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1

Sodium Phosphate Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

Fleet Enema® ... Fleet Enema EXTRA® ... Fleet Pedia-Lax Enema® ... Rectal sodium phosphate comes as an enema to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted when a bowel movement is desired. The enema usually causes a bowel movement ...

2

Plasma prednisolone levels after administration of prednisolone-21-phosphate as a retention enema in colitis.  

PubMed Central

A competitive protein-binding assay was used to measure plasma prednisolone levels after administration of prednisolone-21-phosphate retention enemas to seven patients with colitis. Prednisolone appeared in the plasma of all patients after the enema, and concentrations rose to a peak within three hours. In five of the patients plasma prednisolone levels were also measured after the same dose of prednisolone by mouth. Although in individual patients the plasma levels achieved by enema were often quite different from those achieved by mouth, overall the levels achieved by each mode of administration were of a similar order. These findings suggest that 20 mg prednisolone given by retention enema may well exert a systemic effect.

Powell-Tuck, J; Lennard-Jones, J E; May, C S; Wilson, C G; Paterson, J W

1976-01-01

3

Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax.

Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

2000-01-01

4

Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable  

PubMed Central

Objectives Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate). There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001). Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4%) versus 0 (P = 0.0001) and 8 (3.9%) versus 2 (0.7%) (P = 0.0001), for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema), and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed.

Niv, Galia; Grinberg, Tamar; Dickman, Ram; Wasserberg, Nir; Niv, Yaron

2013-01-01

5

Flow-through peritoneal dialysis in neonatal enema-induced hyperphosphatemia.  

PubMed

Fleet enemas are hypertonic solutions with an osmotic action and a high concentration of phosphate. When retained in the human body they have a great toxic potential, causing severe hydro-electrolyte disorders in children, especially in newborns. We report the case of a previously healthy 8-day-old newborn who needed neonatal intensive care treatment after the inadvertent administration of an osmotically active hypertonic phosphate enema. Taking into account that phosphate removal by peritoneal dialysis (PD) strongly depends on total dialysate turnover, we chose continuous flow PD (CFPD) as the treatment option, with a successful outcome. Clinical experience with this dialytic modality is limited to a few case reports in pediatric and adult patients. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first description of CFPD in the setting of acute phosphate nephropathy in the neonatal period. The modality of PD described here has potential as an alternative management option as it is a highly efficient, methodologically simple, and low-cost method without any need for sophisticated equipment. Physicians and parents should be aware of the adverse effects of a hypertonic phosphate enema and should never use these medications in infants and newborns. PMID:20526851

Kostic, Dusan; Rodrigues, Andre Broggin Dutra; Leal, Antônio; Metran, Camila; Nagaiassu, Meire; Watanabe, Andréia; Ceccon, Maria Esther; Tannuri, Uenis; Koch, Vera Hermina

2010-10-01

6

Hyperphosphataemia after enemas in childhood: prevention and treatment.  

PubMed Central

The case of a child with severe hyperphosphataemia and symptomatic hypocalcaemia secondary to retention of phosphate administered through an antegrade continence enema is reported. Caution should be exercised with the use of phosphate enemas and prompt action taken to remedy retention. The use of glucose with insulin in the emergency management of acute hyperphosphataemia is discussed.

Hunter, M F; Ashton, M R; Griffiths, D M; Ilangovan, P; Roberts, J P; Walker, V

1993-01-01

7

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

8

Therapeutic benefits from a poorly absorbed prednisolone enema in distal colitis.  

PubMed Central

A double blind controlled trial has been conducted in 40 patients to compare the therapeutic effects of prednisolone metasulphobenzoate enemas with those of prednisolone-21-phosphate enemas. Both enemas brought about improvement in symptoms and sigmoidoscopic appearances in more than 70% of patients treated. The absorption of prednisolone from the metasulphobenzoate enema in three patients was less than from the 21-phosphate enema. In view of the low plasma prednisolone concentrations obtained, there are theoretical advantages in using a poorly absorbed enema to avoid the possibility of systemic steroid effects in patients requiring long term steroid treatment.

McIntyre, P B; Macrae, F A; Berghouse, L; English, J; Lennard-Jones, J E

1985-01-01

9

Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides.  

PubMed

Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

Leyva, Francisco J; Bakshi, Rahul P; Fuchs, Edward J; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S; Goldsmith, Arthur J; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P; Lee, Linda A; Torbenson, Michael S; Hendrix, Craig W

2013-11-01

10

Sucralfate enema in ulcerative rectosigmoid lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of sucralfate enemas in distal colonic ulcerative lesions, 22 patients with radiation proctitis (n=8), idiopathic ulcerative proctitis (n=5), and solitary rectal ulcer (n=5) unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, and those with ulcerated and bleeding rectal polyps awaiting polypectomy (n=4) were studied. Enemas of sucralfate suspension (2 gm in 20 ml water) were administered twice daily for

R. Kochhar; S. K. Mehta; R. Aggarwal; A. Dhar; F. Patel

1990-01-01

11

Herbal enema: At the cost of colon  

PubMed Central

Various colonic side-effects of herbal enema have been reported in literature ranging from mild abdominal discomfort to self-limiting haemorrhagic colitis. It rarely requires blood transfusion or subtotal colectomy. We report a 57-year-old male patient developing severe ileo-colitis with persistent massive rectal bleeding immediately after herbal enema administration for the treatment of chronic constipation and was resistant to conservative management. Patient was managed successfully with emergency total laparoscopic colectomy. Post-operative recovery of the patient was excellent.

Prasad, Parmanand; Tantia, Om; Patle, Nirmal M; Mukherjee, Jayanta

2012-01-01

12

Cleansing of the colon without enemas.  

PubMed

Several methods have been used to cleanse the large bowel prior to roentgen examination and rectoscopy for more than ten years. A method with administration of a salt solution (SALAX) in combination with different oral laxatives (Cascara sagrada, Dantron, Bisacodyl) without cleansing enemas is described. Hospitalized patients should have an individual preparation while ambulatory patients are almost completely cleansed if they carefully follow the given instructions. PMID:1215526

Rosengren, J E; Aberg, T

1975-11-01

13

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retained and tolerated than others because of their physical properties. Aim: To compare patient preference and retention of four therapeutic enemas, including a nicotine enema, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Twenty four patients with active UC received the four trial enemas—corticosteroid, 5-amino salicylate (5-ASA), and nicotine liquid enemas and a corticosteroid foam, in a randomised order, taking one enema on each of four successive nights. Patients scored them 1 to 4 for ease of administration and retention, degree of abdominal bloating, and for their overall preference. Results: Fifteen patients rated nicotine their overall favourite or second favourite, compared with 14 for corticosteroid foam and 11 for 5-ASA and corticosteroid liquids, but this was not significant (p = 0.302). Overall, there was no significant difference in overnight retention. However, the nicotine enema tended to be less well retained in patients with milder urgency but a higher proportion retained it overnight with more severe urgency (p = 0.031 compared with 5-ASA enema). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in patient preference or overall duration of retention for the four enemas.

Ingram, J; Rhodes, J; Evans, B; Newcombe, R; Thomas, G

2005-01-01

14

The instant enema in inflammatory disease of the colon.  

PubMed

The instant, or unprepared, double contrast barium enema has been used routinely at St Mark's Hospital in the investigation of active inflammatory disease of the colon since 1963. The use of air contrast is preferred to show the fine detail of the mucosal changes and to detect early involvement. With the instant enema technique the diagnostic results are satisfactory and patients are minimally disturbed by the procedure. The majority of examinations consist of a total of four films, which includes a plain film of the abdomen prior to the administration of contrast. For short-term follow-up a repeat enema with a single film is usually adequate. PMID:436365

Thomas, B M

1979-03-01

15

Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides an examination of the threat posed to NATO by the Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet and its capability to accomplish its maritime missions. The history of the Soviet Baltic Fleet is discussed in order to demostrate previous Russian actions and...

K. W. Veitch

1984-01-01

16

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas...X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...medical literature reports a number of deaths associated with the addition of tannic acid to barium enemas....

2013-04-01

17

Fleet Management Performance Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and expanded meth...

J. Hildreth P. Kauffmann R. Williams

2013-01-01

18

PERFORATION OF MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Severe bowel dysfunction often accompanies neurogenic bladder, and Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) procedures can lead to improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, complications such as catheter false passage with subsequent intraperitoneal instillation of irrigation can lead to significant morbidity. We present our experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition.

WILLIAM DeFOOR; EUGENE MINEVICH; PRAMOD REDDY; ALBAHA BARQAWI; DAVID KITCHENS; CURTIS SHELDON; MARTIN KOYLE

2005-01-01

19

Small bowel enema in non-responsive coeliac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small bowel enema was performed in patients with non-responsive coeliac disease, in coeliac patients on a normal diet (untreated) and those who had shown a good response to a gluten free diet, and in control subjects to determine whether there were any specific radiological features of the non-responsive state. A significant reduction in the average number of jejunal folds

N Mike; U Udeshi; P Asquith; J Ferrando

1990-01-01

20

Ferment in the Fleet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of the academic oceanographic fleet is discussed. The focus of the controversy surrounding the ships appears to be their size and fuel efficiency. Budget constraints and various ways in which to schedule ships for researchers are the primary concerns. (SA)

Ludwigson, John

1980-01-01

21

Adequacy of preparation for barium enema among elderly outpatients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether outpatients 75 years of age or older have a higher rate of inadequate bowel preparation for barium enema and of complications associated with the preparation and the test than patients aged 55 to 74 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Radiology department in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 55 years or older referred for a barium enema from March to August 1988. OUTCOME MEASURES: All films were reviewed independently by a study radiologist blind to the staff radiologist's report. Patients were interviewed by telephone within several days after the test to assess the occurrence of problems during the preparation or the test. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 213 patients assessed 72 were excluded: 43 refused to participate or could not be contacted, 16 had previously undergone colonic surgery, and 13 were excluded for other reasons. The remaining 141 patients were separated into three age groups: those 55 to 64 years (46 patients), those 65 to 74 (47) and those 75 or older (48). In 104 cases (74%) the bowel had been prepared adequately; there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the adequacy of preparation. The incidence of problems reported by the patients did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients aged 75 years or more are no more likely than those aged 55 to 74 to have problems with bowel preparation or the barium enema itself. Age should not be a criterion for exclusion from barium enema. To try to lower the rate of poor bowel preparation clinicians and radiologists should consider counselling patients more carefully about the importance of proper preparation. Also, the current method of preparation could be examined to determine whether simple changes would significantly improve colon cleanliness.

Grad, R M; Clarfield, A M; Rosenbloom, M; Perrone, M

1991-01-01

22

Therapeutic enema for pediatric ileocolic intussusception: using a balloon catheter improves efficacy.  

PubMed

A therapeutic enema for pediatric intussusception may benefit by using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. We compared the efficacy of rectal catheters without and with an inflated balloon for air and liquid enemas. We retrospectively reviewed PACS images and hospital records of children who had a therapeutic enema for intussusception at our institution between January 2006 and May 2011. Sixty-two enemas in 60 children were included. Physician assistants with training in pediatric fluoroscopy and pediatric radiologists were more likely to use air enema (37/41 or 90 %), and general radiologists were more likely to use liquid enema (18/21 or 86 %). However, the reduction rate for air enema overall was only slightly higher than for liquid enema using an inflated balloon catheter (36/40 or 90 % versus 14/17 or 82 %) (P=0.653). For air enema, mean procedure time for successful reductions was shorter with an inflated balloon catheter than with a plastic catheter (7.6 versus 28.2 min) (P<0.009), but the reduction rate was not affected. For liquid enema, the reduction rate was higher with an inflated balloon catheter than without inflation (14/17 or 82 % versus 1/5 or 20 %; P=0.021), but the procedure time was not shortened. No procedural complications were directly attributed to using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. Using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon appears to safely shorten the procedure time of a successful air enema and improve the reduction rate of liquid enema. PMID:23748969

Betz, Bradford W; Hagedorn, Jeffrey E; Guikema, Jeffrey S; Barnes, Courtney L

2013-10-01

23

Acute left colonic diverticulitis—compared performance of computed tomography and water-soluble contrast enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The most valuable radiologic examination to be done initially when acute left colonic diverticulitis is suspected is still a matter of controversy. This study compares the performance between water-soluble contrast enema and computed tomography. METHODS: From 1986 to 1997, all patients admitted in our emergency center with clinically suspected left-colonic diverticulitis had a contrast enema and a computed tomography

Patrick Ambrosetti; Alexandra Jenny; Christophe Becker; François Terrier; Philippe Morel

2000-01-01

24

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

25

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

26

Cask fleet operations study  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

Not Available

1988-01-01

27

The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here.

Zbar, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

28

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 8, fleet economics  

SciTech Connect

The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers, the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

NONE

1995-12-01

29

Neurosurgery and the first fleet.  

PubMed

Several neurosurgical events occurred during the voyage of the First Fleet from England to Australia in 1787-1788. The early records also describe a number of head injuries during the first years of European settlement in Australia. PMID:18065225

Dan, Noel G

2008-02-01

30

Fleet Support Officer Fleet Training (FSOFT): Should a Sea Tour be a Requirement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis proposes a Fleet Support Officer Fleet Training (FSOFT) program that would allow Fleet Support Officers (FSOs) to attend Surface Warfare Officer School in Newport, RI, be assigned a Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) division officer tour, as an in...

R. M. Henderson

2000-01-01

31

Antegrade continence enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade continence enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade continence enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:

Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens

2000-01-01

32

Fatal Hypermagnesemia Caused by an Epsom Salt Enema: A Case Illustration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a case of fatal hypermagnesemia caused by an Epsom salt enema. A 7-year-old male presented with cardiac arrest and was found to have a serum magnesium level of 41.2 mg\\/dL (33.9 mEq\\/L) after having received an Epsom salt enema earlier that day. The medical history of Epsom salt, the common causes and symptoms of hypermagnesemia, and the

Nancy M. Tofil; Kim W. Benner; Margaret K. Winkler

2005-01-01

33

Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

2004-01-01

34

Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

2004-01-01

35

Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito.

Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

2013-01-01

36

Bus Fleet Management Techniques Guide. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Bus Fleet Management Techniques Guide is to provide transit maintenance managers with methods that they can use to derive information for maintenance planning and fleet management. The Guide covers three basic areas: (1) statistical ana...

A. R. Cook T. H. Maze U. Dutta

1985-01-01

37

Bus Fleet Management Principles and Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the monograph is to demonstrate principles, methods, and techniques that should permit the better management of bus fleets through the systematic use of maintenance records and data. The materials presented will assist the fleet manager in ...

T. H. Maze

1987-01-01

38

Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fou...

B. H. West R. N. McGill S. L. Hillis J. W. Hodgson

1993-01-01

39

Fleetsave: Fleet Management Programme and Data Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ministry of Energy and the Automobile Association (AA), (Auckland) Inc. jointly agreed in 1981 to introduce a fleet management program (Fleetsave) aimed at reducing fuel consumption in light vehicle fleets. The program was demonstrated at AA Auckland'...

R. G. Lewis I. Bone

1987-01-01

40

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

Not Available

2014-01-01

41

[Electrolyte solution with polyethylene glycol to cleanse the colon for colonoscopy or enema].  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of an electrolyte-polyethylene glycol solution (SE-PEG) for colonic lavage, was compared with standard bowel preparation (SBP) in a randomized blinded study of volunteers and patients undergoing colonoscopy and barium enema examination. Side effects, biochemical and hematologic changes and quality of examinations were monitored. Colonoscopy and barium enema was scored by colonic segment for type of residual stool and percentage of bowel wall visualized. For colonoscopy and barium enema, preparation with SE-PEG allowed better visualization and produced more optimal exams (8 vs 3; p less than 0.03) and (6 vs 4; p = NS) respectively. We conclude that colonic lavage with SE-PEG is an alternative bowel preparation method and is cheaper, more safe and effective than SBP procedure. PMID:2091186

Valdovinos, M A; Male, R; Gil, S; Gallo, S; Tielve, M; Ferral, H

1990-01-01

42

Ultrasound-guided water enema: an alternative method of nonoperative treatment for childhood intussusception.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided water enema (USWE) reduction was performed in 115 patients with intussusception, which was diagnosed by ultrasound between April 1988 and August 1992 at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The overall rate of successful reduction was 80.9%. The rate was 91.0% for patients with symptoms of < or = 24 hours' duration, and 61.1% for patients with symptoms of more than 24 hours' duration (P < .001). Six patients had recurrence during the study period (recurrence rate, 5.2%). There was no perforation or other complications during and after the water enema reduction. The authors conclude that (1) USWE reduction for childhood intussusception has a higher rate of successful reduction and a lower rate of recurrence than does barium enema and (2) USWE is safe and may be an alternative method in the nonoperative treatment of intussusception. PMID:8014802

Choi, S O; Park, W H; Woo, S K

1994-04-01

43

DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL--Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast  

PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required.

Robinson, J. Maurice

1954-01-01

44

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

Not Available

2012-01-01

45

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU.

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

46

Perforations of the rectosigmoid colon induced by cleansing enema: CT findings in 14 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We report the computed tomographic (CT) features of colorectal perforations caused by cleansing enema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We reviewed the medical records and CT studies of all patients with colorectal perforations caused by a cleansing enema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: Fourteen patients (10 men, four women; average age = 80 years) were included in the study. The most common presenting symptoms\\u000a were severe abdominal

G. Gayer; R. Zissin; S. Apter; A. Oscadchy; M. Hertz

2002-01-01

47

A cask fleet operations study  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

Not Available

1988-03-01

48

Successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient.  

PubMed

Intussusception is a rare condition in adults, representing only 1% of all bowel obstructions. In adult cases, operative explorations are recommended to treat the bowel obstruction and to diagnose underlying diseases. The objective of the current case report was to describe the successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient. A previously healthy 21-year-old woman had a 20-hour history of colicky abdominal pain and vomiting and was diagnosed as having idiopathic ileocolic intussusception by abdominal computed tomography. We treated the patient with air enema reduction under fluoroscopic guidance instead of an operative procedure. She received oxygen and intravenous midazolam to provide some degree of pain relief. Air was carefully pumped manually into the rectum, and the air pressure was monitored with a manometer. Because of air leakage from the rectum through the void to the outside the body, we continued to provide air to maintain the air pressure between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Three minutes after initiation of the air enema, when the patient experienced increasing abdominal pain and vomiting, the pressure was temporarily increased to greater than 100 mm Hg, and the air reached the terminal ileum. We considered the reduction successful and confirmed it with an abdominal ultrasound examination. We believe that air enema reduction is effective for treating idiopathic intussusception within 24 hours of symptom onset in young, previously healthy adult patients. PMID:24332898

Matsui, Satoshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Yokouchi, Yukako; Kamiichi, Hideo; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Koike, Yuji

2014-05-01

49

Utility of hospital admission after successful enema reduction of ileocolic intussusception  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn-hospital observation of 24 to 48 hours has been the standard practice after successful enema reduction (ER) of ileocolic intussusceptions, but this practice has not been validated. We evaluated retrospectively the safety of short-term emergency department observation.

Ayman Al-Jazaeri; Salam Yazbeck; Denis Filiatrault; Marianne Beaudin; Mohammad Emran; Andreana Bütter

2006-01-01

50

Patient specific doses used to analyse the optimum dose delivery in barium enema examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure and geometrical data for 89 barium enema examination patients were recorded manually in five hospitals in Finland. From the recorded data, organ and primary exit doses as well as effective individual doses were calculated for each patient using the ODS-60 program, which is capable of adjusting the calculation phantom according to a patient's size and sex. The mean

J S LAMPINEN; S RANNIKKO

51

Bowel preparation for the double-contrast barium enema: How to maintain coating with cleansing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Poor mucosal coating, due to excess of fluid in the colon lumen, is a problem when the oral lavage method (4 litres of an iso-osmotic saline solution containing polyethylene glycol) is used as a preparation for double-contrast barium enema. Our aim was to assess the value of prior administration of sennosides to obtain a clean colon with a reduced

G. Cittadini; F. Sardanelli; E. De Cicco; M. Valle; E. Rosso; R. C. Parodi

1999-01-01

52

Investigation of Rental Rates for Centralized Fleet Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details a study to investigate the current rental rate structure used by the Division of Fleet Management (Fleet Management) to charge state agencies for the use of centralized fleet vehicles. The researchers conducted a literature review of p...

R. A. Hanson C. A. Kyte

1999-01-01

53

Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

Not Available

2009-08-01

54

Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles a...

K. K. M. J. Peg Whalen

1999-01-01

55

Enema Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Behavioral Epidemiologic Study with Implications for HIV/STI Prevention.  

PubMed

Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-05-01

56

Reuben H. Fleet Science Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center focuses mainly on astronomy, there are also exhibits and educational programming on science and technology, human physiology, and physics. A new photographic exhibition looks at the scientific accomplishments and technological spin-offs that have resulted from NASA missions. Comet Impact is a 23-passenger simulator ride that simulates what might happen when comet Kirsch-Kennedy collides with Earth. A Teacher Resource Guide is available online as well as information on Inquiry Learning Partnership professional development, field trips, family science nights, workshops, and alignment with California Teaching Standards. The Center is also a partner with TryScience providing the experience of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide. There is a link to the TryScience website where there are science activities, Live Cams, and downloads.

2011-06-23

57

Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

Song, Eunyoung; Lee, Euiju; Bu, Yongmin; Lee, Junhee; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Junghee; Park, Jaewoo

2013-01-01

58

Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

1996-04-01

59

Holy Loch Fleet Moorings Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains results of the inspection of selected Fleet Moorings and Navigation Buoys at the Naval Activity, Holy Loch, Scotland. Divers from UCT-1 and an engineer from the Ocean Engineering & Construction Project Office of CHESNAVFACENGCOM condu...

1982-01-01

60

Paleontological Resources Evaluation: Red Fleet Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the literature on the paleontological resources of the rock formations in the Red Fleet Reservoir area revealed that no previous collections have been made within the reservoir take line. Significant collections of Jurassic vertebrates, howeve...

R. E. Sloan J. H. Hartman L. J. Dempsey M. E. Jordan E. B. Robertson

1980-01-01

61

CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in ...

1995-01-01

62

2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet  

NASA Video Gallery

Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, ...

63

Mixed-Fleet Ferry Routing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study formulates a mixed-fleet ferry routing and scheduling model while considering passengers’ choices for differential\\u000a services. Ferry services with different operation characteristics and passengers with different preferred arrival time-windows\\u000a are considered in the model. The logit model is applied to determine passengers’ service choices. The formulation then determines\\u000a the best mixed-fleet operating strategy, including interlining schemes, so as to

Z. W. Wang; Hong K. Lo; M. F. Lai

64

CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

NONE

1995-12-01

65

An assessment of bisacodyl-based bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The most commonly used methods for bowel preparation are polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) and sodium\\u000a phosphate. Both are problematic in children. The use of bisacodyl together with fleet enema has been suggested as an alternative;\\u000a however, its use without dietary restriction is inferior to other preparations. We aimed to study the effect of bisacodyl\\u000a together with fleet enema and

Ron Shaoul; Lina Haloon

2007-01-01

66

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

67

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally.

Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

68

Familial colonic varices--a cause of "polyposis" on barium enema.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman with diarrhoea had multiple filling defects on a barium enema and was assumed to have multiple colonic polyps. However, colonoscopy showed colonic varices and relatively few true polyps. She bled significantly after polypectomy of a tubular adenoma. There was no evidence to support a diagnosis of portal hypertension or liver disease. A case report of her father's idiopathic colonic varices has previously been reported in this journal in 1985, and we update his subsequent progress and discuss other reports of this rare condition. PMID:18079346

Zaman, L; Bebb, J R; Dunlop, S P; Jobling, J C; Teahon, K

2008-01-01

69

The role of the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) in the management of myelodeysplatic patients.  

