to ensure correct folding of secreted proteins. PMID:23237452

2012-01-01

327

Aspergillus flavus grown in peptone as the carbon source exhibits spore density- and peptone concentration-dependent aflatoxin biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus species in seeds with high lipid and protein contents. It has been known for over 30?years that peptone is not conducive for AF productions, although reasons for this remain unknown. Results In this study, we showed that when Aspergillus flavus was grown in peptone-containing media, higher initial spore densities inhibited AF biosynthesis, but promoted mycelial growth; while in glucose-containing media, more AFs were produced when initial spore densities were increased. This phenomenon was also observed in other AF-producing strains including A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Higher peptone concentrations led to inhibited AF production, even in culture with a low spore density. High peptone concentrations did however promote mycelial growth. Spent medium experiments showed that the inhibited AF production in peptone media was regulated in a cell-autonomous manner. mRNA expression analyses showed that both regulatory and AF biosynthesis genes were repressed in mycelia cultured with high initial spore densities. Metabolomic studies revealed that, in addition to inhibited AF biosynthesis, mycelia grown in peptone media with a high initial spore density showed suppressed fatty acid biosynthesis, reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and increased pentose phosphate pathway products. Additions of TCA cycle intermediates had no effect on AF biosynthesis, suggesting the inhibited AF biosynthesis was not caused by depleted TCA cycle intermediates. Conclusions We here demonstrate that Aspergillus species grown in media with peptone as the sole carbon source are able to sense their own population densities and peptone concentrations to switch between rapid growth and AF production. This switching ability may offer Aspergillus species a competition advantage in natural ecosystems, producing AFs only when self-population is low and food is scarce. PMID:22694821

2012-01-01

328

An Antifungal Role of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Postharvest Pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum  

PubMed Central

In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation. PMID:25101960

Li, Yan-Hong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

2014-01-01

329

EVALUATION OF A BIOPESTICIDE, PICHIA ANOMALA TO CONTROL ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN PISTACHIO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existing literatures indicate that wounds in plant tissues provide the entry to A. flavus. Two experiments were conducted in a commercial orchard in the summer of 2005. Nut-fruits of pistachio were individually wounded with a dissecting needle. Four treatments were applied. Nut clusters were spraye...

330

Transcriptional Profiles Uncover Aspergillus flavus-Induced Resistance in Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin contamination caused by the opportunistic pathogen A. flavus is a major concern in maize production prior to harvest and through storage. Previous studies have highlighted the constitutive production of proteins involved in maize kernel resistance against A. flavus’ infection. However, little is known about induced resistance nor about defense gene expression and regulation in kernels. In this study, maize oligonucleotide arrays and a pair of closely-related maize lines varying in aflatoxin accumulation were used to reveal the gene expression network in imbibed mature kernels in response to A. flavus’ challenge. Inoculated kernels were incubated 72 h via the laboratory-based Kernel Screening Assay (KSA), which highlights kernel responses to fungal challenge. Gene expression profiling detected 6955 genes in resistant and 6565 genes in susceptible controls; 214 genes induced in resistant and 2159 genes induced in susceptible inoculated kernels. Defense related and regulation related genes were identified in both treatments. Comparisons between the resistant and susceptible lines indicate differences in the gene expression network which may enhance our understanding of the maize-A. flavus interaction. PMID:22069739

Luo, Meng; Brown, Robert L.; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Menkir, Abebe; Yu, Jiujiang; Bhatnagar, Deepak

2011-01-01

331

Characterization of AFLAV, a Tfl/Sushi retrotransposon from Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The insert of pAF28 contains a 4.5 kb region which encodes a truncated retrotransposon (AfRTL-1). In search for a full-length and intact copy of retrotransposon, we exploited a novel PCR cloning strategy by amplifying a 3.4 kb region from the genomic DNA of A. flavus NRRL 6541. The fragment was cl...

332

1366 Plant Disease / Vol. 88 No. 121366 Aspergillus flavus in Soils and Corncobs in South Texas  

E-print Network

: Implications for Management of Aflatoxins in Corn­Cotton Rotations Ramon Jaime-Garcia and Peter J. Cotty contamination in several agricultural products, including cottonseed and corn (2,11,15,22). Aflatoxins are toxic of the world (26,32). A. flavus can be divided into S and L strains based on morphologic, genetic

Cotty, Peter J.

333

Naphtho-gamma-pyrone production by Aspergillus niger isolated from stored cottonseed.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger was found to be the predominant fungal contaminant of stored cottonseed. Seven strains were isolated and grown on rice. The hexane-insoluble material from methylene chloride extracts of 2-week-old cultures contained components toxic to mice. Based on high-pressure thin-layer and liquid chromatographic analyses, the major components in the mixture were eight different naphtho-gamma-pyrones. Of these, the hydrated dimeric naphthopyrones aurasperones B and C occurred in higher yield than aurasperones A, iso-A, and D and the monomeric naphthopyrones flavasperone and rubrofusarin, all of which were present in the mixture. In addition, fonsecin monomethyl ether was isolated. This metabolite may be a precursor in the biosynthesis of the hydrated aurasperones; it has not been identified previously as a metabolite of A. niger. The relative amounts of the different naphthopyrones were dependent on both the growth substrate and the fungal isolate. PMID:6548104

Ehrlich, K C; DeLucca, A J; Ciegler, A

1984-07-01

334

Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose involves the formation of cellobiose as an intermediate. It has been found necessary to add cellobiase from Aspergillus niger (NOVO) to the cellobiase component of Trichoderma reesei mutant Rut C-30 (Natick) cellulase enzymes in order to obtain after 48 h complete conversion of the cellobiose formed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. This study of the cellobiase activity of these two enzyme sources was undertaken as a first step in the formation of a kinetic model for cellulose hydrolysis that can be used in process design. In order to cover the full range of cellobiose concentrations, it was necessary to develop separate kinetic parameters for high- and low-concentration ranges of cellobiose for the enzymes from each organism. Competitive glucose inhibition was observed with the enzymes from both organisms. Substrate inhibition was observed only with the A. niger enzymes.

Grous, W.; Converse, A.; Grethlein, H.; Lynd, L.

1985-01-01

335

Isolation and structure of the pectin lyase D-encoding gene from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger, produces a number of extracellular pectin-degrading enzymes. We present here the isolation and the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene, pelD, coding for a pectin lyase D (PLD), which was previously described as pectin lyase I (Van Houdenhoven, Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen, 1975). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence corresponds to 373 aa residues including a signal peptide of 19 aa. The coding region is interrupted by four short introns (57-65 bp). The nucleotide sequence of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions is also presented and shows no unusual features. By comparing the deduced aa sequences of the A. niger PLD and a number of bacterial pectate lyases, short regions of homology were found despite the different substrate specificities (high methoxyl-pectin versus low methoxyl-pectin or polygalacturonate) of these enzymes. PMID:2373363

Gysler, C; Harmsen, J A; Kester, H C; Visser, J; Heim, J

1990-04-30

336

Inhibition of Aspergillus niger Phosphate Solubilization by Fluoride Released from Rock Phosphate  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F? per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions. PMID:23770895

Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araújo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

2013-01-01

337

Biotransformation of the Streptomyces scabies phytotoxin thaxtomin A by the fungus Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Of several hundred microorganisms randomly selected from the environment, only a fungal isolate identified as Aspergillus niger van Tiegham var. niger was found to transform the phytotoxin thaxtomin A to much less toxic metabolites. The rate and extent of transformation of thaxtomin A was tested under a variety of conditions, including different growth media, biomass concentrations, incubation periods, and shaker speeds. Under optimum conditions the fungus converted thaxtomin A into two major and five minor metabolites. The two major metabolites and three of the five minor metabolites were fully characterized by a combination of mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. When assayed on aseptically produced mini-tubers, the major metabolites proved to be much less phytotoxic than thaxtomin A. PMID:15052314

Lazarovits, George; Hill, Jackie; King, Russell R; Calhoun, Larry A

2004-02-01

338

A comparative investigation on the bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by growing Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation of Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions by viable Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger was studied as a function of initial pH and initial metal ion concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum Cu(II) and Cd(II) accumulation were determined, respectively, as 4.5 and 3.5 for R. arrhizus and 5.0 and 3.0 for A. niger. Although both the metal ions caused an

A. Y. Dursun; G. Uslu; O. Tepe

2003-01-01

339

The transcription factor HACA mediates the unfolded protein response in Aspergillus niger , and up-regulates its own transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) involves a complex signalling pathway in which the transcription factor HACA plays a central role. Here we report the cloning and characterisation of the hacA gene and its product from Aspergillus niger. ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress results in the splicing of an unconventional 20-nt intron from the A. niger hacA mRNA, and is associated with

H. J. Mulder; M. Saloheimo; M. Penttilä; S. M. Madrid

2004-01-01

340

Production of glucose oxidase using Aspergillus niger and corn steep liquor.  

PubMed

Glucose oxidase production was optimized using an isolated strain of Aspergillus niger and an economical nutrient source, corn steep liquor (CSL). The culture produced 580 +/- 30 units/ml of the enzyme using 70 g/l sucrose as the carbon source. Using CSL as the sole nutrient source enzyme synthesis was increased to 640 +/- 36 units/ml. None of the nitrogen sources (nitrates of calcium, sodium, ammonium, potassium and yeast extract, malt extract, and peptone) was beneficial to the enzyme synthesis. Aeration and agitation enhanced enzyme synthesis to 850 +/- 45 units/ml. Glucose oxidase has numerous applications in food industry and clinical fields. PMID:11333029

Kona, R P; Qureshi, N; Pai, J S

2001-06-01

341

Biotransformation of the diperpenoid, isosteviol, by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhizopus arrhizus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of isosteviol (ent-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid) by three fungi is described. Aspergillus niger produced the 7?-OH derivative, ent-7?-hydroxy-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic, and the 1?,7?-diOH derivative, ent-1?,7?-dihydroxy-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid. The 17-OH compound, ent-17-hydroxy-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid, was obtained with Penicillium chrysogenum. Rhizopus arrhizus produced the 7?-OH derivative, ent-7?-hydroxy-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid. The isolated metabolites were characterised by IR, NMR and MS.

Brás H de Oliveira; Márcia C dos Santos; Paulo C Leal

1999-01-01

342

The complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein, glucoamylase G1, from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structure of glucoamylase G1 (EC 3.2.1.3) from Aspergillus niger has been determined. Fragments of G1 were obtained\\u000a by cleavage with either cyanogen bromide, hydroxylamine, or S. aureus V8 protease. The resulting peptides were separated using\\u000a ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose. Secondary fragments\\u000a were generated by cleavage with either o-iodosobenzoic acid

Birte Svensson; Kjeld Larsen; Ib Svendsen; Esper Boel

1983-01-01

343

Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable lipase from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular 1,3-specific lipase with molecular weight of 35.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.4 from Aspergillus niger has been purified 50-fold by pH precipitation followed by a series of chromatographic steps with an overall yield of 10%.\\u000a The enzyme was homogeneous as judged by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion fast-performance\\u000a liquid chromatography. It contained 2.8% sugar which

Variketta M. Haridasan Namboodiri; Rajagopal Chattopadhyaya

2000-01-01

344

Cloning and expression of a second Aspergillus niger pectin lyase gene (pelA): indications of a pectin lyase gene family in A. niger.  

PubMed

Using the previously cloned Aspergillus niger N756 pectin lyase D gene as a probe, the corresponding pelD gene has been isolated from a genomic library of the laboratory strain A. niger N400. This gene encodes PLD, previously described as PLI, which is one of the two major pectin lyases isolated from the commercial pectinase preparation Ultrazym. Heterologous hybridization of the A. niger N400 genomic library with the pelD gene led to the isolation of another five genes: pelA, B, C, E, and F. These genes differ in their hybridization patterns with probes containing either the entire pelD gene, or 5' or 3' parts thereof. By partial sequencing, and expression in an A. niger transformant containing multiple copies of the pelA gene, we show that this gene, which hybridizes strongest with the pelD gene, encodes the other major pectin lyase from Ultrazym, PLII. PMID:2225145

Harmsen, J A; Kusters-van Someren, M A; Visser, J

1990-08-01

345

Identification of Genes Associated with Morphology in Aspergillus Niger by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The morphology of citric acid production strains of Aspergillus niger is sensitive to a variety of factors including the concentration of manganese (Mn2+). Upon increasing the Mn2+ concentration in A. niger (ATCC 11414) cultures to 14 ppb or higher, the morphology switches from pelleted to filamentous, accompanied by a rapid decline in citric acid production. Molecular mechanisms through which Mn2+ exerts effects on morphology and citric acid production in A. niger have not been well defined, but our use of suppression subtractive hybridization has identified 22 genes responsive to Mn2+. Fifteen genes were differentially expressed when A. niger was grown in media containing 1000 ppb Mn2+ (filamentous form) and seven genes in 10 ppb Mn2+ (pelleted form). Of the fifteen filamentous-associated genes, seven are novel and eight share 47-100% identity to genes from other organisms. Five of the pellet-associated genes are novel, and the other two genes encode a pepsin-type protease and polyubiquitin. All ten genes with deduced functions are either involved in amino acid metabolism/protein catabolism or cell regulatory processes. Northern-blot analysis showed that the transcripts of all 22 genes were rapidly enhanced or suppressed by Mn2+. Steady-state mRNA levels of six selected filamentous associated genes remained high during five days of culture in a filamentous state and low under pelleted growth conditions. The opposite behavior was observed for four selected pellet-associated genes. The full-length cDNA of the filamentous-associated clone, Brsa-25 was isolated. Antisense expression of Brsa-25 permitted pelleted growth and increased citrate production at higher concentrations of Mn2+ than could be tolerated by the parent strain. The results suggest the involvement of the newly isolated genes in regulation of A. niger morphology.

