Sample records for fleet phosphate enema

  1. A comparison of bowel preparations for flexible sigmoidoscopy: oral magnesium citrate combined with oral bisacodyl, one hypertonic phosphate enema, or two hypertonic phosphate enemasFig. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Keith Fincher; Eric M. Osgard; Jeffrey L. Jackson; Jeffrey S. Strong; Roy K. H. Wong

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Magnesium citrate with hypertonic enemas or oral bisacodyl provides superior preparation quality for sigmoidoscopy over enemas alone. We compared three magnesium citrate sigmoidoscopy preparations in a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-one adults scheduled for routine sigmoidoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of three preparations containing oral magnesium citrate (296 cc) taken the night before the procedure in

  2. Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax. PMID:10834891

  3. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G. [CEA, DEN/DANS/I-tese, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  4. A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

  5. A comparison of bowel preparations for flexible sigmoidoscopy: oral magnesium citrate combined with oral bisacodyl, one hypertonic phosphate enema, or two hypertonic phosphate enemas 1 1 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed to represent in any way those of the Department of Defense or the Department of the Army

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Keith Fincher; Eric M Osgard; Jeffrey L Jackson; Jeffrey S Strong; Roy K. H Wong

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Magnesium citrate with hypertonic enemas or oral bisacodyl provides superior preparation quality for sigmoidoscopy over enemas alone. We compared three magnesium citrate sigmoidoscopy preparations in a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-one adults scheduled for routine sigmoidoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of three preparations containing oral magnesium citrate (296 cc) taken the night before the procedure in

  6. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Salix Pharmaceuticals, Raleigh, NC) are FDA-approved for cleansing the colon before a colonoscopy. Over-the-counter ... and enemas may also be used for bowel cleansing before medical procedures. Low phosphate levels in the ...

  7. A complication of cleansing enema: Retained protective shield of the enema tip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard E. Zeligman; Lawrence E. Feinberg; Eric D. Johnson

    1986-01-01

    A retained enema tube sheath was encountered in 4 outpatients who underwent preparation for barium enema. This object can be detected on a plain abdominal roentgenogram, but is more readily apparent as an intraluminal foreign body during barium enema examination. We suggest that a prominent warning to remove the sheath before taking a cleansing enema be attached to the enema

  8. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  13. [Glucagon-based cleansing enemas prior to a double-contrast barium enema].

    PubMed

    Pietilä, J A

    1992-01-01

    The cleansing effect of large-volume enemas supported or unsupported by glucagon was studied in 20 each outpatients before a double-contrast barium enema. There was no statistically significant difference in respect of the remaining rests of faeces and the contrast medium coat. Patients suffering from intestinal spasms and anal insufficiency experience a feeling of relief by the intramuscular administration of glucagon during the preparatory enema; the quality of the double-contrast barium enema is not affected. PMID:1547292

  14. Retrograde spreading of hydrocortisone enema in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.; Digenis, G.A.; Foster, T.S.; Antonow, D.R.

    1986-02-01

    A hydrocortisone suspension enema was radiolabeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)technetium sulfur colloid and administered to four normal subjects and eight patients with varying degrees of inflammatory bowel disease. The extent of enema spreading was monitored using external scintigraphy for a period of up to 4 hr after administration. Pretreatment of normal subjects with an evacuation enema resulted in spreading of the radiolabeled enema throughout the entire colon. In seven of the eight patients studied, the enema migrated a distance equal to or greater than the extent of disease involvement. An in vivo stability study with an indium-111-labeled enema, using the perturbed angular correlation technique, revealed that the enema retains its stability for up to 90 min after administration. These results indicate that the use of hydrocortisone enemas may not be restricted to distal bowel disease, but may also be effective in inflammatory bowel diseases involving proximal regions of the colon.