PubMed

Myelodysplasia is a congenital neural tube defect commonly affecting bladder and bowel function. Management of fecal incontinence is paramount to achieve patient independence and self-confidence. When conservative measures fail alternative invasive methods can be successfully applied. The Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was introduced in the late 1980's to treat spina bifida patients with fecal incontinence refractory to conservative management. Since its introduction, multiple successful variations have been described and its role has expanded. Indeed, the MACE has revolutionized the care of myelodysplastic patients, their bowel function, and ultimately their self image. PMID:21791795

Zamilpa, Ismael; Koyle, Martin A

2009-01-01

70

[New preparation method for barium enema: efficacy and administration of oral intestinal lavage solution with gastrointestinal prokinetic agent].  

PubMed

The modified Brown's method is commonly used in Japan as preparation for barium enema; however, in a few cases, its cleansing effect is not satisfactory even with the use of adequate diet. To develop a new method of preparation for barium enema, we examined the use of an oral intestinal lavage solution (PEG-ELS) with mosapride and compared it with the modified Brown's method. We administered mosapride and PEG-ELS by four different methods. These methods were assessed by the amount of remaining feces and the adequacy of barium coating. Methods in which mosapride was taken separately before and after the intake of PEG-ELS were more effective than the method using mosapride and the modified Brown's method. Lesion detection was almost the same as that with the modified Brown's method. In conclusion, preparation for barium enema using mosapride before and after PEG-ELS intake is more effective than the modified Brown's method. PMID:14994507

Futei, Shinichi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Imai, Yutaka; Ueno, Fumiaki; Hibi, Toshifumi; Mitsushima, Toru

2004-01-01

71

A therapeutic barium enema is a practical option to control bleeding from the appendix  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating from the appendix is rare and often intractable, because it is almost impossible to approach the bleeding point by endoscopy. We herein describe the first case of bleeding from the appendix, which was successively controlled by a therapeutic barium enema administered into the appendix. Case presentation A 71-year-old male visited our hospital because of melena. He has been receiving an anti-coagulation drug, ticlopidine hydrochloride, for 10 years. By an emergency colonoscopy, a hemorrhage was detected in the appendix, and the lesion responsible for the bleeding was regarded to exist in the appendix. Two hundred milliliters of 50 W/V% barium was sprayed into the orifice of the appendix using a spraying tube. The bleeding could thus be immediately stopped, and a radiological examination revealed the accumulation of barium at the cecum and the orifice of the appendix. The barium accumulation disappeared by the next day, and no obvious anal bleeding was observed. Two weeks after stopping the bleeding from the appendix, an appendectomy was performed to prevent any further refractory hemorrhaging. The patient has had no complaints of any abdominal symptoms or anal bleeding for 10 months. Conclusions A therapeutic barium enema is a useful procedure to control bleeding from the appendix and to avoid emergency surgery, such as partial cecectomy and hemicolectomy.

2013-01-01

72

[A case of the latex-induced anaphylaxis by contact with barium enema catheter].  

PubMed

The subject was a 34-year-old female with asthma and atopic dermatitis who had previously undergone a Cesarean section. In December 1995, the patient had an acute abdominal pain, so she underwent a barium enema examination. During the procedure, severe anaphylactic shock developed, and the examination was stopped. The patient responded well to appropriate emergency therapy, and her symptoms were resolved. However, the woman visited our outpatient clinic because the symptoms of her atopic dermatitis got worse. She indicated that she felt itchy when using rubber gloves. Also, at the age of thirty, she had urticaria and dyspnea after drinking a glass of fruit juice. Subsequently radioallergosorbent testing demonstrated the presence of specific IgEs against latex, banana, kiwi, grapefruit, and avocado. Skin prick tests were positive for banana, grapefruit, avocado, and latex extract at a dilution of 1:1000. A scratch test was positive to an extract of a balloon catheter which included 0.3 microg/g latex proteins by the LEAP method. In conclusion, the patient was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis to the latex contained in a balloon catheter used for the barium enema. PMID:14762330

Fujie, Sayuri; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2004-01-01

73

Phosphate sensing  

PubMed Central

Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. Prokaryotic and single cellular eukaryotic organisms such as bacteria and yeast “sense” ambient phosphate with a multi-protein complex located in their plasma membrane, which modulates the expression of genes important for phosphate uptake and metabolism (pho pathway). Database searches based on amino acid sequence conservation alone have been unable to identify metazoan orthologs of the bacterial and yeast phosphate sensors. Thus little is known about how human and other metazoan cells sense inorganic phosphate to regulate the effects of phosphate on cell metabolism (“metabolic” sensing) or to regulate the levels of extracellular phosphate via feedback system(s) (“endocrine” sensing). Whether the “metabolic” and the “endocrine” sensor use the same or different signal transduction cascades is unknown. This chapter will review the bacterial and yeast phosphate sensors, and then discuss what is currently known about the metabolic and endocrine effects of phosphate in multicellular organisms and humans.

Bergwitz, Clemens; Juppner, Harald

2011-01-01

74

48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. 970.5223-5 Section...5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Link to an amendment published...fleet. DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency (OCT 2003) When...

2010-10-01

75

48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. 970.5223-5 Section...5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. As prescribed in 48 CFR...fleet. DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency (OCT 2003) When...

2009-10-01

76

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging ...

2012-01-01

77

40 CFR 86.418-78 - Test fleet selection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.418-78 Test fleet selection. (a) Test fleet selection and requirements on test...

2013-07-01

78

Method for Estimating Technological Penetration Rates in Commercial Automobile Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for estimating market penetration rates of electric and hybrid cars in commercial (including police and nonfederal government) fleets is described. The approach is also applicable to other vehicle technologies in the fleet market. It employs s...

J. R. Wagner

1980-01-01

79

46 CFR 296.21 - Participating Fleet Vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Participating Fleet Vessels. 296.21 Section 296.21 Shipping...TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM...Applications § 296.21 Participating Fleet Vessels. (a) Priority. To the...

2013-10-01

80

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

... be done in a doctor's office or hospital radiology department. It is done after your colon is ... Grainger RG, et al., eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

81

Phosphate salts  

MedlinePLUS

... as a laxative to clean the bowels before surgery or intestinal tests. Healthcare providers sometimes give potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) for treating low phosphate and high calcium levels in the blood, and for preventing low phosphate in patients who are being tube-fed.

82

Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

Not Available

2011-04-01

83

Rightsizing the Division of Fleet Managements's Trip Pool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Virginia Department of Transportation's Division of Fleet Management (DFM) maintains a fleet of vehicles for short-term rental to state employees traveling on official state business. This fleet, known as the trip pool, is a subset of the state owned ...

R. A. Hanson

1998-01-01

84

Model for fleet sizing and vehicle allocation  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental premise upon which this dissertation is based is that fleet-sizing and vehicle-utilization decisions are interdependent and together have a significant affect on the long-run profitability of a transportation system. The objective of this research is to develop a model to aid decisions on fleet sizing in situations in which demand fluctuates over time (including both deterministic and stochastic changes), and vehicle travel times over the network are uncertain, leading to uncertainty regarding when specific vehicles will be available for use to meet specific demands. Since the interaction between fleet sizing and vehicle-utilization decisions under dynamic and uncertain conditions has not previously been studied, the model is specifically intended to provide insight into the nature of that relationship. After identifying the potentially important interactions of fleet size and vehicle utilization, a mathematical programming formulation of the problem is presented. An approximation to the exact formulation is developed based on a time-space representation of a dynamic network, which can be solved using network-optimization algorithms.

Beaujon, G.J.

1987-01-01

85

Limitations in the CT Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis: Comparison of CT, Contrast Enema, and Pathologic Findings in 16 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfalls in CT diagnosis of acute diverticuhitis were investigated in 16 patients with the disease who had misleading or equivocal CT features. The CT appearance was corre- hated with contrast enemas (13 cases) and with surgical assessment and pathologic evaluation of resected specimens (12 cases). Limitations in the CT diagnosis were related to (1) marked thickening of the colonic wall,

Emil J. Balthazar; Alec Megibow; Roger A. Schinella; Richard Gordon

86

CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

NONE

1995-12-01

87

[Antegrade colonic enema is a choice for the treatment of faecal incontinence and constipation].  

PubMed

Faecal incontinence and constipation cannot always be treated successfully by conservative or surgical methods. In these cases regular retrograde colonic enema can reduce the symptoms of the patients and can establish pseudocontinence. The authors present a method of colon cleaning which has been used successfully. The method was introduced in clinical practice by Malone in 1990. The antegrade enema is administered through the appendicostomy. In cases, where the appendectomy was performed earlier, a neoappendix was created from the coecal wall and used for the irrigation of the colon. During procedure the patients injected tap water (300-450 ml) through the (neo-)appendicostomy with a thin catheter. After a short time period this was followed by passing of the stool. The procedure was performed on twelve patients, five female, and seven male patients (mean age: 39.2 years). The indications for the procedure were the following: faecal incontinence induced by denervation of the pelvic floor in three patients, sphincter trauma in two patients and congenital sphincter malformation in two cases. In addition, combined symptoms of faecal incontinence and constipation caused by pelvic floor denervation in three patients. Finally, intractable constipation was the reason in two patients. After irrigation, the stool was passed, but the functional result was rather variable. Eight out of twelve patients were satisfied with the result, two patients reported improvement in the constipation, but it failed in one case. In another case, the appendicostomy could not have been used due to surgical complications. The stricture of the (neo-)appendicostomy was observed in two cases. Significant reflux occurred only in one case. Conclusion: after adequate patient selection this method can be applied with success. PMID:17931998

Lestár, Béla; Polányi, Csaba; Bihari, László; Garcia, Jose; Vörös, Attila

2007-08-01

88

MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia.

Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

2012-01-01

89

[The diagnostic significance of the small bowel enema in lesions of the small intestine requiring surgery].  

PubMed

Given its anatomical location the small intestine is the section of the digestive tract most inaccessible to objective clinical and instrumental examination. For this reason, traditional investigation methods provide inadequate data. In the barium meal X-ray, images are superimposed and the barium excessively fragmented due to the tortuosity and length of the intestinal loop. Access problems limit the value of endoscopy. The indications to angiography are fairly restrictive. Ultrasound and CT scans provide no conclusive evidence in this area. The so-called Small Bowel Enema technique based on the direct infusion of an opaque contrast medium after duodenal intubation remains the only way to obtain images with a satisfactory diagnostic value and should be the method of choice in examinations of the small intestine. Introduced in the twenties, the value of the technique was long questioned, mainly because it was difficult to perform correctly and it is only quite recently that several decisive technological innovations have made it highly reliable. The present paper describes its use on a series of patients with suspected pathologies of the small intestine requiring surgical treatment. The aim is to specify the correct indications to this technique as well as its limitations with a view to promoting its appropriate use in routine practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study covers 42 small bowel enemas performed on 29 male and 13 female patients aged 12-85 years. Indications to the enema included chronic abdominal pain in 28.5%, chronic diarrhea in 21.4%, pain+diarrhea in 14%, subocclusion in 16.5%, faecal blood in 11.9%, abdominal pain+diarrhea+intestinal haemorrhage in 4.7%, anaemia in 2.4%. We adopted the Sellink technique involving intubation with a French 14 Bilbao-Dotter probe and the infusion of 200-350 cc barium sulphate in a 90%-70% P/V concentration at a speed of 100 ml/min, followed by the infusion of 1000-1500 cc 0.5-1% methylcellulose in a 50-50 mixture with water for double contrast purposes. Mean duration of procedure 35-40 mins. RESULTS. We found lesions of the small intestine in 18 cases or 45% (true positives) and no alterations in 18 or 42.8% (true negatives). In 3 cases (7%) the examination was inconclusive. One false positive and one false negative complete the series, making a diagnostic accuracy of 89.1%. In 23.8% of the total series the diagnosis of Crohn's disease was confirmed; cancerous lesions were found in 11.9% and adhesions following earlier surgery in 9.7%. Surgery confirmed this diagnosis in 10 cases (5 tumours, 3 stenoses caused by adhesion fragments, 2 Crohn's disease) and disproved it in one case. Biopsy was used, for objective confirmation in 5 cases (2 Crohn's disease, 3 negatives). In the other cases reliance was placed on clinical course and the patients' response to treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS. Examination of our results reveals that in most clinical cases the small bowel enema was used to confirm suspected Crohn's disease (31 cases out of 42) and with a very high degree of diagnostic accuracy (96.7%). In line with data in the literature we decided to base the indication to this examination on certain primary symptoms such as chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in the faeces, whether in isolation or in combination. On this rather general basis the diagnosis of Crohn's disease concerned only 23.8% of the cases studied, an incidence that rose dramatically in the few cases in which the indications were made more specific. We therefore conclude that the adoption of more restrictive criteria will improve the cost-benefit ratio for this test. Another major pathology in which small bowel enema possesses a high diagnostic value is partial obstruction of the small intestine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7970036

Racalbuto, A; Trombatore, G; Greco, L; Gresta, S; De Luca, B; Scilletta, B; Puleo, S; Licata, A

1994-05-01

90

Colonic Cleansing for Radiographic Detection of Neoplasia: Efficacy of the Magnesium Citrate-Castor Oil-Cleansing Enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the 500 cases. In an additional 1.4% of patients, fecal residue was limited to small amounts in the cecum or ascending colon. In only two cases (0.4%) did fecal material prevent an examination that was suitable for detection of large polypoid or circumfer- ential lesions. The single- and double-contrast barium enemas detected 80% and 91%, respectively, of polypoid lesions

David W. Gelfand; Vu Men Chen; David J. Ott

91

Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade.

Danese, F.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

92

Programmable Calculator (PROCAL) Fleet Support Program at the NOSC (Naval Ocean Systems Center) Fleet Readiness Office.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the early 1970's the U.S. Navy has become involved in using programmable calculators to provide dedicated automated support to various levels of command. In early 1976 a Laboratory Fleet Support program was established at the NAVMAT level and the PR...

J. A. Grant J. L. David W. Golumbick

1980-01-01

93

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip  

PubMed Central

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE.

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

94

The efficacy of intraoperative methylene blue enemas to assess the integrity of a colonic anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Background Intraoperative testing of colonic anastomoses is routine in assuring anastamotic integrity. We sought to determine the efficacy of the methylene blue enema (MBE) as an intraoperative test for anastomotic leaks. Methods This study is a retrospective review of consecutive colonic operations performed from January 2001 to December 2004 in a community hospital setting by a general surgical group that uses the MBE exclusively. All operations featuring a colonic anastomosis and an intraoperative MBE were studied (n = 229). Intraoperative MBE via a rectal tube was used as the diagnostic test. Intraoperative leak (IOL) rate and clinically significant postoperative leak (POL) rate were the outcome measures. Results The IOL rate was 4.5% for proximal anastomoses, 8% for distal anastomoses, and 7% of total anastomoses. The POL rate was 3% of anastomosis. There were no other testing methods employed. There were no POLs in cases where an IOL led to concomitant intraoperative repair. POL rate for proximal anastomosis was 0.8% and for distal 3%, for stapled 1% and hand sewn 5%. Conclusion MBE IOL rate is comparable to published IOL rates for other methods of intraoperative testing. The MBE can be applied to proximal and distal anastomosis. Patients who were found to have an IOL, and underwent immediate repair, did not develop a clinical POL.

Smith, Stanton; McGeehin, William; Kozol, Robert A; Giles, David

2007-01-01

95

An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema).  

PubMed

Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B K; Thakar, Anup B; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

96

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2013-10-01

97

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2013-10-01

98

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2009-10-01

99

41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notice of establishment of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section...Notice of establishment of a fleet management system. GSA will inform each...schedule for establishment of a fleet management system and of the...

2009-01-01

100

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 ...104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management system. (a) All Government-owned...service area of an established fleet management system and other related...

2010-07-01

101

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 ...104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management system. (a) All Government-owned...service area of an established fleet management system and other related...

2009-01-01

102

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2009-10-01

103

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2010-10-01

104

41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notice of establishment of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section...Notice of establishment of a fleet management system. GSA will inform each...schedule for establishment of a fleet management system and of the...

2010-07-01

105

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2010-10-01

106

75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study AGENCY...Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. The...participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study...

2010-12-29

107

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34...102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the...

2009-07-01

108

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment...Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems §...

2009-01-01

109

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment...Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems §...

2010-07-01

110

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34...102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the...

2010-07-01

111

Why T.R. Sent the Great White Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One hundred years ago this December, the Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads becoming the first and only global naval parade in history. When commemorating the event it's easy to focus on the fleet's notable achievements. Over a 14 month period, 14,000 m...

L. Bogle

2007-01-01

112

Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

2003-01-01

113

Fleet scheduling and dispatching for demand-responsive passenger services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a software system designed to manage the deployment of a fleet of demand-responsive passenger vehicles such as taxis or variably routed buses. Multiple modes of operation are supported both for the fleet and for individual vehicles. Booking requests can be immediate (i.e. with zero notice) or in advance of travel. An initial implementation is chosen for each

Mark E. T. Horn

2002-01-01

114

General Evaluation Plan: Fleet Test and Evaluation Projects  

SciTech Connect

Document details the process used by the NREL Fleet Test & Evaluation team to choose the types of fleets, sites, and technologies they will evaluate. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Fleet Test & Evaluation (FT&E) team was formed to accomplish the objectives of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) current and emerging programs. Composed of NREL and Battelle personnel, the team supports vehicle test projects initiated by DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) and the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT). FT&E projects help fleet owners and operators facilitate purchase decisions by providing them with comprehensive laboratory and fleet test data on viable alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and advanced technology vehicles (ATVs). ATVs include hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles.

Not Available

2002-07-01

115

Single-dose ceftriaxone, ornidazole, and povidone-iodine enema in elective left colectomy. A randomized multicenter controlled trial. The French Association for Surgical Research.  

PubMed

Patients undergoing elective left colectomy for colonic carcinoma or diverticulosis (n = 341) were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in groups 1 (102 patients) and 2 (122 patients) had two 5% povidone-iodine enemas whereas those in group 3 (117 patients) had saline enemas. Groups 1 and 3 received 24-hour intravenous cefotaxime sodium and metronidazole hydrochloride. Group 2 received single injections of ceftriaxone sodium (1 g) and ornidazole (1 g). Senna concentrate was administered the evening before surgery. There was no statistically significant difference found between groups 1 and 2 concerning the number of infected patients (eight vs 11), anastomotic leakages (four vs four), extra-abdominal complications (32 vs 29), or infection-related deaths (one vs zero). Despite poorer tolerance, povidone-iodine enema was more effective than saline enemas, as there were less infected patients in group 1 (8%) or groups 1 + 2 (8.5%) than in group 3 (13%). Single-dose ceftriaxone-ornidazole combined with povidone-iodine enemas is effective against infective complications in elective left colonic surgery for carcinoma or diverticular disease. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis reduces costs and work for the nursing staff. PMID:8431124

Fingerhut, A; Hay, J M

1993-02-01

116

Can nutritional supplements and rectal enema be used as bowel cleansing for colonoscopy? - results of a randomized controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Currently available preparations for colonoscopy have low tolerability and may cause fluid and electrolyte shifts. An alternative method of bowel cleansing is required. Material and methods. Preparation of the gut using oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and rectal enema was tested as an alternative method of bowel cleansing. During 2008-2012, patients were randomized to oral nutritional supplements (n = 27) for 5 days and rectal enema or polyethylene glycol (PEG) (n = 23) prior to colonoscopy. Blinded endoscopists rated the degree of bowel cleansing according to the Ottawa bowel preparation scale (OBS) (primary outcome). Tolerability of either preparation was also assessed (ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier no: NCT00123456). Results. Due to a high rate of bowel cleansing failure among patients receiving ONS, the study was interrupted prematurely. Colonoscopies were incomplete due to stools in 6 of 27 patients in the ONS group compared to 1 of 23 in the PEG group (ns). The mean total OBS were 8.3 ± 3.3 and 5.3 ± 2.8, respectively (p = 0.002). Four patients (15%) in the ONS group and eight patients (35%) receiving PEG had an OBS score ?4 (good preparation) (ns). ONS was better tolerated than PEG with more patients reporting acceptable taste (27 of 27 [100%] vs. 15 of 23 [65%], p = 0.001), and fewer reporting difficulties with the intake (0 of 27 [0%] vs. 10 of 23 [43%], p < 0.001) and nausea (5 of 27 [19%] vs. 13 of 23 [57%], p < 0.008). Conclusions. For routine use, ONS with enema instead of traditional preparation for colonoscopy with PEG cannot be generally recommended. PMID:24495046

Gustafsson, Ulf O; Segelman, Josefin; Ljungqvist, Olle; Thorell, Anders; Nygren, Jonas

2014-04-01

117

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging.

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

118

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

2012-01-01

119

How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs  

SciTech Connect

CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA (France); Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M. [COGEMA LOGISTICS - AREVA Group (France)

2006-07-01

120

Electric vehicles look promising for use in utility fleets  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Vehicle Development Corp. (EVDV) expects EV fleets to find a market for urban driving, especially among service fleets, once mass production begins. Electric utilities joined to form EVDC in order to keep abreast of research developments and the results of demonstrations taking place in several cities, where driver acceptance in utility demonstration programs is high. Major auto makers still need persuasion to develop a commercial prototype. Marketing will focus on controlled fleets having the management skills and the motivation to make the program work.

Minner, D.

1984-06-01

121

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 1, summary  

SciTech Connect

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

NONE

1995-12-01

122

Pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis: Analysis of 2877 barium enemas in Thailand  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis in Thai adults. METHODS: A review of the computerized radiology database for double contrast barium enema (DCBE) in Thai adults was performed at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Incomplete studies and DCBE examinations performed in non-Thai individuals were excluded. The pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis detected during DCBE studies from June 2009 to October 2011 were determined. The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were reported. Factors influencing the presence of colonic diverticulosis were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2877 suitable DCBE examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of patients was 59.8 ± 14.7 years. Of these patients, 1778 (61.8%) were female and 700 (24.3%) were asymptomatic. Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 820 patients (28.5%). Right-sided diverticulosis (641 cases; 22.3%) was more frequently reported than left-sided diverticulosis (383 cases; 13.3%). Pancolonic diverticulosis was found in 98 cases (3.4%). The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were 1.5% (42 cases), 0.4% (12 cases), and 0.03% (1 case), respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence of colonic diverticulosis between male and female patients (28.3% vs 28.6%, P = 0.85). DCBE examinations performed in patients with some gastrointestinal symptoms revealed the frequent occurrence of colonic diverticulosis compared with those performed in asymptomatic individuals (29.5% vs 25.3%, P = 0.03). Change in bowel habit was strongly associated with the presence of diverticulosis (a relative risk of 1.39; P = 0.005). The presence of diverticulosis was not correlated with age in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic individuals (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 28.5% of DCBE examinations in Thai adults. There was no association between the presence of diverticulosis and gender or age.

Lohsiriwat, Varut; Suthikeeree, Wanwarang

2013-01-01

123

Organizational Design Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Components Department.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Navy's, Naval Aviation Enterprise has combined its Depot aircraft maintenance activities with the Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance facilities to form the Fleet Readiness Centers across the U.S. The merger creates newly formed organizations respo...

J. F. Montes

2007-01-01

124

Can the Indian Navy Respond to a Growing Chinese Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether the Indian Navy can respond to a growing Chinese fleet by analyzing the historical development of the Indian Navy since independence. Three naval expansion periods are identified, and three causal factors...

V. J. Quidachay

1995-01-01

125

Navy Distributed Engineering Plant - Value Added for the Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy's Distributed Engineering Plant (DEP) was rapidly established in 1998 to address critical Fleet interoperability issues. The primary mission of the DEP and its associated testing processes is to characterize the interoperability of each deploying...

J. H. McConnell

2002-01-01

126

40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator may require additional test...

2013-07-01

127

Naval Weapons Station Charleston Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CHESNAVFACENGCOM designated and Engineer-in-Charge (EIC) to provide inspection planning and on-site technical direction for the underwater inspection of fleet moorings located at the Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Charleston, South Carolina. The actual under...

1983-01-01

128

Naval Weapons Station Charleston Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of the inspection of three fleet moorings located within the Naval Weapons Station, Charleston, SC. Of the three moorings inspected, the Mediterranean Mooring, ARDM-2, and the Auxiliary Mooring's chain were found to be in ...