Dai, Ziyu; Mao, Xingxue; Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

2004-04-01

346

Gene overexpression and biochemical characterization of the biotechnologically relevant chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The full-length gene that encodes the chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger CIRM BRFM 131 was cloned by PCR based on the genome of the strain A. niger CBS 513.88. The complete gene consists of 1,715 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 512 amino acids with a molecular mass of 55,264 Da and an acidic pI of 4.6. The gene was successfully cloned and overexpressed in A. niger to yield 1.25 g liter(-1), i.e., 330-fold higher than the production of wild-type strain A. niger CIRM BRFM131. The histidine-tagged recombinant ChlE protein was purified to homogeneity via a single chromatography step, and its main biochemical properties were characterized. The molecular size of the protein checked by mass spectroscopy was 74,553 Da, suggesting the presence of glycosylation. ChlE is assembled in a tetrameric form with several acidic isoforms with pIs of around 4.55 and 5.2. Other characteristics, such as optimal pH and temperature, were found to be similar to those determined for the previously characterized chlorogenic acid hydrolase of A. niger CIRM BRFM 131. However, there was a significant temperature stability difference in favor of the recombinant protein. ChlE exhibits a catalytic efficiency of 12.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) toward chlorogenic acid (CGA), and its ability to release caffeic acid from CGA present in agricultural by-products such as apple marc and coffee pulp was clearly demonstrated, confirming the high potential of this enzyme. PMID:17630312

Benoit, Isabelle; Asther, Michèle; Bourne, Yves; Navarro, David; Canaan, Stéphane; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Herweijer, Marga; Coutinho, Pedro M; Asther, Marcel; Record, Eric

2007-09-01

347

Identification of genes associated with morphology in Aspergillus niger by using suppression subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

The morphology of citric acid production strains of Aspergillus niger is sensitive to a variety of factors, including the concentration of manganese (Mn(2+)). Upon increasing the Mn(2+) concentration in A. niger (ATCC 11414) cultures to 14 ppb or higher, the morphology switches from pelleted to filamentous, accompanied by a rapid decline in citric acid production. The molecular mechanisms through which Mn(2+) exerts effects on morphology and citric acid production in A. niger cultures have not been well defined, but our use of suppression subtractive hybridization has identified 22 genes responsive to Mn(2+). Fifteen genes were differentially expressed when A. niger was grown in media containing 1,000 ppb of Mn(2+) (filamentous form), and seven genes were expressed in 10 ppb of Mn(2+) (pelleted form). Of the 15 filament-associated genes, seven are novel and eight share 47 to 100% identity with genes from other organisms. Five of the pellet-associated genes are novel, and the other two genes encode a pepsin-type protease and polyubiquitin. All 10 genes with deduced functions are either involved in amino acid metabolism-protein catabolism or cell regulatory processes. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts of all 22 genes were rapidly enhanced or suppressed by Mn(2+). Steady-state mRNA levels of six selected filament-associated genes remained high during 5 days of culture in a filamentous state and remained low under pelleted growth conditions. The opposite behavior was observed for four selected pellet-associated genes. The full-length cDNA of the filament-associated clone, Brsa-25, was isolated. Antisense expression of Brsa-25 permitted pelleted growth and increased citrate production at concentrations of Mn(2+) that were higher than the parent strain could tolerate. These results suggest the involvement of the newly isolated genes in the regulation of A. niger morphology. PMID:15066846

Dai, Ziyu; Mao, Xingxue; Magnuson, Jon K; Lasure, Linda L

2004-04-01

348

Identification of Genes Associated with Morphology in Aspergillus niger by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

PubMed Central

The morphology of citric acid production strains of Aspergillus niger is sensitive to a variety of factors, including the concentration of manganese (Mn2+). Upon increasing the Mn2+ concentration in A. niger (ATCC 11414) cultures to 14 ppb or higher, the morphology switches from pelleted to filamentous, accompanied by a rapid decline in citric acid production. The molecular mechanisms through which Mn2+ exerts effects on morphology and citric acid production in A. niger cultures have not been well defined, but our use of suppression subtractive hybridization has identified 22 genes responsive to Mn2+. Fifteen genes were differentially expressed when A. niger was grown in media containing 1,000 ppb of Mn2+ (filamentous form), and seven genes were expressed in 10 ppb of Mn2+ (pelleted form). Of the 15 filament-associated genes, seven are novel and eight share 47 to 100% identity with genes from other organisms. Five of the pellet-associated genes are novel, and the other two genes encode a pepsin-type protease and polyubiquitin. All 10 genes with deduced functions are either involved in amino acid metabolism-protein catabolism or cell regulatory processes. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts of all 22 genes were rapidly enhanced or suppressed by Mn2+. Steady-state mRNA levels of six selected filament-associated genes remained high during 5 days of culture in a filamentous state and remained low under pelleted growth conditions. The opposite behavior was observed for four selected pellet-associated genes. The full-length cDNA of the filament-associated clone, Brsa-25, was isolated. Antisense expression of Brsa-25 permitted pelleted growth and increased citrate production at concentrations of Mn2+ that were higher than the parent strain could tolerate. These results suggest the involvement of the newly isolated genes in the regulation of A. niger morphology. PMID:15066846

Dai, Ziyu; Mao, Xingxue; Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

2004-01-01

349

Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus, a mycotoxicogenic fungal genus, produces carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops like peanuts and maize. Development of fungal resistant maize cultivars is one strategy used to decrease contamination. Successful development and identification of resistant maize genotypes requires evaluation o...

350

Effect of oxygen transfer rate on the composition of the pectolytic enzyme complex of Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Optimal agitation and aeration conditions (assuring O/sub 2/ transfer rates (OTR) of 12-179 mmol/L-h) were determined for pectin lyase (PL) synthesis of an Aspergillus niger strain. Components of the pectolytic enzyme complex were also investigated in order to determine whether their O/sub 2/ demand is identical with or different from that of pectin lyase. Should the latter be the case, a possibility would be given to produce enzyme complexes of different agitation and aeration conditions. The mycelium yield of Aspergillus niger was maximum at an OTR of 100 mmol/L-h. The yields of the various pectolytic enzymes reached maximum at different OTRs. PL production was highest (0.555 mumol/min-mL) at an OTR of 60 mmol/L-h. Endopolygalacturonase (PG) production has a maximum at OTR 49 mmol/L-h, with a 2nd peak at 100-135 mmol O2/L-h. Pectin esterase (PE) synthesis showed a maximum at an OTR of 12-14 mmol/L-h, while both apple juice clarifying and macerating activities gave 2 maximum at 14 and 60 mmol/L-h due to the optima of PE and endo-PG. Macerating activity showed a high value at OTR optimal for PL production as well.

Zetelaki-Horvath, K.; Vas, K.

1981-01-01

351

Thermal Characterization of Purified Glucose Oxidase from A Newly Isolated Aspergillus Niger UAF-1.  

PubMed

An intracellular glucose oxidase was isolated from the mycelium extract of a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger UAF-1. The enzyme was purified to a yield of 28.43% and specific activity of 135 U mg(-1) through ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme showed high affinity for D-glucose with a Km value of 2.56 mM. The enzyme exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.5. Temperature optimum for glucose oxidase, catalyzed D-glucose oxidation was 40 degrees C. The enzyme showed a high thermostability having a half-life 30 min, enthalpy of denaturation 99.66 kJ mol(-1) and free energy of denaturation 103.63 kJ mol(-1). These characteristics suggest the use of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger UAF-1 as an analytical reagent and in the design of biosensors for clinical, biochemical and diagnostic assays. PMID:18193107

Anjum Zia, Muhammad; Khalil-Ur-Rahman; K Saeed, Muhammad; Andaleeb, Fozia; I Rajoka, Muhammad; A Sheikh, Munir; A Khan, Iftikhar; I Khan, Azeem

2007-09-01

352

Limiting temperature and relative humidity for growth and production of aflatoxin and free fatty acids by Aspergillus flavus in sterile peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound mature kernels, broken mature kernels, immature kernels, and unshelled Early Runner peanuts were heat-treated in controlled\\u000a environment cabinets and inoculated with spores ofAspergillus flavus. Treatments were incubated at 97–99% relative humidity at different temperatures ranging from 5 to 55C and also at 30C with\\u000a relative humidities ranging from 55 to 99%. Samples were removed after 7 and 21 days

Urban L. Diener; Norman D. Davis

1967-01-01

353

Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis  

PubMed Central

By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit’s fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations in A. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek’s broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method. PMID:24031964

Ismaiel, Ahmed A.; Rabie, Gamal H.; Kenawey, Saied E.M.; Abd EL-Aal, Marwa A.

2012-01-01

354

Efficacy and possible mechanisms of perillaldehyde in control of Aspergillus niger causing grape decay.  

PubMed

A variety of plant products have been recognized for their antifungal activity and recently have attracted food industry attention for their efficacy in controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruits. The antifungal activity of perillaldehyde (PAE) was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, a known cause of grape spoilage, and possible mechanisms were explored. PAE showed notable antifungal activity against A. niger, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 0.25 and 1?l/ml, respectively. The accumulation of mycelial biomass was also inhibited by PAE in a dose-dependent manner, completely inhibiting mycelial growth at 1?l/ml. In vivo data confirmed that the vapour treatment of grapes with various concentrations of PAE markedly improved control of A. niger and suppressed natural decay. Concentrations of PAE of 0.075?l/ml air showed the greatest inhibition of fungal growth compared to the controls. Further experiments indicated that PAE activated a membrane-active mechanism that inhibits ergosterol synthesis, increases membrane permeability (as evidenced by extracellular pH and conductivity measurements), and disrupts membrane integrity, leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that this membrane-active mechanism makes PAE a promising potential antifungal agent for postharvest control of grape spoilage. PMID:25755082

Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Zeng, Hong; Li, Zongyun; Zhang, Peng; Tessema, Akalate; Peng, Xue

2015-06-01

355

Isolation of epiphytic yeasts with potential for biocontrol of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger on grape.  

PubMed

Antagonistic yeasts were isolated from the epiphytic flora associated with grape berries cv. Negroamaro and identified at species level using molecular methods. A total of 144 yeast isolates were tested in a preliminary screening on agar to select isolates showing a killer activity against Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger, the main species responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A in grape. Twenty-eight yeast isolates were selected for their inhibitory effects on the above fungal species and assayed by an in vitro nutritional competition test for their antagonistic capacity towards three selected ochratoxigenic strains. Six yeast isolates belonging to five species, namely 2 isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis and one each of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Issatchenkia terricola and Candida incommunis, were finally selected and screened on wounded grape berries for their ability to inhibit infection by ochratoxigenic moulds. With the exception of the K. thermotolerans isolate, when inoculated at 10(9) CFU/wound, the other five challenger yeasts reduced the A. carbonarius and A. niger colonization on grape berry (P<0.05). In particular, the best antagonistic activity was shown by the two I. orientalis isolates. Results suggest that antagonist yeasts with the potential to control A. carbonarius and A. niger on grape can be found among the microflora associated with the berries. PMID:16443300

Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Logrieco, Antonio; Visconti, Angelo

2006-04-25

356

EglC, a New Endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger with Major Activity towards Xyloglucan  

PubMed Central

A novel gene, eglC, encoding an endoglucanase, was cloned from Aspergillus niger. Transcription of eglC is regulated by XlnR, a transcriptional activator that controls the degradation of polysaccharides in plant cell walls. EglC is an 858-amino-acid protein and contains a conserved C-terminal cellulose-binding domain. EglC can be classified in glycoside hydrolase family 74. No homology to any of the endoglucanases from Trichoderma reesei was found. In the plant cell wall xyloglucan is closely linked to cellulose fibrils. We hypothesize that the EglC cellulose-binding domain anchors the enzyme to the cellulose chains while it is cleaving the xyloglucan backbone. By this action it may contribute to the degradation of the plant cell wall structure together with other enzymes, including hemicellulases and cellulases. EglC is most active towards xyloglucan and therefore is functionally different from the other two endoglucanases from A. niger, EglA and EglB, which exhibit the greatest activity towards ?-glucan. Although the mode of action of EglC is not known, this enzyme represents a new enzyme function involved in plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation by A. niger. PMID:11916668

Hasper, Alinda A.; Dekkers, Ester; van Mil, Marc; van de Vondervoort, Peter J. I.; de Graaff, Leo H.

2002-01-01

357

Behaviour of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum on rice as affected by degree of milling, temperature, and relative humidity during storage.  

PubMed

We investigated the survival and growth patterns of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum, as well as mycotoxin production, on Korean rice as affected by the degree of milling (rough, brown, and white rice) and storage conditions (21 °C/85% relative humidity [RH], 21 °C/97% RH, and 30 °C/85% RH). When rice was stored at 21 °C/85% RH, the population of A. flavus remained constant and aflatoxin was not produced, regardless of the degree of milling. At 21 °C/97% RH and 30 °C/85% RH, the populations of A. flavus increased significantly (P ? 0.05) and aflatoxins were produced. The highest population of A. flavus and highest amount of aflatoxin B1 were observed on brown rice stored at 21 °C/97% RH. For F. graminearum, when stored at 85% RH, the populations were reduced to less than a detectable level (5 CFU/g of rice) within 120 days and no deoxynivalenol (DON) was produced, regardless of the degree of milling and storage temperature. However, at 21 °C/97% RH, the population of F. graminearum increased significantly (P ? 0.05) and DON was produced on all types of rice. Findings from this study provide insights concerning storage conditions necessary to prevent growth and mycotoxin production by A. flavus and F. graminearum on Korean rice with different degrees of milling. PMID:25475300

Choi, Seonyeong; Jun, Hyejung; Bang, Jihyun; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2015-04-01

358

Deletion of a Chitin Synthase Gene in a Citric Acid Producing Strain of Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Citric acid production by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is carried out in a process that causes the organism to drastically alter its morphology. This altered morphology includes hyphal swelling and highly limited polar growth resulting in clumps of swollen cells that eventually aggregate into pellets of approximately 100 microns in diameter. In this pelleted form, A. niger has increased citric acid production as compared to growth in filamentous form. Chitin is a crucial component of the cell wall of filamentous fungi. Alterations in the deposition or production of chitin may have profound effects on the morphology of the organism. In order to study the role of chitin synthesis in pellet formation we have deleted a chitin synthase gene (csmA) in Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 11414 using a PCR based deletion construct. This class of chitin synthases is only found in filamentous fungi and is not present in yeasts. The csmA genes contain a myosin motor domain at the N-terminus and a chitin synthesis domain at the C-terminus. They are believed to contribute to the specialized polar growth observed in filamentous fungi that is lacking in yeasts. The csmA deletion strain (csmA?) was subjected to minimal media with and without osmotic stabilizers as well as tested in citric acid production media. Without osmotic stabilizers, the mutant germlings were abnormally swollen, primarily in the subapical regions, and contained large vacuoles. However, this swelling is ultimately not inhibitory to growth as the germlings are able to recover and undergo polar growth. Colony formation was largely unaffected in the absence of osmotic stabilizers. In citric acid production media csmA? was observed to have a 2.5 fold increase in citric acid production. The controlled expression of this class of chitin synthases may be useful for improving production of organic acids in filamentous fungi.

Rinker, Torri E.; Baker, Scott E.

2007-01-29

359

Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

360

Regulation of citric acid production by oxygen: Effect of dissolved oxygen tension on adenylate levels and respiration in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the control of citric acid accumulation by oxygen was investigated by means of pilot plant fermentation using Aspergillus niger. The critical dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) for oxygen uptake of this fungus was about 18–21 and 23–26 mbar for trophophase and idiophase, respectively. Minimal DOT for citric acid production was about 25 mbar. Citric acid production increased steadily

C. P. Kubicek; O. Zehentgruber; Housam El-Kalak; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

361

Presence of epoxide hydrolase activity in Aspergillus niger: Hydrolysis of 6', 7'-epoxybergamottin to 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 6', 7'-epoxybergamottin (EB) is one of major furanocoumarins in grapefruit. Previously, we have shown that Aspergillus niger has a capability of metabolizing EB into 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), which is further metabolized to bergaptol and bergaptol-5-sulfate in vivo. In this study, we at...