  15. Recognition and prevention of barium enema complications.

    PubMed

    Williams, S M; Harned, R K

    1991-01-01

    The barium enema is a safe and accurate diagnostic study of the colon but, in rare cases, complications may result. Many of these can be prevented by proper equipment and careful attention to technique. When a complication does occur, prompt recognition and management is vital in decreasing morbidity and mortality. Perforation of the bowel is the most frequent serious complication, occurring in approximately 0.02% to 0.04% of patients. Rarely the colon may burst due to excessive transmural pressure alone. However, a colon weakened by iatrogenic trauma or disease is more likely to perforate during an enema than is a normal healthy bowel. Injury to the rectal mucosa or anal canal due to the enema tip or retention balloon is probably the most common traumatic cause of barium enema perforation. Inflation of a retention balloon within a stricture, neoplasm, inflamed rectum, or colostomy stoma is particularly hazardous. Recent deep biopsy or polypectomy with electrocautery makes the bowel more vulnerable to rupture. The tensile strength of the bowel wall is impaired in elderly patients, patients receiving long-term steroid therapy, and in disease states including neoplasm, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and ischemia. Intraperitoneal perforation leads to a severe, acute peritonitis with intravascular volume depletion. The ensuing shock may be rapidly fatal. Prompt fluid replacement and laparotomy are essential. If the patient survives the initial shock and sepsis, later complications caused by dense intraperitoneal adhesions may develop. Extraperitoneal perforation is usually less catastrophic but may result in pain, sepsis, cellulitis, abscess, rectal stricture, or fistula. Intramural extravasation often forms a persistent submucosal barium granuloma which may ulcerate or be mistaken for a neoplasm. The most dramatic complication of barium enema is venous intravasation of barium. Fortunately, this is quite rare as it may be immediately lethal. Most cases have been attributed to trauma from the enema tip or retention balloon, mucosal inflammation, or misplacement of the tip in the vagina. Bacteremia has been found in as many as 23% of patients following barium enema and, in rare cases, may cause symptomatic septicemia. Other less common complications include barium impaction, water intoxication, allergic reactions, and cardiac arrhythmias. Preparatory laxatives and cleansing enemas have been implicated in some instances of dehydration, rectal trauma, water intoxication, and perforation. Careful review of the indications for examination, previous radiographs, and clinical history will identify many of the patients at greater risk for complications so that appropriate precautions may be observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1889235

  16. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, María del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ? 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ?7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

  17. Enema ion compositions for enhancing colorectal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Chattopadhyay, Sumon; Moench, Thomas; Hendrix, Craig; Cone, Richard; Ensign, Laura M; Hanes, Justin

    2015-07-10

    Delivering drugs to the colorectum by enema has advantages for treating or preventing both local and systemic diseases. However, the properties of the enema itself are not typically exploited for improving drug delivery. Sodium ions are actively pumped out of the lumen of the colon, which is followed by osmotically-driven water absorption, so we hypothesized that this natural mechanism could be exploited to drive nanoparticles and drugs to the colorectal tissue surface. Here, we report that sodium-based, absorption-inducing (hypotonic) enemas rapidly transport hydrophilic drugs and non-mucoadhesive, mucus penetrating nanoparticles (MPP), deep into the colorectal folds to reach virtually the entire colorectal epithelial surface. In contrast, isotonic and secretion-inducing (hypertonic) vehicles led to non-uniform, poor surface coverage. Sodium-based enemas induced rapid fluid absorption even when moderately hyper-osmolal (~350mOsm) compared to blood (~300mOsm), which suggests that active sodium absorption plays a key role in osmosis-driven fluid uptake. We then used tenofovir, an antiretroviral drug in clinical trials for preventing HIV, to test the effects of enema composition on local and systemic drug delivery. We found that strongly hypotonic and hypertonic enemas caused rapid systemic drug uptake, whereas moderately hypotonic enemas with ion compositions similar to feces resulted in high local tissue levels with minimal systemic drug exposure. Similarly, moderately hypotonic enemas provided improved local drug retention in colorectal tissue, whereas hypertonic and isotonic enemas provided markedly reduced drug retention in colorectal tissue. Lastly, we found that moderately hypotonic enema formulations caused little to no detectable epithelial damage, while hypertonic solutions caused significant damage, including epithelial sloughing; the epithelial damage caused increased systemic drug absorption and penetration of MPP into colorectal tissue, a potential advantage in certain drug delivery applications. In summary, we illustrate that enema composition can be adjusted to maximize local versus systemic drug delivery, and that mildly hypotonic, sodium-based vehicles can provide uniform drug and MPP delivery in the colon that maximizes local drug concentrations. PMID:25937321

  18. A randomised trial comparing mesalazine and prednisolone foam enemas in patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F I Lee; D P Jewell; V Mani; M R Keighley; R D Kingston; C O Record; R H Grace; S Daniels; J Patterson; K Smith

    1996-01-01

    Distal ulcerative colitis can be treated with oral or rectal mesalazine, or both. A foam enema preparation has been developed and its efficacy investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mesalazine foam enemas compared with prednisolone foam enemas in the treatment of patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis. Patients aged over 18 years

  19. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  20. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  1. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  2. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  3. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  4. NORTHERN VICTOR FLEET COOPERATIVE

    E-print Network

    ORGANIZATION. A. Legal Obligations. The Northern Victor Fleet Cooperative (the "Cooperative") was formed Johannessen Enterprise, Inc. Poseidon 1164 Royal Atlantic LLC Royal Atlantic 236 Evening Star, Inc