1985-01-01

129

The Management Control of Aviation Fleet Maintenance Funds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contains the results of a management control system review of the United States Navy Aviation Fleet Maintenance (AFM) funds program. The research presents the AFM budget formulation and execution process and management control system procedure...

J. D. Reily T. J. Sheppard

1980-01-01

130

A guide to surveys of motor vehicle fleets  

SciTech Connect

In response to directives in Section 407 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) developed a data collection program designed to provide information useful to persons interested in the alternative fuels market. The target audience includes those seeking to manufacture, convert, sell, own, or operate alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) or alternative fueling facilities. Among the various projects EIA conducted as part of this data collection program were two fleet surveys conducted in Department of Energy-designated Clean Cities. The Clean Cities program is a locally-based government/industry partnership coordinated by the Department of Energy to expand the use of alternative transportation fuels. These surveys were designed to collect a broad range of information regarding the fleets and fleet vehicles in operation in the Atlanta, Georgia and Denver, Colorado areas. One of the objectives of these surveys was to attempt to identify and describe the market for AFVs. Due to inherent limitations associated with AFVs and limited alternative-fuel infrastructure, it`s believed that the first practical applications for AFVs will be within private and government fleets. Another objective in conducting the Clean Cities Fleet surveys was to develop a useful methodology for accessing and surveying private and municipal fleets that would aid other interested parties in conducting similar surveys. This report is intended to provide a description of how EIA gathered information on private and municipal fleets, but the basic survey design could be used to design surveys of other difficult-to-access populations. There are 3 basic steps to any survey: define the target population, constructing the survey frame, and implementing the survey. The procedures outlined in this report are, for the most part, the procedures used for the fleet survey conducted in Denver. The major changes between the two surveys are described in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-11-01

131

Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important

Jasna Tomi?; Willett Kempton

2007-01-01

132

A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

2013-11-01

133

Lessons learned from the 705-km fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific benefits generated from the synergy of the satellites in the AM and PM (A-Train) Constellations are unprecedented. Constellation Flying in this context refers to each satellite flying independently in their own control box with acceptable minimum buffers ensuring that the control boxes do not intersect each other. Recently it is has been realized that rather than two separate constellations, they should be considered as one entity called the "705-km Fleet" named for their common nominal altitude over the equator. This realization partly comes from the recent events with the USGS satellite Landsat-5 which is in the AM Constellation, but for a period of time was overlapping with the A-Train. A fundamental concept is the Triad consisting of Alongtrack Phasing, Groundtrack and Mean Local Time of Ascending Node. Another related lesson learned is that to maintain the buffers, phasing at the two intersection points where each pair of orbits cross near the poles should be considered, as opposed to the relative phasing of the times they cross the equator. These types of geometric considerations are presented after presenting an introduction and history of the constellations. Other topics include: reference ground tracks, the process of handling the growing concern of conjunctions with other orbiting bodies, CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites performing Formation Flying, and the general ascent and exit methods for satellites entering/leaving a constellation.

Vincent, Mark A.

2012-10-01

134

The Art of the First Fleet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural History Museum of London website features an online collection of some of the artworks that were created by the members of the First Fleet, the group of nine ships that set sail from Portsmouth to establish a colony in New South Wales, Australia. The artworks are considered to be "outstanding drawings of aboriginal people, the environment and wildlife found on arrival as well as of the early foundation of the colony." Bird lovers out there will find this collection quite a treat, as there are a slew of drawings of birds. Mammal lovers will get to see drawings that are some of the only know record of species that have become extinct since 1788. The drawings are divided up into four different topics, "Natural History", "Ethnography", "Topography", and "History", and can be accessed by their links on the homepage. Each topic can be viewed as a "list" or "gallery", with the gallery view providing thumbnails and the title, and the list providing the title and the name of the artist. Once visitors have chosen a drawing to view, they can click on it to see the dimensions and date of the drawings, as well as an enlarged image of the drawing. Those with interest in more details, such as the donor of the drawing or where it's held at the Museum, should click on "show notes". The "interactive enlargement" link below the image allows visitors to zoom and pan within the image.

135

Short chain fatty acid distributions of enema samples from a sigmoidoscopy population: an association of high acetate and low butyrate ratios with adenomatous polyps and colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in enema samples taken from subjects before sigmoidoscopy as an indicator of possible microbial community differences between subjects subsequently diagnosed as normal or having colonic disorders. The major SCFA in all groups were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. A significantly higher ratio of acetate to total SCFA and lower ratio

G A Weaver; J A Krause; T L Miller; M J Wolin

1988-01-01

136

TOXICITY STUDIES ON TANNIC ACID ADMINISTERED BY ENEMA* II. THE COLONIC ABSORPTION AND INTRAPERITONEAL TOXICITY OF TANNIC ACID AND ITS HYDROLYTIC PRODUCTS IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ration for roentgenologic examination or after incorporation in the barium enema. Since gastrointestinal absorption must have preceded hepatotoxicity, the condi- tions necessary for absorption are of inter- est. Unfortunately, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract has been poorly de- fined, largely due to the lack of adequate methods to detect intact tannic acid in biologic fluids and to distinguish it from

PHILLIP A. HARRIS; F. FRANK ZBORALSKE; OSCAR N. RAMBO; ALEXANDER R. MARGULIS; SIDNEY RIEGELMAN

137

The Future of the USCG Icebreaker Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) operates three icebreakers to support science in polar regions: the USCGC HEALY (WAGB-20), the USCGC POLAR STAR (WABG-10) and the USCGC POLAR SEA (WAGB-11). USCGC HEALY, the youngest of the icebreakers, has successfully completed four field seasons in the Arctic Ocean and one deployment to Antarctica since the ship was delivered in late 1999. Operations on board HEALY have improved with each deployment thanks to the feedback provided by science users and the responsiveness of USCG personnel to suggestions for enhancing shipboard support of data and sample acquisition. The POLAR-class icebreakers have been used primarily to support Deep Freeze by carrying supplies to McMurdo Station in Antarctica. Unfortunately, both POLAR STAR and SEA are approaching the end of their useful service life. The main propulsion system of the POLAR SEA has recently been declared unfit to support another trip to Antarctica until at least the 2007 field season, which places an additional burden on the already ailing POLAR STAR and potentially impacts the arctic science schedule of HEALY. The Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee (AICC), which was initially formed to oversee the design and building of the USCGC Healy, now works to liaise and facilitate communications between scientists, funding agencies and facility providers and assist with the planning of polar science projects. Incumbent in this is the requirement that AICC provide continuing oversight for scientific aspects of the potential refitting or replacement of POLAR STAR and POLAR SEA as well as HEALY's scientific spaces and outfitting. The purpose of this presentation is to provide the polar science community with the most recent information about the status of the USCG icebreaker fleet and to solicit, synthesize and present the needs of the community to the Coast Guard to facilitate efficient and effective utilization of U.S. icebreakers.

Edwards, M. H.; Prince, M.

2004-12-01

138

Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems. Technical Memorandum 1: Classification of Fleet Operations and Selection of Candidate Case Study Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FHWA has commissioned this study to determine if there are fleet management needs that can be met through public sector involvement in the development of ITS systems. As part of this examination, this technical memorandum responds to Tasks A, B, and C...

1994-01-01

139

A novel alternative for renal replacement therapy: 2-year successful colonic dialysis via a Malone antegrade continent enema stoma.  

PubMed

This study is a case report of home-based colonic dialysis (CD) for treating end-stage renal disease in a 20-year-old woman. She had a history of Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) for treating neuropathic bowel at the age of 11 years. The patient refused any type of renal replacement therapy. However, she agreed to CD through the MACE stoma by changing the colonic irrigation solution to the peritoneal dialysis solution. The patient was discharged with a plasma creatinine (Cr) level of 1.7 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 8 mg/dL. She has continued CD on a regular basis at home. The patient's serum Cr and BUN has remained in the steady low state during 24 months of follow-up (mean Cr level = 2.8 mg/dL and mean BUN level = 10.7 mg/dL). PMID:24345419

Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; NaserHodjjati, Haleh; Tourchi, Ali

2014-06-01

140

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related... Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2013-10-01

141

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2010-10-01

142

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2009-10-01

143

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2013-07-01

144

Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

2010-01-01

145

[Rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet].  

PubMed

Statistics of the rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet during 2002-2010 is analyzed. Over the specified period rate of injuries, poisonings and consequences of influence of other external actions was 30,06% among the conscripts, 30,23% among the contract military men. The authors analyzed reasons and circumstances of injuries, prevention measures, and orgnisation of military physician expertise and indemnity insurance for the military men injured during the service. Ways of improvement of the system of injury prevention on the North Fleet are suggested. PMID:23038958

Khankevich, Iu R; Myznikov, I L; Askerko, I V; Sil'chenko, E S; Matochkina, A A

2012-07-01

146

41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330...effectiveness of the operation and management of individual fleets to determine whether...

2013-07-01

147

Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

Not Available

2009-06-01

148

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01... false Are there fleet average fuel economy...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel...

2013-07-01

149

78 FR 28625 - American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-82,289] American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services Clerks...workers and former workers of American Airlines, a subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Service...

2013-05-15

150

40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. 86.1865-12 Section 86...1865-12 How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. (a) Applicability. ...the provisions of § 86.1801-12(j), CO2 fleet average exhaust emission...

2010-07-01

151

77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey...in the form of a one-time survey of medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers...be issued at time of approval. Title: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet...

2012-12-19

152

TQL, A Case Study of Implementation into the Operational Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August of 1990, the CNO released a memorandum to all flag officers to bring Total Quality Leadership (TQL) to the fleet. This Thesis is a case study of how an operational command goes about adopting the philosophies of TQL. Discussion of Dr. W.E. Demin...

K. L. Hannes

1992-01-01

153

JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

Hummel, Kirck

2009-01-01

154

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

155

Results from the Federal Methanol Fleet: A Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated by the United States Congress in fiscal year 1985 and managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is a project to evaluate a variety of methanol vehicles with different engi...

R. N. McGill R. L. Graves

1988-01-01

156

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas...

1995-01-01

157

Automated Mission Planning for a Fleet of Micro Air Vehicules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ENAC University is using and developping the Paparazzi UAV system, which aims to provide a free and fully autonomous autopilot for a fleet of MAV, including fixed wing and rotary wing MAVs. The Paparazzi project has now succeeded in providing a fully autonomous navigation system for multiple fixed-wing aircraft system. One of the main concern of the project is

Pierre-Selim Huard; Nicolas Barnier

2007-01-01

158

[Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].  

PubMed

Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection. PMID:25046938

2014-03-01

159

Sources of alcohol fuels for vehicle fleet tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five coal gasification projects were reviewed for the purpose of determining if they offered an opportunity to provide a source of methanol for a fleet vehicle test program. All were concerned with the gasification of coal to produce a low, medium, or high Btu gas or a liquid fuel. The analysis revealed that only four programs offered a reasonable opportunity

W. J. Barr; F. A. Parker

1977-01-01

160

Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.813 years) requiring\\u000a investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast\\u000a barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients\\u000a had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (>5mm).

P. A. Farands; K. D. Vellacott; S. S. Amar; T. W. Balfour; J. D. Hardcastle; M. Chir

1983-01-01

161

Why has car-fleet specific fuel consumption not shown any decrease since 1990? Quantitative analysis of Dutch passenger car-fleet specific fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch car-fleet specific fuel consumption has not shown any decrease since 1990. The main reasons for the car-fleet specific fuel consumption no longer showing a decrease after 1990, namely, increases in vehicle weight and cylinder capacity, have been concluded from an analysis of Dutch car-fleet specific fuel consumption in the period 1980–1997. The increase in weight of the average

Robert M. M Van den Brink; Bert Van Wee

2001-01-01

162

Microbial solubilization of phosphate  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wolfram, James H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

163

Microbial solubilization of phosphate  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

1993-10-26

164

Potential for compressed natural gas vehicles in centrally-fueled automobile, truck, and bus-fleet applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two prospective alternative fuel implementation scenarios were created to quantify the potential range of compressed natural gas use in fleet vehicles including fleet automobiles; light-, medium-, and heavy-duty fleet trucks; public transit buses; and school buses. The scenarios are based principally on the clean-fuel fleet vehicle provisions contained in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the California Low Emission

Samsa

1991-01-01

165

Phosphate Management: FY2010 Results of Phosphate Precipitation Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic soluti...

2011-01-01

166

Chloroquine Phosphate Oral  

MedlinePLUS

Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It is used to prevent and treat ... Chloroquine phosphate comes as a tablet to take by mouth. For prevention of malaria in adults, one dose is ...

167

Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

2012-01-01

168

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

169

The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

NONE

1997-06-01

170

Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model which aims to reproduce the mean and variance of dynamic loading of the truck fleet at a given site is developed here. This probabilistic model reflects the range and frequency of the different heavy trucks on the road and their dynamic properties. Multiple Sensor Weigh-in-Motion data can be used to calibrate the model. Truck properties such as suspension stiffness, suspension damping, sprung mass, unsprung mass and tyre stiffness are represented as randomly varying parameters in the fleet model. It is used to predict the statistical distribution of dynamic load at each measurement point. The concept is demonstrated by using a pre-defined truck fleet to calculate a pattern of statistical spatial repeatability and is tested by using that pattern to find the truck statistical properties that generated it.

Belay, Abraham; OBrien, Eugene; Kroese, Dirk

2008-04-01

171

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

172

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

173

First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

Not Available

1993-08-01

174

Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.  

PubMed

Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

2012-07-01

175

Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

Not Available

2012-03-01

176

[Phosphate sensing and intestine].  

PubMed

Small intestine plays an important role in the sensing of various nutrients. There is information that would imply the existence of a dietary phosphate sensing mechanism within the intestine. Recent studies suggest that intestinal factors may involve in the alteration of renal phosphate transport. The elucidation of the phosphate sensing mechanism is expected to provide molecular basis for the prevention of the hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:23023634

Tatsumi, Sawako; Nomura, Kengo; Miyagawa, Atsumi; Kido, Shinsuke; Segawa, Hiroko

2012-10-01

177

Oral phosphate binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end-stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is observationally and statistically associated with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis modalities are not sufficiently effective to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range, so the majority of dialysis patients require

Alastair J Hutchison

2009-01-01

178

Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government

1979-01-01

179

A sweep-based algorithm for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a new sweep based heuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem. This problem ,involves two kinds of decisions: the selection of a ,mix ,of vehicles ,among ,the available vehicle types and the routing of the selected fleet. The proposed algorithm first generates a large number,of routes that are serviced by one or two

Jacques Renaud; Fayez F. Boctor

2002-01-01

180

Coordination and Control of UAV Fleets using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis considers two important topics in the coordination and control of fleets of UAVs; the allocation and trajectory design problems The first allocates waypoints to individual vehicles in the fleet, and includes constraints on vehicle capability, waypoint visitation, and visit timing Formulations of the allocation problem are presented to find minimum mission completion time and maximum stochastic expectation

John Saunders Bellingham

2002-01-01

181

Work/Rest Schedules and Performance of S-3 Aviators during Fleet Exercise 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examined the effect that a fleet exercise has on the work/rest patterns, fatigue, and cognitive performance of S-3 aviators. For 10 days during Fleet Exercise 1992 21 S-3 aviators from carrier air wing seventeen (CVW-17) aboard USS SARATOGA (CV-60) com...

D. F. Neri S. A. Shappell

1993-01-01

182

Concise Guide to Effective Management of the Public Works Equipment Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of toda...

V. DeArmas

1996-01-01

183

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01...dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor...dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?...

2013-07-01

184

33 CFR 165.1333 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA. 165.1333 Section 165.1333...Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA. (a) Location. The following...each such vessel is in the Sector Puget Sound Captain of the Port (COTP)...

2013-07-01

185

76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MARAD-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction AGENCY: Maritime...inform the Maritime Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. MARAD inadvertently...

2011-01-11

186

41 CFR 102-34.70 - What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01...calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient...calculations of our fleet vehicle...

2013-07-01

187

40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject...Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

2013-07-01

188

PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

Hay, M.; King, W.

2011-04-04

189

40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. 80.62 Section 80...procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. One of the two following...to place them within the emitter group sub-fleets in accordance with the...

2010-07-01

190

40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. 80.62 Section 80...procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. One of the two following...to place them within the emitter group sub-fleets in accordance with the...

2009-07-01

191

Experiences Developing a Virtual Environment to Support Disaster Relief with the United States Navy's Commander Third Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona worked with the US Navy Commander, Third Fleet (Third Fleet) to overcome limitations of performing closely coordinated staff work on board a US Navy ship. Third Fleet is required to collaborate with hundreds of people internally and with military and civilian organizations both nationally and internationally. Third

Mark Adkins; John Kruse; Terry Mckenna; Arthur Cuyugan; Scott Miller; Eric Rasmussen; Robert Younger

2000-01-01

192

Biosynthesis of Dolichyl Phosphate  

PubMed Central

This is the first report not only on the presence of polyprenyl phosphates and their site of synthesis in algae, but also on the formation of their sugar derivatives in this system. A glucose acceptor lipid was isolated from the nonphotosynthetic alga Prototheca zopfii. The lipid was acidic and resistant to mild acid and alkaline treatments. The glucosylated lipid was labile to mild acid hydrolysis and resistant to phenol treatment and catalytic hydrogenation, as dolichyl phosphate glucose is. These results are consistent with the properties of an ?-saturated polyprenyl phosphate. The polyprenylic nature of the lipid was confirmed by biosynthesis from radioactive mevalonate. The [14C]lipid had the same chromatographic properties as dolichyl phosphate in DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex LH-20. Strong alkaline treatment and enzymic hydrolysis liberated free alcohols with chain lengths ranging from C90 to C105, C95 and C100 being the most abundant molecular forms. The glucose acceptor activity of the biosynthesized polyprenyl phosphate was confirmed. The ability of different subcellular fractions to synthesize dolichyl phosphate was studied. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus were the sites of dolichyl phosphate synthesis from mevalonate.

Hopp, H. Esteban; Daleo, Gustavo R.; Romero, Pedro A.; Lezica, Rafael Pont

1978-01-01

193

[Health status of female soldiers serving in the Northern Fleet].  

PubMed

Authors analyzed the health status and morbidity among female soldiers serving under the contract in the Northern Fleet, age peculiarities, results of medical in-patient examination and expert assessment, put in medical records in accordance with prophylactic medical examination service and medical examination. Annual data about military troops, morbidity and medical examination among female soldiers in the period 2002-2010 (n-14,5 thousand of people) are included into analysis. 502 medical records of female soldiers approved by military physician board were analyzed. Authors presented statistic data about primary diseases and chronic pathology and considered causes of changing of the category of fitness for military service and its gender peculiarities. Authors suggest changing the recruiting concept for female soldiers and the system of medical in-patient examination. PMID:24341205

Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Ustimenko, L I; Miloshevich, Iu R; Volkova, L V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A

2013-09-01

194

An optimization method for condition based maintenance of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty.  

PubMed

An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

Feng, Qiang; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

2014-01-01

195

An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

2014-01-01

196

Phosphate and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Hyperphosphatemia is a major risk factor for death, cardiovascular events and vascular calcification among patients with and without kidney disease. Even serum phosphate levels within the “normal laboratory range” associate with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular events. Potential mechanisms by which increased phosphate results in adverse outcomes are incompletely understood but current evidence suggests a direct effect of phosphate on vascular calcification and modulation of key hormones fibroblast growth factor-23 and calcitriol. Despite convincing epidemiologic connections between phosphate excess and cardiovascular disease, no clinical trials have been conducted to establish a causal relationship and large, randomized trials with hard endpoints are urgently needed to prove or disprove the benefits and risks of therapy.

Kendrick, Jessica; Kestenbaum, Brian; Chonchol, Michel

2014-01-01

197

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOEpatents

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12

198

Laser Phosphate Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book gives a detailed description of the physical properties of effective new laser materials - phosphate glasses doped with rare-earth ions, and demonstrates the possibilities and prospects for their use in various types of lasers. Data are presente...

M. E. Zhabotinskii N. E. Alekseev V. B. Kravchenko V. P. Gapontsev Y. P. Rudnitskii

1983-01-01

199

Acute phosphate nephropathy.  

PubMed

We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate. PMID:24878951

Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza

2014-05-01

200

Ultrasound Guided Reduction of an Ileocolic Intussusception by a Hydrostatic Method by Using Normal Saline Enema in Paediatric Patients: A Study of 30 Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Method Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. Results This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

2012-01-01

201

Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D.  

PubMed

Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate reabsorption and/or bone metabolism. In addition, dietary phosphate rapidly enhances renal phosphate excretion, although detailed mechanisms of this adaptation remain to be clarified. Physiologically, extracellular concentrations of phosphate and these hormones are maintained by several negative feedback loops. For example, 1,25(OH)2D enhances FGF23 production and FGF23 reduces 1,25(OH)2D level. In addition, phosphate affects 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23 levels. Dysfunction of these negative feedback loops results in several diseases with abnormal phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Especially, excess actions of FGF23 cause several hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia with relatively low level of 1,25(OH)2D that had been classified as vitamin D-resistant rickets/osteomalacia. In contrast, deficient actions of FGF23 cause hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. However, there still remain several unanswered questions regarding phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. PMID:24605214

Fukumoto, Seiji

2014-01-01

202

Current USN/USMC Aircraft Anthropometric Compatibility Issues and the 'Street to Fleet' Proposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shortcomings of the USN/USMC anthropometric compatibility process have driven a requirement for an improved process, 'Street to Fleet'. During the course of the NAVAIRSYSCOM (PMA-202) Aircrew Accommodation Expansion Program (reference I), where AIR 4.6, P...

H. D. Tucker L. L. Brattin

2000-01-01

203

Newark Liberty International Airport (ERW) Vehicle Tracking Demonstration Wireless Fleet Management System, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wireless Fleet Management System (WFMS) has been installed at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) in a trial version as a technology demonstration and evaluation program that implements radio frequency identification (RFID) based tracking of th...

A. T. Cerino

2005-01-01

204

Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) Vehicle Tracking Demonstration Wireless Fleet Management System: Phase Zero Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wireless Fleet Management System (WFMS) is being installed at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) as a technology demonstration and evaluation program that implements radio frequency identification (RFID) based tracking of the location of port-...

A. T. Cerino

2004-01-01

205

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF): A Participation Analysis 1986-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since deregulation, the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) has undergone significant commitment fluctuations within its long-range international passenger, cargo, and Aero-medical segments. Some of the causes of these fluctuations include the cyclical economi...

J. D. Sheridan

2006-01-01

206

Command and Control in the Fleet Battle Group: An Organizational Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contains a brief overview of past developments in command and control, and applies organizational theory to the design of systems for tactical command and control, specifically within the context of the Fleet Battle Group. By applying Ashby's ...

A. L. Kennedy

1986-01-01

207

Assessment of Institutional Barriers to the Use of Natural Gas Fuel in Automotive Vehicle Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe desi...

J. Jablonski L. Lent M. Lawrence L. White

1983-01-01

208

Model of a Geostationary Regional Transportation Company (GRET): Fleet Composition and Facility Layout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design and layout study of a commercial, geostationary regional transportation company and related fleet of service vehicles, part of a project for modeling the operation of an infrastructure in geostationary orbit, is summarized. Considering potential ...

U. Wirt S. Al-kenany B. Canpolat D. Dallmann A. Eckert

1988-01-01

209

Optimization of crude and product tanker fleets: a dynamic profit maximization model  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum tanker market crashed in the mid-seventies and has remained weak ever since. The cyclical pattern in tanker trade has yet to rebound from famine to feast. This research develops an original multi-stage optimization to improve the management of specific fleet operating and composition decisions. The model maximizes profits over the long term via a relaxation of the demand constraint, and a compact heuristic solving for the general integer problem within a quadratic formulations. Alternative formulations are tested and the original model is compared to an actual fleet history. In all cases, the Dynamic Fleet Optimization Model (DFOM) consistently generates the largest profits. The performance of DFOM in the historical validation supports the hypothesis that improved fleet management has the potential to improve tanker market efficiency. The analysis identifies a trading syndrome in tanker management leading to the chronic oversupply of tankers, and prescribes management guidelines along with model applications to avoid the mistakes of past tanker operators,

Selman, M.L.