362

Properties of epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of epoxides in pure organic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various reaction parameters regarding activity, stability and apparent enantioselectivity of recombinant epoxide hydrolase (EH) from Aspergillus niger in organic media were investigated using the racemic para-chlorostyrene oxide as a model substrate. Depending on the nature of the organic solvent, EH responded differently to variations in initial aw and no correlation between the activity or enantiomeric ratio (E)

S. Karboune; A. Archelas; J. Baratti

2006-01-01

363

Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes. PMID:23369298

2013-01-01

364

VeA Is Associated with the Response to Oxidative Stress in the Aflatoxin Producer Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

Survival of fungal species depends on the ability of these organisms to respond to environmental stresses. Osmotic stress or high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause stress in fungi resulting in growth inhibition. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have developed numerous mechanisms to counteract and survive the stress in the presence of ROS. In many fungi, the HOG signaling pathway is crucial for the oxidative stress response as well as for osmotic stress response. This study revealed that while the osmotic stress response is only slightly affected by the master regulator veA, this gene, also known to control morphological development and secondary metabolism in numerous fungal species, has a profound effect on the oxidative stress response in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. We found that the expression of A. flavus homolog genes involved in the HOG signaling pathway is regulated by veA. Deletion of veA resulted in a reduction in transcription levels of oxidative stress response genes after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, analyses of the effect of VeA on the promoters of cat1 and trxB indicate that the presence of VeA alters DNA-protein complex formation. This is particularly notable in the cat1 promoter, where the absence of VeA results in abnormally stronger complex formation with reduced cat1 expression and more sensitivity to ROS in a veA deletion mutant, suggesting that VeA might prevent binding of negative transcription regulators to the cat1 promoter. Our study also revealed that veA positively influences the expression of the transcription factor gene atfB and that normal formation of DNA-protein complexes in the cat1 promoter is dependent on AtfB. PMID:24951443

Baidya, Sachin; Duran, Rocio M.; Lohmar, Jessica M.; Harris-Coward, Pamela Y.; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Hong, Sung-Yong; Roze, Ludmila V.; Linz, John E.

2014-01-01

365

Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity  

PubMed Central

Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and reliable approach to increase the productivity in industrial processes. Because of the predictable behavior fungal morphology showed in dependence of osmolality, a customization of morphology for process needs seems feasible. PMID:21801352

2011-01-01

366

Cytosolic streaming in vegetative mycelium and aerial structures of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger forms aerial hyphae and conidiophores after a period of vegetative growth. The hyphae within the mycelium of A. niger are divided by septa. The central pore in these septa allows for cytoplasmic streaming. Here, we studied inter- and intra-compartmental streaming of the reporter protein GFP in A. niger. Expression of the gene encoding nuclear targeted GFP from the gpdA or glaA promoter resulted in strong fluorescence of nuclei within the vegetative hyphae and weak fluorescence in nuclei within the aerial structures. These data and nuclear run on experiments showed that gpdA and glaA are higher expressed in the vegetative mycelium when compared to aerial hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. Notably, gpdA or glaA driven expression of the gene encoding cytosolic GFP resulted in strongly fluorescent vegetative hyphae and aerial structures. Apparently, GFP streams from vegetative hyphae into aerial structures. This was confirmed by monitoring fluorescence of photo-activatable GFP (PA-GFP). In contrast, PA-GFP did not stream from aerial structures to vegetative hyphae. Streaming of PA-GFP within vegetative hyphae or within aerial structures of A. niger occurred at a rate of 10–15 ?m s-1. Taken together, these results not only show that GFP streams from the vegetative mycelium to aerial structures but it also indicates that its encoding RNA is not streaming. Absence of RNA streaming would explain why distinct RNA profiles were found in aerial structures and the vegetative mycelium by nuclear run on analysis and micro-array analysis. PMID:23450745

Bleichrodt, R.; Vinck, A.; Krijgsheld, P.; van Leeuwen, M.R.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

367

Potential for aflatoxin B1 and B2 production by Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from rice samples  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the potential for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) production in rice grain by 127 strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from rice grains collected from China. These strains were inoculated onto rice grains and incubated at 28 °C for 21 days. AFB1 and AFB2 were extracted and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. Among the tested strains, 37% produced AFB1 and AFB2 with levels ranging from 175 to 124 101 ?g kg?1 for AFB1 and from not detected to 10 329 ?g kg?1 for AFB2. The mean yields of these isolates were 5884 ?g kg?1 for AFB1 and 1968 ?g kg?1 for AFB2. Overall, most of the aflatoxigenic strains produced higher levels of AFB1 than AFB2 in rice. The obtained information is useful for assessing the risk of aflatoxin contamination in rice samples. PMID:25737649

Lai, Xianwen; Zhang, He; Liu, Ruicen; Liu, Chenglan

2014-01-01

368

Treatment of poplar alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) effluent with Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Although the moderate load (COD of 5000-10,000 mg/L) and biodegradability of the APMP pulping effluent should allow biological treatment, toxic compounds in the effluent can interfere with this type of treatment. Studies were conducted to determine if treatment of the effluent with Aspergillus niger S13 was feasible. Under the optimized conditions (3% inoculum, pH 6, shaking at 160 rpm, 60-72 h, and 30°C), this fungus was able to remove about 97% of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) extractives, and 60%, 77% and 43% of the chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and color even without a pre-flocculation step. These results are of practical interest in China because the APMP process has become popular, and efficient and cost-effective effluent treatment technologies are in high demand. PMID:21612920

Liu, Tingzhi; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

2011-08-01

369

Refinement of the crystal structures of biomimetic weddellites produced by microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-crystal structures of four biomimetic weddellites CaC2O4 · (2 + x)H2O with different contents of zeolitic water ( x = 0.10-0.24 formula units) produced by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger were refined from X-ray diffraction data ( R = 0.029-0.038). The effect of zeolitic water content on the structural stability of weddellite was analyzed. The parameter a was shown to increase with increasing x due to the increase in the distance between water molecules along this direction. The water content and structural parameters of the synthesized weddellites are similar to those of weddellites from biofilms and kidney stones.

Rusakov, A. V.; Frank-Kamenetskaya, O. V.; Gurzhiy, V. V.; Zelenskaya, M. S.; Izatulina, A. R.; Sazanova, K. V.

2014-05-01

370

An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.  

PubMed

The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

2015-02-01

371

Optimization of enantioselective resolution of racemic ibuprofen by native lipase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Resolution of (R,S)-ibuprofen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid) enantiomers by esterification reaction with 1-propanol in different organic solvents was studied using native Aspergillus niger lipase. The main variables controlling the process (enzyme concentration and 1-propanol:ibuprofen molar ratio) have been optimized using response surface methodology based on a five-level, two-variable central composite rotatable design, in which the selected objective function was enantioselectivity. This enzyme preparation showed preferentially catalyzes the esterification of R(-)-ibuprofen, and under optimum conditions (7% w/v of enzyme and molar ratio of 2.41:1) the enantiomeric excess of active S(+)-ibuprofen and total conversion values were 79.1 and 48.0%, respectively, and the E-value was 32, after 168 h of reaction in isooctane. PMID:16680456

de O Carvalho, Patrícia; Contesini, Fabiano J; Bizaco, Renato; Calafatti, Silvana Ap; Macedo, Gabriela A

2006-08-01

372

Selection of amylolytically active Aspergillus niger mutants to 2-deoxy-D-glucose.  

PubMed

As a result of mutagenization and passaging on 2-deoxy-D-glucose containing medium, 10 Aspergillus niger strains resistant to this agent were obtained. These showed (with one exception) an increase in the activity of glucoamylse, the level of which ranged widely in individual cases from several to over 200% in comparison with the parent strain. A weaker rate of glucose accumulation in derepressed strains may account for the fact that the mechanism of their resistance to deoxyglucose is connected with disturbance of the system of glucose transport. However, it is possible that a high activity of acid phosphatase, which the obtained deoxyglucose-resistant cultures showed, may be involved here. Apart from the biochemical character of the catabolic derepression, it seems that it can already be successfully utilized to increase the productivity of industrial mould cultures. PMID:3122460

Fiedurek, J; Paszczy?ski, A; Ginalska, G; Ilczuk, Z

1987-01-01

373

Naphtho-?-pyrones from Endophyte Aspergillus niger occurring in the liverwort Heteroscyphus tener (Steph.) Schiffn.  

PubMed

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the cytotoxic extract of Aspergillus niger, an endophytic fungus from the Chinese liverwort Heteroscyphus tener (Steph.) Schiffn., afforded five new naphtho-?-pyrones, rubrofusarin-6-O-?-D-ribofuranoside (1), (R)-10-(3-succinimidyl)-TMC-256A1 (2), asperpyrone E (3), isoaurasperone A (4), and isoaurasperone F (5), as well as four known ones, dianhydroaurasperone C (6), aurasperone D (7), asperpyrone D (8), and asperpyrone A (9), together with a cytotoxic cyclic pentapeptide, malformin A1 (10). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of dimeric naphtho-?-pyrones 3-9 were also determined by analysis of their respective CD spectra. PMID:23847065

Li, Xiao-Bin; Xie, Fei; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Lou, Hong-Xiang

2013-07-01

374

Influence of culture conditions on the biotransformation of (+)-limonene by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The influence of the cultivation system and of the culture medium on the biotransformation of (+)-limonene by a strain of Aspergillus niger was investigated. Biooxidation products were obtained in all conditions tested. Using a laboratory bioreactor, six terpenes were identified in every medium, predominantly terpineols and carveols, whereas terpinen-4-ol and perillyl alcohol were the only terpenes found when flasks were used for culture. Perillyl alcohol and carveols predominated when the medium was tryptic soy broth (TSB), whereas the formation of terpineols was clearly favoured in malt broth (MB). Thus, there was a marked influence of the culture conditions on the results of the biotransformation. Changes in the conditions led to variations both in the type and relative amount of products obtained. PMID:24772824

García-Carnelli, Carlos; Rodríguez, Paula; Heinzen, Horacio; Menéndez, Pilar

2014-01-01

375

In vitro susceptibility of 188 clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus flavus for the new triazole isavuconazole and seven other antifungal drugs.  

PubMed

Recently isavuconazole, an experimental triazole agent, was found to be active against Aspergillus species. As Aspergillus flavus is the second-most common Aspergillus species isolated from human infection and the fungus has not been widely tested against the drug, we studied a large collection of clinical (n = 178) and environmental (n = 10) strains of A. flavus against isavuconazole and compared the results with seven other Aspergillus-active antifungal agents (some of them triazoles, others echinocandins or polyene antifungals: voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin and amphotericin B) using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Strains with high minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were tested by E-test as well. The strains were collected from two different geographical locations (India and the Netherlands). Three isolates (1.6%) had high MIC (2 mg l(-1) by microbroth dilution and 8 mg l(-1) by E-test) for amphotericin B. Isavuconazole showed good activity against A. flavus strains with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of 1 mg l(-1). As compared with voriconazole (the drug recommended for primary therapy of aspergillosis), isavuconazole had better activity (99.5% of strains had MIC of ? 1 mg l(-1) for isavuconazole, compared to 74% of strains with same MIC for voriconazole). All strains were, following recently proposed clinical breakpoints, susceptible for the triazoles tested except three strains, which had MICs of 4 mg l(-1) for voriconazole. Testing these strains with high MIC by E-test, gave results of 0.5-2 mg l(-1). Posaconazole had the lowest MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.125 mg l(-1) and 0.25 mg l(-1), respectively. Among echinocandins, 97% of strains had a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of ? 0.5 mg l(-1) for caspofungin, and all strains had a MEC of ? 0.016 mg l(-1) and ? 0.125 mg l(-1) for anidulafungin and micafungin, respectively. PMID:21518026

Shivaprakash, M R; Geertsen, Erik; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Mouton, Johan W; Meis, Jacques F

2011-09-01

376

Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).  

PubMed

Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renê O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

2014-01-01

377

Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.

Krull, Rainer; Cordes, Christiana; Horn, Harald; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Neu, Thomas R.; Nörtemann, Bernd

378

Switching from a Unicellular to Multicellular Organization in an Aspergillus niger Hypha  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Pores in fungal septa enable cytoplasmic streaming between hyphae and their compartments. Consequently, the mycelium can be considered unicellular. However, we show here that Woronin bodies close ~50% of the three most apical septa of growing hyphae of Aspergillus niger. The incidence of closure of the 9th and 10th septa was even ?94%. Intercompartmental streaming of photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP) was not observed when the septa were closed, but open septa acted as a barrier, reducing the mobility rate of PA-GFP ~500 times. This mobility rate decreased with increasing septal age and under stress conditions, likely reflecting a regulatory mechanism affecting septal pore diameter. Modeling revealed that such regulation offers effective control of compound concentration between compartments. Modeling also showed that the incidence of septal closure in A. niger had an even stronger impact on cytoplasmic continuity. Cytoplasm of hyphal compartments was shown not to be in physical contact when separated by more than 4 septa. Together, data show that apical compartments of growing hyphae behave unicellularly, while older compartments have a multicellular organization. PMID:25736883

Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; Hulsman, Marc

2015-01-01

379

Mutagenesis and genotypic characterization of Aspergillus niger FCBP-02 for improvement in cellulolytic potential.  

PubMed

Cellulase is a collective term that encompasses enzymes which catalyze reactions that participate in the degradation of insoluble cellulose to soluble carbohydrates. In the present study, production of extra cellular cellulases by a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger FCBP-02, was studied in solid-state fermentation (SSF) as well as in submerged fermentation (SmF). Trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of mutagenesis by UV irradiation (5-40 min) and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment (50-300 microg mL(-1)) to obtain hyper active cellulase enzyme producers among the potential strains. The enzyme activity assays of parental and mutant strains clearly revealed significantly higher cellulase activity of mutant A-Ch-5.5 (96 Units mL(-1)), followed by A-UV-5.6 (71 Units mL(-1)) with respect to the wild strain of A. niger FCBP-02 (53.7 Units mL(-1)). The profile of genetic variability among wild and mutant derivatives was scrutinized through RAPD-PCR. The expression pattern of mutants exhibited that the mutants were isogenic variants of the wild type and the out performance of the mutants could be attributed to the change in genetic make up. PMID:19476005

Shafique, Shazia; Bajwa, Rukhsana; Shafique, Sobiya

2009-04-01

380

Heterologous Expression of Aspergillus niger ?-d-Xylosidase (XlnD): Characterization on Lignocellulosic Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gene encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 10864. The recombinant product was expressed in Aspergillus awamori, purified by column chromatography, and verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/ TOF) mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests. The T max was determined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) to be 78.2 °C; the K m and k cat were found to be 255 ?M and 13.7 s-1, respectively, using pNP-?-d-xylopyranoside as substrate. End-product inhibition by d-xylose was also verified and shown to be competitive; the K i for this inhibition was estimated to be 3.3 mM. XlnD was shown to efficiently hydrolyze small xylo-oligomers to monomeric xylose, making it a critical hydrolytic activity in cases where xylose is to be recovered from biomass conversion processes. In addition, the presence of the XlnD was shown to synergistically enhance the ability of an endoxylanase, XynA from Thermomyces lanuginosus, to convert xylan present in selected pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Furthermore, the addition of the XynA/XlnD complex was effective in enhancing the ability of a simplified cellulase complex to convert glucan present in the substrates.

Selig, Michael J.; Knoshaug, Eric P.; Decker, Stephen R.; Baker, John O.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

381

Heterologous Expression of Aspergillus Niger --beta--D-Xylosidase (XInD): Characterization on Lignocellulosic Substrates  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 10864. The recombinant product was expressed in Aspergillus awamori, purified by column chromatography, and verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests. The T{sub max} was determined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) to be 78.2 C; the K{sub m} and k{sub cat} were found to be 255 {micro}M and 13.7 s{sup -1}, respectively, using {rho}NP-{Beta}-d-xylopyranoside as substrate. End-product inhibition by d-xylose was also verified and shown to be competitive; the K{sub i} for this inhibition was estimated to be 3.3 mM. XlnD was shown to efficiently hydrolyze small xylo-oligomers to monomeric xylose, making it a critical hydrolytic activity in cases where xylose is to be recovered from biomass conversion processes. In addition, the presence of the XlnD was shown to synergistically enhance the ability of an endoxylanase, XynA from Thermomyces lanuginosus, to convert xylan present in selected pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Furthermore, the addition of the XynA/XlnD complex was effective in enhancing the ability of a simplified cellulase complex to convert glucan present in the substrates.

Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug, E. P.; Decker, S. R.; Baker, J. O.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

2008-01-01

382

Biochemical properties of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase from fungal strain Aspergillus niger 26  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fungal strain Aspergillus niger produces two superoxide dismutases, Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD. The primary structure of the Cu/Zn-SOD has been determined by Edman degradation of peptide fragments derived from proteolytic digests. A single chain of the protein, consisting of 153 amino acid residues, reveals a very high degree of structural homology with the amino acid sequences of other Aspergillus Cu/Zn-SODs. The molecular mass of ANSOD, measured by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS, and calculated by its amino acid sequence, was determined to be 15 821 Da. Only one Trp residue, at position 32, and one disulfide bridge were identified. However, neither a Tyr residue nor a carbohydrate chain occupying an N-linkage site (-Asn-Ile-Thr-) were found. Studies on the temperature and pH dependence of fluorescence, and on the temperature dependence of CD spectroscopic properties, confirmed that the enzyme is very stable, which can be explained by the stabilising effect of the disulfide bridge. The enzyme retains about 53% of its activity after incubation for a period of 30 min at 60 °C, and 15% at 85 °C.

Dolashki, Aleksandar; Abrashev, Radoslav; Stevanovic, Stefan; Stefanova, Lilyana; Ali, Syed Abid; Velkova, Ludmila; Hristova, Rumyana; Angelova, Maria; Voelter, Wolfgang; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina

2008-12-01

383

Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus infected cotton bolls after treatment with neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In separate treatments, a spore suspension ofA. flavus (control), an aqueous leaf extract of the subtropical neem tree plus a spore suspension ofA. flavus, or an aqueous neem leaf extract followed by anA. flavus spore suspension were injected 48 hr later onto the surfaces of locks of developing cotton bolls (30-day post anthesis).\\u000a Thirteen days after the treatments, the seeds

Hampden J. Zeringue; Deepak Bhatnagar

1990-01-01

384

Genomic analysis of the aconidial and high-performance protein producer, industrially relevant Aspergillus niger SH2 strain.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger is usually regarded as a beneficial species widely used in biotechnological industry. Obtaining the genome sequence of the widely used aconidial A. niger SH2 strain is of great importance to understand its unusual production capability. In this study we assembled a high-quality genome sequence of A. niger SH2 with approximately 11,517 ORFs. Relatively high proportion of genes enriched for protein expression related FunCat items verify its efficient capacity in protein production. Furthermore, genome-wide comparative analysis between A. niger SH2 and CBS513.88 reveals insights into unique properties of A. niger SH2. A. niger SH2 lacks the gene related with the initiation of asexual sporulation (PrpA), leading to its distinct aconidial phenotype. Frame shift mutations and non-synonymous SNPs in genes of cell wall integrity signaling, ?-1,3-glucan synthesis and chitin synthesis influence its cell wall development which is important for its hyphal fragmentation during industrial high-efficiency protein production. PMID:24630962

Yin, Chao; Wang, Bin; He, Pan; Lin, Ying; Pan, Li

2014-05-15

385

Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed reactor using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kumara, a starch-containing root crop grown extensively in New Zealand, has been used as a substrate for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation. When the process was operated in a packed-bed reactor, the bed loading was the most important operational parameter. The airflow rate and substrate particle size were also important but their net effects varied depending

Minyuan Lu; John D. Brooks; Ian S. Maddox

1997-01-01

386

Removal of arsenic from aqueous environments by native and chemically modified biomass of Aspergillus niger and Neosartorya fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by biomass of two fungal strains, Aspergillus niger and Neosartorya fischeri, was assessed. The biosorption capacity of fungal biomass was studied within the As(V) concentration range of approximately 0.2 to 5.0 mg L at two different pH values (pH 5 and 7). With increasing initial arsenic concentration, the biosorption capacity of both fungal strains increased

Pavol Littera; Martin Urík; Jaroslav Ševc; Marek Kolen?ík; Katarína Gardošová; Marianna Molnárová

2011-01-01

387

Differential expression of three alpha-galactosidase genes and a single beta-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding a third a-galactosidase (AglB) from Aspergillus niger has been cloned and sequenced. The gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,750 bp containing six introns. The gene encodes a protein of 443 amino acids which contains a eukaryotic signal sequence of 16 amino acids and seven putative N-glycosylation sites. The mature protein has a calculated molecular

Vries de R. P; Broeck van den H. C; ESTER DEKKERS; PALOMA MANZANARES; Graaff de L. H; JAAP VISSER

1999-01-01

388

Release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by a ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid was efficiently released from a wheat bran preparation by a ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger (FAE-III) when incubated together with a Trichoderma viride xylanase (a maximum of 95% total ferulic acid released after 5 h incubation). FAE-III by itself could release ferulic acid but at a level almost 24-fold lower than that obtained in the presence of

C. B. Faulds; G. Williamson

1995-01-01

389

Genetic analysis and the construction of master strains for assignment of genes to six linkage groups in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A start has been made on establishing a collection of Aspergillus niger colour and auxotrophic mutants with an isogenic background for use as a source of genetic markers. All strains have short conidiophores (cspAl ), which makes them easy to handle on test plates. Genetic markers were combined stepwise by somatic recombination. Somatic diploids were obtained at frequencies of 10-6-10-5

C. J. Bos; A. J. M. Debets; K. Swart; A. Huybers; G. Kobus; S. M. Slakhorst

1988-01-01

390

Biochemical characterisation of extracellular phytase ( myo -inositol hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase) from a hyper-producing strain of Aspergillus niger van Teighem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger van Teighem, isolated in our laboratory from samples of rotten wood logs, produced extracellular phytase having a high specific activity of 22,592 units (mg protein)-1 . The enzyme was purified to near homogeneity using ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular properties of the purified enzyme suggested the native phytase to be oligomeric, with a molecular weight of 353 kDa,

Purva Vats; U. C. Banerjee

2005-01-01

391

Aspergillus niger ?-Glucosidase Has a Cellulase-like Tadpole Molecular Shape  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is known to secrete large amounts of ?-glucosidases, which have a variety of biotechnological and industrial applications. Here, we purified an A. niger ?-glucosidase (AnBgl1) and conducted its biochemical and biophysical analyses. Purified enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 116 kDa forms monomers in solution as judged by native gel electrophoresis and has a pI value of 4.55, as found for most of the fungi of ?-glucosidases. Surprisingly, the small angle x-ray experiments reveal that AnBgl1 has a tadpole-like structure, with the N-terminal catalytic domain and C-terminal fibronectin III-like domain (FnIII) connected by the long linker peptide (?100 amino acid residues) in an extended conformation. This molecular organization resembles the one adopted by other cellulases (such as cellobiohydrolases, for example) that frequently contain a catalytic domain linked to the cellulose-binding module that mediates their binding to insoluble and polymeric cellulose. The reasons why AnBgl1, which acts on the small soluble substrates, has a tadpole molecular shape are not entirely clear. However, our enzyme pulldown assays with different polymeric substrates suggest that AnBgl1 has little or no capacity to bind to and to adsorb cellulose, xylan, and starch, but it has high affinity to lignin. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that clusters of residues located in the C-terminal FnIII domain interact strongly with lignin fragments. The simulations showed that numerous arginine residues scattered throughout the FnIII surface play an important role in the interaction with lignin by means of cation-? stacking with the lignin aromatic rings. These results indicate that the C-terminal FnIII domain could be operational for immobilization of the enzyme on the cell wall and for the prevention of unproductive binding of cellulase to the biomass lignin. PMID:24064212

Lima, Marisa A.; Oliveira-Neto, Mario; Kadowaki, Marco Antonio S.; Rosseto, Flavio R.; Prates, Erica T.; Squina, Fabio M.; Leme, Adriana F. P.; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikarpov, Igor

2013-01-01

392

Structural Features of Sugars That Trigger or Support Conidial Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germination, we distinguish two distinct stages, the initial swelling of the conidium and subsequent polarized growth. The stage of conidial swelling requires a germination trigger, which we define as a compound that is sensed by the conidium and which leads to catabolism of d-trehalose and isotropic growth. Sugars that triggered germination and outgrowth included d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-xylose. Sugars that triggered germination but did not support subsequent outgrowth included d-tagatose, d-lyxose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Nontriggering sugars included d-galactose, l-glucose, and d-arabinose. Certain nontriggering sugars, including d-galactose, supported outgrowth if added in the presence of a complementary triggering sugar. This division of functions indicates that sugars are involved in two separate events in germination, triggering and subsequent outgrowth, and the structural features of sugars that support each, both, or none of these events are discussed. We also present data on the uptake of sugars during the germination process and discuss possible mechanisms of triggering in the absence of apparent sugar uptake during the initial swelling of conidia. PMID:23995938

Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm

2013-01-01

393

Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.  

PubMed

During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

2014-05-01

394

On the safety of a new generation of DSM Aspergillus niger enzyme production strains.  

PubMed

Consumers safety of enzyme preparations is determined by three variables: the producing organism, the raw materials used in the production, and the production process itself. The latter one is embedded in current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP); therefore the safety focus can be directed to raw materials and the producing organism. In this paper, we describe the use of novel genetically modified strains of Aspergillus niger-made by a design and build strategy-from a lineage of classically improved strains with a history of safe use in enzyme production. The specifics of the host strain allow for integration and over-expression of any gene of interest at a targeted integration site implying that the rest of the host genome is not affected by this integration. Furthermore due to the fact that the newly integrated gene copies are put under the genetic regulation of the host's own glucoamylase promoter, the recipe of the production process of any new production strain can be kept constant with respect to the raw materials composition. Consequently the safety of a new enzyme product from these novel genetically modified strains is determined by the background of the production organism. The use of a strain with a history of safe use and targeted integration according to the concept described above has consequences for the safety studies on the final product. If a known enzymatic activity is over-expressed the safety of a new enzyme preparation is covered by the results of the safety studies performed for other strains from this specific Aspergillus niger strain lineage. In this paper an overview is given on the available toxicity tests with these strains. We conclude that for new enzyme products produced with strains from this lineage using the design and build technology no new sub-acute/chronic oral toxicity studies are needed. This also has the benefit that no longer test animals are needed to demonstrate the safety of products produced by these strains. PMID:12878051

van Dijck, Piet W M; Selten, Gerard C M; Hempenius, Rixta A

2003-08-01

395

Characterization of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers for Aspergillus flavus: emphasis on variability of isolates from the southern United States.  

PubMed

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Aspergillus flavus expressed sequence tag (EST) database to conduct an analysis of genetic relationships of Aspergillus isolates from numerous host species and geographical regions, but primarily from the United States. Twenty-nine primers were designed from 362 tri-nucleotide EST-SSR sequences. Eighteen polymorphic loci were used to genotype 96 Aspergillus species isolates. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 2 to 24 with a mean of 8.2 alleles. Haploid diversity ranged from 0.28 to 0.91. Genetic distance matrix was used to perform principal coordinates analysis (PCA) and to generate dendrograms using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Two principal coordinates explained more than 75 % of the total variation among the isolates. One clade was identified for A. flavus isolates (n = 87) with the other Aspergillus species (n = 7) using PCA, but five distinct clusters were present when the others taxa were excluded from the analysis. Six groups were noted when the EST-SSR data were compared using UPGMA. However, the latter PCA or UPGMA comparison resulted in no direct associations with host species, geographical region or aflatoxin production. Furthermore, there was no direct correlation to visible morphological features such as sclerotial types. The isolates from Mississippi Delta region, which contained the largest percentage of isolates, did not show any unusual clustering except for isolates K32, K55, and 199. Further studies of these three isolates are warranted to evaluate their pathogenicity, aflatoxin production potential, additional gene sequences (e.g., RPB2), and morphological comparisons. PMID:22911544

Wang, Xinwang; Wadl, Phillip A; Wood-Jones, Alicia; Windham, Gary; Trigiano, Robert N; Scruggs, Mary; Pilgrim, Candace; Baird, Richard

2012-12-01

396

Secretion and properties of a hybrid Kluyveromyces lactis-Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase  

PubMed Central

Background The ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis is a protein of outstanding biotechnological interest in the food industry and milk whey reutilization. However, due to its intracellular nature, its industrial production is limited by the high cost associated to extraction and downstream processing. The yeast-system is an attractive method for producing many heterologous proteins. The addition of a secretory signal in the recombinant protein is the method of choice to sort it out of the cell, although biotechnological success is not guaranteed. The cell wall acting as a molecular sieve to large molecules, culture conditions and structural determinants present in the protein, all have a decisive role in the overall process. Protein engineering, combining domains of related proteins, is an alternative to take into account when the task is difficult. In this work, we have constructed and analyzed two hybrid proteins from the ?-galactosidase of K. lactis, intracellular, and its Aspergillus niger homologue that is extracellular. In both, a heterologous signal peptide for secretion was also included at the N-terminus of the recombinant proteins. One of the hybrid proteins obtained has interesting properties for its biotechnological utilization. Results The highest levels of intracellular and extracellular ?-galactosidase were obtained when the segment corresponding to the five domain of K. lactis ?-galactosidase was replaced by the corresponding five domain of the A. niger ?-galactosidase. Taking into account that this replacement may affect other parameters related to the activity or the stability of the hybrid protein, a thoroughly study was performed. Both pH (6.5) and temperature (40°C) for optimum activity differ from values obtained with the native proteins. The stability was higher than the corresponding to the ?-galactosidase of K. lactis and, unlike this, the activity of the hybrid protein was increased by the presence of Ni2+. The affinity for synthetic (ONPG) or natural (lactose) substrates was higher in the hybrid than in the native K. lactis ?-galactosidase. Finally, a structural-model of the hybrid protein was obtained by homology modelling and the experimentally determined properties of the protein were discussed in relation to it. Conclusion A hybrid protein between K. lactis and A. niger ?-galactosidases was constructed that increases the yield of the protein released to the growth medium. Modifications introduced in the construction, besides to improve secretion, conferred to the protein biochemical characteristics of biotechnological interest. PMID:17176477

Rodríguez, Ángel Pereira; Leiro, Rafael Fernández; Trillo, M Cristina; Cerdán, M Esperanza; Siso, M Isabel González; Becerra, Manuel

2006-01-01

397

Purification and properties of one component of acid phosphatase produced by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

One component, the i form, of acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum), EC 3.1.3.2) produced by Aspergillus niger was purified from the mycelial extract. The purified enzyme was homogenous on Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, disc electrophoresis and heat inactivation. The purified enzyme was studied and the following results were obtained: 1. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of a wide variety of phosphomonoesters, but not that of bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate or adenosine 5'-triphosphate. 2. Fluoride, orthophosphate, arsenate, borate, molybdate and (+)-tartrate acted as inhibitors. This enzyme was inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide, and was not affected by p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-acetylimidazole, p-diazobenzenesulfonic acid and tetranitromethane. From these results, tryptophan was estimated to play an important role in the enzyme activity. 3. The apparent molecular weight was 310000 by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate suggested that the molecular weight of the subunit was approximately 89000. 4. The purified enzyme contained 29% carbohydrate consisting of glucosamine, mannose and galactose. The amino acid composition of this enzyme was not specific compared with other known acid phosphatases. PMID:13843

Shimada, Y; Shinmyo, A; Enatsu, T

1977-02-01

398

Effect of Aspergillus niger xylanase on dough characteristics and bread quality attributes.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of various treatments of xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger applied in bread making processes like during tempering of wheat kernels and dough mixing on the dough quality characteristics i.e. dryness, stiffness, elasticity, extensibility, coherency and bread quality parameters i.e. volume, specific volume, density, moisture retention and sensory attributes. Different doses (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 IU) of purified enzyme were applied to 1 kg of wheat grains during tempering and 1 kg of flour (straight grade flour) during mixing of dough in parallel. The samples of wheat kernels were agitated at different intervals for uniformity in tempering. After milling and dough making of both types of flour (having enzyme treatment during tempering and flour mixing) showed improved dough characteristics but the improvement was more prominent in the samples receiving enzyme treatment during tempering. Moreover, xylanase decreased dryness and stiffness of the dough whereas, resulted in increased elasticity, extensibility and coherency and increase in volume & decrease in bread density. Xylanase treatments also resulted in higher moisture retention and improvement of sensory attributes of bread. From the results, it is concluded that dough characteristics and bread quality improved significantly in response to enzyme treatments during tempering as compared to application during mixing. PMID:25328183

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmed, Anwaar; Riaz, Muhammad; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Farooq, Umar; Rehman, Fazal Ur

2014-10-01

399

Optimization of xylanase production from Aspergillus niger for biobleaching of eucalyptus pulp.  