  5. Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

    1986-02-01

    In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

  6. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  7. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

  8. Ferment in the Fleet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwigson, John

    1980-01-01

    The future of the academic oceanographic fleet is discussed. The focus of the controversy surrounding the ships appears to be their size and fuel efficiency. Budget constraints and various ways in which to schedule ships for researchers are the primary concerns. (SA)

  9. Beclomethasone dipropionate enemas for treating inflammatory bowel disease without producing Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal suppression.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Seaton, T; Meghji, M; Castelli, M; Benson, R; Sivakumaran, T

    1982-03-13

    Since beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a very potent glucocorticoid and since small oral doses (1 mg) seem to be metabolised (possibly in the gut wall or liver) before they reach the systemic circulation, a study was conducted to find out whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease could be treated with enemas containing small doses of BDP without their acquiring Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) suppression. The BDP in the 100 ml enemas used was stable and present in a concentration likely to be therapeutic (0.5 mg/dl). Single overnight BDP enemas, unlike conventional betamethasone (5 mg) enemas, did not interfere with the HPA axis in 6 healthy volunteers. In the double-blind randomised part of the study 2-week courses of BDP or betamethasone enemas were assessed in 9 patients having exacerbations of distal inflammatory bowel disease. The clinical and sigmoidoscopic responses as well as adrenocortical function (judged by the 'Cosyntropin' test) were evaluated on the morning after the last day of a course of enemas. Both types of enemas had similar beneficial effects, but only BDP enemas did not interfere with HPA function. Over a prolonged period, a patient with distal ulcerative colitis had been completely dependent on regular treatment with betamethasone enemas to control his symptoms. Substitution with BDP enemas successfully controlled his bowel symptoms, whilst his cushingoid features and HPA suppression regressed. PMID:6121181

  10. Use of Bisacodyl in Preparation of the Bowels for a Barium Enema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Sowerbutts

    1960-01-01

    This account of a new and successful technique in preparing patients for a barium enema examination will interest clinicians, for its eventual adoption by radiologists would greatly reduce the discomfort of this invaluable but disagreeable investigation.

  11. Current perspectives in colon radiography: the postendoscopy and postbiopsy barium enema.

    PubMed

    Lappas, J C; Maglinte, D D

    1985-01-01

    Controversy prevails regarding the same-day performance of barium enema examinations and endoscopy. Concerns focus upon the diagnostic quality of the postendoscopy barium enema and the risk of perforation if colorectal biopsy is performed during the endoscopy. Results of a study of 295 patients support that rigid or fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy can be performed the same day as single- or double-contrast barium enemas without adversely affecting the quality or interpretation of the barium examination. Animal studies suggest that a barium enema may be performed safely immediately after a superficial biopsy of a nondiseased colon and 6 days after a deep biopsy. Barium sulfate appears to have no deleterious effect on the healing of colorectal biopsy sites. These findings have important implications when considering health care logistics and cost containment. PMID:3896653

  12. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  13. Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

  14. Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

  15. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (< 70 or ? 70 years), sex, and colon location. The number of diverticula was counted, and the detection ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Colonic diverticula were observed in 46 patients with barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon. PMID:23613630

  16. Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

  17. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  18. Randomized clinical trial on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema: impact on radiological practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reginald Goei; Alphons H Kessels; Maarten Nix; Paul G Knipschild

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the willingness of radiologists to change their practice when the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema are presented. Materials and Methods: During the years 1994 and 1995 two postal questionnaires were sent to 481 practicing radiologists who were all members of the Netherlands Society of Radiology. In

  19. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  20. Final Report Mothership Fleet Cooperative

    E-print Network

    sector are members of the "Mothership Fleet Cooperative" (MFC) and are bound by the terms of that cooperative's membership agreement. Only seventeen of the nineteen vessels belonging to the MFC participated agreement mentioned above, the MFC is a signatory to the 2009 Intercooperative Agreement, the Cod Allocation

  1. Final Report Mothership Fleet Cooperative

    E-print Network

    sector are members of the "Mothership Fleet Cooperative" (MFC) and are bound by the terms of that cooperative's membership agreement. Only fourteen of the nineteen vessels belonging to the MFC participated agreement mentioned above, the MFC is a signatory to the 2010 Intercooperative Agreement, the Cod Allocation

  2. Final Report Mothership Fleet Cooperative

    E-print Network

    sector are members of the "Mothership Fleet Cooperative" (MFC) and are bound by the terms of that cooperative's membership agreement. Only seventeen of the nineteen vessels belonging to the MFC participated agreement mentioned above, the MFC is a signatory to the 2006 Intercooperative Agreement, the Cod Allocation