1987-01-01

210

Results from the First Year of Operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Argonne National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, has managed the Federal Methanol Fleet Project since its inception in fiscal year 1985. This congressionally-mandated project direct...

R. N. McGill S. L. Hillis R. P. Larsen

1988-01-01

211

Major Impacts of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's a...

R. W. Maters R. de Roode Torres R. A. Espirito Santo

2005-01-01

212

41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01...establishment of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

2013-07-01

213

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34...Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

2013-07-01

214

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01...discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1...Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

2013-07-01

215

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01...Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1...Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

2013-07-01

216

Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements  

SciTech Connect

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1995-01-01

217

Fleet matching performance for multiple registration measurement tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimisation and inverse lithography. These requirements trend to full in-die measurement capability of photomask metrology for registration. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which is already well established in the market. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. A key component for registration tool users is the cross site manufacturing flexibility given by the matching capability of all its metrology tools. Therefore all PROVE tools offer a tool matching procedure based on 2D Golden Grid references. In this paper we first review the optimal length standard and golden grid matching procedures of modern registration metrology tools. Systematic errors in fleet matching based on illumination differences, thermal expansionbased issues or line width roughness are addressed. The tool matching performance of PROVE tools is demonstrated by comparing up to 7 different tools. All tools are well within accuracy and long-term repeatability specification which considerably reduces the statistical error contribution of the tool matching performance. For grid matched tools the final cross tool registration error is shown to be below 1nm.

Beyer, D.; Bläsing, C.; Boehm, K.; Heisig, S.; Seidel, D.

2013-09-01

218

Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.  

PubMed

Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine. PMID:23288614

Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

2013-09-01

219

Gras Dowr joins world`s FPSO fleet  

SciTech Connect

The Gras Dowr, a floating production, storage, and offloading vessel (FPSD) for Amerada Hess Ltd.`s North Sea Durward and Dauntless fields, is one of the latest additions to the world`s growing FPSO fleet. The Gras Dowr, anchored in about 90 m of water, lies between the Durward (U.K. Block 21/16) and Dauntless (U.K. Block 21/11) fields, about 3.5 km from the subsea wellhead locations. The Gras Dowr`s main functions, according to Bluewater Offshore Production Systems Ltd., are to: receive fluids from well risers; process incoming fluids to separate the fluid into crude, water, and gas; store dry crude oil and maintain the required temperature; treat effluent to allow for water discharge to the sea; compress gas for gas lift as a future option; provide chemical injection skid for process chemical injection; use a part of the produced gas for fuel gas, and flare excess gas; inject treated seawater into the injection wells; house power generation for process and offloading operation and utilities; offload to a tandem moored shuttle tanker including receiving liquid fuel from the same tanker; provide accommodations for operating and maintenance crews; allow helicopters landings and takeoffs; allow handling and storage of goods transported by supply vessels; moor a shuttle tanker; and control the subsea wells.

NONE

1997-05-05

220

Mixed fleet assessment for on-orbit consumables resupply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant increases in the cost effectiveness and operational flexibility of in-space systems can be realized when the capability to replenish consumable fluids and propellants is incorporated into the designs of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and laboratories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellants to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the Space Station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks have been depleted. This paper documents the impacts of a mixed fleet approach to consumables logistics to orbit. Both storable fluids and propellants, and superfluid helium, are considered. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants and water for Space Station propulsion are discussed. Trade-offs in superfluid helium tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6 months) space-basing, are addressed.

Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.

1988-01-01

221

Phosphate Mines, Jordan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

222

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is a hereditary condition in which red blood cells ... doesn't have enough of an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which helps red blood cells ...

223

Phosphate Absorption in Eelgrass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absorption of phosphate by eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) was studied using 32P in a partitioned container where leaves were separated from roots and rhizomes. Absorption, which was greatest in the light, occurred through both leaves and roots, and the ...

C. P. McRoy R. J. Barsdate

1970-01-01

224

Chemical safety of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime.  

PubMed

Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb and authorized Sofnolime as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb and Sofnolime. Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination seems to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Unfortunately, evaluation of potential hazards associated with this contamination is difficult, due in part to the large number of variables of operational use and the absence of appropriate exposure limits. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy has begun to phase in, for all diving, non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits. PMID:8653065

Lillo, R S; Ruby, A; Gummin, D D; Porter, W R; Caldwell, J M

1996-03-01

225

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

NONE

1995-12-01

226

Bisacodyl Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

Fleet® Bisacodyl Enema ... Rectal bisacodyl comes as a suppository and enema to use rectally. It is usually used at the time that a bowel movement is desired. The suppositories usually cause a bowel movement ...

227

Removal of phosphate from wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Gas concrete waste was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions in this study. The influence of suspension pH, temperature, mixing rate, and gas concrete dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, both values of BET-N{sub 2} specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained and it was concluded that wastes of gas concrete are an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate. The removal of phosphate predominantly takes place by precipitation mechanism and the weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate.

Oguz, Ensar; Guerses, Ahmet; Canpolat, Nurtac

2003-08-01

228

Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer  

DOEpatents

A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

1999-06-15

229

Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer  

DOEpatents

A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

Goldstein, Alan H. (Beverly Hills, CA); Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

230

The value of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examinations in the evaluation of patients with subacute and chronic lower intestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

One hundred thirty six consecutive patients were examined with histories of guaiac positive stool examinations, bright red blood per rectum, or hematochezia to determine the value of the double-contrast barium-enema (DC-BE) examination and colonoscopy/proctoscopy in establishing bleeding sites. If examination findings were analyzed in conjunction with findings of visual examination of the anal area, the difference in the respective sensitivities of the two examinations was not statistically significant. If findings at the visual inspection were excluded, the DC-BE examination missed 45 of 155 proved bleeding sites (sensitivity, 71%) and 13 of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions 70%), while colonoscopy missed 13 of 155 bleeding sites (sensitivity, 92%) and seven of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions, 90%). The sensitivity of both methods was similar if all rectal and anal lesions were excluded. We conclude that colonoscopy is superior to the DC-BE examination in the detection of bleeding sites but similar in results to the DC-BE examination if lesions in the anal canal and rectum are excluded. The routine use of the DC-BE examination in patients with superficial lesions in the anal canal should be discouraged unless the patient has persistent bleeding or is 50 years old or older.

Thoeni, R.F. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Venbrux, A.C.

1983-03-01

231

Sphingosine-1-phosphate  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Colitis-associated cancer is a classical inflammation-driven cancer in which constitutive NF?B and STAT3 activation drive tumorigenesis. Recent findings published by Liang et al. in Cancer Cell demonstrate that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-mediated upregulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) drives a persistent NF?B/IL-6/STAT3/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) amplification loop that is critical to the development of chronic colitis and colitis-associated cancer. FTY720, an antagonist of S1PR1, abolished persistent NF?B/IL-6/STAT3 signaling and reduced the development and progression of colitis-associated cancer. Targeting SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 may provide a therapeutic option to prevent the progression of colitis to cancer.

2013-01-01

232

Adaptive phosphate uptake behaviour of phytoplankton to environmental phosphate fluctuations.  

PubMed

When phytoplankton growth in lakes is limited by the available phosphate, the external phosphate concentration fluctuates around a threshold value at which available energy is insufficient to drive phosphate incorporation into a polyphosphate pool. As a result, occasional increases in the external concentration are experienced by phytoplankton as a series of phosphate pulses. Based on [(32) P] phosphate uptake experiments with lake phytoplankton, we show that a community is able to process information about the experienced pattern of phosphate pulses via a complex regulation of the kinetic and energetic properties of cellular phosphate uptake systems. As a result, physiological adaptation to alterations of ambient phosphate concentration depends on the pattern of phosphate fluctuations to which the community had been exposed during its previous growth. In this process, the entire community exhibits coherent uptake behaviour with respect to a common threshold value. Thereby, different threshold values result from different antecedent pulse patterns, apparently unrestrained by the amount of previously stored phosphate. The coherent behaviour observed contradicts the basic assumptions of the competitive exclusion principle and provides an alternative perspective for explaining the paradoxical coexistence of many phytoplankton species. PMID:21361999

Aubriot, Luis; Bonilla, Sylvia; Falkner, Gernot

2011-07-01

233

A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market information, evaluating the impact of external business environment, and considering cross-scale interactions between decision actions. Along with this process, system operation strategies, maintenance schedules, and capacity expansion plans that guide the operation of the power plant are optimally identified, and the total life cycle costs are estimated.

Chen, Hongmei

234

Deriving and Validating a Road Safety Performance Indicator for Vehicle Fleet Passive Safety  

PubMed Central

Road safety performance indicators (RSPI) are policy tools which describe the extent of insecure operational safety conditions within traffic systems. This study describes the production of an RSPI which represents the presence within a country’s vehicle fleet, of vehicles that may not effectively protect an occupant in a collision. This work is highly original, as it uses the entire vehicle database of European Union Member States in order to estimate the average level of passive safety offered by the entire fleet in each country. The EuroNCAP safety ratings and vehicle age of each vehicle in each fleet have been obtained to calculate the RSPI. The methodology used could be adopted as an international standard.

Page, Marianne; Rackliff, Lucy

2006-01-01

235

Natural Gas in Transit Fleets: A Review of the Transit Experience  

SciTech Connect

Use of natural gas in transit bus fleets has grown over the last decade. Often motivated by air quality concerns, the use of natural gas also contributes to national and local energy security. Approximately 9% of the U.S. transit fleet in 2001 was composed of buses operating on some form of natural gas and even more were on order. While some agencies have achieved success with their natural gas programs, others report difficulties and some have suspended their natural gas use altogether. What makes an agency successful in implementing natural gas into their operations? This paper reviews the experience of agencies with natural gas to determine the answer and to provide guidance on how fleets can effectively duplicate the successes and address or avoid the challenges.

Eudy, L.

2002-02-01

236

Medical department operations in a fleet hospital during Operation Desert Storm.  

PubMed

Fleet hospital 15 was deployed to Saudi Arabia in Operation Desert Storm. The facility was a 500-bed echelon-3 hospital located near Al Jubail, which served the fleet marines from February to April 1991. The medical staff of the department of medicine consisted of reserve medical officers with a variety of backgrounds. The desert environment, concern for endemic diseases, limitations of equipment, and the environment of conflict presented challenges to the medical department that required adaptation of civilian skills to this new environment. The hospital served as a community medical center, with 86% of the inpatient and outpatient treatment provided for non-battle-related illness and injury. Design considerations of fleet hospitals for future deployments should include the likelihood of treating a large number of non-battle-related injuries and illnesses. PMID:8524463

Bove, A A; Oxler, S J

1995-08-01

237

Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 2: part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study addresses both ground operational data and technical requirements that span the Tug planning phase and operations phase. A similar study covering mission operations (by others) provides the complimentary flight operations details. The two studies provide the planning data requirements, resource allocation, and control milestones for supporting the requirements of the STS program. This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study incorporates the basic ground operations requirements and concepts provided by previous studies with the interrelationships of the planning, IUS transition, and Tug fleet operations phases. The interrelationships of these phases were studied as a system to optimize overall program benefits and minimize operational risk factors.

1975-01-01

238

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, and other important data. In general, FNMOC strives to treat the air-ocean environment as a fully integrated system, from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, placing special emphasis on the air-ocean interface. FNMOC also hosts the USGODAE Server (see http://www.usgodae.org). Ongoing development of this system is being done through a partnership of FNMOC and NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Lab (PMEL), with oversight from the U.S. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Steering Committee and funding from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The USGODAE Server hosts in-situ oceanographic data, atmospheric forcing fields suitable for driving ocean models and unique GODAE data sets, including demonstration ocean model products. The USGODAE Server contains fixed and drifting buoy data, bathythermograph data, PALACE float data, ship data and CMAN data. It also includes TOPEX, GFO, and ERS altimeter data, AVHRR SST retrievals, DMSP sea ice concentration retrievals and meteorological observations. The USGODAE Server also functions as one of two global repositories or Global Data Assembly Centers (GDACs) for data from the Argo global array of temperature/salinity profiling floats. Included in these online data sets are those from Canada (MEDS) with 67 floats and 1900 station files from April 2001 to present, Japan (JMA) with 97 floats and 2700 station files from April 2000 to present, and the U.S. (AOML) with 304 floats and 9800 station files from August 1997 to present, and France (CORIOLIS) with 121 floats and 5396 station files from early 2001 to present. On the USGODAE Server the Argo GDAC Web Interface allows users to easily select data based on time, region, Data Assembly Center (DAC), or float ID. Users can download float profile files, trajectory files, or technical data files. The atmospheric forcing fields hosted on the USGODAE Server are from both FNMOC and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The FNMOC fields include o

Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

2003-04-01

239

Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.  

PubMed

Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications of fleet electrification and inform better decision making. PMID:23869607

Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

2013-08-20

240

Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

2003-01-01

241

Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Pyridox(am)ine-5?-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5?-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unresponsive to pyridoxine.

Bagci, S; Zschocke, J; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T; Klepper, J; Muller, A; Heep, A; Bartmann, P; Franz, A R

2009-01-01

242

Navy nurse anesthetists at Fleet Hospital Five: the Desert Shield/Storm experience.  

PubMed

In 1990, the United States Navy deployed its first operational fleet hospital: "Fleet Hospital Five" in support of Operation Desert Shield/Storm. Within 2 weeks of notification, the 900 medical providers assigned to this medical facility, which was capable of providing major trauma surgery and critical care, were on their way to Al Jabayl, Saudi Arabia. This article discusses the unique characteristics of this facility and introduces the crucial role that nurse anesthetists play. The article also introduces several innovative ideas that were developed and tested to expand the capabilities of the hospital. PMID:12755187

Hrezo, Richard J

2003-06-01

243

A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

244

Effect of a change towards compressed natural gas vehicles on the emissions of the Milan waste collection fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the contribution of waste collection vehicles to atmospheric emissions in the metropolitan area of Milan, Italy. The emissions of the Milan Environmental Services Agency vehicle fleet are estimated for 2005–2010. The effects of the renewal of the fleet, as well as increasing compressed natural gas usage are analysed. We find that that between 2005 and 2010, that

Cinzia Pastorello; Panagiota Dilara; Giorgio Martini

2011-01-01

245

Underride Safety Protection: Benefit-Cost Assessment of Rear-Impact Guards for the North Dakota Farm Truck Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The North Dakota Legislature recently passed a law exempting the state's agricultural truck fleet from a federal safety program requirement for rear-guard equipment on large trucks. This equipment has been shown to reduce crash severity when a passenger vehicle collides with the rear of the truck. This study uses truck fleet, truck crash, and injury severity data to estimate

Kimberly Vachal; Esther K. Tumuhairwe; Mark Berwick

2009-01-01

246

Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identi...

B. H. West J. F. Thomas J. P. Szybist M. Goodman R. Bechtold S. P. Huff T. A. Timbario T. J. Theiss

2007-01-01

247

33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting...Coast Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting...The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The Turning Basin west of...

2013-07-01

248

77 FR 23118 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre; Bayou La Batre, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of...Regulations for the Blessing of the Fleet in Bayou La Batre, AL from 2 p.m. until 4 p.m. on May 6, 2012. This action...

2012-04-18

249

A model, a heuristic and a decision support system to solve the earth observing satellites fleet scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating an observation schedule is an important part of the earth observing satellites fleet management process. Even for a short term schedule already dozens of earth observing requests requiring several satellites have to be scheduled respecting complex constraints involving multidimensional resource capacities as well as request preferences. This paper first presented the earth observing satellites fleet scheduling problem, then formulated

Pei Wang; Peng Gao; Yuejin Tan

2009-01-01

250

Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

Robles-Porras, H.

1985-01-01

251

Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of the Thorium Phosphate Hydrogenphosphate, Thorium Hydroxide Phosphate, and Dithorium Oxide Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its low solubility in water and high thermal stability, thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), Th4(PO4)4P2O7, seems to be a very good matrix for radionuclide immobilization. During the leaching studies of this compound the formation of a new phase, different from the TPD was observed. In order to identify this phase, two other thorium phosphates: thorium phosphate–hydrogenphosphate (TPHP), Th2(PO4)2HPO4·H2O, and

V. Brandel; N. Dacheux; M. Genet; R. Podor

2001-01-01

252

Experiments in the control and application of Automated Surface Vessel fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, the use of Automated Surface Vessels (ASVs) has evolved from serving as military drones to performing a rich set of applications ranging from exploration to minesweeping to supporting the operation of underwater assets. The benefits of these systems motivate the question of how fleets of such ASVs could synergistically work together to perform more sophisticated

Christopher Kitts; Paul Mahacek; Thomas Adamek; Ignacio Mas

2011-01-01

253

Sociocultural Assessment of Filipino Crew Members Working in the Hawaii-Based Longline Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a subset of the results from a 2003-2004 sociocultural study of fishermen in the Hawaii-based longline fleet. Explored here are the perspectives and experiences of Filipino fishermen working as crew in the Hawaii longline industry. T...

A. Gough S. D. Allen

2006-01-01

254

Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

2006-06-01

255

A Variable Neighborhood Tabu Search Algorithm for the Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem with time windows is a variant of the classical vehicle routing problem. This paper defines a mathematical model of this problem and proposes a variable neighborhood tabu search algorithm to solve it. The initial solution is obtained by GENIUS and the giant tour algorithm. Our algorithm employs a variable neighborhood mechanism to search the

Luo Wei; Fu Zhuo

2010-01-01

256

Development of energy efficient mid-water trawls to Murmansk trawl fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experimental trawls were designed as a joint task between the Danish partners and the Russian trawler fleets which were going to test them. The new design incorporate use of modern Western high strength material. The engineering performance of the tra...

1996-01-01

257

A scenario aggregation based approach for determining a robust airline fleet composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic airline fleet planning is one of the major issues addressed through newly initiated decision support systems, designed to assist airlines and aircraft manufacturers in assessing the benefits of the emerging concept of dynamic capacity allocation. We present background research connected with such a system, which aims to explicitly account for the stochastic nature of passenger demand in supporting decisions

Ovidiu Listes; R. Dekker

2002-01-01

258

ANALYSIS OF THE SANTOS FLEET FROM SÃO PAULO, SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1971-1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus), and sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) are caught off the south and southeast Brazilian coasts by Brazilian and leased (Hon- duras and Barbados flags) longliners of Santos city, São Paulo State, Brazil. This paper reports statistics for the Santos fleet including blue marlin, white marlin and sailfish annual yield for 1971-99, monthly yield

A. F. Amorim; C. A. Arfelli

259

Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

2009-01-01

260

Market Analysis of Publications, Trade Conferences, and Key Events for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this MBA Project is to develop a well-defined process to ensure reasonable access to industry publications for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FRCSW) through the compilation of a user-friendly database. For each of the targeted publicatio...

J. Endress R. Valencia S. Guptill

2007-01-01

261

A refuelable zinc\\/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc\\/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In

John F. Cooper; Dennis Fleming; Douglas Hargrove; Ronald Koopman; Keith Peterman

1995-01-01

262

Should the Marine Corps Purchase an All-STOVL Fleet of Joint Strike Fighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an old adage that warns, 'Don't put all your eggs into one basket.' However, the Marine Corps has placed the entire future of its tactical aviation (TacAir) fleet on one platform: the Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant of the Joint S...

W. Sheridan

2005-01-01

263

Automated control of a fleet of Slocum gliders within an operational coastal observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutgers University, Webb Research, Dinkum Software, Wetlabs, and Mote Marine Lab have been collaborating on the development and deployment of a fleet of Slocum gliders to continuously patrol the coastal oceans. The gliders are AUVs that move up and down in the water column in a saw-toothed pattern by changing their buoyancy. Presently, during a deployment, humans must look at

E. Creed; J. Kerfoot; C. Mudgal; S. Glenn; O. Schofield; C. Jones; D. Webb; T. Campbell; M. Twardowski; G. Kirkpatrick; J. Hillier

2003-01-01

264

Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work in progress concerning multi- instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algo- rithms in scheduling

Al Globus; James Crawford; Jason Lohn; Robert Morris

2002-01-01

265

Analysis of Volatile Contaminants in U.S. Navy Fleet Soda Lime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. T...

R. S. Lillo R. Ruby D. D. Gummin W. R. Porter J. M. Caldwell

1995-01-01

266

Network Centric Warfare in the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study was commissioned by the Office of Force Transformation in the United States Department of Defense to examine the employment of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) systems and practices in the U.S. Fifth Fleet's Commander Task Force Fifty (CTF-50). The staff and commander of CTF-50, embarked on the nuclear aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70), led a coalition

John Kruse; Mark Adkins; Kimberly A. Holloman

2005-01-01

267

Utilizing fleet-driven metrics to identify and forecast system degrader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) is responsible for cradle-to-grave development and support of Aircraft Launch and Recovery Equipment (ALRE). As this equipment and its associated development, maintenance, and support become increasingly complex, and the budgetary pressures facing the Navy become increasingly strong, there arises a need for an Integrated Support Environment (ISE) for ALRE. For the Fleet, the ISE streamlines

Crystal Wagner; Mike Burger; Gail Edwards

2010-01-01

268

Cost-Attribute Analysis of Restructuring H-60R/S Fleet Replacement Squadrons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Navy helicopter community will soon experience an unprecedented transformation; one that will see a massive shift in the identity of the community and in its fleet operations. In accordance with the Helicopter Master Plan (HMP), two new airframes...

J. M. Lopez

2000-01-01

269

Determining the Boeing 747 Conversion Costs for the Civil Reserve Air Fleet Enhancement Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Enhancement Program provides a contractual arrangement between the Air Force and major U.S. airlines for modifying Boeing 747 and DC-10 passenger aircraft for use as convertibles--aircraft capable of carrying military ca...

J. C. Orr

1983-01-01

270

Management of the fleet satellite communications satellite acquisition for the Naval Postgraduate School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the management of the acquisition of the fleet Satellite Communications Satellite (FLTSATCOM) Qualification Model for the Naval Postgraduate School. The preparations, scheduling, and accomplishment of the delivery and the efforts required to establish the FLTSATCO laboratory are discussed. The interaction between the Naval Postgraduate School, various government agencies, and the FLTSATCOM prime contractor necessary to accomplish the project is also described.

Eyler, David E.

1991-06-01

271

Management of the fleet satellite communications satellite acquisition for the Naval Postgraduate School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis discusses the management of the acquisition of the fleet Satellite Communications Satellite (FLTSATCOM) Qualification Model for the Naval Postgraduate School. The preparations, scheduling, and accomplishment of the delivery and the efforts required to establish the FLTSATCO laboratory are discussed. The interaction between the Naval Postgraduate School, various government agencies, and the FLTSATCOM prime contractor necessary to accomplish the

David E. Eyler

1991-01-01

272

Development of an airport noise model suitable for fleet-level studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing community awareness of the deleterious effects of aviation. Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding community are important issues in the aviation industry. It will be imperative, for the sustainable growth of aviation, to study these impacts at the fleet-level. Although there are several noise models capable of accurately predicting the noise for a single airport

Prakash Natarajan Dikshit

2009-01-01

273

50,000 mile methanol\\/gasoline blend fleet study: a progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven current production automobiles are being used in a fleet study to obtain operational experience in using 10% methanol\\/90% gasoline blends as an automotive fuel. Data from chassis dynamometer tests (run according to the 1975--1978 Federal test procedure) have been obtained, showing fuel economy and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned fuel, methanol, and aldehydes. These data

1979-01-01

274

Management Control of Aviation Fleet Maintenance Funds in a Stock Fund Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the existing Aviation Fleet Maintenance (AFM) funds control system utilized by the aviation Type Commanders and to assess impact of the stock funding of aviation depot level repairables (AV-DLRs) on this system. T...