PubMed

A crude endo-xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger BCC14405 was investigated for its potential in pre-bleaching of chemical pulp from eucalyptus. The optimal fermentation conditions on the basis of optimization using response surface methodology included cultivation in a complex medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and soybean meal supplemented with yeast extract, glucose, peptone, and lactose with a starting pH of 6.0 for 7 d. This resulted in production of 89.5 IU/mL of xylanase with minor cellulase activity. Proteomic analysis using LC/MS/MS revealed that the crude enzyme was a composite of hemicellulolytic enzymes, including endo-?-1,4-xylanase and other hemicellulolytic enzymes attacking arabinoxylan and mannan. Pretreatment of the pulp at a xylanase dosage of 10 IU/g increased the brightness ceiling after the C-Eop-H bleaching step up to 3.0% using a chlorine charge with a C-factor of 0.16-0.20. Xylanase treatment also led to reduction in chlorine charge of at least 20%, with an acceptable brightness level. The enzyme pretreatment resulted in a slight increase in pulp viscosity, suggesting an increase in relative cellulose content. The crude enzyme was potent in the enzyme-aided bleaching of chemical pulp in an environmentally friendly pulping process. PMID:21670524

Khonzue, Parichart; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Rattanaphan, Nakul; Tinnasulanon, Phungjai; Apawasin, Saowanee; Paemanee, Atchara; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Champreda, Verawat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

2011-01-01

400

Sorption of heavy metals by the soil fungi 'Aspergillus niger' and Mucor rouxii  

SciTech Connect

Sorption of the nitrate salts of cadmium(II), copper(II), lanthanum(III) and silver(I) by two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii, was evaluated using Freundlich adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray electron microscopy. The linearized Freundlich isotherm described the metal sorption data well for metal concentrations of 5 microM-1 mM metal. Differences in metal binding were observed among metals, as well as between fungal species. Calculated Freundlich K values indicated that metal binding decreased in the order La(3+) > or = Ag(+) > Cu(2+) > Cd(2+). However, sorption of Ag(+) was greater than that of La(3+) from solutions of 0.1 and 1 mM metal and likely due to precipitation at the cell wall surface. At the 1 mM initial concentration, there were no significant differences between the two fungi in metal sorption, except for Ag(+) binding. At the 5 microM concentration, there was no difference between the fungi in their sorption capacities for the four metals. Electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that silver precipitated onto cells as colloidal silver. The results indicate that Freundlich isotherms may be useful for describing short-term metal sorption by fungal biomass and for comparison with other soil constituents in standardized systems. (Copyright (c) 1992 Pergamon Press plc.)

Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Beveridge, T.J.; Bailey, G.W.

1992-01-01

401

New approach for selecting pectinase producing mutants of Aspergillus niger well adapted to solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to review and study a new approach for improving strains of Aspergillus niger specially adapted to produce pectinases by Solid State Fermentation (SSF) with materials having low levels of water activity (a(w)), i.e., coffee pulp. Special emphasis is placed on the use of two antimetabolic compounds: 2-deoxy-glucose (DG) and 2,4-dinitro-phenol (DNP) combined with a water depressant (ethylene glycol = EG) in order to put strong selection pressures on UV treated spores from parental strain C28B25 isolated from a coffee plantation. Such a strain was found to be DG sensitive. Results suggested the existence of a reciprocal relation between adaptation of isolated strains to SSF or to Submerged Fermentation (SmF) systems. Preliminary physiological analysis of isolated strains showed that at least some few initially DG resistant mutants could revert to DG sensitive phenotype but conserving increased pectinase production. Also it was found that phenotype for DNP resistance could be associated to changes of DG resistance. Finally, it was found that low levels of a(w) produced by adding 15% EG to agar plates, were a significant selection factor for strains well adapted to SSF system. PMID:14545667

Antier, P; Minjares, A; Roussos, S; Viniegra-González, G

1993-01-01

402

The active site topology of Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase II as studied by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Strictly conserved charged residues among polygalacturonases (Asp-180, Asp-201, Asp-202, His-223, Arg-256, and Lys-258) were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase II. Specific activity, product progression, and kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) were determined on polygalacturonic acid for the purified mutated enzymes, and bond cleavage frequencies on oligogalacturonates were calculated. Depending on their specific activity, the mutated endopolygalacturonases II were grouped into three classes. The mutant enzymes displayed bond cleavage frequencies on penta- and/or hexagalacturonate different from the wild type endopolygalacturonase II. Based on the biochemical characterization of endopolygalacturonase II mutants together with the three-dimensional structure of the wild type enzyme, we suggest that the mutated residues are involved in either primarily substrate binding (Arg-256 and Lys-258) or maintaining the proper ionization state of a catalytic residue (His-223). The individual roles of Asp-180, Asp-201, and Asp-202 in catalysis are discussed. The active site topology is different from the one commonly found in inverting glycosyl hydrolases. PMID:10617668

Armand, S; Wagemaker, M J; Sánchez-Torres, P; Kester, H C; van Santen, Y; Dijkstra, B W; Visser, J; Benen, J A

2000-01-01

403

Aspergillus Niger peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient treated with eculizumab.  

PubMed

The complement system plays a vital role in preventing life-threatening infections by ensuring optimal functioning of the host immune system. Its dysregulation has been implicated in causing glomerular, hematological, and transplant-related disorders. Eculizumab a novel monoclonal antibody against complement component C5 has emerged in the recent past as the standard of care offering an effective rescue and maintenance therapy against many of these disorders. Its use has been associated with increased risk of infections predominantly with encapsulated organisms. There is no data in the literature on its effects in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) or dialysis patients. We describe here a very rare case of Aspergillus Niger peritonitis in an ESKD patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) receiving maintenance eculizumab therapy for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Given that murine models with the same defect as that induced by eculizumab is vulnerable to invasive Aspergillosis, it is suggested that the fungal peritonitis in this patient was the result of the eculizumab therapy. PMID:24512095

Vellanki, Venkat S; Bargman, Joanne M

2014-05-01

404

Response surface optimization of fermentation conditions for producing xylanase by Aspergillus niger SL-05.  

PubMed

Fermentation conditions were statistically optimized for producing extracellular xylanase by Aspergillus niger SL-05 using apple pomace and cotton seed meal. The primary study shows that culture medium with a 1:1 ratio of apple pomace and cotton seed meal (carbon and nitrogen sources) yielded maximal xylanase activity. Three significant factors influencing xylanase production were identified as urea, KH(2)PO(4), and initial moisture content using Plackett-Burman design study. The effects of these three factors were further investigated using a design of rotation-regression-orthogonal combination. The optimized conditions by response surface analysis were 2.5% Urea, 0.09% KH(2)PO(4), and 62% initial moisture content. The analysis of variance indicated that the established model was significant (P < 0.05), "while" or "and" the lack of fit was not significant. Under the optimized conditions, the model predicted 4,998 IU/g dry content, whereas validation experiments produced an enzymatic activity of xylanase at 5,662 IU/g dry content after 60 h fermentation. This study innovatively developed a fermentation medium and process to utilize inexpensive agro-industrial wastes to produce a high yield of xylanase. PMID:18309527

Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhong-Tao; Du, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jian

2008-07-01

405

Bioleaching of nickel and cobalt from lateritic chromite overburden using the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Extraction of metals (Ni, Co) from chromite overburden of Sukinda mines of Orissa, India, with the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger was studied. Results showed that the amounts of metals leached varied directly with reaction temperature and period of fermentation. The culture filtrate was analyzed for citric and oxalic acids, and contained only oxalic acid-the concentration of which increased with time. Although this acid played the major role in leaching of metals, other unidentified metabolites present in the culture filtrate influenced the dissolution of the metals significantly. Maximum recovery of metals from raw and roasted ore samples was achieved at 80 °C with the 21-day culture filtrate containing the highest amount of oxalic acid. Under identical experimental conditions, much higher amounts of the metals were leached from roasted ore. Microstructures of the ore particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; the bonding behaviors of metal compounds were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy which showed that the metals were leached after chelation with oxalic acid. PMID:23700146

Biswas, Supratim; Dey, Rajib; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Banerjee, Pataki C

2013-08-01

406

The effect of natamycin on the transcriptome of conidia of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The impact of natamycin on Aspergillus niger was analysed during the first 8 h of germination of conidia. Polarisation, germ tube formation, and mitosis were inhibited in the presence of 3 and 10 ?M of the anti-fungal compound, while at 10 ?M also isotropic growth was affected. Natamycin did not have an effect on the decrease of microviscosity during germination and the concomitant reduction in mannitol and trehalose levels. However, it did abolish the increase of intracellular levels of glycerol and glucose during the 8 h period of germination.Natamycin hardly affected the changes that occur in the RNA profile during the first 2 h of germination. During this time period, genes related to transcription, protein synthesis, energy and cell cycle and DNA processing were particularly up-regulated. Differential expression of 280 and 2586 genes was observed when 8 h old germlings were compared with conidia that had been exposed to 3 ?M and 10 ?M natamycin, respectively. For instance, genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis were down-regulated. On the other hand, genes involved in endocytosis and the metabolism of compatible solutes, and genes encoding protective proteins were up-regulated in natamycin treated conidia. PMID:23449730

van Leeuwen, M R; Krijgsheld, P; Wyatt, T T; Golovina, E A; Menke, H; Dekker, A; Stark, J; Stam, H; Bleichrodt, R; Wösten, H A B; Dijksterhuis, J

2013-03-15

407

Antifungal agents against Aspergillus niger for rearing rice leaffolder larvae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on artificial diet.  

PubMed

Mold contamination is an important issue in insect mass rearing. Frequently used antifungal agents such as sorbic acid and methylparaben have negative impact on many lepidopteran larvae, which might be one of the reasons for the difficulty in rearing rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée). In this study, 19 antifungal agents, including 7 food preservatives, 6 antifungal drugs, and 6 agricultural fungicides, were screened for their inhibitory activities on Aspergillus niger in diets. The results demonstrated that most of the tested chemicals are unsuitable as mold inhibitors in the diets of the rice leaffolder, and the rice leaffolder neonate is sensitive to sorbic acid and methylparaben. These two mold inhibitors at commonly used concentrations were shown to impact the survival of rice leaffolder larvae fed on artificial diets. Among the tested mold inhibitors, natamycin was the safest for the rice leaffolder larvae. Much higher larva survival was observed for the larvae fed on diets containing natamycin as an antifungal agent (59 and 72% at 200 and 400 ppm, respectively). Two agricultural fungicides, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin, are also potent as mold inhibitors when used in insect diets. The mixed use of natamycin and sorbic acid, or methylparaben, and the mixed use of sorbic acid and azoxystrobin resulted in significantly higher larva survival than sorbic acid + methylparaben. Natamycin + azoxystrobin and sorbic acid + tebuconazole resulted in larva survival similar to that of sorbic acid + methylparaben. The ternary combination of natamycin, sorbic acid, and methylparaben was the best combination for the rearing of rice leaffolder. PMID:25026669

Su, Jianya; Wang, Ye-Cheng; Zhang, Shu-Kun; Ren, Xiu-Bei

2014-06-01

408

Fluoride-Tolerant Mutants of Aspergillus niger Show Enhanced Phosphate Solubilization Capacity  

PubMed Central

P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs). Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F?). The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO4)2 and F?. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F?, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO4)2, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT). The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalão, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F?, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F? tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources. PMID:25310310

Silva, Ubiana de Cássia; Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Silva, Nina Morena R. M.; Duarte, Josiane Leal; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Costa, Maurício Dutra

2014-01-01

409

Exploring sequence characteristics related to high-level production of secreted proteins in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy. PMID:23049690

van den Berg, Bastiaan A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Hulsman, Marc; Wu, Liang; Pel, Herman J; Roubos, Johannes A; de Ridder, Dick

2012-01-01

410

Influence of dietary components on Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease mediated gluten degradation.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is caused by intolerance to gluten. Oral supplementation with enzymes like Aspergillus niger propyl-endoprotease (AN-PEP), which can hydrolyse gluten, has been proposed to prevent the harmful effects of ingestion of gluten. The influence of meal composition on AN-PEP activity was investigated using an in vitro model that simulates stomach-like conditions. AN-PEP optimal dosage was 20 proline protease units (PPU)/g gluten. The addition of a carbonated drink strongly enhanced AN-PEP activity because of its acidifying effect. While fat did not affect gluten degradation by AN-PEP, the presence of food proteins slowed down gluten detoxification. Moreover, raw gluten was degraded more efficiently by AN-PEP than baked gluten. We conclude that the meal composition influences the amount of AN-PEP needed for gluten elimination. Therefore, AN-PEP should not be used to replace a gluten free diet, but rather to support digestion of occasional and/or inadvertent gluten consumption. PMID:25529703

Montserrat, Veronica; Bruins, Maaike J; Edens, Luppo; Koning, Frits

2015-05-01

411

Purification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside Rb1-Hydrolyzing ?-Glucosidase from Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239  

PubMed Central

Rb1-hydrolyzing ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239 was studied to develop a bioconversion process for minor ginsenosides. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 46.5 times greater than that of the crude enzyme. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be approximately 123 kDa. The optimal pH of the purified enzyme was pH 4.0, and the enzyme proved highly stable over a pH range of 5.0–10.0. The optimal temperature was 70 °C, and the enzyme became unstable at temperatures above 60 °C. The enzyme was inhibited by Cu2+, Mg2+, Co2+, and acetic acid (10 mM). In the specificity tests, the enzyme was found to be active against ginsenoside Rb1, but showed very low levels of activity against Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1. The enzyme hydrolyzed the 20-C,?-(1?6)-glucoside of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and Rg3, and hydrolyzed 3-C,?-(1?2)-glucoside to generate F2. The properties of the enzyme indicate that it could be a useful tool in biotransformation applications in the ginseng industry, as well as in the development of novel drug compounds. PMID:23109906

Chang, Kyung Hoon; Jo, Mi Na; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2012-01-01

412

Properties of a ?-(1?4)-glucan hydrolase from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

1. A ?-(1?4)-glucan hydrolase prepared from Aspergillus niger, as described by Clarke & Stone (1965a), showed a pH optimum in the range 4·5–6 and Km 0·25% when acting on a cellulose dextrin sulphate substrate. 2. The hydrolase rapidly decreased the specific viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose with a small increase in the production of reducing sugars. The identity of the products of hydrolysis of cellotetraose, cellopentaose and their reduced analogues indicate a preferential cleavage of non-terminal glucosidic linkages. The enzyme may be described as ?-(1?4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4). 3. In addition to carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose dextrins, cellopentaose and cellotetraose the enzyme fraction hydrolysed lichenin, oat and barley glucans, ivory-nut mannan and a glucomannan from Konjak flour. No hydrolysis of wheat-straw ?-(1?4)-xylan, Lupinus albus ?-(1?4)-galactan, pneumococcal type III polysaccharide, chitin, hyaluronic acid, laminarin, pachydextrins, carboxymethylpachyman or ?-(1?3)-oligoglucosides was detected. 4. The hydrolase showed no transglycosylase activity from cellodextrin or cellopentaose substrates to glucose or methanol acceptors. 5. The hydrolysis of cellodextrins was inhibited completely by 1·0mm-Hg2+, 0·7mm-phenylmercuric nitrate and 1·0mm-iodine. PMID:5862418

Clarke, A. E.; Stone, B. A.