  3. Final Report Mothership Fleet Cooperative

    E-print Network

    qualified to participate in the mothership sector are members of the "Mothership Fleet Cooperative" (MFC belonging to the MFC participated in Alaska groundfish fisheries in 2012. The mothership sector is assigned). In addition to the membership agreement mentioned above, the MFC is a signatory to the 2012 Intercooperative

  4. Final Report Mothership Fleet Cooperative

    E-print Network

    qualified to participate in the mothership sector are members of the "Mothership Fleet Cooperative" (MFC belonging to the MFC participated in Alaska groundfish fisheries in 2011. The mothership sector is assigned). In addition to the membership agreement mentioned above, the MFC is a signatory to the 2011 Intercooperative

  5. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  6. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

  7. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. An assessment of bisacodyl-based bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Shaoul; Lina Haloon

    2007-01-01

    Background  The most commonly used methods for bowel preparation are polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) and sodium\\u000a phosphate. Both are problematic in children. The use of bisacodyl together with fleet enema has been suggested as an alternative;\\u000a however, its use without dietary restriction is inferior to other preparations. We aimed to study the effect of bisacodyl\\u000a together with fleet enema and

  9. Federal Fleet Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet overview of FEMP services and assistance available to Federal fleet managers to implement alternative fuel and advanced vehicle strategies in compliance with Federal goals and requirements.

  10. Bus Fleet Type and Age Replacement Optimization: A case study utilizing King County Metro fleet data

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    1 Bus Fleet Type and Age Replacement Optimization: A case study utilizing King County Metro fleet and a hybrid bus. Employing real-world bus fleet data from King County Metro (Washington State, USA) multiple Metro (Washington State, USA) operates about 1,300 vehicles with multiple bus technologies (electric

  11. Patient experiences of colonoscopy, barium enema and CT colonography: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Von Wagner, C; Knight, K; Halligan, S; Atkin, W; Lilford, R; Morton, D; Wardle, J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of patient experience with bowel screening tests, in particular CT colonography (CTC), have superimposed global rating scales and not explored individual experience in detail. To redress this, we performed qualitative interviews in order to characterize patient expectations and experiences in depth. Following ethical permission, 16 patients undergoing CTC, 18 undergoing colonoscopy and 15 undergoing barium enema agreed to a semi-structured interview by a health psychologist. Interviews were recorded, responses transcribed and themes extracted with the aim of assimilating individual experiences to facilitate subsequent development and interpretation of quantitative surveys of overall satisfaction with each diagnostic test. Transcript analysis identified three principal themes: physical sensations, social interactions and information provision. Physical sensations differed for each test but were surprisingly well tolerated overall. Social interactions with staff were perceived as very important in colouring the whole experience, particularly in controlling the feelings of embarrassment, which was critical for all procedures. Information provision was also an important determinant of experience. Verbal feedback was most common during colonoscopy and invariably reassuring. However, patients undergoing CTC received little visual or verbal feedback and were often confused regarding the test outcome. Barium enema had no specific advantage over other tests. Qualitative interviews provided important perspectives on patient experience. Our data demonstrated that models describing the quality of medical encounters are applicable to single diagnostic episodes. Staff interactions and information provision were particularly important. We found advantages specific to both CTC and colonoscopy but none for barium enema. CTC could benefit greatly from improved information provision following examination. PMID:18824501

  12. Spiral CT of the abdomen after distention of small bowel loops with transparent enema in patients with Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Rollandi; P. F. Curone; E. Biscaldi; F. Nardi; E. Bonifacino; R. Conzi; L. E. Derchi

    1999-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the capability of a computed tomographic (CT) technique that combines distention of the small bowel loops with\\u000a a transparent enema with contrast-enhanced spiral CT of the abdomen in patients with Crohn's disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We evaluated the abdomen with spiral CT after distention of the small bowel loops with a transparent enema of methylcellulose\\u000a in 40 patients consecutively

  13. CONFIDENTIAL Wits University RFI -Fleet Management 1 November 2012

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Stephan

    CONFIDENTIAL Wits University RFI - Fleet Management 1 November 2012 University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg RFI No: FLEET/01/2012 Fleet Management Request For Information (RFI) November 2012 Issued by: ___________________________________________________ #12;CONFIDENTIAL Wits University RFI - Fleet Management 2 November 2012 Table of Contents 1. OVERVIEW

  14. [A case of the latex-induced anaphylaxis by contact with barium enema catheter].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Sayuri; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2004-01-01