R. J. Gough

1984-01-01

275

Optimizing Multibeam Data Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam sonars are fundamental mapping tools for a wide range of oceanographic studies throughout the global oceans. Initially installed on only a few academic research vessels, they have become standard sensors across global- and ocean-class ships in the U.S. academic research fleet. While ongoing efforts including the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R, http://rvdata.us) and the Global Multi-Resolution Topography Synthesis (GMRT, http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt) are focused on data documentation, preservation, synthesis and dissemination, the Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC, http://mac.unols.org) was recently established with the primary goal of optimizing multibeam data quality during acquisition. Our strategy is to engage operators, technical specialists and users to develop common protocols, guidelines and tools for use across the fleet. Technical teams are focused on specific aspects of multibeam sonar operation and maintenance, including Sea Acceptance, Acoustic Noise, and Quality Assurance. Key to our effort is working with the community of stakeholders to ensure that protocols and tools suit the needs of the community and can be easily implemented across the fleet. Although MAC efforts are initially focused on deep water systems in the US Academic Research Fleet, we recognize that our community of stakeholders is much broader and also includes operators and users of shallow water. All MAC-generated reports, guidelines and software tools, as well as links to related online resources are being made publicly available through the MAC website (http://mac.unols.org).

Ferrini, V.; Beaudoin, J.; Johnson, P. D.

2012-12-01

276

Inositol phosphates in the environment.  

PubMed Central

The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment.

Turner, Benjamin L; Paphazy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

2002-01-01

277

Vascular calcification and inorganic phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular calcification is highly correlated with elevated serum phosphate levels in uremic patients. To shed light on this process, we examined the ability of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels to regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell (HSMC) culture mineralization in vitro. When cultured in media containing normal physiological levels of Pi (1.4 mmol\\/L Pi), HSMC grew in monolayers and did

Cecilia M Giachelli; Shuichi Jono; Atshushi Shioi; Yoshiki Nishizawa; Katshuhito Mori; Hirotoshi Morii

2001-01-01

278

21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

279

21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III)...

2013-04-01

280

21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

281

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin phosphate is...

2013-04-01

282

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

283

Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Levels of phosphate-the only form of phosphorus that can be assimilated by plants-are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants use only approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to low-phosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to allow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing more efficient crops. PMID:24579991

López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2014-04-29

284

?-Tricalcium phosphate hydrolysis to octacalcium phosphate: effect of sodium polyacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) hydrolysis into octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been investigated in phosphoric acid solution at different concentrations of sodium polyacrylate (NaPA). The hydrolysis process has been followed by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption and scanning electron microscopy analyses. In the absence of the polyelectrolyte, ?-TCP undergoes a complete transformation into OCP in 24h. The presence of polyacrylate in solution

A. Bigi; E. Boanini; R. Botter; S. Panzavolta; K. Rubini

2002-01-01

285

The outcome and long-term follow-up of 94 patients with recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection using single to multiple fecal microbiota transplantation via retention enema.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most frequent causes of healthcare-associated infections, and its rates are also increasing in the community. The management of CDI has become a major challenge, given growing rates of recurrences and failures with standard antibiotic therapy. Mounting evidence suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be effective; however, as there is a paucity of data with regard to repeat FMT for primary non-response to this treatment, this study examined the outcome of multiple FMTs for recurrent CDI. Case records were reviewed for 94 patients who underwent FMT via retention enema for recurrent or refractory CDI during the period 2008-2012. Demographic information, treatment data, and clinical resolution rates were examined for single FMT and cumulative resolution was assessed for multiple FMTs in the context of ongoing symptoms. The cumulative clinical resolution following four or more FMTs was 86 %. When antibiotic therapy was used between FMTs, the clinical resolution rate increased to 92 %. There were no reported adverse events and no patients who were cured with FMT had further episodes of CDI at 6-24 months follow-up. Multiple FMTs administered through enemas is an effective, safe, and simple therapy for the management of recurrent or refractory CDI. PMID:24627239

Lee, C H; Belanger, J E; Kassam, Z; Smieja, M; Higgins, D; Broukhanski, G; Kim, P T

2014-08-01

286

Evaluation of Mess Management Specialist (MS) 'A' School Training by Advanced MS NAVEDTRACOM Students and by Fleet MS Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feedback information concerning Mess Management Specialist (MS) 'A' School training was collected from 65 MS personnel attending advanced courses within the Naval Education and Training Command (NAVEDTRACOM) and also from 82 MSs currently serving in fleet...

E. R. Hall C. F. Denton

1979-01-01

287

Avgassutslipp fra innenriks sjoetransport. Aktuelle utslippsreduserende tiltak. (Exhaust emissions from the coastal fleet in Norway. Possible measures to reduce emissions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes possible technological measures to reduce emissions of NOx, HC, CO and particles from engines in use in the Norwegian coastal fleet. The costs and applicability of the most probable measures are discussed for various engine types. 45 ...

O. Melhus P. K. Bremnes

1989-01-01

288

Process Technologies for Phosphate Fertilizers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most important processes used for making phosphate fertilizer materials are summarized in this document. A guide is provided to the selection of process technologies for developing countries interested in initiating efforts in this sector. The process...

K. R. Krishnaswami

1978-01-01

289

Phosphate solubilization by Rhizobium strains.  

PubMed

Forty-six Rhizobium isolates from legume root and stem nodules were examined for their phosphate-solubilizing ability on Pikovskaya's agar medium. Rhizobium isolates from root nodules of Cassia absus, Vigna trilobata and three strains from Sesbania sesban showed zone of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization. The isolate from C. absus showed maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) after 12 d of incubation, while the Rhizobium sp. strain 26 (from S. sesban) showed the least amount (150 ?g/ml) of phosphate solubilization. Among the carbon sources tested for their ability to solubilize TCP, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in glucose by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. Phosphate solubilization increased with increase in glucose concentration steeply up to 2% and slowly above this concentration in four isolates. Among the nitrogen sources tested, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in ammonium sulphate by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. PMID:23100757

Sridevi, M; Mallaiah, K V

2009-03-01

290

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

291

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

292

Profile of motor-vehicle fleets in Atlanta 1994. Assessing the market for alternative-fuel vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the EIA survey of motorvehicle fleets, both private and municipal, in Atlanta. These data should be useful to those whose goal is to assist or participate in the early development of alternative-fuel vehicle markets. The data also should be useful to persons implementing motor-vehicle-related clean air programs or analyzing transportation energy use. Persons in the petroleum industry will find useful information regarding conventional fuels and the fuel-purchasing behavior of fleets.

NONE

1995-11-06

293

Optimizing Single Depot Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem by Improved Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Firstly, the paper establishes a mathematical model for single depot and heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem (SHVRP)\\u000a according to the actual situation of Zhengzhou Coal Electricity Material Supply and Marketing Limited Company in China, then\\u000a based on the model, uses improved genetic algorithm(IGA) to optimize the vehicle routing problem (VRP) of Zhengzhou Coal Electricity\\u000a Material Supply and Marketing Limited Company,

Guo Haixiang; Zhu Kejun; Li Lanlan; Yang Juan

294

Recapitalizing the Fleet: A Material Analysis of Late-Nineteenth-Century U.S. Naval Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article quantitatively analyzes American naval-force structure from 1869 to 1899. It makes four arguments: first, that operational capabilities lagged behind political decisions by many years; second, that antiquated ships imposed a significant financial burden on the U.S. Navy; third, that successful fleet operations required a technologically compatible force structure; and finally, that the United States was ill-prepared to fight

Timothy S. Wolters

2011-01-01

295

Recapitalizing the Fleet: A Material Analysis of Late-Nineteenth-Century U.S. Naval Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article quantitatively analyzes American naval-force structure from 1869 to 1899. It makes four arguments: first, that operational capabilities lagged behind political decisions by many years; second, that antiquated ships imposed a significant financial burden on the U.S. Navy; third, that successful fleet operations required a technologically compatible force structure; and finally, that the United States was ill-prepared to fight

Timothy S. Wolters

2011-01-01

296

Constrained Local Search Method for Bus Fleet Scheduling Problem with Multi-depot with Line Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a bus fleet scheduling model with multi-depot and line change operations with the aim to reduce the operating\\u000a costs. The problem is constrained by various practical operational constraints, e.g. headway, travel time, and route time\\u000a restrictions. A constrained local search method is developed to find better bus schedules. The method is tested with the case\\u000a study of

Kriangsak Vanitchakornpong; Nakorn Indra-payoong; Agachai Sumalee; Pairoj Raothanachonkun

2008-01-01

297

Application of fleet ballistic missile components/designs for expendable launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the orbital performance and configuration attributes of an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) derived from flight-qualified components. Representative logistical and programmatic data are also provided. The backbone of the ELV program described is the cost-effective use of proven Fleet Ballistic Missile components/designs coupled with other high confidence 'off-the-shelf' equipment. The ELV defined can place over a thousand pounds (1000 lb) of spacecraft (payload) into Low Earth Orbit.

Grizzell, Norman E.

298

INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2010-01-01

299

INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

300

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability  

SciTech Connect

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

NONE

1995-12-01

301

A prospective randomised study comparing polyethylene glycol and sodium phosphate bowel cleansing solutions for colonoscopy.  

PubMed Central

Polyethylene glycol (Klean-Prep, Norgine) is widely used for bowel cleansing in the United Kingdom. This study compares the efficacy, acceptability and adverse effects of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution with sodium phosphate (Fleet Phospho-soda, De Witt) for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients were prospectively randomised to either PEG or sodium phosphate (SP) preparation. The endoscopist was blinded to the randomisation process. Fifty patients were excluded from the study because of previous colectomies or incomplete data. Of the remaining 159 patients, 88 had been randomised to the PEG group and 71 to the SP group. There was no difference in sex distribution between the groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of patient acceptability, side effects (nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramps), adequacy of bowel preparation and colonoscopy completion rates. 74% of the PEG and 70.4% of the SP group were rated by the endoscopist as having good or excellent bowel preparation. Sodium phosphate is well tolerated without additional side effects when compared with PEG solution. Both solutions were found to be equally effective in bowel cleansing.

Lee, J.; McCallion, K.; Acheson, A. G.; Irwin, S. T.

1999-01-01

302

Partially acidulated phosphate rocks-reactions with water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated suggested interactions between the phosphate rock component and the acidic solution formed by hydrolysis of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) as partially acidulated phosphates absorb water.

G McSweeney; AG Charleston

1985-01-01

303

Greenhouse evaluation of phosphate fertilizers produced from Togo phosphate rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial acidulation of phosphate rock (PR) or compaction of PR with soluble P fertilizers represents a means of producing P fertilizers from indigenous PR sources that may otherwise be unsuited for use as a P fertilizer. In the present two greenhouse experiments, we compared the agronomic effectiveness using a relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) index for the following P fertilizer sources:

K. Kpomblekou; S. H. Chien; J. Henao; W. A. Hill

1991-01-01

304

Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. Conversely, life span is reduced when adult flies are cultured on high phosphate medium or when hemolymph phosphate is increased in flies with impaired Malpighian tubules. In addition, RNAi-mediated inhibition of MAPK-signaling by knockdown of Ras85D, phl/D-Raf or Dsor1/MEK affects larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate, suggesting that some in vivo effects involve activation of this signaling pathway by phosphate. To identify novel genetic determinants of phosphate responses, we used Drosophila hemocyte-like cultured cells (S2R+) to perform a genome-wide RNAi screen using MAPK activation as the readout. We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels.

Bergwitz, Clemens; Wee, Mark J.; Sinha, Sumi; Huang, Joanne; DeRobertis, Charles; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Cohen, Jonathan; Friedman, Adam; Kulkarni, Meghana; Hu, Yanhui; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Perrimon, Norbert

2013-01-01

305

Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

2013-04-01

306

Effective use of fleet vehicles through an analysis of vehicle utilization evaluation models and trip characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The initial phase of this research studied the state of the art of fleet management from various perspectives. Results from a literature review and information from interviews with private consultants, representatives of various organizations, and practicing fleet managers are presented. Evaluating vehicle utilization and improving the efficiency of vehicle trips became the major purposes of this research. Four mathematical procedures used in developing vehicle utilization evaluation models were set theory, discriminant analysis, linear regression, and logarithmic transformations. Two vehicle utilization evaluation models require that each utilization variable satisfies individual criterion, while the remaining two models use a combined utilization index score. The models using individual utilization criterion appear to be more reliable than models using a combined index score in consistently identifying the same group of insufficiently utilized vehicles. Comparable results were obtained from a 1/n by m Ranking model, using ranking techniques and set theory, and a more statistically elaborate discriminant analysis model. The similar results add credibility to both models, but the potential for using the simpler 1/n by m Ranking model with increased confidence is especially important. A case study documents the travel patterns and vehicle use for a large industrial complex with approximately 1400 vehicles. Origin-destination vehicle trip data were collected and analyzed, and subsequent changes in management policies resulted in substantial cost savings. This vehicle trip information was also used to illustrate the potential for improving vehicle trip efficiencies by combining or linking certain trips, systematically removing fleet vehicles which fail to meet established utilization criteria, and rescheduling trip starting times.

Stammer, R.E. Jr.

1982-01-01

307

Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

2009-01-01

308

Influence of antivitamins ginkgotoxin 5'-phosphate and deoxypyridoxine 5'-phosphate on human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase.  

PubMed

The pharmacological effects of leaf extracts (EGb 761) from Ginkgo biloba L. are attributed to ginkgolides, bilobalide and biflavonoids. However, besides these beneficial attributes, ginkgotoxin, a B(6) antivitamin which may cause epileptic convulsions, other severe neuronal disorders and even death, is also found in Ginkgo leaves and leaf-derived remedies. Because of its structural similarity to the B(6) vitamers, an interaction of ginkgotoxin with enzymes involved in the vitamin B(6)-dependent metabolism of the human brain is possible. This led us to investigate how the neurotoxic ginkgotoxin acts in the brain. To this end the gene coding for the human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase was heterologously overexpressed in E. COLI and the homogeneous enzyme was characterized. The investigation showed that the enzyme is inhibited in vitro by the synthetic vitamin B(6) derivative 4'-deoxypyridoxine 5'-phosphate but not by ginkgotoxin or its 5'-phosphate. PMID:19288402

Salamon, Nora; Gurgui, Cristian; Leistner, Eckhard; Drewke, Christel

2009-05-01

309

Fracture mechanics research at NASA related to the aging commercial transport fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development and an extensive testing program is under way to study fatigue crack growth and fracture in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also being developed to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks under monotonic and cyclic loading at rivets in fuselage lap-splice joints are reviewed.

Newman, James C., Jr.; Harris, Charles E.

1992-07-01

310

Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting R&D activity, the Marine Meteorology Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL Code 7500). NRL Code 7500 is a world-class research organization, with focus on weather-related support for the warfighter. Fleet Numerical and NRL Code 7500 share space, data, software and computer systems, and together represent one of the largest concentrations of weather-related intellectual capital in the nation. As documented, for example, by the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC) of the National Research Council, investment in R&D is crucial for maintaining state-of-the-art operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) capabilities (see BASC, 1998). And collocation and close cooperation between research and operations, such as exists between NRL Code 7500 and Fleet Numerical, is the optimum arrangement for transitioning R&D quickly and cost-effectively into new and improved operational weather prediction capabilities.

Clancy, R. M.

2006-12-01

311

[Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet celebrates 75 years].  

PubMed

The history of the Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet begun in the 1 April 1935 when the sanitary-epidemiological laboratory was founded. The article is concerned with the different stages of vivid development of this institute during 75 years. During this period organization, establishment and the name were changed many times. Since 2002 it got the current name and represents the scientific-methods institution which can solve the issues of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic supply of military personnel of the navy. Special attention is given to the high-readiness force. PMID:21089435

Goncharov, G V; Brashkov, A A

2010-08-01

312

Economic assessment of compressed natural gas vehicles for fleet applications. Occasional pub  

SciTech Connect

This assessment examines the economic competitiveness of CNG systems against both gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) systems, including commercial dual-fueled CNG/gasoline systems and single-fuel, dedicated CNG systems. A comparison of system cost and performance and application requirements shows that the economic market for CNG vehicles is very sensitive, within a reasonable range of input assumptions, to capital cost and fuel price differential. Under optimistic assumptions, CNG systems would be competitive in most fleet vehicle applications. Under more pessimistic assumptions, the economic market for CNG is reduced to a few very high-mileage applications in low-cost gas regions.

Darrow, K.G.

1983-09-01

313

Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

Weiner, E. R.; Goldberg, M. C.; Boymel, P. M.

1984-01-01

314

Review of Phosphatic Clay Dewatering Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Bureau of Mines study surveys the current state of technology and the various research efforts that have been undertaken to dewater the dilute phosphatic clays generated in the production of phosphate rock. The research described includes early dewat...

W. E. Pittman J. T. McLendon J. W. Sweeney

1984-01-01

315

Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of our work was to develop polyelectrolyte-modified zinc phosphate conversion coatings to protect cold-rolled steels against corrosion. Accordingly, we formulated environmentally acceptable material systems for the zinc phosphating make-up solutio...

T. Sugama N. Carciello C. I. Handsy

1995-01-01

316

Genetics Home Reference: Glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency (often shortened to GPI deficiency ) ... definitions Reviewed December 2013 What is GPI deficiency? Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

317

21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a)...

2010-01-01

318

21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a)...

2009-04-01

319

Borehole Mining of Phosphate Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a technical, economic, and environmental feasibility study of phosphate ore recovery by the hydraulic borehole mining method. The experiments resulted in the recovery of 1,696 tons of ore from 3 boreholes during a 65-ho...

L. E. Scott

1981-01-01

320

Method of Determining Tributyl Phosphates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is claimed for determining tributyl phosphates in kerosene in the presence of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid according to the volume of the middle layer formed during treatment of the mixture being analyzed with a mineral acid. For the purpose...

N. E. Goriainov

1982-01-01

321

Why nature really chose phosphate.  

PubMed

Phosphoryl transfer plays key roles in signaling, energy transduction, protein synthesis, and maintaining the integrity of the genetic material. On the surface, it would appear to be a simple nucleophile displacement reaction. However, this simplicity is deceptive, as, even in aqueous solution, the low-lying d-orbitals on the phosphorus atom allow for eight distinct mechanistic possibilities, before even introducing the complexities of the enzyme catalyzed reactions. To further complicate matters, while powerful, traditional experimental techniques such as the use of linear free-energy relationships (LFER) or measuring isotope effects cannot make unique distinctions between different potential mechanisms. A quarter of a century has passed since Westheimer wrote his seminal review, 'Why Nature Chose Phosphate' (Science 235 (1987), 1173), and a lot has changed in the field since then. The present review revisits this biologically crucial issue, exploring both relevant enzymatic systems as well as the corresponding chemistry in aqueous solution, and demonstrating that the only way key questions in this field are likely to be resolved is through careful theoretical studies (which of course should be able to reproduce all relevant experimental data). Finally, we demonstrate that the reason that nature really chose phosphate is due to interplay between two counteracting effects: on the one hand, phosphates are negatively charged and the resulting charge-charge repulsion with the attacking nucleophile contributes to the very high barrier for hydrolysis, making phosphate esters among the most inert compounds known. However, biology is not only about reducing the barrier to unfavorable chemical reactions. That is, the same charge-charge repulsion that makes phosphate ester hydrolysis so unfavorable also makes it possible to regulate, by exploiting the electrostatics. This means that phosphate ester hydrolysis can not only be turned on, but also be turned off, by fine tuning the electrostatic environment and the present review demonstrates numerous examples where this is the case. Without this capacity for regulation, it would be impossible to have for instance a signaling or metabolic cascade, where the action of each participant is determined by the fine-tuned activity of the previous piece in the production line. This makes phosphate esters the ideal compounds to facilitate life as we know it. PMID:23318152

Kamerlin, Shina C L; Sharma, Pankaz K; Prasad, Ram B; Warshel, Arieh

2013-02-01

322

An Octacalcium Phosphate Forming Cement  

PubMed Central

The osteoconductive and possibly osteoinductive characteristics of OCP increased the interest in preparation of bone graft materials that contain OCP in its composition. Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using a mixture of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with ?-TCP / DCPA molar ratio of 1/1 and distilled water or 0.5 mol / L phosphate aqueous solution (pH = 6.1 ± 0.1) as the cement liquid. Hardening time was (30 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with water and (5 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with phosphate solution. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity (P), and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the hardened specimens had been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d. In CPC specimens prepared with water, calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed and DTS and P were (9.03 ± 0.48) MPa and (37.05 ± 0.20) vol % after 1 d, respectively, and (9.15 ± 0.45) MPa and (37.24 ± 0.63) vol % after 3 d, respectively. In CPC specimens prepared with phosphate solution OCP and HA were formed and DTS and P were (4.38 ± 0.49) MPa and (41.44 ± 1.25) vol % after 1 d, respectively,(4.38 ± 0.29) MPa and (42.52 ± 2.15) vol % after 3 d, respectively, and (4.30 ± 0.60) MPa and (41.38 ± 1.65) vol % after 7 d, respectively. For each group DTS and P did not change with PLS immersion time. DTS was significantly higher and P was significantly lower for CPCs prepared with water. HA formation slightly increased with immersion time from 40 mass % after 1 d to 50 mass % after 3 d in CPCs prepared with water. OCP + HA formation increased with immersion time from 30 mass % after 1 d to 35 mass % after 3 d and to 45 mass % after 7 d in CPCs prepared with 0.5 mol / L phosphate solution.

Markovic, M.; Chow, L. C.

2010-01-01

323

Agronomic effectiveness of partially acidulated rock phosphate and fused calcium-magnesium phosphate compared with superphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic effectiveness of two partially acidulated rock phosphate (PARP) fertilizers, made from either North Carolina or Moroccan apatite rock phosphate, and a fused calcium-magnesium phosphate (thermal phosphate or TP), was compared with the effectiveness of superphosphate in two glasshouse experiments. A different lateritic soil from Western Australia was used for each experiment. Oats (Avena sativa) were grown in one

M. D. A. Bolland; R. N. Glencross; R. J. Gilkes; Vijay Kumar

1992-01-01

324

Formation of noncrystalline aluminum phosphate through phosphate sorption on allophanic Ando soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate sorption product on allophanic Ando soils was revealed by diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIR) spectroscopy. The DRIR spectra of phosphate sorbed on the clay fraction of Kanumatsuchi (weathered pumice) and two allophanic Ando soils in suspension containing sodium phosphate were almost the same as that of noncrystalline aluminum phosphate, but these spectra were different from those of variscite and metavariscite.

Masami Nanzyo

1987-01-01

325

The regulation of renal phosphate transport.  

PubMed

Renal phosphate transport is mediated by the abundance and activity of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, Npt2a, Npt2c, and PiT-2, present within the apical brush border membrane of the proximal tubule. Recent studies have demonstrated differential expression and activity of these sodium-dependent phosphate transporters within the proximal tubule. In general, phosphate transport is regulated by a variety of physiological stimuli, including parathyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, vitamin D3, estrogen, and thyroid hormone. Phosphatonins are now recognized as major regulators of phosphate transport activity. Other factors that affect phosphate transport include dopamine, dietary phosphate, acid-base status, lipid composition, potassium deficiency, circadian rhythm, and hypertension. Studies have shown that the PDZ-containing sodium/hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) proteins, specifically NHERF-1 and NHERF-3, play a critical role in the physiological regulation of phosphate transport, particularly in response to dietary phosphate. In addition, recent studies have found that NHERF-1 is also important in both the parathyroid hormone- and dopamine-mediated inhibition of phosphate transport. This review will detail the various hormones and agents involved in the regulation of phosphate transport as well as provide a brief summary of the signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins active in the transport of phosphate in the renal proximal tubule. PMID:21406291

Blaine, Judith; Weinman, Edward J; Cunningham, Rochelle

2011-03-01

326

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

327

Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

Champion, E

2013-04-01

328

Fleeting Smile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

Davidson, Sally

2006-01-01

329

Production of nanaomycin and other antibiotics by phosphate-depressed fermentation using phosphate-trapping agents.  