1965-01-01

413

Niger.  

PubMed

Niger is two-thirds Sahara desert and the rest savannah with an area irrigated by the Niger River valley. The 6.2 million people are therefore either nomadic herdsmen or subsistence farmers, coping with a hot, dry climate. There are 5 or more ethnic groups, 2 main languages other than the official French, and most people are Muslim. The growth rate is 3.1%; children make up 45% of the population; infant mortality is 145/1000; life expectancy is 44.5 years. The constitutional government has been suspended by a military regime. A multi-layered structure called "development society" has been instituted. Per capita income is about $265. Niger has uranium, coal, iron, tin and phosphates, and farm products include peanuts, millet, sorghum, beans, cotton, rice and cowpeas. Niger received assistance from France, US, West Germany, Canada, Saudi Arabia, as well as international organizations and military assistance from several countries. PMID:12177951

1987-06-01

414

Effects of cellulase from Aspergillus niger and solvent pretreatments on the extractability of organic green tea waste.  

PubMed

As green tea is being consumed in larger amounts, more green tea waste is being produced. Following extraction, several bioactive compounds may exist in the waste including polyphenols and amino acids. It was found that an Aspergillus niger cellulase treatment of green tea waste increased the extractability of various nutritional and functional components after pretreatments with various extraction solvents such as cold water (CW), hot water (HW), sulfuric acid (SA), hydrochloric acid (HA), and methanol (Me). After the residue was treated with cellulase from Aspergillus niger, the amounts of polyphenols, total catechins, and reducing sugars in the HW extract were increased by 64.6, 941.2, and 350.9%, respectively. In particular, levels of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid were significantly enhanced compared to those in the nontreated control. However, protein extraction was not significantly affected, and cellulase treatment was not more efficient for caffeine extraction compared to phenolic extraction. Among the four extraction solvents, HW and SA showed relatively higher extractabilities as compared to the other groups (CW, HA, and Me). These results indicate that cellulase from A. niger can increase the extractability of green tea waste when combined with certain solvent pretreatments. Consequently, the residual functional compounds and essential nutrients from cellulase-treated green tea waste have the potential to be applied in the production of new functional foods. PMID:20843026

Kim, Jae Hun; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Heo, Wan; Lee, Hyungjae; Kwon, Eung Gi; Lee, Hong-Gu; Shin, Dong Hoon; Liu, Rui Hai; Kim, Young Jun

2010-10-13

415

In Vitro Activity of the Echinocandin Antifungal Agent LY303,366 in Comparison with Itraconazole and Amphotericin B against Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

LY303,366 (LY) is a novel derivative of the echinocandin class of antifungal agents. The in vitro activities of LY, itraconazole (ITZ), and amphotericin B (AMB) were assessed against 60 Aspergillus isolates, including 35 isolates of A. fumigatus, eight isolates of A. terreus, eight isolates of A. flavus, eight isolates of A. niger and one isolate of A. nidulans. Four A.

KAREN L. OAKLEY; CAROLINE B. MOORE; DAVID W. DENNING

1998-01-01

416

Value addition of vegetable wastes by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger for use in aquafeed industry.  

PubMed

Vegetable waste typically has high moisture content and high levels of protein, vitamins and minerals. Its value as an agricultural feed can be enhanced through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of the products derived by SSF of a mixture of dried vegetable waste powder and oil cake mixture (soybean flour, wheat flour, groundnut oil cake and sesame oil cake at 4:3:2:1 ratio) using fungi Aspergillus niger S(1)4, a mangrove isolate, and A. niger NCIM 616. Fermentation was carried out for 9 days at 35% moisture level and neutral pH. Significant (p<0.05) increase in crude protein and amino acids were obtained in both the trials. The crude fat and crude fibre content showed significant reduction at the end of fermentation. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) showed a gradual decrease during the fermentation process. The results of the study suggest that the fermented product obtained on days 6 and 9 in case of A. niger S(1)4 and A. niger NCIM 616 respectively contained the highest levels of crude protein. PMID:20100652

Rajesh, N; Imelda-Joseph; Raj, R Paul

2010-11-01

417

Replacement P212H Altered the pH-Temperature Profile of Phytase from Aspergillus niger NII 08121.  

PubMed

Microbial phytase, a widely used animal feed enzyme, needs to be active and stable in the acidic milieu for better performance in the monogastric gut. Aspergillus niger phytases exhibit an activity dip in the pH range from 3.0 to 3.5. Replacement of amino acids, which changed the pKa of catalytic residues H82 and D362, resulted in alteration of the pH profile of a thermostable phytase from A. niger NII 08121. Substitution P212H in the protein loop at 14 Å distance to the active site amended the pH optimum from 2.5 to pH 3.2 nevertheless with a decrease in thermostability than the wild enzyme. This study described the utility of amino acid replacements based on pKa shifts of catalytic acid/base to modulate the pH profile of phytases. PMID:25595493

Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

2015-03-01

418

Bioconversion of waste office paper to gluconic acid in a turbine blade reactor by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Gluconic acid production was investigated using an enzymatic hydrolysate of waste office automation paper in a culture of Aspergillus niger. In repeated batch cultures using flasks, saccharified solution medium (SM) did not show any inhibitory effects on gluconic acid production compared to glucose medium (GM). The average gluconic acid yields were 92% (SM) and 80% (GM). In repeated batch cultures using SM in a turbine blade reactor (TBR), the gluconic acid yields were 60% (SM) and 67% (GM) with 80-100 g/l of gluconic acid. When pure oxygen was supplied the production rate increased to four times higher than when supplying air. Remarkable differences in the morphology of A. niger and dry cell weight between SM and GM were observed. The difference in morphology may have caused a reduction of oxygen transfer, resulting in a decrease in gluconic acid production rate in SM. PMID:15979872

Ikeda, Yuko; Park, Enock Y; Okuda, Naoyuki

2006-05-01

419

Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.  

PubMed

We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23884844

Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

2014-01-01

420

Improvement of xylanase production by Aspergillus niger XY-1 using response surface methodology for optimizing the medium composition*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the optimal medium composition for xylanase production by Aspergillus niger XY-1 in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Methods: Statistical methodology including the Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and the central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the individual crucial component of the medium that significantly affected the enzyme yield. Results: Firstly, NaNO3, yeast extract, urea, Na2CO3, MgSO4, peptone and (NH4)2SO4 were screened as the significant factors positively affecting the xylanase production by PBD. Secondly, by valuating the nitrogen sources effect, urea was proved to be the most effective and economic nitrogen source for xylanase production and used for further optimization. Finally, the CCD and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to determine the optimal concentration of each significant variable, which included urea, Na2CO3 and MgSO4. Subsequently a second-order polynomial was determined by multiple regression analysis. The optimum values of the critical components for maximum xylanase production were obtained as follows: x 1 (urea)=0.163 (41.63 g/L), x 2 (Na2CO3)=?1.68 (2.64 g/L), x 3 (MgSO4)=1.338 (10.68 g/L) and the predicted xylanase value was 14374.6 U/g dry substrate. Using the optimized condition, xylanase production by Aspergillus niger XY-1 after 48 h fermentation reached 14637 U/g dry substrate with wheat bran in the shake flask. Conclusion: By using PBD and CCD, we obtained the optimal composition for xylanase production by Aspergillus niger XY-1 in SSF, and the results of no additional expensive medium and shortened fermentation time for higher xylanase production show the potential for industrial utilization. PMID:18600786

Xu, Yao-xing; Li, Yan-li; Xu, Shao-chun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jiang-wu

2008-01-01

421

Physical and Kinetic Properties of the Family 3 ?-Glucosidase from Aspergillus niger Which Is Important for Cellulose Breakdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ß-glucosidase (BGS) purified from Aspergillus niger cellulase powder (obtained from Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) was characterized. Electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering indicated that the enzyme is a dimer of approximately 200 kDa. Five of the seven N-glycosylated oligosaccharides attached to BGS were composed of D-mannoses attached to a ß(1-4)-N-acetyl-glucosamine-ß-(1-4)-fucose-a-(1-6)-N-acetylglucosamine core. The other two were similar,

Heather F. Seidle; Ira Marten; Oded Shoseyov; Reuben E. Huber

2004-01-01

422

Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

1981-01-01

423

Biotransformation of ent-pimaradienoic acid by cell cultures of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation stands out among the many possible semi-synthetic strategies employed to increase the variety of chemical structures that can be applied in the search for novel bioactive compounds. In this paper we obtained ent-pimaradienoic acid (1, PA, ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) derivatives by fungal biotransformation using Aspergillus niger strains. To assess the ability of such compounds to inhibit vascular smooth muscle contraction, we also investigated their spasmolytic effect, along with another five PA derivatives previously obtained in our laboratory, on aortic rings isolated from male Wistar rats. The microbial transformation experiments were conducted at 30°C using submerged shaken liquid culture (120 rpm) for 10 days. One known compound, 7?-hydroxy ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (2), and three new derivatives, 1?-hydroxy ent-pimara-6,8(14),15-trien-19-oic acid (3), 1?,6?,14?-trihydroxy ent-pimara-7,15-dien-19-oic acid (4), and 1?,6?,7?,11?-tetrahydroxy ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (5), were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and computational studies. The compounds obtained through biotransformation (2-5) did not display a significant antispasmodic activity (values ranging from 0% to 16.8% of inhibition); however the previously obtained diterpene, methyl 7?-hydroxy ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oate (8), showed to be very effective (82.5% of inhibition). In addition, our biological results highlight the importance to study the antispasmodic potential of a large number of novel diterpenes, to conduct further structure-activity relationship investigations. PMID:23916147

Severiano, Marcela E; Simão, Marília R; Ramos, Henrique P; Parreira, Renato L T; Arakawa, Nilton S; Said, Suraia; Furtado, Niege A J C; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R; Gregório, Luis E; Tirapelli, Carlos R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Ambrósio, Sérgio R

2013-09-15

424

Crystal structure of Aspergillus niger isopullulanase, a member of glycoside hydrolase family 49.  

PubMed

An isopullulanase (IPU) from Aspergillus niger ATCC9642 hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages of pullulan to produce isopanose. Although IPU does not hydrolyze dextran, it is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 49 (GH49), major members of which are dextran-hydrolyzing enzymes. IPU is highly glycosylated, making it difficult to obtain its crystal. We used endoglycosidase H(f) to cleave the N-linked oligosaccharides of IPU, and we here determined the unliganded and isopanose-complexed forms of IPU, both solved at 1.7-A resolution. IPU is composed of domains N and C joined by a short linker, with electron density maps for 11 or 12 N-acetylglucosamine residues per molecule. Domain N consists of 13 beta-strands and forms a beta-sandwich. Domain C, where the active site is located, forms a right-handed beta-helix, and the lengths of the pitches of each coil of the beta-helix are similar to those of GH49 dextranase and GH28 polygalacturonase. The entire structure of IPU resembles that of a GH49 enzyme, Penicillium minioluteum dextranase (Dex49A), despite a difference in substrate specificity. Compared with the active sites of IPU and Dex49A, the amino acid residues participating in subsites +2 and +3 are not conserved, and the glucose residues of isopanose bound to IPU completely differ in orientation from the corresponding glucose residues of isomaltose bound to Dex49A. The shape of the catalytic cleft characterized by the seventh coil of the beta-helix and a loop from domain N appears to be critical in determining the specificity of IPU for pullulan. PMID:18155243

Mizuno, Masahiro; Koide, Atsushi; Yamamura, Akihiro; Akeboshi, Hiromi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

2008-02-01

425

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from aspergillus Niger. II. An enzyme of PL 45  

SciTech Connect

A homogeneous endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylano-hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) was obtained from a crude Aspergillus niger pentosanase by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and SP-Sephadex C-25 with a gradient from pH 2.8 to pH 4.6. It was much more active on soluble than on insoluble xylan yielding large amounts of unreacted xylan and a mixture of oligosaccharides with chain lengths from two to six. No xylose or L-arabinose was produced. There was high activity on a xylopentaose through xylononaose mixture, but not on xylobiose, xylotriose, or xylotetraose. The enzyme had slight activity on untreated cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, and pectin. Molecular weight was ca. 1.4 x 10/sup 4/, with an isoelectric point of 4.5 and an amino acid profile high in acidic but low in sulfur-containing residues. In a 25-min assay at pH 4.7, this endo-xylanase was most active at 45 degrees C, with an activation energy from 5 to 35 degrees C of 33.3 kJ/mol. The optimum pH for activity was 4.9. Decay in buffer was first order, with an activation energy at pH 4.7 from 48 to 53 degrees C of 460 kJ/mol. Optimum pH for stability was about 5.6, where the half-life at 48 degrees C in buffer was ca. 40 h.

Shei, J.C.; Fratzke, A.R.; Frederick, M.M.; Frederick, J.R.; Reilly, P.J.

1985-04-01

426

Effect of temperature, water activity, and pH on growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian grapes.  

PubMed

The growth of ochratoxigenic fungus and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and their derivatives can be caused by a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological factors. The determination of interactions between these factors and fungal species from different climatic regions is important in designing models for minimizing the risk of OTA in wine and grape juice. This study evaluated the influence of temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the development and production of OTA in a semisynthetic grape culture medium by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger strains. To analyze the growth conditions and production of OTA, an experimental design was conducted using response surface methodology as a tool to assess the effects of these abiotic variables on fungal behavior. A. carbonarius showed the highest growth at temperatures from 20 to 33°C, aw between 0.95 and 0.98, and pH levels between 5 and 6.5. Similarly, for A. niger, temperatures between 24 and 37°C, aw greater than 0.95, and pH levels between 4 and 6.5 were optimal. The greatest toxin concentrations for A. carbonarius and A. niger (10 ?g/g and 7.0 ?g/g, respectively) were found at 15°C, aw 0.99, and pH 5.35. The lowest pH was found to contribute to greater OTA production. These results show that the evaluated fungi are able to grow and produce OTA in a wide range of temperature, aw, and pH. However, the optimal conditions for toxin production are generally different from those optimal for fungal growth. The knowledge of optimal conditions for fungal growth and production of OTA, and of the stages of cultivation in which these conditions are optimal, allows a more precise assessment of the potential risk to health from consumption of products derived from grapes. PMID:25364929

Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Hernandes, Thais; Lopes, Noelly Alves; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Santiago, Wilder Douglas; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Batista, Luís Roberto

2014-11-01

427

Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels  

PubMed Central

A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70), labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36), to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays). Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (upto 73%) suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus. PMID:24734028

Hruska, Zuzana; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

428

Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels.  