    The subject was a 34-year-old female with asthma and atopic dermatitis who had previously undergone a Cesarean section. In December 1995, the patient had an acute abdominal pain, so she underwent a barium enema examination. During the procedure, severe anaphylactic shock developed, and the examination was stopped. The patient responded well to appropriate emergency therapy, and her symptoms were resolved. However, the woman visited our outpatient clinic because the symptoms of her atopic dermatitis got worse. She indicated that she felt itchy when using rubber gloves. Also, at the age of thirty, she had urticaria and dyspnea after drinking a glass of fruit juice. Subsequently radioallergosorbent testing demonstrated the presence of specific IgEs against latex, banana, kiwi, grapefruit, and avocado. Skin prick tests were positive for banana, grapefruit, avocado, and latex extract at a dilution of 1:1000. A scratch test was positive to an extract of a balloon catheter which included 0.3 microg/g latex proteins by the LEAP method. In conclusion, the patient was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis to the latex contained in a balloon catheter used for the barium enema. PMID:14762330

  15. Stochastic ship fleet routing with inventory limits 

    E-print Network

    Yu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a stochastic ship routing problem with inventory management. The problem involves finding a set of least costs routes for a fleet of ships transporting a single commodity when the demand for ...

  16. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  17. Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1: The Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1 aircraft were used as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. This N2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note that the vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA work. This N2Y was used for landing gear tests.

  18. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  19. MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:22167505

  20. Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

  1. 40 CFR 86.418-78 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.418-78 Test fleet selection. (a) Test fleet selection and requirements on test...

  2. 40 CFR 86.418-78 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.418-78 Test fleet selection. (a) Test fleet selection and requirements on test...

  3. Some fleet routing and scheduling problems for air transportation systems

    E-print Network

    Levin, Amos

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to formulate and develop practicable solution methods to some important fleet routing, scheduling and fleet composition problems. These problems arise in the operation of air transportation ...

  4. Fleet Management Warren B. Powell and Huseyin Topaloglu

    E-print Network

    Topaloglu, Huseyin

    The fleet management problem, in its simplest form, involves managing fleets of equipment to meet customerFleet Management Warren B. Powell and Huseyin Topaloglu June, 2002 Department of Operations requests as they evolve over time. The equipment might be containers which hold freight (ocean containers

  5. Course Outline RC-389/589; FLEET RISK CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    to effectively minimize the risks associated with managing an incidental fleet. Graduate Objective: Audit of a consultant, audit the risk control systems (those that do exist as well as should be in place) on a fleetCourse Outline RC-389/589; FLEET RISK CONTROL THREE CREDITS RISK CONTROL CENTER UNIVERSITY

  6. [Warm saline enema for reduction of intestinal invagination under the ultrasonographic guidance: preliminary results apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Cisse, R; Wandaogo, A; Bandre, E; Lougue, C; Tapsoba, T L; Sano, D; Traore, S S; Kirakoya, B; Bonkoungou, G; Sanou, A

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe the use of isotonic normal saline enema under US guidance in the treatment of acute uncomplicated intestinal intussusception in infants. The technique was successfully used in two patients aged respectively 18 and 16 months, with 11 and 9-month follow-up. The various steps of this technique and the results are analyzed and discussed. It is a valuable alternative to surgical treatment or hydrostatic reduction with opaque x-ray contrast under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:11894553

  7. Characteristics of the Texas Shrimp Fleet, 197982

    E-print Network

    Characteristics of the Texas Shrimp Fleet, 1979·82 JUDITH T KRAUTHAMER, WILLIAM E. GRANT, and WADE L. GRIFFIN Introduction The shrimp fishery is the most valu- able commercial fishery in Texas. In the inshore sector fishermen har- vest small, juvenile brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, P

  8. University Fleet Procedures Category: Human Resources

    E-print Network

    provides and maintains a fleet of vehicles as part of a range of transport options available for use by staff in the conduct of their University duties. 2.2. The University provides efficient logistical support and servicing of the University's transport needs which minimises the use of privately owned motor

  9. Fleet DNA Project Data Summary Report (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Burton, E.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation includes graphical data summaries that highlight statistical trends for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating in a variety of vocations. It offers insight for the development of vehicle technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emission.

  10. Mobile Internet Acces in FleetNet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Bechler; Walter J. Franz; Lars C. Wolf

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Inter - vehicle communication systems play an important role in future road communication scenarios like FleetNet For such communication scenar - ios, ad hoc networks offer a promising approach due to their characteristics such as low latency and cost efficiency While multi - hop ad hoc network com - munication among vehicles provides for many interesting and important appli

  11. How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.

    PubMed

    Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

    2004-04-01

    In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars. PMID:15077372

  12. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  13. Pirenzepine versus scopolamine methyl bromide in double-contrast barium enema study of large bowel.