PubMed

Nanaomycin production by Streptomyces rosa subsp. notoensis in complex media was inhibited by exogenously supplied inorganic phosphate. The inhibition was reversed by phosphate-trapping agents such as allophane and aluminum oxide. Under such condition nanaomycin production increased to the control level, and the phosphate content dropped down to the unsupplemented level. When allophane was added to conventional complex media containing nutrient-derived inorganic phosphate, the production of nanaomycin and several other antibiotics, which are subject to phosphate regulation, was enhanced several fold with the simultaneous reduction of free phosphate. The term "phosphate-depressed fermentation" is proposed for this technique. PMID:3793625

Masuma, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanaka, H; Omura, S

1986-11-01

330

Mobile source CO2 mitigation through smart growth development and vehicle fleet hybridization.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of smart growth development patterns and vehicle fleet hybridization in reducing mobile source emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) across 11 major metropolitan regions of the Midwestern U.S. over a 50-year period. Through the integration of a vehicle travel activity modeling framework developed by researchers atthe Oak Ridge National Laboratory with small area population projections, we model mobile source emissions of CO2 associated with alternative land development and technology change scenarios between 2000 and 2050. Our findings suggest that under an aggressive smart growth scenario, growth in emissions expected to occur under a business as usual scenario is reduced by 34%, while the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicles throughout the light vehicle fleet is found to offset the expected growth in emissions by 97%. Our results further suggest that high levels of urban densification could achieve reductions in 2050 CO2 emissions equivalent to those attainable through the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicle technologies. PMID:19368160

Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Holloway, Tracey; Spak, Scott N

2009-03-15

331

Flight Dynamics Operations Management of the Large and Heterogeneous Eutelsat Fleet of Commercial Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EUTELSAT FDU (Flight Dynamics Unit) manages the resources to perform the typical activities of the large satellite operators and faces the usual difficulties raising from a vast and heterogeneous fleet. At present 20 satellites from 9 different platforms/sub-platforms are controlled from our Satellite Control Centre. The FDU was created in 2002 with the aim to respond to the operational needs of a growing fleet in terms of number of satellites and activities. It is at present composed of 6 engineering staff with the objective to provide operations service covering the whole lifecycle of the satellites from the procurement phase till the decommissioning. The most demanding activity is the daily operations, which must ensure maximum safety and continuity of service with the highest efficiency. Solutions have been applied from different areas: management, structure, operations organisation, processes, facilities, quality standards, etc. In addition to this, EUTELSAT is a growing communications operator and the FDU needs to contribute to the global objectives of the company. This paper covers our approach.

Bellido, E.

332

Improving Multibeam Data Quality Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC) is an NSF funded project with the goal of improving the quality of multibeam across the U.S. academic research fleet. There are many facets to the Committee's plan to reach this goal, one of which is to have a team of multibeam specialists visiting vessels in the fleet. During their ship visits, the MAC's Quality Assurance Team (QAT) deploys software tools, disseminates "best practice" documentation, assesses the state of the system as a whole and does everything they can to help ship operators better understand and operate their multibeam systems. A big part of these ship visits is simply outreach: we want to let the operators know that they have access to help if they need it. In addition to developing working relationships with the operating institutions, the MAC seeks to reach out to the end user: the scientific community that uses these facilities to further their research. By presenting the MAC and QAT concepts to the community, we hope to raise awareness of our efforts, introduce the software tools and best-practice documentation that we are deploying and also solicit feedback on what future directions the MAC should focus.

Johnson, P. D.; Beaudoin, J.; Ferrini, V.

2012-12-01

333

[Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].  

PubMed

The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency. PMID:24000629

Gavrilov, V V; Maza?kin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

2013-05-01

334

[Dysaptation in troops called up for military service to the Northern Fleet].  

PubMed

Analyzed the results of the survey and inspection of about 75 000 conscripts who came to the acquisition of forces and troops of the fleet in terms of the Kola Polar region in 2001-2010. Cases of identified mental disorders in the number of young recruits in the period of examination by military medical committee designated as the primary dysaptation, and later--as delayed. The authors concluded that at present time we can expect the total number of recruits 4.45% of persons with mental dysaptation, including 0.52% of the primary and 3.93% with delayed. Over the last 10 years, an average of 4.45% of conscripts who came to the acquisition of forces (troops) of the Northern Fleet, dismissed by reason of mental dysaptation. The main contribution to the structure of the causes of limited recognition of the young recruits fit and unfit for military service were neurotic disorders and personality pathology. The authors suggest a specific position on a number of documents that need proof in order to improve the quality of maintenance training and combat activities of troops and naval forces. PMID:22332396

Maznikov, I L; Sadchenko, S N; Skripal', V N; Minaev, A V

2011-10-01

335

Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ``Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility`` issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan.

NONE

1996-07-01

336

The effect of mono- and dibutyl phosphates on the extraction of plutonium with tributyl phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution coefficients of mono- and dibutyl phosphates between an organic phase containing tributyl phosphate in hydrogenated kerosene, and water and nitric acid, alkali and soda solutions were determined. It was found that a concentration of monobutyl phosphate below 0.001 mole\\/liter (equilibrium concentration) and of dibutyl phosphate below 0.0001 mole\\/liter hardly affected the extraction of plutonium with tributyl phosphate.

V. B. Shevchenko; V. S. Smelov

1958-01-01

337

Characterization of the mineral phosphate solubilizing activity of Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability of a Serratia marcescens strain, namely CTM 50650, isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa, was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP\\u000a broth). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including rock phosphate (RP), calcium phosphate (CaHPO4), tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and hydroxyapatite were tested as sole sources of phosphate for bacterial growth. Solubilization of these phosphates

Mounira Ben Farhat; Ameny Farhat; Wacim Bejar; Radhouan Kammoun; Kameleddine Bouchaala; Amin Fourati; Hani Antoun; Samir Bejar; Hichem Chouayekh

2009-01-01

338

Use of partially acidulated phosphate rocks as phosphate fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) are manufactured by acidulation of PRs with less than the stoichiometric amounts\\u000a of, usually, phosphoric or sulphuric acids. Products of similar composition to PAPRs are also prepared by cogranulating superphosphate\\u000a with PRs. For most crops the agronomic value of PAPRs is determined by the availability to plants of their water-soluble P\\u000a as well as their

S. S. S. Rajan; B. C. Marwaha

1993-01-01

339

Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Not Available

2012-04-01

340

Dietary phosphate modifies lifespan in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate (hypophosphatemia) or too much (hyperphosphatemia) can cause disease and reduce lifespan in humans. Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool to discover evolutionarily well-conserved nutrient-sensing pathways that are important for the lifespan extension. We have established Drosophila as a model system for studying the effects of dietary phosphate during development and adult life. When absorption of phosphate is blocked by sevelamer or cellular uptake is inhibited by phosphonoformic acid (PFA), larval development is delayed in a phosphate-dependent fashion. Conversely, restriction of phosphate absorption with sevelamer or reduced cellular uptake after treatment with PFA is able to extend the adult lifespan of otherwise normal flies. Gaining an understanding of the specific pathways and mediators that regulate cellular and organismic phosphate levels might ultimately lead to the development of improved dietary and therapeutic approaches to the treatment of human disorders of hypo- and hyperphosphatemia. PMID:22942172

Bergwitz, Clemens

2012-09-01

341

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

2003-11-01

342

About Calcium Phosphate Cements (CPC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are used in orthopaedic surgery as bone substitution and fixation of metallic implants, showing advantages with respect to other materials like polymeric cements or ceramic blocks also used for bone repair. For example, they are easy to shape and fill bone defects, react at low temperature and their setting product is hydroxyapatite, mineral from it's composed the inorganic part of the bone, resulting a bioabsorbable material that can be replaced by new bone. Nevertheless there are still some complications like their low absorption rate, inyectability, setting times and their low strength that limits their use to only non load bearing applications. In this work we present a brief resume of some investigations that has been proposed to solve some of these problems, like the addition of phosphates solutions or seeds to increase the reaction rate, or fibers and hard particles to produce a composite material.

Piñera, Silvia; Piña, Cristina

2006-09-01

343

Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in cancer. S1P regulates processes such as inflammation, which can drive tumorigenesis; neovascularization, which provides cancer cells with nutrients and oxygen; and cell growth and survival. This occurs at multiple levels and involves S1P receptors, sphingosine kinases, S1P phosphatases and S1P lyase. This Review summarizes current research findings and examines

Nigel J. Pyne; Susan Pyne

2010-01-01

344

RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data sets. Recent accomplishments include deployment of a glider in Antarctica for LTER, control of a fleet of gliders during the ONR sponsored Shallow Water 06, RIMPAC, LATTE, ASAP, and the continuation of long-term observation at the LEO-15 New Jersey site Endurance Line. To date Rutgers has flown close to 100 glider missions, with over 27,000 km flown over 760 calendar days and 1,350 glider days in the water. Operations around the world are orchestrated remotely from COOL at Rutgers. Computer networking allows for command and control of the glider fleet from the COOL Lab or remotely via the internet. This system has enabled new oceanographic experiments at significantly reduced cost, with increased reliability, and with extended continuous operational deployments in the global oceans since 2003.

Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

2007-05-01

345

Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight architecture. Following this introduction, we focus specifically on the last topic, that being an analysis which leads to an optimal flight architecture dictated in part by science requirements but constrained by allowable orbital mechanics, instrument scan patterns, and antenna aperture properties. Because the optimal architecture involves an interplay between orbit mechanics and instrument specifications, it is important to recognize that in attempting to serve various scientific themes, the final optimal architecture will represent a compromise concerning dynamic range, spatial resolution, sampling interval, pointing, beam coincidence, and measurement uncertainty. Moreover, cost becomes a major factor in seeking the optimal architecture through the pathways of antenna and instrument scan designs, as well as propulsion requirements associated with the orbit heights of various "constellation" members. Although the results presented at the IGARSS-2001 meeting will likely not be the fully refined flight architecture specifications, they are expected to be nearly complete.

Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

346

Phosphate: a stealthier killer than previously thought?  

PubMed

The kidneys excrete excess dietary phosphate, and patients with chronic kidney disease may suffer from phosphate overload and hyperphosphatemia. In chronic kidney disease, hyperphosphatemia has emerged as a risk factor for vascular calcification, cardiovascular mortality, left ventricular hypertrophy, and progression of chronic kidney disease. Serum phosphate at the upper limits of normal has also been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with relatively preserved kidney function. Of note, hyperphosphatemia is not a sensitive indicator of phosphate overload. In this regard, increased circulating fibroblast growth factor-23, a phosphatonin that is released in response to phosphate overload, is independently associated with adverse outcomes in patients with and without chronic kidney disease. Direct effects of extracellular phosphate on vascular calcification or cardiovascular cell biology; adverse consequences of adaptive mechanisms activated to limit phosphate overload, such as left ventricular hypertrophy induced by fibroblast growth factor-23; or epidemiological associations of additional cardiovascular risk factors with chronic kidney disease may underlie these observations. We now review the pathophysiology of phosphate, its relationship with cardiovascular outcomes, the potential consequences for patient care related to dietary phosphate and phosphate binders, and the clinical relevance for patients without overt chronic kidney disease. PMID:22425627

Gonzalez-Parra, Emilio; Tuñón, Jose; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

347

Evaluation of the Quality of Training and Usability of the Fleet Management System-Real Time (FMS-RT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis recommends ways to improve the content of the training curriculum and software usability of the Fleet Management System Real Time (FMS-RT). The premise of this thesis is that the Navy should increase its performance during major overhauls and ...

M. G. Mansfield

1988-01-01

348

Federal Energy Management: Agencies Are Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles but Face Challenges in Meeting Other Fleet Objectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress and the administration set forth energy objectives for federal fleets with 20 or more vehicles. Agencies are to (1) acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFV) as 75 percent of all new light-duty vehicle acquisitions; (2) use only alternative fuel in...

2008-01-01

349

Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city*  

PubMed Central

Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Hangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02%, while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72±1.16)×10?6 and (233.53±1.80)×10?6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action.

Guo, Hui; Zhang, Qing-yu; Shi, Yao; Wang, Da-hui; Ding, Shu-ying; Yan, Sha-sha

2006-01-01

350

A Tabu Search Heuristic for the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and a Fixed Size Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and a Fixed Size Fleet (m-PDPTW), a transportation carrier with a xed size eet of m vehicles receives a set of n requests. Each request consists of picking up a load, with a certain size, from some origin and to deliver it to a destination, in order to respect the time

Fabien Malca

351

Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cements With Different Tetracalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous Molar Ratios  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with TTCP/DCPA molar ratios of 1/1, 1/2, or 1/3, with the powder and water as the liquid. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity, and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the set specimens have been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 5 d, and 10 d. Cement dissolution rates in an acidified PLS were measured using a dual constant composition method. Setting times ((30 ± 1) min) were the same for all cements. DTS decreased with decreasing TTCP/DCPA ratio and, in some cases, also decreased with PLS immersion time. Porosity and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation increased with PLS immersion time. Cements with TTCP/DCPA ratios of 1/2 and 1/3, which formed calcium-deficient HA, dissolved more rapidly than the cement with a ratio of 1/1. In conclusion, cements may be prepared with a range of TTCP/DCPA ratios, and those with lower ratio had lower strengths but dissolved more rapidly in acidified PLS.

Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Markovic, Milenko; Chow, Laurence C.

2009-01-01

352

Drilling fleet pegged at 4,723 rigs in C. I. S  

SciTech Connect

More than 4,700 drilling rigs are stationed in the former Soviet Union, says a study compiled by Petroconsultants SA. There were 4,699 land and platform rigs and 24 mobile offshore rigs either idle or active as of Jan. 1, 1991, the Geneva firm reports. The biggest concentrations were in western Siberia with 1,306 rigs and the Volga-Ural province with 1,058. Petroconsultants the the petroleum drilling sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States is extremely fragmented and divided among drilling operators and equipment manufacturing enterprises. In 1990 and early 1991 there were 33 administrations involved in exploration and appraisal drilling throughout the C.I.S. The paper provides operational statistics and technical parameters for rigs and an indication of the overall state and performance of the rig fleet of a given administration.

Not Available

1992-04-27

353

Quality assessment of marine geoscience data collected with the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine science data collected using the U.S. academic research fleet support a diverse array of investigations across the ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation, to the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Each vessel within the academic fleet is equipped with a suite of sensors (geophysical, water column, and meteorological) available for continuous operation during each expedition, that provide characterization of basic environmental conditions from sea surface to subseafloor. Given the vast expanse of the oceans, many expeditions collect data in previously unexplored regions and these data are of high value for later re-use to build global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. Understanding the quality of these "underway" data streams is essential for any of these science applications. However, documentation of data quality is rare and historically, routine quality assessment (QA) of these data streams has been lacking. In most cases, QA has been the domain of the science party for each expedition but limited to the data types of interest for the scientific goals of the specific program, with the quality of other underway data types remaining unassessed. Under the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, QA of sensor data collected across the academic fleet will be routinely conducted as part of the R2R data pipeline that begins with the submission of cruise data distributions by ship operators. R2R will assemble datasets and documentation, and perform QA for submission to the NOAA National Data Centers (NDCs) for long-term archiving. The goals of the QA are two fold: 1. To provide feedback to shipboard operators to ensure that high quality data are consistently acquired, and 2. To inform future science users of the status of a field data set with detailed information regarding the nature of any problems identified. A wide array of factors impact the quality of data collected at sea, including weather conditions (e.g. winds, sea state), instrument functioning, and operator controlled settings and calibrations. Some data quality issues are best identified visually, but with the volume and diversity of data collected across the research fleet, QA is focused on tests that can be fully scripted. QA tests fall into two general categories: 1. minimal tests of the validity of a submitted data set (existence and validity of the metadata, and verification that all expected data files exist and can be read) and 2. data file level tests (each file can be read, data values are within valid limits, and calculation of statistical quality). Output of the QA is provided as a quality report included within an ISO standard data set metadata record, which is submitted with the data set to the NDCs for long-term archiving.

Carbotte, S. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Morton, J. J.; Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

2011-12-01

354

DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY  

SciTech Connect

Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new packagings, but also to the addition of new payload containers (used inside the NRC-approved Type B packaging) with revised design limits. For example, to address the shipment of specific TRU waste forms, a series of pipe overpack payload containers have been designed and approved by the NRC. The ''standard'' pipe overpack configuration is designed to allow the shipment of higher fissile gram containers, each with a maximum fissile gram equivalent (FGE) loading of 200 grams (g). For shipments of waste packaged in the standard pipe overpack, the FGE limit is 2,800 g per TRUPACT-II and 1,400 g per HalfPACT. The ''S100'' and ''S200'' pipe overpack configurations allow the use of shielded configurations of the pipe overpack for shipment of specific gamma- and neutron-emitting waste forms. The 72-B Cask and the 10-160B Cask have been approved by the NRC for the transportation of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste, which comprises a small fraction of the overall inventory that will be shipped to WIPP.

Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

2003-02-27

355

[Analysis of the structure and causes of acute poisoning of chemical etiology in the Northern Fleet].  

PubMed

Data for the incidence of acute poisoning among the personnel of the Northern Fleet in 2002-2010 is analyzed, its dynamics and proportion of primary morbidity of sailors. In the class of clinical entity of "injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes" proportion of poisoning in servicemen of different categories was ranging from 0.5 to 1.8%. Deaths occurred in 23.4% of cases of poisoning. Among the causes of poisoning major were--failure to comply with requirements to ensure safe conditions of military service and safe conduct of work, personal indiscipline of injured. Proposals for the prevention of poisoning in the current conditions of service in the Navy are suggested. PMID:22558853

Khankevich, Iu R; Askerko, I V; Myznikov, I L; Domashov, V I

2012-02-01

356

Mobile Gas and Particulate Emission Studies of the New York City Transit Bus Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from both diesel and gasoline powered motor vehicles are a significant source of particulate (PM2.5) and trace gas pollution, especially in urban environments. Emission characterizations of motor vehicles can be performed using a dynamometer but these studies make fleet characterization impractical. Few studies have been performed which characterize emissions from in-use vehicles using a mobile sampling platform. This work describes application of new technology instrumentation for rapid (1-5 second) and real-time characterization of both gas and particulate emissions from in-use vehicles and is part of the PM2.5 Technology Assessment and Characterization Study in New York (PMTACS-NY). An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) system were deployed on the Aerodyne Research mobile laboratory designed to "chase" target vehicles in and around the New York City area and measure their emissions under actual driving conditions. The AMS provides particle size and composition information for volatile and semi-volatile matter while the TILDAS system was configured to measure NO, NO2, CO, CH4, SO2 and formaldehyde. In addition to a GPS, an ELPI and a condensation particle counter, the mobile laboratory was also equipped with a CO2 monitor to allow emission ratios to be computed for the targeted vehicles. Emission ratios for both particulate and trace gases are reported for a representative fraction of the NYC Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) bus fleet in an effort to characterize new emission control technologies currently implemented by the NYC MTA.

Jayne, J. T.; Canagaratna, M.; Herndon, S.; Shorter, J.; Zahniser, M.; Shi, Q.; Kolb, C.; Worsnop, D.; Jimenez, J.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K.; Lanni, T.

2001-12-01

357

Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

2012-12-01

358

CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants  

SciTech Connect

To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

NONE

2007-01-15

359

Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

2013-01-01

360

Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO-P(2)O(5)) system at temperatures>1300 degrees C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, monetite) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite). Therefore it is widely used in self-setting calcium phosphate bone cements, which form HA under physiological conditions. This paper aims to review the synthesis and properties of TTCP in biomaterials applications such as cements, sintered ceramics and coatings on implant metals. PMID:20438869

Moseke, C; Gbureck, U

2010-10-01

361

Application of calcium phosphate materials in dentistry.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S; Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A

2013-01-01

362

DNA Translocation by Human Uracil DNA Glycosylase: Role of DNA Phosphate Charge†  

PubMed Central

Human DNA repair glycosylases must encounter and inspect each DNA base in the genome in order to discover damaged bases that may be present at a density of less than one in ten million normal base pairs. This remarkable example of specific molecular recognition requires a reduced dimensionality search process (facilitated diffusion) that involves both hopping and sliding along the DNA chain. Despite the widely accepted importance of facilitated diffusion in protein-DNA interactions, the molecular features of DNA that influence hopping and sliding are poorly understood. Here we explore the role of the charged DNA phosphate backbone in sliding and hopping by human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG), which is an exemplar that efficiently locates rare uracil bases in both dsDNA and ssDNA. Substitution of neutral methylphosphonate groups for anionic DNA phosphate groups weakened nonspecific DNA binding affinity by 0.4–0.5 kcal/mole per substitution. In contrast, sliding of hUNG between uracil sites embedded in duplex and single stranded DNA substrates persisted unabated when multiple methylphosphonate linkages were inserted between the sites. Thus a continuous phosphodiester backbone negative charge is not essential for sliding over nonspecific DNA binding sites. We consider several alternative mechanisms for these results. A model consistent with previous structural and NMR dynamic results invokes the presence of open and closed conformational states of hUNG. The open state is short-lived and has weak or nonexistent interactions with the DNA backbone that are conducive for sliding, and the populated closed state has stronger interactions with the phosphate backbone. These data suggest that the fleeting sliding form of hUNG is a distinct weakly interacting state that facilitates rapid movement along the DNA chain and resembles the transition state for DNA dissociation.

Schonhoft, Joseph D.; Kosowicz, John; Stivers, James T.

2013-01-01

363

Glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase regulation during hypometabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) from hepatopancreas of the land snail, Otala lactea, shows distinct changes in properties between active and estivating (dormant) states, providing the first evidence of pentose phosphate cycle regulation during hypometabolism. Compared with active snails, G6PDH Vmax increased by 50%, Km for glucose-6-phosphate decreased by 50%, Ka Mg·citrate decreased by 35%, and activation energy (from Arrhenius plots) decreased

Christopher J. Ramnanan; Kenneth B. Storey

2006-01-01

364

Molecular Structure of Fructose-6-phosphate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fructose-6-Phosphate is a phosphorylated form of fructose which is commonly found in plant cells and animal tissues. In plant cells, it serves as an intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Calvin cycle. It is also present in animal tissues in an equilibrium mixture with glucose-6-phosphate. In human genetics, its gene symbol is GFPT1, and its locus is 2p13.

2003-05-08

365

Solubilization of rock phosphate by rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rape and sunflower were compared with respect to their rock phosphate mobilizing capacities, cationanion balance and uptake of Ca and NO3 at P-starvation. Rape was able to mobilize P from rock phosphate, whereas sunflower was not.When grown on a complete nutrient solution with NO3 as the only nitrogen source, both species took up more nutrient anions than cations. Withholding phosphate

Ellis Hoffland; Günter R. Findenegg; Jacob A. Nelemans

1989-01-01

366

Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

2013-03-01

367

Evaluation of Phosphatic Clay Disposal and Reclamation Methods. Volume 2. Mineralogy of Phosphatic Clays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve phosphatic clays and three sand tailings from Florida phosphate mining areas were examined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. Quantitative estimates of mineral species were made using sample XRD da...

A. E. Z. Wissa N. F. Fuleihan T. S. Ingra

1982-01-01

368

Phosphate sensing in root development.  

PubMed

Phosphate (Pi) and its anhydrides constitute major nodes in metabolism. Thus, plant performance depends directly on Pi nutrition. Inadequate Pi availability in the rhizosphere is a common challenge to plants, which activate metabolic and developmental responses to maximize Pi usage and acquisition. The sensory mechanisms that monitor environmental Pi and transmit the nutritional signal to adjust root development have increasingly come into focus. Recent transcriptomic analyses and genetic approaches have highlighted complex antagonistic interactions between external Pi and Fe bioavailability and have implicated the stem cell niche as a target of Pi sensing to regulate root meristem activity. PMID:21571579

Abel, Steffen

2011-06-01

369

Dynamic properties of tributyl phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled impact methodology has been used on the powdergun to obtain dynamic behavior properties of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP). A novel test methodology is used to provide extremely accurate equation of state data of the liquid from 0.3 GPa to 13 GPa. The thin aluminum plate used for confining the liquid also serves as a diagnostic to provide (1) the reshock state from 0.6 GPa to 28 GPa and (2) subsequent release adiabats from the reshocked state. The test methodology and the results are presented in this paper. .