PubMed

A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70), labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36), to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays). Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (upto 73%) suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus. PMID:24734028

Hruska, Zuzana; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

2014-01-01

429

Production of Alkaline Protease by a New Aspergillus flavus Isolate under Solid-Substrate Fermentation Conditions for Use as a Depilation Agent  

PubMed Central

The production of alkaline protease by an Aspergillus flavus strain isolated in our laboratory by solid-substrate fermentation for use as a depilation agent and the influence of various factors on enzyme production are reported. The optimum conditions for maximum production were a growth temperature of 32°C, 63% substrate moisture, and a growth period of 48 h. Enrichment with corn steep liquor or Casitone increased productivity. Scaling-up experiments indicated that flask-scale results could be reproduced at 1 and 30 kg of substrate. The enzyme preparation exhibited maximum activity at both pH 7.5 and pH 9.5. The use of this enzyme as a depilation agent was confirmed by experiments in a tannery. PMID:16348437

Malathi, S.; Chakraborty, R.

1991-01-01

430

Laetiporus sulphureus, edible mushroom from Serbia: investigation on volatile compounds, in vitro antimicrobial activity and in situ control of Aspergillus flavus in tomato paste.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds of fruiting bodies of wild Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill, growing on willow trees from Serbia, were isolated and extracted using methanol, acetone and dichloromethane and investigated by GC/MS-SPME. A total of 56 components were identified in the extracts. Hydrocarbons predominated (76.90%, 77.20%, and 43.10%) in dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts, respectively. Fatty acids, esters and sesquiterpenes were present in amounts equal or lower than 2.00%. Ketones were represented with moderate amount with the exception of methanol extract where it reached as much as 28.90% of the total investigated compounds. Extracts were also tested for antimicrobial activity with and without the addition of food additive - potassium disulfite in vitro against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, and in situ in tomato paste against Aspergillus flavus. All the tested extracts showed good antimicrobial activity, but methanol extract with addition of E224 showed the best antimicrobial activity in vitro. In situ results indicate complete inhibition of A. flavus growth in tomato paste after 15 days of the treatment. This study is the first report on volatile composition of L. sulphureus growing wild in Serbia. We describe for the first time the application of its extract as antifungal food preservative. PMID:23811530

Petrovi?, Jovana; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Stojkovi?, Dejan S; ?iri?, Ana; Nikoli?, Miloš; Bukvi?ki, Danka; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Sokovi?, Marina D

2013-09-01

431

Effect of Equisetum arvense and Stevia rebaudiana extracts on growth and mycotoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in maize seeds as affected by water activity.  

PubMed

Cereals are a very important part of the human and animal diets. However, agricultural products can be contaminated by moulds and their mycotoxins. Plant extracts, particularly those of Equisetum arvense and Stevia rebaudiana have been reported previously to contain antioxidant compounds which may have antifungal properties. In this study, E. arvense and S. rebaudiana extracts were tested for their control of mycotoxigenic fungi in maize. The extracts were tested separately and as a mixture for their effect on growth of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Extracts were added to unsterilised inoculated maize at different water activity (a(w)) levels (0.85-0.95). Moulds were inoculated and incubated for 30 days. Results confirmed that the extract of E. arvense and a mixture 1:1 of Equisetum-Stevia may be effective for the inhibition of both growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production at high water activity levels (pre-harvest conditions). In general, growth of the F. verticillioides was reduced by the use of plant extracts, especially at 0.95 a(w). However, fumonisin presence was not significantly affected. E. arvense and S. rebaudiana extracts could be developed as an alternative treatment to control aflatoxigenic mycobiota in moist maize. PMID:22104120

Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

2012-02-01

432

Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.  

PubMed

This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates. PMID:24291176

Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

2014-01-17

433

Vitality Stains and Real Time PCR Studies to Delineate the Interactions of Pichia anomala and Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to probe the effect of the yeast, P. anomala against A flavus by using real time RT-PCR technique and vitality fluorescent stains. Yeast and fungi were inoculated into a 250 ml-flask containing 50 ml potato dextrose broth (PDB) at yeast to fungus (Y : F) ratios of ...

434

Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Three Genes Shows Evidence for Genetic Isolation of Certain Aspergillus flavus Vegetative Compatibility Groups  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic exchange among populations of asexual filamentous fungi is presumed to be limited to isolates in the same vegetative compatibility group (VCG). To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) in Aspergills flavus isolates from six different V...

435

Atomistic details of effect of disulfide bond reduction on active site of Phytase B from Aspergillus niger: A MD Study  

PubMed Central

The molecular integrity of the active site of phytases from fungi is critical for maintaining phytase function as efficient catalytic machines. In this study, the molecular dynamics (MD) of two monomers of phytase B from Aspergillus niger, the disulfide intact monomer (NAP) and a monomer with broken disulfide bonds (RAP), were simulated to explore the conformational basis of the loss of catalytic activity when disulfide bonds are broken. The simulations indicated that the overall secondary and tertiary structures of the two monomers were nearly identical but differed in some crucial secondary–structural elements in the vicinity of the disulfide bonds and catalytic site. Disulfide bonds stabilize the ?-sheet that contains residue Arg66 of the active site and destabilize the ?-helix that contains the catalytic residue Asp319. This stabilization and destabilization lead to changes in the shape of the active–site pocket. Functionally important hydrogen bonds and atomic fluctuations in the catalytic pocket change during the RAP simulation. None of the disulfide bonds are in or near the catalytic pocket but are most likely essential for maintaining the native conformation of the catalytic site. Abbreviations PhyB - 2.5 pH acid phophatese from Aspergillus niger, NAP - disulphide intact monomer of Phytase B, RAP - disulphide reduced monomer of Phytase B, Rg - radius of gyration, RMSD - root mean square deviation, MD - molecular dynamics. PMID:24391358

Kumar, Kapil; Dixit, Mudit; Khire, JM; Pal, Sourav

2013-01-01

436

Genome-wide transcriptional response of Trichoderma reesei to lignocellulose using RNA sequencing and comparison with Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background A major part of second generation biofuel production is the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Many fungi produce enzymes that can saccarify lignocellulose and cocktails from several fungi, including well-studied species such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger, are available commercially for this process. Such commercially-available enzyme cocktails are not necessarily representative of the array of enzymes used by the fungi themselves when faced with a complex lignocellulosic material. The global induction of genes in response to exposure of T. reesei to wheat straw was explored using RNA-seq and compared to published RNA-seq data and model of how A. niger senses and responds to wheat straw. Results In T. reesei, levels of transcript that encode known and predicted cell-wall degrading enzymes were very high after 24 h exposure to straw (approximately 13% of the total mRNA) but were less than recorded in A. niger (approximately 19% of the total mRNA). Closer analysis revealed that enzymes from the same glycoside hydrolase families but different carbohydrate esterase and polysaccharide lyase families were up-regulated in both organisms. Accessory proteins which have been hypothesised to possibly have a role in enhancing carbohydrate deconstruction in A. niger were also uncovered in T. reesei and categories of enzymes induced were in general similar to those in A. niger. Similarly to A. niger, antisense transcripts are present in T. reesei and their expression is regulated by the growth condition. Conclusions T. reesei uses a similar array of enzymes, for the deconstruction of a solid lignocellulosic substrate, to A. niger. This suggests a conserved strategy towards lignocellulose degradation in both saprobic fungi. This study provides a basis for further analysis and characterisation of genes shown to be highly induced in the presence of a lignocellulosic substrate. The data will help to elucidate the mechanism of solid substrate recognition and subsequent degradation by T. reesei and provide information which could prove useful for efficient production of second generation biofuels. PMID:24060058

2013-01-01

437

Enzymatic synthesis of fructooligosaccharides by inulinases from Aspergillus niger and Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571 in aqueous-organic medium.  

PubMed

This work is focused on the synthesis of the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from sucrose and inulin, using free, immobilized and pre-treated immobilized inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y 7571 and Aspergillus niger in an aqueous-organic system. Initially, the influence of pre-treatment using four different gases, propane, n-butane, CO(2) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), was investigated towards FOS production and best results were found when both enzymes were previously treated with LPG. The best reaction yields were obtained when the immobilized enzymes were treated with LPG. Considering FOS synthesis using the enzyme from A. niger, yields of 26.62% of GF2 (kestose), 30.62% of GF3 (nystose) and 8.47% of GF4 (fructosyl nystose) were achieved using sucrose as substrate. Using inulinases from K. marxianus NRRL Y 7571, 11.89% of GF2 and 20.83% of GF3 were obtained, using inulin as substrate. However, promising results were achieved using the free form of inulinase from A. niger (77.19% of GF2; 14.03% of GF3 and 0.07% of GF4) using inulin as substrate. PMID:23265469

Silva, Marceli Fernandes; Rigo, Diane; Mossi, Vinícius; Golunski, Simone; Kuhn, Graciele de Oliveira; Di Luccio, Marco; Dallago, Rogério; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen

2013-05-01

438

The effect of various food parameters on the activity and stability of catalase from Aspergillus niger and catalase from bovine liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a number of food relevant parameters on catalase activity and stability were studied. The direct responses of different combinations of the parameters ethanol, pH and ionic strength on bovine liver catalase and Aspergillus niger catalase activity were investigated in a full factorial 24 statistically designed experiment. Statistically significant effects (p = 0.001) on both types of catalases

Anne S. Meyer; Lærke H. Pedersen; Anette Isaksen

1997-01-01

439

Establishment of Two Ectomycorrhizal Shrub Species in a Semiarid Site after in Situ Amendment with Sugar Beet, Rock Phosphate, and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the addition of sugar beet, rock phosphate, and Aspergillus niger directly into the planting hole, and the mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings with Scleroderma verrucosum, for promotion of plant growth of Cistus albidus L. and Quercus coccifera L. and enhancement of soil physicochemical, biochemical, and biological properties, in a degraded

F. Caravaca; M. M. Alguacil; R. Azcón; J. Parladé; P. Torres; A. Roldán

2005-01-01

440

Correlation of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B2 Production and Presence of the Fumonisin Biosynthetic Gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from Grape  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are mycotoxins associated with cancer and several other serious diseases in humans and animals. Production of the mycotoxins has been reported for over two decades in Fusarium species, but has been reported only recently in strains of Aspergillus niger. In addition, a homologue of the f...

441

SHIFTING THE PH PROFILE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE TO MATCH THE STOMACH PH ENHANCES ITS EFFECTIVENESS AS AN ANIMAL FEED ADDITIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental pollution of phosphorus (P) from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals such as swine, poultry, and fish cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely us...

442

Enhanced enzyme production from mixed cultures of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Aspergillus niger LMA grown as fed batch in a stirred tank bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the complete hydrolysis of cellulose, the cellulolytic fungi produce a whole set of commercially important enzymes called cellulases. The aim of this work was to investigate an approach to enhance the production of these enzymes by co-culturing Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger in a bioreactor to convert cellulose substrate into soluble sugars through a synergetic action of enzyme complex

Aftab Ahamed; Patrick Vermette

2008-01-01

443

Altering the Substrate Specificity Site of Aspergillus Niger PhyB shifts the pH optimum to pH 3.2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytases are of biotechnological importance as animal feed additives for their ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate from phytate for absorption by simple-stomached animals, and to reduce their fecal phosphorus excretion. Aspergillus niger PhyB has high catalytic activity at low pHs around...

444

Characterization of a polyketide synthase in Aspergillus niger whose product is a precursor for both dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin and naphtho-?-pyrone  

PubMed Central

The genome sequencing of the fungus Aspergillus niger uncovered a large cache of genes encoding enzymes thought to be involved in the production of secondary metabolites yet to be identified. Identification and structural characterization of many of these predicted secondary metabolites are hampered by their low concentration relative to the known A. niger metabolites such as the naphtho-?-pyrone family of polyketides. We deleted a nonreducing PKS gene in A. niger strain ATCC 11414, a daughter strain of A. niger ATCC strain 1015 whose genome was sequenced by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. This PKS encoding gene we name albA is a predicted ortholog of alb1 from Aspergillus fumigatus which is responsible for production of the naphtho-?-pyrone precursor for the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin/spore pigment. Our results show that the A. nigeralbA PKS is responsible for both the production of the spore pigment precursor and a family of naphtho-?-pyrones commonly found in significant quantity in A. niger culture extracts. The generation of an A. niger strain devoid of naphtho-?-pyrones will greatly facilitate the elucidation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways in this organism. PMID:21176790

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Meyer, Kristen M.; Praseuth, Michael; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C. C.

2011-01-01

445

Characterization of a polyketide synthase in Aspergillus niger whose product is a precursor for both dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin and naphtho-?-pyrone.  

PubMed

The genome sequencing of the fungus Aspergillus niger uncovered a large cache of genes encoding enzymes thought to be involved in the production of secondary metabolites yet to be identified. Identification and structural characterization of many of these predicted secondary metabolites are hampered by their low concentration relative to the known A. niger metabolites such as the naphtho-?-pyrone family of polyketides. We deleted a non-reducing PKS gene in A. niger strain ATCC 11414, a daughter strain of A. niger ATCC strain 1015 whose genome was sequenced by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. This PKS encoding gene we name albA is a predicted ortholog of alb1 from Aspergillus fumigatus which is responsible for production of the naphtho-?-pyrone precursor for the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin/spore pigment. Our results show that the A. nigeralbA PKS is responsible for both the production of the spore pigment precursor and a family of naphtho-?-pyrones commonly found in significant quantity in A. niger culture extracts. The generation of an A. niger strain devoid of naphtho-?-pyrones will greatly facilitate the elucidation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways in this organism. PMID:21176790

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Meyer, Kristen M; Praseuth, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Bruno, Kenneth S; Wang, Clay C C

2011-04-01

446

Characterization of a polyketide synthase in Aspergillus niger whose product is a precursor for both dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin and naphtho-?-pyrone.  

SciTech Connect

The genome sequencing of the fungus Aspergillus niger, an industrial workhorse, uncovered a large cache of genes encoding enzymes thought to be involved in the production of secondary metabolites yet to be identified. Identification and structural characterization of many of these predicted secondary metabolites are hampered by their low concentration relative to the known A. niger metabolites such as the naphtho-?-pyrone family of polyketides. We deleted a nonreducing PKS gene in A. niger strain ATCC 11414, a daughter strain of A. niger ATCC strain 1015 whose genome was sequenced by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. This PKS encoding gene is a predicted ortholog of alb1 from Aspergillus fumigatus which is responsible for production of YWA1, a precursor of fungal DHN melanin. Our results show that the A. niger alb1 PKS is responsible for the production of the polyketide precursor for DHN melanin biosynthesis. Deletion of alb1 elimnates the production of major metabolites, naphtho-?-pyrones. The generation of an A. niger strain devoid of naphtho-?-pyrones will greatly facilitate the elucidation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways in this organism.