    PubMed

    Marraccini, P; Braccini, G; Marrucci, A; Boraschi, P; Bertellotti, L; Testa, R

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of pirenzepine for diagnostic double-contrast barium enema study of the large bowel, pirenzepine and scopolamine methyl bromide (SMB) were compared in a single, blind, randomized trial. Sixty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Quantitative analysis of bowel distention was done by measuring the maximum diameter of the transverse colon before and after drug administration. Four independent observers blindly evaluated distention and mucosal coating of the large bowel and global quality of the images. No differences were found in the diagnostic performance between the two drugs. However, pirenzepine induced a slight but significantly larger distention of the large bowel (68 +/- 12 vs. 65 +/- 8 mm, p = 0.02). Heart rate and rhythm during the study were recorded by ECG. SMB induced tachycardia in all patients (from 72 +/- 15 to 98 +/- 24 beats/min, p < 0.01), whereas pirenzepine did not (from 76 +/- 13 to 78 +/- 20, p = NS). After SMB, one-patient exhibited faintness, and some patients complained of visual accommodation defects, dryness of the mouth, and dizziness. Pirenzepine had a diagnostic performance similar to SMB in avoiding adverse effects elicited by SMB. PMID:8661571

  14. Mobile Internet Access in FleetNet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Bechler; Walter J. Franz; Lars Wolf; DaimlerChrysler AG

    Inter-vehicle communication systems play an important role in future road communication scenarios like FleetNet. For such communication scenar- ios, ad hoc networks offer a promising approach due to their characteristics such as low latency and cost efficiency. While multi-hop ad hoc network com- munication among vehicles provides for many interesting and important appli- cations (e.g., traveling safety, smoothed traffic flow),

  15. Low Volume Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy: Randomized, Endoscopist-Blinded Trial of Liquid Sodium Phosphate Versus Tablet Sodium Phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Balaban; Byrd S. Leavell; Michael J. Oblinger; William O. Thompson; Nancy D. Bolton; Daniel J. Pambianco

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare the colon-cleansing effectiveness, ease of consumption, and side effect profiles of two commercially available preparations of sodium phosphate: liquid Fleet Phospho-soda and Visicol tablets.METHODS:Outpatients undergoing elective colonoscopy were sequentially randomized to one of two preparation groups: liquid: 45 ml at 7:00 PM, 45 ml 3 h before colonoscopy; or tablet: 20 tablets

  16. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

  17. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  18. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  19. Rebampide enema therapy as a treatment for patients with chronic radiation proctitis: initial treatment or when other methods of conservative management have failed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Oh Kim; Geun Am Song; Sun Mi Lee; Gwang Ha Kim; Jeong Heo; Dae Hwan Kang; Mong Cho

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Radiation proctitis is a common complication following radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies. There have been no formal\\u000a trials of treatment for radiation proctitis and a variety of methods are currently used. We assessed the efficacy of rebamipide\\u000a enema to control symptoms and proctoscopic findings from radiation proctitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fifteen patients with radiation proctitis were enrolled. Enemas containing 150 mg rebamipide

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Consolidations into a fleet management system. (a) All...area of an established fleet management system and other related equipment and supplies shall, when...responsibility of the fleet management system. Those vehicles...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Consolidations into a fleet management system. (a) All...area of an established fleet management system and other related equipment and supplies shall, when...responsibility of the fleet management system. Those vehicles...

  2. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162...270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. ...National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of...

  3. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162...270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. ...National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of...

  4. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162...270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. ...National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of...

  5. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162...270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. ...National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of...

  6. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162...270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. ...National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of...

  7. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study AGENCY...Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. The...participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study...

  8. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...will enforce Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels Security Zones from 12...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships. The Designated...

  9. Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

  10. Vehicular data acquisition system for fleet management automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Aljaafreh; Majdi Khalel; Islam Al-Fraheed; Kafa Almarahleh; Rwan Al-Shwaabkeh; Saja Al-Etawi; Waed Shaqareen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicular data acquisition and analysis system for fleet management automation. It exploits On- Board Diagnostic (OBD), GPS, RFID, and WiFi technologies. Although many systems currently integrate position tracking, OBD and wireless networking to allow for remote position tracking and remote diagnostic system, few systems provide the capability to automate the fleet management process. This paper describes

  11. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET

    E-print Network

    56 SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET CONCENTRATIONS ON THE TORTUGAS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum Acknowledgments 3 Methods and materials 3 Vessels and gear 3 Observations of fleet activity 5 Shrimp discards 6

  12. Biofuels, Climate Policy, and the European Vehicle Fleet

    E-print Network

    Biofuels, Climate Policy, and the European Vehicle Fleet Xavier Gitiaux, Sebastian Rausch, Sergey on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Abstract We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate incorporates current generation biofuels, accounts for stock turnover of the vehicle fleets, disaggregates