Reinhart, W. D.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Winfree, N. A.; Grady, D. E.

2000-04-01

370

Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

1995-01-01

371

Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2,4-diphosphates and aldohexose-2,4,6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2,4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2,4,6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 µm; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2,4,-diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2,4,6-phosphates.

Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

1995-08-01

372

Low temperature ultrasonic attenuation in phosphate glasses  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic attenuation measurements on phosphate glasses with different chain lengths, lead metaphosphate and lead-indium phosphate, have been carried out at low temperatures (0.3 10 K) and high frequencies (100 160 MHz). The materials investigated are lead metaphosphate (average chain length > 15) and lead indium phosphate (average chain length = 3). Both materials have the typical glasslike behavior, explained by the presence of tunneling states (TS). A detailed analysis reveals that the density of states of these TS is significantly lower in the lead metaphosphate glass compared to the lead indium glass. This difference can be related to the difference in length of the phosphate tetrahedra chains.

Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Laermans, C. [University of Leuven; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

2011-01-01

373

Development of Calcium Phosphate-gelatin Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study was performed to investigate and develop a biomaterial of calcium phosphate/gelatin to be used as an injectable bone substitute. Gelatin is an ideal medium to transfer calcium phosphate because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, cheap, and can be injected without open surgery. The interaction of calcium and phosphate with gelatin will be studied; these include solubility, titration and precipitation. The calcium phosphate/gelatin composites will be characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical strength, such as DTS, will also be investigated.

Hwang, Jesse

2005-01-01

374

Was there really an Archean phosphate crisis?  

PubMed

During the Archean, massive amounts of iron were deposited in the form of banded iron formations. It has been suggested that sedimenting particles of ferric oxyhydroxide may have stripped dissolved phosphate from the oceans, causing a reduction in phytoplankton productivity. However, that model does not take into account the high concentration of dissolved silica that was present in seawater at that time. We show experimentally that silica effectively competes with phosphate for sorption sites on ferrihydrite particles. Furthermore, coprecipitation of silica with ferrihydrite reduces particle reactivity toward phosphate. Hence, Archean oceans probably contained considerably more phosphate than previously predicted. PMID:17332403

Konhauser, Kurt O; Lalonde, Stefan V; Amskold, Larry; Holland, Heinrich D

2007-03-01

375

Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials  

PubMed Central

It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials.

LC, Chow

2009-01-01

376

Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic-inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented.

Zhou, Weijia; He, Wen; Wang, Meiting; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Peng; Yan, Shunpu; Tian, Xiuying; Sun, Xianan; Han, Xiuxiu

2008-12-01

377

Spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses containing TiO2: Effect of gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pristine lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses and glasses of the same compositions containing TiO2 (0.25 ? 2.5%) were prepared. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of the prepared samples were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Optical spectra of these prepared glasses reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in lithium and zinc phosphate glasses while the broad UV bands in lead phosphate glasses were related to absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The TiO2-containing glasses reveal an extra two visible bands at about 550-580 and 680-740 nm due to the transitions 2B2g ? 2B1g and 2B2g ? 2A1g of distorted octahedral Ti3+ ions. The effects of gamma irradiation reveal variations, extended in the UV-visible region in the lithium phosphate while with lead phosphate and zinc phosphate samples the variations are restricted to UV spectra. The response to gamma irradiation on optical absorption has been analyzed for both the sharing of all glass constituents including trace iron impurities. Lead and zinc phosphate glasses reveal only induced UV bands from photochemical effect of trace iron impurities while lithium phosphate shows extra induced visible band due to positive holes. The effects of gamma irradiation on the IR spectra are limited to a slight decrease of the intensities for some IR bands. The IR spectra are observed to be slightly affected by the increase of TiO2 indicating the stability of the main phosphate network units and the shielding behavior of titanium ions.

Ghoneim, N. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Abo-Naf, S. M.; Moustafa, F. A.; ElBadry, Kh. M.

2013-03-01

378

Continuous analysis of phosphate in a Greenland shallow ice core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate is an important and sometimes limiting nutrient for primary production in the oceans. Because of deforestation and the use of phosphate as a fertilizer changes in the phosphate cycle have occurred over the last centuries. On longer time scales, sea level changes are thought to have also caused changes in the phosphate cycle. Analyzing phosphate concentrations in ice cores

Helle Astrid Kjær; Anders Svensson; Matthias Bigler; Paul Vallelonga; Ernesto Kettner; Dorthe Dahl-Jensen

2010-01-01

379

Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient

Carla A. Ticconi; Carla A. Delatorre; Steffen Abel

2001-01-01

380

Phosphate binders on iron basis: A new perspective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate binders on iron basis: A new perspective? Uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis are in positive phosphate balance. This is mainly the result of the complex elimination kinetics of phosphate during dialysis. Removal of phosphate is less than net dietary intake. Classical phosphate binders such as calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, and aluminum-based compounds are limited by side effects (hypercalcemia) and

Olaf Hergesell; Eberhard Ritz

1999-01-01

381

Control of serum phosphate without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of serum phosphate without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis. We compared the efficacy and the long-term effects of nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) versus conventional hemodialysis (CHD) in controlling serum phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients underwent thrice weekly CHD and were subsequently switched to NHD six nights weekly. In the “acute” study

Istvan Mucsi; Gavril Hercz; Robert Uldall; Michaelene Ouwendyk; Robert Francoeur; Andreas Pierratos

1998-01-01

382

The SLC37 family of sugar-phosphate/phosphate exchangers.  

PubMed

The SLC37 family members are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated sugar-phosphate/phosphate (P(i)) exchangers. Three of the four members, SLC37A1, SLC37A2, and SLC37A4, function as Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters catalyzing G6P:P(i) and P(i):P(i) exchanges. The activity of SLC37A3 is unknown. SLC37A4, better known as the G6P transporter (G6PT), has been extensively characterized, functionally and structurally, and is the best characterized family member. G6PT contains 10 transmembrane helices with both N and C termini facing the cytoplasm. The primary in vivo function of the G6PT protein is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen where it couples with either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-? (G6Pase-? or G6PC) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-? (or G6PC3) to hydrolyze G6P to glucose and P(i). The G6PT/G6Pase-? complex maintains interprandial glucose homeostasis, and the G6PT/G6Pase-? complex maintains neutrophil energy homeostasis and functionality. G6PT is highly selective for G6P and is competitively inhibited by cholorogenic acid and its derivatives. Neither SLC37A1 nor SLC37A2 can couple functionally with G6Pase-? or G6Pase-?, and the antiporter activities of SLC37A1 or SLC37A2 are not inhibited by cholorogenic acid. Deficiencies in G6PT cause glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), a metabolic and immune disorder. To date, 91 separate SLC37A4 mutations, including 39 missense mutations, have been identified in GSD-Ib patients. Characterization of missense mutations has yielded valuable information on functionally important residues in the G6PT protein. The biological roles of the other SLC37 proteins remain to be determined and deficiencies have not yet been correlated to diseases. PMID:24745989

Chou, Janice Y; Mansfield, Brian C

2014-01-01

383

Assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) adjusted non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions of a motor fleet - A long tunnel study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciated hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and CO were simultaneously measured by evenly distributed samples along the entire length (12.9 km) of the tunnel in different traffic conditions. Four passes (two round-trips) were made at four different fleet speeds (i.e., 45, 65, 75 and 85 km h-1). Individual NMHC and CO mixing ratios were observed to be sensitive to the fleet speed, which is compounded by driving conditions and traffic volumes. We propose using ratios of NMHCs to CO to cancel out the factor of traffic volumes to determine CO-normalized NMHC emissions, such that a less biased comparison can be made between different fleet speeds in this study and even between different studies. Moreover, to obtain robust CO-normalized NMHC emissions which are sufficiently representative of the fleet speeds, only samples collected deep inside the long-tunnels between 8 and 12 km were used. Of the 61 target NMHCs, isomers of butane, pentane, ethylene, acetylene and toluene were the most abundant species regardless of the driving conditions. We observed that different driving conditions not only affected the emission strengths but also altered the compositions of the NMHCs. To simplify the data analysis, the target NMHCs were classified into four chemical groups, i.e., alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and alkynes. For the slower and more congested driving condition (fleet speed = 45 km h-1), the CO-normalized NMHC emissions were the highest, with alkanes contributing to approximately 60% of the total NMHC levels, suggesting poorer fuel utilization at slower driving conditions. In terms of the CO-normalized ozone forming potentials (OFPs), the contribution of the alkanes diminished dramatically to approximately 9-22% despite their high weight percentage, whereas the contribution of the alkenes was enhanced significantly to 50-60% from their weight percent of only approximately 26%. Our total NMHC to CO ratios of 0.06-0.20 for the four fleet speeds generally fall within the range constrained by many other tunnel or chassis dynamometer studies; however, the sensitivity to the driving conditions and the robustness with the long-tunnel data are better demonstrated in this study.

Liu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Su, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Yue-Chuen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

2014-06-01

384

Lithium metal phosphates, power and automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium metal phosphate materials are the newest generation of active materials. With the limited number of cathode materials available at present and the prevalence of transition metal oxide cathodes, phosphates are able to answer the rising safety concerns surrounding the oxide chemistry. These inherent safety limitations have until now prevented lithium ion batteries in general from entering the large format

H. Huang; T. Faulkner; J. Barker; M. Y. Saidi

2009-01-01

385

Phosphate Recovery - where do we stand today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is essential for all life. The application of the EU Urban Waste Water Treat- ment 91\\/271means that phosphates in domestic waste water, be they from detergents, food wastes or from natural bodily emissions are effectively no longer an environmental issue. This Directive requires that phosphates be removed wherever sewage works discharge into surface waters which are susceptible or potentially

D. Lijmbach

386

Continuous Beneficiation of Dolomitic Phosphate Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 80 pct of domestic phosphate rock, which is the starting material for phosphorus-containing fertilizers, comes from central Florida deposits. As higher grade deposits are depleted, lower grade phosphate ores containing MgO in the form of dolomite are...

B. E. Davis T. O. Llewellyn C. W. Smith

1984-01-01

387

Crystal structure of a eukaryotic phosphate transporter.  

PubMed

Phosphate is crucial for structural and metabolic needs, including nucleotide and lipid synthesis, signalling and chemical energy storage. Proton-coupled transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) are essential for phosphate uptake in plants and fungi, and also have a function in sensing external phosphate levels as transceptors. Here we report the 2.9?Å structure of a fungal (Piriformospora indica) high-affinity phosphate transporter, PiPT, in an inward-facing occluded state, with bound phosphate visible in the membrane-buried binding site. The structure indicates both proton and phosphate exit pathways and suggests a modified asymmetrical 'rocker-switch' mechanism of phosphate transport. PiPT is related to several human transporter families, most notably the organic cation and anion transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC22), which are implicated in cancer-drug resistance. We modelled representative cation and anion SLC22 transporters based on the PiPT structure to surmise the structural basis for substrate binding and charge selectivity in this important family. The PiPT structure demonstrates and expands on principles of substrate transport by the MFS transporters and illuminates principles of phosphate uptake in particular. PMID:23542591

Pedersen, Bjørn P; Kumar, Hemant; Waight, Andrew B; Risenmay, Aaron J; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Chau, Bryant H; Schlessinger, Avner; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Harries, William; Sali, Andrej; Johri, Atul K; Stroud, Robert M

2013-04-25

388

Comparison of Phosphate Levels in Stream Sediments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus is an important nutrient to all life. Unfortunately, when phosphate reaches the soil it is not all used up by the plants. If excess phosphate enters the waterways in the watershed, it can cause increased plant growth in lakes and streams and le

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

389

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

390

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

391

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

392

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

393

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section 522.1883... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of...

2013-04-01

394

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section...Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P-00-442) is subject...

2013-07-01

395

40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section...10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject...

2013-07-01

396

21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4 H2 PO4 , CAS...

2013-04-01

397

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

398

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

399

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

400

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643...643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and...as an ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is...

2009-07-01

401

40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical substance and...phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

2013-07-01

403

Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis  

SciTech Connect

Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

Thiel, T.

1988-03-01

404

40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 ...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to...

2011-07-01

405

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2011-07-01

406

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2010-07-01

407

Phosphate rock resources of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern Coastal Plain phosphate province, principally in Florida and North Carolina and offshore in the shallow Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina to southern Florida. This resource is considered to be hypothetical because it is based on geologic inference combined with sparse drilling data. Total resources of phosphate rock in the United States are sufficient to supply domestic demands for the foreseeable future, provided that drilling is done to confirm hypothetical resources and the chemistry of the deposits is determined. Mining and beneficiation techniques will have to be modified or improved, and new techniques will have to be developed so that these deposits can be profitably exploited.

Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

1984-01-01

408

Extracellular Phosphate Alters Cementoblast Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Genetic data from humans and mice reveal that the formation of cementum is sensitive to intra- and extracellular phosphate/pyrophosphate distribution. The intracellular molecular pathways whereby altered levels of extracellular phosphate concentration may affect cementum formation have not been elucidated. To initiate inquiry, we have studied the temporal effects of extracellular phosphate on global patterns of gene expression in a line of immortalized mouse cementoblasts. Total RNA from cultured cementoblasts treated with 5 mM inorganic phosphate over a designated time period, from 1–48 hrs, was analyzed for global patterns of gene expression by means of DNA microarrays representing the complete mouse genome. Analyses of significant hybridization signals indicated that 5 mM extracellular phosphate alters the expression of genes comprising several gene ontology (GO) groups, including transcription factor activity and Wnt signaling.

Rutherford, R.B.; Foster, B.L.; Bammler, T.; Beyer, R.P.; Sato, S.; Somerman, M.J.

2008-01-01

409

Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

2000-05-01

410

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Revision 0, (DE2009-953356).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, December 1997 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Neva...

G. Evenson

2009-01-01

411

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Trading Region Vehicle type Loaded vehicle weight Model year Fleet average NMOG Light-duty vehicles All 2001 and later 0.075 ...estimate the contributions of hybrid electric vehicles (or âHEVsâ) based on the...

2013-07-01

412

Challenge of Maintaining or Replacing an Aging Airlift Fleet: A cost/Capability Analysis for the Brazilian Air Force Mobility System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the high Operational and Support costs incurred, the Brazilian Air Force's (BAF) declining budget has led to the establishment of conservative policies that favor short run solutions for a critical BAF airlift problem of operating an aging fleet. ...

J. C. Messias

1999-01-01

413

Fleet Experience and Economic Analysis of the Prototype Controlled-Steering B-Dolly and Linked-Articulation Dolly. A Report to Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to provide an assessment of the performance of the CSB- and LA-dollies throughout the field service trial program. Primary objectives of overall assessment considered fleet experiences with respect to dynamic stability, offtra...

C. B. Winkler A. Mathew P. Fancher P. Dill

1988-01-01

414

A new phosphate bonded investment.  

PubMed

A new type of phosphate bonded investment has been studied. The setting expansion was found to be 0.03-0.05%, the thermal expansion was 1.54-1.85% depending upon the mixing liquid used: water or aqueous glycerol solutions, 5, 10, or 20%. Trial castings of alloys with a thermal expansion room to solidus temperature ranging from 1.60 to 1.91% showed either a very high accuracy or the possibility of improving the accuracy actually found by modifying the glycerol content of the mixing liquid used. To prevent cracking, heating of the investment mould in the temperature range 200-300 degrees C must be slow, probably not faster than 2-3 degrees per min. PMID:3518039

Jörgensen, K D; Watanabe, A

1986-04-01

415

Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

1998-01-01

416

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2.  

PubMed

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive sphingolipid involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation and malignant transformation among other functions. S1P acts either directly on intracellular targets or activates G protein-coupled receptors, specifically five S1P receptors (S1PRs). The identified S1PRs differ in cellular and tissue distribution, and each is coupled to specific G proteins, which mediate unique functions. Here, we describe functional characteristics of all five receptors, emphasizing S1PR2, which is critical in the immune, nervous, metabolic, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and renal systems. This review also describes the role of this receptor in tumor growth and metastasis and suggests potential therapeutic avenues that exploit S1PR2. PMID:23879641

Adada, Mohamad; Canals, Daniel; Hannun, Yusuf A; Obeid, Lina M

2013-12-01

417

Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

Not Available

1986-06-11

418

A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion  

SciTech Connect

We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

1995-04-20

419

Inspection/maintenance program evaluation: replicating the Denver Step Method for an Atlanta fleet.  

PubMed

The research presented in this paper employs the Step Method of Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) program evaluation to estimate the emissions reduction for an Atlanta I/M program. Stedman et al. (Stedman, D. H.; Bishop, G. A.; Aldrete, P.; Slott, R. S. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1997, 31, 927-931) introduced the Step Method of evaluation when they presented the results of a 1995 Denver I/M program evaluation. The research presented here replicates the original Denver Step Method analysis for a 1997 Atlanta I/M program. This evaluation was conducted separately for the nine outlying Atlanta counties and the four counties that are closest to the center of the city. The results of the analysis are similar to those found by Stedman et al. in Denver. While the Denver carbon monoxide (CO) weighted program benefit was 6.9%, the Atlanta area CO weighted program benefit is found to be 11.5% and 4.9% for the nine-county and four-county Atlanta areas, respectively. We conclude that the 1997 I/M program change in Atlanta yielded a noteworthy and observable change in fleet emissions. PMID:12854722

Corley, Elizabeth A; Dehart-Davis, Leisha; Lindner, Jim; Rodgers, Michael O

2003-06-15

420

Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

1995-06-01

421

A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

1995-04-01

422

Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

1983-01-01

423

A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

2014-03-01

424

Filling in the gaps of predeployment fleet surgical team training using a team-centered approach.  

PubMed

Background: Teamwork and successful communication are essential parts of any medical specialty, especially in the trauma setting. U.S. Navy physicians developed a course for deploying fleet surgical teams to reinforce teamwork, communication, and baseline knowledge of trauma management. Method: The course combines 22 hours of classroom didactics along with 28 hours of hands-on simulation and cadaver-based laboratories to reinforce classroom concepts. It culminates in a 6-hour, multiwave exercise of multiple, critically injured victims of a mass casualty and uses the ?Cut Suit? (Human Worn Partial Task Surgical Simulator; Strategic Operations), which enables performance of multiple realistic surgical procedures as encountered on real casualties. Participants are graded on time taken from initial patient encounter to disposition and the number of errors made. Pre- and post-training written examinations are also given. The course is graded based on participants? evaluation of the course. Results: The majority of the participants indicated that the course promoted teamwork, enhanced knowledge, and gave confidence. Only 51.72% of participants felt confident in dealing with trauma patients before the course, while 82.76% felt confident afterward (p = .01). Both the time spent on each patient and the number of errors made also decreased after course completion. Conclusion: The course was successful in improving teamwork, communication and base knowledge of all the team members. PMID:24227558

Hoang, Tuan N; Kang, Jeff; Laporta, Anthony J; Makler, Vyacheslav I; Chalut, Carissa

2013-01-01

425

Operational logistics of the world oil tanker fleet: a simulation modeling approach for emergency energy management  

SciTech Connect

The stimulus for this research is the belief that the International Energy Agency (IEA) would be better able to plant for and implement its Emergency Oil Sharing Plan (EOSP) if it modeled important aspects of the world oil economy from an operational point of view. A tanker simulation (TANKSIM) model is offered as a prototype to produce performance measures that may be used in investigating the adequacy and responsiveness of the world's ports and tankers to various patterns of trade. TANKSIM is a SLAM-based, discrete-event simulation model that tracks the movements of tankers worldwide and compiles information on the fleet disposition and status and port and vessel operating characteristics associated with an input trade pattern. Any pattern of crude oil trade whether historical, prescribed, or predicted, may be used to drive the model. A flexible model structure enables a user to investigate the behavior of any configuration of nations, ports, and tanker types. Model use is demonstrated with a pair of hypothetical runs, a Base Case and Scenario. The Base Case considers a portion of the world's crude-hauling tankers operating among IEA nations and members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for one year. The Scenario alters the Base Case trade pattern by representing a hypothetical cessation of Iranian exports due to the Iran/Iraq war and an IEA-EOSP sponsored increase in Saudi Arabian exports in response.

Kirtland, D.A.

1986-01-01

426

Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

Wipke, K.

1994-09-01

427

The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

2008-01-01

428

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

429

Ribose-5-Phosphate Biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Occurs in the Absence of a Pentose-Phosphate Pathway  

PubMed Central

Recent work has raised a question as to the involvement of erythrose-4-phosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the metabolism of the methanogenic archaea (R. H. White, Biochemistry 43:7618-7627, 2004). To address the possible absence of erythrose-4-phosphate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we have assayed cell extracts of this methanogen for the presence of this and other intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and have determined and compared the labeling patterns of sugar phosphates derived metabolically from [6,6-2H2]- and [U-13C]-labeled glucose-6-phosphate incubated with cell extracts. The results of this work have established the absence of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates erythrose-4-phosphate, xylose-5-phosphate, and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in these cells and the presence of d-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, an intermediate in the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The labeling of the d-ara-bino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, as well as the other sugar-Ps, indicates that this hexose-6-phosphate was the precursor to ribulose-5-phosphate that in turn was converted into ribose-5-phosphate by ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. Additional work has demonstrated that ribulose-5-phosphate is derived by the loss of formaldehyde from d-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by the protein product of the MJ1447 gene.

Grochowski, Laura L.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

2005-01-01

430

Phosphate adsorption on synthetic goethite and akaganeite.  

PubMed

Low crystalline iron hydroxides such as goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) were synthesized, and the selective adsorption of phosphate ions from phosphate-enriched seawater was examined. The results of the distribution coefficients (K(d)) of oxoanions in mixed anion solutions at pH 8 follow the selectivity order Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) < CO3(2-), HPO4(2-) for goethite, and Cl-, CO3(2-) < NO3- < SO4(2) < HPO4(2-) for akaganeite. In seawater, both adsorbents show high selectivity for phosphate ions despite the presence of large amounts of major cations and anions in seawater. The adsorption isotherms fitted better with the Freundlich equation and the maximum uptake of phosphate from phosphate-enriched seawater was 10 mg P/g at an equilibrium phosphate concentration of 0.3 mg P/L on both adsorbents. The phosphate adsorption/desorption cycles show that akaganeite is an excellent adsorbent even after 10 cycles and its chemical stability is good. PMID:16455102

Chitrakar, Ramesh; Tezuka, Satoko; Sonoda, Akinari; Sakane, Kohji; Ooi, Kenta; Hirotsu, Takahiro

2006-06-15

431

Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela  

PubMed Central

The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 ?c per ?mole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 ?c per ?mole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 m?moles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 m?moles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 m?moles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 m?moles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images

Bieleski, R. L.

1968-01-01

432

Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

1995-01-01

433

Translocation of metal phosphate via the phosphate inorganic transport system of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Pi transport via the phosphate inorganic transport system (Pit) of Escherichia coli was studied in natural and artificial membranes. Pi uptake via Pit is dependent on the presence of divalent cations, like Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, which form a soluble, neutral metal phosphate (MeHPO4) complex. Pi-dependent uptake of Mg2+ and Ca2+, equimolar cotransport of Pi and Ca2+, and inhibition by Mg2+ of Ca2+ uptake in the presence of Pi, but not of Pi uptake in the presence of Ca2+, indicate that a metal phosphate complex is the transported solute. Metal phosphate is transported in symport with H+ with a mechanistic stoichiometry of 1. Pit mediates efflux and homologous exchange of metal phosphate, but not heterologous metal phosphate exchange with Pi, glycerol-3P, or glucose-6P. The metal phosphate efflux rate increased with pH, whereas the rate of metal phosphate exchange was essentially pH independent. Metal phosphate uptake was inhibited at low internal pH. Efflux was inhibited by a proton motive force (interior negative and alkaline), whereas exchange was inhibited by the membrane potential only. These results have been evaluated in terms of ordered binding and dissociation of metal phosphate and proton on the outer and inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:8110778

van Veen, H W; Abee, T; Kortstee, G J; Konings, W N; Zehnder, A J

1994-02-22

434

The Effect of the Structure of Trialkyl Phosphates on their Physicochemical Properties and Extraction Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of various trialkyl phosphates (TalP) such as tri?n?butyl phosphate (TBP), tri?iso?butyl phosphate (TiBP), tri?sec?butyl phosphate (TsBP), tri?n?amyl phosphate (TAP), tri?2?methylbutyl phosphate (T2MBP), tri?iso?amyl phosphate (tri?3?methylbutyl phosphate, TiAP), tri?sec?amyl phosphate (tri?2?amyl phosphate, TsAP), tri?cyclo?amyl phosphate (TcyAP), tri?n?hexyl phosphate (THP), and 1.1 M solutions of some of these phosphates in various diluents, solubility of water in trialkyl phosphates, and the aqueous

A. Suresh; T. G. Srinivasan; P. R. Vasudeva Rao

2009-01-01

435

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

Sugama, T.