Chiang, Yi Ming; Meyer, Kristen M.; Praseuth , Michael; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

2010-12-06

447

Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for direct identification of pure cultures of Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, and A. caelatus and for their rapid detection in shelled Brazil nuts.  

PubMed

Brazil nuts have a high nutritional content and are a very important trade commodity for some Latin American countries. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites. In Brazil nuts they are produced predominantly by Aspergillus (A.) nomius and A. flavus. In the present study we applied and evaluated two sets of primers previously published for the specific detection of the two species using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Moreover, a primer set specific for A. caelatus as a frequently occurring non-aflatoxigenic member of Aspergillus section Flavi in Brazil nuts was newly developed. LAMP assays were combined with a simplified DNA release method and used for rapid identification of pure cultures and rapid detection of A. nomius and A. flavus from samples of shelled Brazil nuts. An analysis of pure cultures of 68 isolates representing the major Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nuts showed that the three LAMP assays had individual accuracies of 61.5%, 84.4%, and 93.3% for A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. caelatus, respectively when morphological identification was used as a reference. The detection limits for conidia added directly to the individual LAMP reactions were found to be 10? conidia per reaction with the primer set ID9 for A. nomius and 10? conidia per reaction with the primer set ID58 for A. flavus. Sensitivity was increased to 10¹ and 10² conidia per reaction for A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively, when sample preparation included a spore disruption step. The results of LAMP assays obtained during the analysis of 32 Brazil nut samples from different regions of Brazil and from different steps in the production process of the commodity were compared with results obtained from mycological analysis and aflatoxin analysis of corresponding samples. Compared with mycological analysis of the samples, the Negative Predictive Values of LAMP assays were 42.1% and 12.5% while the Positive Predictive Values were 61.5% and 66.7% for A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively. When LAMP results were compared with the presence of aflatoxins in corresponding samples, the Negative Predictive Values were 22.2% and 44.4% and the Positive Predictive Values were 52.2% and 78.3% for aflatoxins produced by A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively. The LAMP assays described in this study have been demonstrated to be a specific, sensitive and easy to use tool for the survey of Brazil nuts for contaminations with potential aflatoxin-producing A. nomius and A. flavus in low tech environments where resources may be limited. PMID:24361827

Luo, Jie; Taniwaki, Marta H; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

2014-02-17

448

Comparative study of toxicity of azo dye Procion Red MX-5B following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are an important class of environmental contaminants and are characterized by the presence of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. Effluents containing these compounds resist many types of treatments due to their molecular complexity. Therefore, alternative treatments, such as biosorption and biodegradation, have been widely studied to solve the problems caused by these substances, such as their harmful effects on the environment and organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biosorption and biodegradation of the azo dye Procion Red MX-5B in solutions with the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Decolorization tests were performed, followed by acute toxicity tests using Lactuca sativa seeds and Artemia salina larvae. Thirty percent dye removal of the solutions was achieved after 3 h of biosorption. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that removal of the dye molecules occurred without major molecular changes. The acute toxicity tests confirmed lack of molecular degradation following biosorption with A. niger, as toxicity to L. sativa seed reduced from 5% to 0%. For A. salina larvae, the solutions were nontoxic before and after treatment. In the biodegradation study with the fungus A. terreus, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy revealed molecular degradation and the formation of secondary metabolites, such as primary and secondary amines. The biodegradation of the dye molecules was evaluated after 24, 240 and 336 h of treatment. The fungal biomass demonstrated considerable affinity for Procion Red MX-5B, achieving approximately 100% decolorization of the solutions by the end of treatment. However, the solutions resulting from this treatment exhibited a significant increase in toxicity, inhibiting the growth of L. sativa seeds by 43% and leading to a 100% mortality rate among the A. salina larvae. Based on the present findings, biodegradation was effective in the decolorization of the samples, but generated toxic metabolites, while biosorption was effective in both decolorization and reducing the toxicity of the solutions. PMID:25048922

Almeida, E J R; Corso, C R

2014-10-01

449

Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (?-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes. PMID:25763058

Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

2014-01-01

450

In vitro activity of isavuconazole against 208 Aspergillus flavus isolates in comparison with 7 other antifungal agents: assessment according to the methodology of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is the second most common species causing invasive aspergillosis after A. fumigatus. In certain countries like India, Sudan, and Saudi Arabia, A. flavus is most frequently isolated from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis and endophthalmitis. A. flavus exhibit an increased resistance to antifungal agents compared to A. fumigatus. We determined the in vitro activity of isavuconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin against 208 isolates of A. flavus by the EUCAST method and compared with the results obtained by the CLSI method. Isavuconazole and voriconazole MICs were ?2 ?g/mL in 99% and 95%, respectively. Posaconazole and itraconazole MICs were ?0.5 and ?1 ?g/mL, respectively, for all isolates. MICs of amphotericin B were ?2 ?g/mL in 91%; 36% of them exhibited MICs of ?8 ?g/mL. All echinocandins demonstrated good anti-A. flavus activity. The essential agreement of the MIC/MEC results by EUCAST with CLSI broth dilution method assessed at ±2 dilutions was good for itraconazole (97.8%), voriconazole (100%), posaconazole (98.3%), isavuconazole (98.9%), caspofungin (99.4%), and anidulafungin (100%), but poor for amphotericin B (53.5%) and micafungin (79.1%). PMID:21937186

Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Geertsen, Erik; Mouton, Johan W; Meis, Jacques F

2011-12-01

451

Influence of sub-lethal antioxidant doses, water potential and temperature on growth, sclerotia, aflatoxins and aflD (=nor-1) expression by Aspergillus flavus RCP08108.  

PubMed

Effects of interacting conditions of sub-lethal levels of antioxidants, water potential (?) and temperature were evaluated on growth, sclerotial characteristics, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production and aflD (=nor-1) gene expression by Aspergillus flavus strain RCP08108. These studies were carried out on peanut meal extract agar osmotically modified to -2.8,-7.1, -9.9 and -16.0 MPa and incubated at 28 and 20°C. The food grade antioxidants added were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at (1+1 mM-M1) and (5+5 mM-M2). To relate the aflD expression after toxigenic A. flavus grew under interacting stress conditions, real-time PCR was used. Antioxidant mixtures caused a higher and significant (p<0.001) reduction in growth rate. The major impact on size and volume sclerotia was produced by ?; followed by antioxidant mixtures. High AFB(1) levels were observed in response to the M1 applied at -7.1 MPa. Induction of the aflD gene was observed in response to the M1 treatment at -2.8, -7.1 and -9.9 MPa; but significant decreases of AFB(1) production and aflD transcripts were observed; when the fungus grew in the presence of the M2 treatment. These results showed that it is necessary to apply food-grade antioxidants into the peanut storage system at levels higher than 5 mM. This is an important tool to avoid sub-lethal antioxidant doses that can lead to fungal growth, increase resistance structures, and stimulate aflD gene expression and AFB(1) accumulation in this substrate. PMID:22227105

Passone, María Alejandra; Rosso, Laura Cristina; Etcheverry, Miriam

2012-09-01

452

Natural control of corn postharvest fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. using essential oils from plants grown in Argentina.  

PubMed

The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P < 0.001) and the antimicrobial agent (P < 0.001).Membrane lipids were oxidized by Sui EO in A. flavus BXC01 and A. flavus CCC116-83 (0.021 and 0.027 meqO2 /kg, respectively). The results suggest that the EOs of OCor, OMen, OCom, Mi, Mp, and Sui grown in Argentina can be used as natural alternatives to control fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize. PMID:25376651

Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

2014-12-01

453

Phase diagram of crystallization of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase with an extremely low isoelectric point (pI 3.3). The protein is crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions of pH lower than 4. The crystallization is affected by the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We have studied the phase diagram of the crystallization of proteinase A in the absence and presence of DMSO, to clarify crystallization at such an extremely low pH and to study the effects of DMSO. The results indicate that the logarithm of protein solubility is a rectilinear function of ammonium sulfate concentration in both the absence and presence of DMSO. DMSO definitely lowers the solubility at relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulfate, but had little effect on protein solubility at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate.

Kudo, Norio; Ataka, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Katsura, Tatsuo; Tanokura, Masaru

1996-10-01

454

A qualitative and quantitative high-throughput assay for screening of gluconate high-yield strains by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

A novel two-step high-throughput strategy was developed for screening of gluconate high-yield strains by Aspergillus niger. The first step was fast qualitative assay according to the indicator color change, the second step was quantitative assay according to the absorbance of chelate formed with Cu(2+) at 810nm. The accuracy of high-throughput assay was comparable to that of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The correlation coefficient between CuSO4 assay and HPLC assays was exceeding 0.99 by statistical analysis. As a result, 3 high-yield mutants were screened out from 1000 viable single colonies, the mutants II-2-A1, IV-7-C6, and V-11-C5 were further validated in 5L of bioreactor. The average production rates were 15.5%, 32.8%, and 12.1% higher than that of the parental strain, respectively. PMID:25498457

Shi, Fei; Tan, Jun; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yonghong; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

2015-02-01

455

Purification and Characterization of a Dimethoate-Degrading Enzyme of Aspergillus niger ZHY256, Isolated from Sewage  

PubMed Central

A dimethoate-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus niger ZHY256 was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 227.6 U/mg of protein. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 66 kDa by gel filtration and 67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point was found to be 5.4, and the enzyme activity was optimal at 50°C and pH 7.0. The activity was inhibited by most of the metal ions and reagents, while it was induced by Cu2+. The Michaelis constant (Km) and Vmax for dimethoate were 1.25 mM and 292 ?mol min?1 mg of protein?1, respectively. PMID:11472959

Liu, Yu-Huan; Chung, Ying-Cheng; Xiong, Ya

2001-01-01

456

Gene cloning and soluble expression of Aspergillus niger phytase in E. coli cytosol via chaperone co-expression.  

PubMed

A phytase gene from Aspergillus niger was isolated and two Escherichia coli expression systems, based on T7 RNA polymerase promoter and tac promoter, were used for its recombinant expression. Co-expression of molecular chaperone, GroES/EL, aided functional cytosolic expression of the phytase in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Untagged and maltose-binding protein-tagged recombinant phytase showed an activity band of ~49 and 92 kDa, respectively, on a zymogram. Heterologously-expressed phytase was fractionated from endogenous E. coli phytase by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation. The enzyme had optimum activity at 50 °C and pH 6.5. PMID:24078121

Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

2014-01-01

457

Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88  

SciTech Connect

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

2011-04-28

458

Correlation of mycotoxin fumonisin B2 production and presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from grape.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger is a significant component of the fungal community on grapes. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 (FB2) was recently detected in grape must and wine as well as in cultures of some A. niger strains isolated from grapes and raisins. This study examined 48 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri for the presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in relation to FB2 production. The fum8 gene was detected in only 11 A. niger strains, 9 of which also produced FB2. Maximum parsimony analysis based on the calmodulin gene sequence indicated that the presence/absence of fum8 is not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship of the isolates. This is the first report correlating the presence of a fumonisin biosynthetic gene with fumonisin production in A. niger from an important food crop. The results suggest that the absence of FB2 production in grape isolates of A. niger can result from the absence of at least one gene essential for production. PMID:20666454

Susca, Antonia; Proctor, Robert H; Mulè, Giuseppina; Stea, Gaetano; Ritieni, Alberto; Logrieco, Antonio; Moretti, Antonio

2010-08-25

459

Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis in Aspergillus niger to enhance its microbial fermentation activity for industrial enzyme production.  

PubMed

?- and ?-Galactosidases find application in food processing, health and nutrition. Aspergillus niger is one of the potent producer of these enzymes and was genotypically improved using gamma-ray induced mutagenesis. The mutant-derivative produced two-fold higher ?- and ?-galactosidases. For testing genetic variability and its relationship with phenotypic properties of the two organisms, DNA samples of the mutant and parental strains of A. niger were amplified with 28 deca-nucleotide synthetic primers. RAPD analysis showed significantly different pattern between parental and mutant cultures. The mutant derivative yielded homogeneous while parental strain formed heterogeneous amplification patterns. Seven primers identified 42.9% polymorphism in the amplification products, indicating that these primers determined some genetic variability between the two strains. Thus RAPD was found to be an efficient technique to determine genetic variability in the mutant and wild organisms. Both wild and mutant strains were analyzed for their potential to produce galactosidases. Comparison of different carbon sources on enzyme yield revealed that wheat bran is significant (P < 0.01) effective producer and economical source followed by rice bran, rice polishing and lactose. The mutant was significantly better enzyme producer and could be considered for its prospective application in food, nutrition and health and that RAPD can be effectively used to differentiate mutant strain from the parental strain based on the RAPD patterns. PMID:20632114

Awan, M Siddique; Tabbasam, Nabila; Ayub, N; Babar, M E; Mehboob-ur-Rahman; Rana, Shahid Mahboob; Rajoka, M I

2011-02-01

460

An acidothermophilic functionally active novel GH12 family endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger HO: purification, characterization and molecular interaction studies.  

PubMed

Endoglucanase (EG) from Aspergillus niger HO was sequentially purified through ultrafiltration, ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography to homogeneity, with an overall recovery of 18 %. The purified EG was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of about 55 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 3.5 and 70 °C with a half life (t1/2) of 3 h and Km value of 2.5 mg/ml. Metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Co(2+) helped in enzyme induction, while Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. Peptide mass fingerprinting results revealed that the purified EG is a novel enzyme that belongs to family 12 of glycoside hydrolase (GH12). Molecular docking studies indicated the presence of Glu116 and Glu204 as important determinant residues for the functional interaction with carboxymethylcellulose and showed hydrogen bonding with Asp99, Glu116, Glu204 and hydrophobic interactions with Trp22, Val58, Tyr61, Phe101, Met118, Trp120, Pro129, Ile130, Thr160 and Phe206. Hydrolysis of 2 % CMC with purified acidothermophilic EG at its optimum temperature and pH resulted in complete hydrolysis within 2 h yielding 18 % cellotriose, 72 % cellobiose and 10 % glucose as evident from HPLC analysis. In comparison to most of the EGs reported in literature, EG from A. niger HO exhibited higher thermostability. The acidothermophilic nature of this enzyme makes it potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:25331339

Rawat, Rekha; Kumar, Sunil; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Kumar, Dinesh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

2015-01-01

461

Mechanism of Cr(VI) reduction by Aspergillus niger: enzymatic characteristic, oxidative stress response, and reduction product.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by Aspergillus niger was attributed to the reduction product (trivalent chromium) that could be removed in precipitation and immobilized inside the fungal cells and on the surface of mycelium. The site location of reduction was conducted with assays of the permeabilized cells, cell-free extracts, and cell debris, which confirmed that the chromate reductase was mainly located in the soluble fraction of cells. The oxidation-reduction process was accompanied by the increase of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant levels after hexavalent chromium treatment. Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) and maximum reaction rate (V max), obtained from the Lineweaver-Burk plot were 14.68 ?M and 434 ?M min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra analyses manifested that both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species were present on the mycelium. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis suggested that carboxyl, hydroxide, amine, amide, cyano-group, and phosphate groups from the fungal cell wall were involved in chromium binding by the complexation with the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. A Cr(VI) removal mechanism of Cr(VI) reduction followed by the surface immobilization and intracellular accumulation of Cr(III) in living A. niger was present. PMID:25408081

Gu, Yanling; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Jinhui; Tan, Xiaofei; Jian, Hao; Hu, Xi; Li, Fei; Wang, Dafei

2015-04-01