  13. Learning program helps win national fleet wargame tournament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Lenat

    1982-01-01

    During the month of June 1981, the EURISKO program was set the task of exploring the design of naval fleets conforming to a body of (several hundreds of) rules and constraints as set forward in Traveller: The Trillion Credit Squadron. EURISKO designed a fleet of ships suitable for entry in the 1981 Origins national wargame tournament, held at Dunfey's Hotel,

  14. How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanjun Li; Christopher Timmins; Roger H. von Haefen

    2009-01-01

    Exploiting a rich dataset of passenger vehicle registrations in 20 US MSAs from 1997 to 2005, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on the automotive fleet's composition. We find that high gasoline prices affect fleet fuel economy through two channels: shifting new auto purchases towards more fuel-efficient vehicles, and speeding the scrappage of older, less fuel-efficient used vehicles. Policy

  15. How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanjun Li; Roger von Haefen; Christopher Timmins

    2008-01-01

    Exploiting a rich data set of passenger vehicle registrations in twenty U.S. metropolitan statistical areas from 1997 to 2005, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on the automotive fleet's composition. We find that high gasoline prices affect fleet fuel economy through two channels: (1) shifting new auto purchases towards more fuel-efficient vehicles, and (2) speeding the scrappage of older,

  16. A HEURISTIC COLUMN GENERATION METHOD FOR THE HETEROGENEOUS FLEET VRP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Éric D. Taillard

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic column generation method for solving vehicle routing problems with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles.The method may also solve the fleet size and composition vehicle routing problem and new best known solutions are reported for a set of classical problems. Numerical results show that the method is robust and efficient, particularly for medium and large size

  17. TOXICITY STUDIES ON TANNIC ACID ADMINISTERED BY ENEMA* II. THE COLONIC ABSORPTION AND INTRAPERITONEAL TOXICITY OF TANNIC ACID AND ITS HYDROLYTIC PRODUCTS IN RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILLIP A. HARRIS; F. FRANK ZBORALSKE; OSCAR N. RAMBO; ALEXANDER R. MARGULIS; SIDNEY RIEGELMAN

    ration for roentgenologic examination or after incorporation in the barium enema. Since gastrointestinal absorption must have preceded hepatotoxicity, the condi- tions necessary for absorption are of inter- est. Unfortunately, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract has been poorly de- fined, largely due to the lack of adequate methods to detect intact tannic acid in biologic fluids and to distinguish it from

  18. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA (France); Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M. [COGEMA LOGISTICS - AREVA Group (France)

    2006-07-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the NAFA fleet data base: passenger cars only

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, D.

    1980-09-01

    To assess the potential market penetration of new vehicular concepts, it is first necessary to determine the current level of demand in terms of physical capabilities and economic constraints. The survey described in this report attempts to measure these characteristics for the fleet market sector in the U.S. The data analyzed come from a survey taken in March 1979 of members of the National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Each respondent was asked to specify a set of characteristics for electric cars that would meet his specific fleet demands and assign the maximum price he would be willing to pay for each option. From the 139 responses, it is possible to relate the physical specifications of fleet vehicles to economic utility. Two other reports (BNL-51286; BNL-51312) deal with the simulator (CPEN) which was designed by BNL to estimate market penetration rates of new technologies in the fleet market, using the data base described within this report: Joseph R. Wagner, A Method for Estimating TeA methodhnological Penetration Rates in Commercial Automobile Fleets, BNL 51312, May 1980, and Richard Weil, Fleet Car Market Penetration Simulator (CPEN): A User's Guide, BNL 51286, August 1980.

  20. Utility fleet managers face mounting regulatory and technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1993-09-01

    Utility fleet managers have a lot on their minds lately. Equipment procurement, productivity, maintenance and life cycle administration are just a few of the issues confronting fleet managers in their day-to-day operations. What may be challenging them most, however, is a maze of regulatory requirements punctuated by recent environmental and alternate fuel legislation. This article describes the various alternative fuels for use by fleet managers, the regulatory requirements of the Clean Air Act and Energy Policy Act of 1992, and the advantages and disadvantages of the various fuels. The fuels considered are liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, alcohol fuels, and electricity. 1 fig.

  1. Maintaining the safety of an aging fleet of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggard, Amos W.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of the Douglas Aging Fleet is examined in light of increasing concern for the possibility of the onset of widespread cracking and recent industry activity to minimize the concern. A fleet monitoring program together with an augmented maintenance program is proposed as a possible means to reduce the concern. Six candidate options for maintenance program augmentation are examined which have been shown to be effective in detection of widespread fatigue damage. A brief example of how this system might be applied to the DC-9 Fleet is presented.