1993-09-21

436

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY) [Mastic Beach, NY

1993-01-01

437

Vibrational spectra of cesium tellurate phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared and Raman spectra of cesium tellurate phosphate (Te(OH) 6·Cs 2HPO 4), a compound containing two anions, are recorded and analysed. It has been found that the two anions Te(OH) 6 and HPO 4 coexist in the crystal almost independently without affecting each other. The hydrogen atom is loosely bonded to the oxygen atom of the phosphate ion and hence the phosphate ion exists as distorted PO 3-4 tetrahedron rather than HPO 2-4 ion.

Viswanathan, K.; Nayar, V. U.; Aruldhas, G.

1986-11-01

438

Calcium phosphate phase transformations in serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A better knowledge of the pathological calcification mechanisms should provide a rational basis for their control. In the\\u000a present study, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O) was used as a source of calcium and phosphate ions to investigate the mechanism of formation of more basic and more insoluble\\u000a calcium phosphates in ultrafiltered serum (u.f.s.). DCPD crystals were suspended in u.f.s. at

Naomi Eidelman; Laurence C. Chow; Walter E. Brown

1987-01-01

439

Analysis of serum phosphate control and phosphate binder utilization in incident hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of serum phosphate level variability in patients new to hemodialysis (HD) and to identify patient characteristics associated with this variability. The medical records of 47,742 incident HD patients attending US outpatient dialysis centers between January 1, 2006 and March 31, 2009 were analyzed. Monthly mean serum phosphate levels determined over a 6-month evaluation period (months 4–9 after HD initiation) were assigned to one of three strata: low (<1.13 mmol/L [<3.5 mg/dL]); target (1.13–1.78 mmol/L [3.5–5.5 mg/dL]); or high (>1.78 mmol/L [>5.5 mg/dL]). Patients were classified into one of six serum phosphate variability groups based on variability among monthly mean phosphate levels over the 6-month evaluation period: consistently target; consistently high; high-to-target; high-to-low; target-to-low; or consistently low. Only 15% of patients (consistently target group) maintained monthly mean serum phosphate levels within the target range throughout the 6-month evaluation period. Age, Charlson comorbidity index, serum phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels prior to HD initiation were strongly associated (P<0.001) with serum phosphate levels after HD initiation. Overall patient-reported phosphate binder usage increased from 35% at baseline to 52% at end of study. The low proportion of patients achieving target phosphate levels and low rates of phosphate binder usage observed during the study suggest that alternative strategies could be developed to control serum phosphate levels. Possible strategies that might be incorporated to help improve the management of hyperphosphatemia in incident HD patients include dietary modification, dialysis optimization, and earlier and sustained use of phosphate binders.

Farrand, Kimberly F; Copley, J Brian; Heise, Jamie; Fridman, Moshe; Keith, Michael S; Poole, Lynne

2014-01-01

440

Availability to plants of phosphate from“biosupers” and partially acidulated phosphate rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18-month greenhouse study using: uncalcined Christmas Island“C” grade ore (CC); Chatham Rise phosphorite nodules (CR); and North Carolina phosphate rock partially acidulated with phosphoric acid (PAPR) was conducted to evaluate CR\\/S and CC\\/S biosupers (phosphate rock\\/sulphur granules), and PAPR in comparison with superphosphate. Perennial ryegrass was grown as the test crop in a highly phosphate-retentive soil. The fertilisers were

S. S. S. Rajan

1982-01-01

441

Evaluation of partially acidulated phosphate fertilisers and reactive phosphate rock for hill pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial and residual effectiveness of two partially acidulated fertilisers, a single superphosphate (SSP): reactive phosphate rock (RPR) physical mix (SSP:RPR) and a partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR), and a RPR, North Carolina, were compared with SSP at two phosphate (P)-responsive sites in hill country. One site had received small annual inputs of SSP (125 kg ha-1 y-1) fertiliser for

A. D. Mackay; G. S. Wewala

1990-01-01

442

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2010-04-01

443

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2009-04-01

444

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2013-04-01

445

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

Moxham, Robert M.

1954-01-01

446

Borehole Mining of Deep Phosphate Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The feasibility was tested of hydraulic borehole mining for the recovery of phosphate ore from the deep, water-saturated deposits of northeastern Florida. Hydraulic ...

1983-01-01

447

Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected.

Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

1997-09-30

448

ANALYSIS OF ALKYL PHOSPHATES BY EXTRACTIVE ALKYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of suitable methods for analysis of the alkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in urine has been a rather difficult and persistent problem. Currently available methodology suffers from several shortcomings. The extraction of the compounds from ...

449

Do osteocytes contribute to phosphate homeostasis?  

PubMed

Osteocytes, the terminally differentiated cell of the osteoblast lineage, account for over 90% of all bone cells. Due to their relative inaccessibility within mineralized matrix, little is known regarding their specific functions in comparison to the well studied surface bone cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Furthermore, bone is often viewed as a mineral reservoir that passively releases calcium and phosphate in response to hormones secreted from remote organs. Noncollagenous matrix proteins produced in osteocytes, such as dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), have also been viewed as inert scaffolds for calcium-phosphate deposition. Recent discoveries of new genetic mutations in human diseases and development of genetically engineered animal models challenge these classic paradigms, suggesting that the osteocyte plays an active role in both mineralization and total systemic phosphate regulation. In this review, we will focus on roles of osteocytes in mineralization and particularly in phosphate regulation via the DMP1- FGF23 pathway. PMID:19448536

Feng, Jian Q; Ye, Ling; Schiavi, Susan

2009-07-01

450

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of 1-deaza-pyridoxal 5'-phosphate  

PubMed Central

The first synthesis of 1-deaza-pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (2-formyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzyl phosphate) is described. The chemoenzymatic approach described here is a reliable route to this important isosteric pyridoxal phosphate analogue. This work enables elucidation of the role of the pyridine nitrogen in pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent enzymes.

Griswold, Wait R.; Toney, Michael D.

2012-01-01

451

Pharmacology, efficacy and safety of oral phosphate binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal serum level of phosphate in patients on dialysis, and the benefits of controlling levels of phosphate in serum remain unclear despite observational studies that associate phosphate levels with mortality. In the absence of robust data from trials, current guidelines are necessarily based on opinion. Oral phosphate binders are required by the majority of patients on dialysis, and all

Craig P. Smith; Paul E. C. Brenchley; Alastair J. Hutchison

2011-01-01

452

Synthesis of oxalyl phosphate and processing of the acyl phosphate by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent enzymes.  

PubMed

The mixed anhydride of oxalic and phosphoric acids, oxalyl phosphate, has been prepared by reaction of oxalyl chloride and inorganic phosphate in aqueous solution. The product was purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by 31P and 13C NMR. This acyl phosphate has a half-life of 51 h at pH 5.0 and 4 degrees C. Oxalyl phosphate, an analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate, is a slow substrate for pyruvate kinase, undergoing an enzyme-dependent phosphotransfer reaction to produce ATP from ADP. Oxalyl phosphate substitutes for phosphoenolpyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate, phosphate dikinase. The acyl phosphate reacts with the free enzyme to give the phosphorylated form of the enzyme. Removal of the potent product inhibitor, oxalate, from the reaction mixtures by gel filtration chromatography permitted further reaction of the phosphorylated enzyme with pyrophosphate and AMP to give ATP and Pi in a single turnover assay. Oxalyl phosphate also served as a phospho group donor in a partial reaction catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase wherein GDP is phosphorylated at the expense of oxalyl phosphate. PMID:2162154

Kofron, J L; Reed, G H

1990-07-01

453

The contribution of phosphate-phosphate repulsions to the free energy of DNA bending  

PubMed Central

DNA bending is important for the packaging of genetic material, regulation of gene expression and interaction of nucleic acids with proteins. Consequently, it is of considerable interest to quantify the energetic factors that must be overcome to induce bending of DNA, such as base stacking and phosphate–phosphate repulsions. In the present work, the electrostatic contribution of phosphate–phosphate repulsions to the free energy of bending DNA is examined for 71 bp linear and bent-form model structures. The bent DNA model was based on the crystallographic structure of a full turn of DNA in a nucleosome core particle. A Green's function approach based on a linear-scaling smooth conductor-like screening model was applied to ascertain the contribution of individual phosphate–phosphate repulsions and overall electrostatic stabilization in aqueous solution. The effect of charge neutralization by site-bound ions was considered using Monte Carlo simulation to characterize the distribution of ion occupations and contribution of phosphate repulsions to the free energy of bending as a function of counterion load. The calculations predict that the phosphate–phosphate repulsions account for ?30% of the total free energy required to bend DNA from canonical linear B-form into the conformation found in the nucleosome core particle.

Range, Kevin; Mayaan, Evelyn; Maher, L. J.; York, Darrin M.

2005-01-01

454

The role of phosphates in chemical evolution.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypohydrous thermal reaction between inorganic phosphates and nucleoside was investigated. The products of the reactions have been identified, and an attempt has been made to determine the mechanism. It was found that orthophosphates can be readily converted into condensed phosphates which are effective phosphorylating agents. Thermal polymerization of inorganic orthophosphates at moderate temperature as a general source of polyphosphates might have provided efficient phosphorylation and condensing agents for primordial syntheses.

Ponnamperuma, C.; Chang, S.

1971-01-01

455

Phosphate Kinetics during Different Dialysis Modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An abnormal serum phosphate concentration is common in acute renal failure patients, with a reported incidence of 65–80%. Phosphate removal and kinetics during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) have been investigated, but there is no information on its kinetics during slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods: Eight IHD, 8 SLED, and 10 continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)

Ranistha Ratanarat; Alessandra Brendolan; Gopel Volker; Monica Bonello; Gabriella Salvatori; Emilio Andrikos; Asuman Yavuz; Carlo Crepaldi; Claudio Ronco

2005-01-01

456

Transacylase formation of bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work within our laboratory has focused on the enzymes we hypothesize are involved in the biosynthesis of bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol. Here we describe a transacylase, active at acidic pH values, isolated from a macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7. This enzyme acylates the head group glycerol of sn-3:sn-1? lysophosphatidylglycerol to form sn-3:sn-1? bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate. Here we demonstrate that this enzyme uses

Javid Heravi; Moseley Waite

1999-01-01

457

Effects of inositol phosphates on mineral utilization  

SciTech Connect

The present study was designed to compare the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphate (IP3, IP4, and IP5) with those of phytic acid (IP6) on growth, development and mineral utilization of young quail. Day-old Japanese quail were fed a purified casein-gelatin control diet containing 20 ppm Zn with 0 or 8.33 mmoles/kg of each inositol phosphate, corresponding to 0.55% of IP6, for a week. As compared with controls, IP6 caused reduced body weight, poor feathering, severe perosis, decreased tibia Zn and ash, and decreased pancreas Zn and liver Mn. IP5 produced all the same adverse effects and tissue mineral changes as those by phytic acid, whereas birds fed IP3 or IP4 were normal. Moreover, IP3 and IP4 caused an increased tibia weight and ash. None of the above effects was produced by feeding inositol or inorganic phosphate. In a second experiment, the inositol phosphates were fed at either 8.33 or 16.66 mmoles/kg diet. Doubling inositol phosphate levels resulted in similar effects as those observed previously. Additionally, IP4 decreased pancreas Zn and IP3 increased tibia Zn. These results indicate that unlike IP6 and IP5, inositol phosphates with 4 or fewer phosphate groups, which can arise from hydrolysis of phytic acid during food processing, have very minor adverse effects but may be beneficial for bone mineralization.

Tao, S.H.; Fox, M.R.S.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Johnson, M.L.; Johnston, M.R.

1986-03-05

458

Barite and phosphate in Devonian Slaven Chert  

SciTech Connect

Bedded barite and phosphate within the Slaven Chert in East Northumberland Canyon, Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada, formed within an oxygen minimum zone during Late Devonian. The East Northumberland Canyon deposits are a part of the Roberts Mountains allochthon, which was overthrusted onto eastern carbonate shelf deposits by the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. Petrographic and stratigraphic analyses of the barite and chert beds indicate they formed as sedimentary and early diagenetic precipitates. The barite occurs as layers of fine crystals and/or spherulites. The finely crystalline beds lack matrix chert and probably formed at and/or above the sediment-water interface. In contrast, radiating spherulites have radiolarian fossils, phosphate, and silt grains within them, and are most commonly associated with matrix chert. These data suggest that the spherulites grew within the sediment as an early diagenetic mineral. High organic-matter concentrations (up to 6%), well-preserved microfossil skeletal hash, and phosphate in barite and chert deposits indicate that the rocks formed in an anoxic environment. REE values of phosphate from the Slaven Chert resemble patterns of phosphorites formed in zones of coastal upwelling at low latitudes versus phosphate formed in non-upwelling areas. These facts suggest the barite, chert, and phosphate formed within an oxygen minimum zone associated with coastal upwelling currents.

Graber, K.K.; Chafetz, H.

1988-01-01

459

The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ?750 to ?635?Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life. PMID:20981096

Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

2010-10-28

460

Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation.

Bergwitz, Clemens; Juppner, Harald

2013-01-01

461

Recent Advances in Renal Phosphate Handling  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is critical for the maintenance of skeletal integrity, is a necessary component of important biomolecules, and is central to signal transduction and cell metabolism. It is becoming clear that endocrine communication occurs between the skeleton, kidney, and the intestine to maintain proper serum phosphate concentrations, with the kidney being the primary site for minute-to-minute regulation. Identification of genetic alterations in Mendelian disorders of hypo- and hyperphosphatemia has led to the isolation of novel genes and new roles for existing proteins in the control of renal phosphate handling, such as Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its processing systems, the co-receptor ?-Klotho (KL), and phosphate transporters. Recent findings also indicate that FGF23 has feedback mechanisms intertwined with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D that control phosphate homeostasis. This review will highlight genetic, and in vitro and in vivo findings, and discuss how these clinical and experimental discoveries have uncovered novel aspects of renal phosphate handling, as well as opened new research and therapeutic avenues.

Farrow, Emily G.; White, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

462

Hyperphosphatemia and phosphate binders: effectiveness and safety.  

PubMed

In patients with kidney dysfunction hyperphosphatemia is more evident as renal failure progresses. It is related to increased FGF-23 levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and accelerated progressive vascular calcification. In CKD patients advanced coronary artery calcification is strongly associated with future cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. Apart from the above, phosphate per se is suspected as a causal risk factor for CKD progression. Keeping serum phosphorus within the target values are linked to improvement in life expectancy. A low phosphate diet, an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate load, and the administration of phosphate binders are the main recommended steps to control hyperphosphatemia. Calcium-based phosphate binders can lead to a positive calcium balance, hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and coronary artery and aortic calcification. On the other hand Sevelamer hydrochloride and Lanthanum carbonate has been shown to be effective, safe and useful therapeutic tools for hyperphosphatemia. When prescribe pharmacological agents, one must take into account the large increase in health-care expenditure and the choice of phosphate binder should be individualized. PMID:24007207

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Elisaf, Moses S

2014-01-01

463

Studies on the Chemistry of Uranium and Thorium Phosphates. Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate: A Matrix for Storage of Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on phosphates of tetravalent uranium and thorium published by the authors in the 1990s are briefly overviewed. Methods of synthesis, properties, and structures of new phosphates of these elements are described. The chemical formulas of a number of already known uranium, thorium, and neptunium phosphates are critically analyzed. Special attention is given to thorium phosphate diphospate and solid solutions

V. Brandel; N. Dacheux; M. Genet

2001-01-01

464

Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum, PFE0730c, has been determined by molecular replacement at 2.09?Å resolution. The enzyme, which catalyzes the isomerization reaction that interconverts ribose 5-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate, is a member of the pentose phosphate pathway. The P. falciparum enzyme belongs to the ribose 5-­phosphate isomerase A family, Pfam family PF06562 (DUF1124), and is structurally similar to other members of the family.

Holmes, Margaret A.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W.; Earnest, Thomas N.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

2006-01-01

465

Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum, PFE0730c, has been determined by molecular replacement at 2.09 angstroms resolution. The enzyme, which catalyzes the isomerization reaction that interconverts ribose 5-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate, is a member of the pentose phosphate pathway. The P. falciparum enzyme belongs to the ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A family, Pfam family PF06562 (DUF1124), and is structurally similar to other members of the family. PMID:16682767

Holmes, Margaret A; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W; Earnest, Thomas N; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

2006-05-01

466

Preparation, forms and properties of controlled-release phosphate fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release phosphate fertilizers include phosphate rocks (PRs) for direct application, partially acidulated phosphate\\u000a rocks (PAPRs) and thermal phosphates. Phosphate rocks contain apatite as the main P containing mineral, the composition and\\u000a the chemical nature of which vary between PRs. Based on the solubility in chemical extractants PRs are broadly grouped into\\u000a ‘reactive’ and ‘unreactive’. The ‘reactivity’ of PRs is influenced

N. S. Bolan; M. J. Hedley; P. Loganathan

1993-01-01

467

Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011  

SciTech Connect

On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

Not Available

2011-03-01

468

The glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and monoacylglycerol pathways of glycerolipid synthesis in rat adipose-tissue homogenates.  

PubMed Central

1. Fat-free homogenates from the epididymal fat-pads of rats were used to measure the rate of palmitate esterification with different substrates. The effectiveness of the acyl acceptors decreased in the order glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, 2-octadecenyl-glycerol and 2-hexadecylglycerol. 2. Glycerol phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate inhibited their rates of esterification in a mutually competitive manner. 3. The esterification of glycerol phosphate was also inhibited in a partially competitive manner by 2-octadecenylglycerol and to a lesser extent by 2-hexadecylglycerol. However, glycerol phosphate did not inhibit the esterification of 2-octadecenylglycerol. 4. The esterification of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 2-hexadecylglycerol was more sensitive to inhibition by clofenapate than was that of glycerol phosphate. Norfenfluramine was more effective in inhibiting the esterification of 2-hexadecylglycerol than that of glycerol phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate. 5 It is concluded that rat adipose tissue can synthesize glycerolipids by three independent routes.

Dodds, P F; Gurr, M I; Brindley, D N

1976-01-01

469

Phosphate separation and recovery from wastewater by novel electrodialysis.  

PubMed

Stimulated by the depletion of phosphate resources, phosphate recovery systems have been studied in recent years. The use of struvite reactors has proven to be an effective phosphate recovery process. However, the struvite reactor effluent still consists of an excessive amount of phosphate that cannot be recovered nor can be directly discharged. In this study, selectrodialysis (SED) was used to improve the efficiency of phosphate recovery from a struvite reactor: SED was implemented in such a way that phosphate from the effluent of an USAB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor was transferred to the recycled effluent of a struvite reactor. Prior to the experiments, synthetic water with chloride and phosphate was used to characterize the efficiency of SED for phosphate separation. Results indicate that SED was successful in concentrating phosphate from the feed stream. The initial current efficiency reached 72%, with a satisfying (9 mmol L(-1)) phosphate concentration. In the experiments with the anaerobic effluent as the phosphate source for enrichment of the effluent of the struvite reactor, the phosphate flux was 16 mmol m(-2) h(-1). A cost evaluation shows that 1 kWh electricity can produce 60 g of phosphate by using a full scale stack, with a desalination rate of 95% on the feed wastewater. Finally, a struvite precipitation experiment shows that 93% of phosphate can be recovered. Thus, an integrated SED-struvite reactor process can be used to improve phosphate recovery from wastewater. PMID:23651001

Zhang, Yang; Desmidt, Evelyn; Van Looveren, Arnaud; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

2013-06-01

470

Response of tissue phosphate content to acute dietary phosphate deprivation in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to evaluate a possible role for tissue phosphate or phosphorylated compounds in mediating the increase in plasma\\u000a 1,25(OH)2D3 levels during dietary phosphate deprivation, renal cortical phosphate content has been measured in both normal and X-linked\\u000a hypophosphatemic mice on a normal diet and also after acute dietary phosphate deprivation. We find that the metabolism of\\u000a inorganic phosphate and phosphorylated

Charles Eric Brown; Charles A. Wilkie; Martha H. Meyer; Ralph A. Meyer

1985-01-01

471

Ureolytic phosphate precipitation from anaerobic effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, the elimination of phosphate from industrial anaerobic effluents was evaluated at lab-scale. For that purpose, the ureolytic method previously developed for the precipitation of Ca(2 + ) from wastewater as calcite was adapted for the precipitation of phosphate as struvite. In the first part of the study, computer simulations using MAPLE and PHREEQC were performed to model phosphate precipitation from wastewater as struvite. The results obtained showed that relative high concentrations of ammonium and magnesium are needed to precipitate phosphate as struvite. The total molar concentrations ratio of Mg(2 + ):PO(4) (3-)-P:NH(4) (+) required to decrease PO(4) (3-)-P concentrations from 20 to 6 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l at pH 8.4-8.5 was estimated on 4.6:1:8. In the second part of the study, lab-scale experiments with either synthetic wastewater or the anaerobic effluent from a vegetable processing industry were carried out in batch and continuous mode. Overall, the continuous operation at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.4 h and an added molar concentration [Mg(2 + )]:[PO(4) (3-)-P]:[NH(4) (+)] ratio of 1.6:1:2.3 resulted in a constant pH value in the reactor (around 8.5) and an efficient phosphate removal (>90%) to residual levels of 1-2 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l. Different operational conditions, such as the initial phosphate concentration, HRT and the use of CaCl(2) or MgO instead of MgCl(2), were analysed and the performance of the reactor was satisfactory under a broad range of them. Yet, overall, optimal results (higher phosphate removal) were obtained with MgCl(2). PMID:19474493

Desmidt, E; Verstraete, W; Dick, J; Meesschaert, B D; Carballa, M

2009-01-01

472

In vivo behaviour of three calcium phosphate cements and a magnesium phosphate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of calcium phosphate cements and one magnesium phosphate cement were implanted subcutaneously in rats under exclusion of direct cellular contact. Retrieval times were either 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Before and after retrieval the compressive strength, the diametral tensile strength, the quantitative chemical composition, the qualitative phase composition, the FTIR spectrum and the microstructure were determined. The

F. C. M. Driessens; M. G. Boltong; M. I. Zapatero; R. M. H. Verbeeck; W. Bonfield; O. Bérmúdez; E. Fernández; M. P. Ginebra; J. A. Planell

1995-01-01

473

Separation of uranium and dibutyl phosphate contained in 30 vol % tributyl phosphate solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of solid sorbents were tested for the removal of uranium and dibutyl phosphate (DBP) from 30 vol % tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent. The removal was required to result in separation of the uranium from the DBP with a clean uranium product. The preferred mode of operation was to remove the DBP, leaving the uranium in the cleaned solvent

J. C. Mailen; O. K. Tallent

1986-01-01

474

COMPARATIVE KINETIC STUDIES OF PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH AND PHOSPHATE UPTAKE IN PHYTOPLANKTON IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparative kinetic study of phosphate-limited growth and phosphate uptake was carried out in chemostat cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae Lyng. Breb., Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs, Asterionella formosa Hass., Fragilaria crotonensis Kitt., and Microcystis sp. Lemm. For ea...