  2. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 1, summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

  3. Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet

    E-print Network

    Rausch, Sebastian

    We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

  4. Network design and fleet allocation model for vessel operation

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiaojing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Containership operators in the U.S. are confronted with a number of problems in the way they make critical fleet allocation decisions to meet the increase of shippers' demands. Instead of the empirical approach, this ...

  5. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Section 610.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.32 Test fleet...

  6. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator may require additional test...

  7. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator may require additional test...

  8. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator may require additional test...

  9. The origin of the lost fleet of the mongol empire 

    E-print Network

    Sasaki, Randall James

    2009-05-15

    bottomed vessels made along the Yangtze River; and flat bottomed landing craft from Korea. In the recent past, the remains of the fleet were discovered at the Takashima underwater site in western Japan, unveiling numerous artifacts including weaponry...

  10. Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator: CPEN user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates of alternative passenger cars that can be described in terms of specific physical and economic attributes. The data were derived from questionnaires distributed to fleet operators affiliated with National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Besides the NAFA data, CPEN uses 48 variables that are interactively inserted. Complete data-input descriptions are included in the manual along with algorithm and application flowcharts. Examples of complete successful simulator runs are included for alternative program paths. A listing of the computer program and a glossary for CPEN are included.

  11. Dynamic incentive scheme for rental vehicle fleet management

    E-print Network

    Zhou, SiZhi

    2012-01-01

    Mobility on Demand is a new transportation paradigm aimed to provide sustainable transportation in urban settings with a fleet of electric vehicles. Usage scenarios prpopsed by Mobility on Demand systems must allow one-way ...

  12. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasna Tomi?; Willett Kempton

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important

  13. Evaluation of fleet systems model for vehicle compatibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. van der Zweep; G. Kellendonk; P. Lemmen

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of NHTSA, the European Commission, and the Dutch Ministry of Traffic and Transport, the Safety department of TNO Automotive is performing numerical fleet studies using multi-body models. Aim is to develop strategies for optimisation and evaluating the effects in new vehicles based on proposed test procedures to minimise the total harm in car-to-car crashes on a fleet-wide basis.

  14. National Federal Fleet Loaner Program, Interim Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward

    2000-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loaner Program is to increase the awareness, deployment, and use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Federal fleets. The Loaner Program accomplishes this by providing free EVs to Federal fleets on a loaner basis, generally for 1 or 2 months. The Program partners DOE with six electric utilities, with DOE providing financial support and some leads on Federal fleets interested in obtaining EVs. The utilities obtain the vehicles, identify candidate loaner fleets, loan the vehicles, provide temporary charging infrastructure, provide overall support to participating Federal fleets, and support fleets with their leasing decisions. While the utilities have not had the success initially envisioned by themselves, DOE, the Edison Electric Institute, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, the utilities can not be faulted for their efforts, as they are not the entity that makes the ultimate lease or no-lease decision. Some external groups have suggested to DOE that they direct other federal agencies to change their processes to make loaning vehicles easier; this is simply not within the power of DOE. By law, a certain percentage of all new vehicle acquisitions are supposed to be alternative fuel vehicles (AFV); however, with no enforcement, the federal agencies are not compelled to lease AFVs such as electric vehicles.

  15. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

  16. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  17. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wolfram, James H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  18. The Art of the First Fleet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Natural History Museum of London website features an online collection of some of the artworks that were created by the members of the First Fleet, the group of nine ships that set sail from Portsmouth to establish a colony in New South Wales, Australia. The artworks are considered to be "outstanding drawings of aboriginal people, the environment and wildlife found on arrival as well as of the early foundation of the colony." Bird lovers out there will find this collection quite a treat, as there are a slew of drawings of birds. Mammal lovers will get to see drawings that are some of the only know record of species that have become extinct since 1788. The drawings are divided up into four different topics, "Natural History", "Ethnography", "Topography", and "History", and can be accessed by their links on the homepage. Each topic can be viewed as a "list" or "gallery", with the gallery view providing thumbnails and the title, and the list providing the title and the name of the artist. Once visitors have chosen a drawing to view, they can click on it to see the dimensions and date of the drawings, as well as an enlarged image of the drawing. Those with interest in more details, such as the donor of the drawing or where it's held at the Museum, should click on "show notes". The "interactive enlargement" link below the image allows visitors to zoom and pan within the image.

  19. Thermosynthesis of Anhydrous Phosphates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Konstant

    1990-01-01

    Thermosynthesis is a direct and, in the majority of cases, a shorter way of obtaining anhydrous phosphates. In the present paper oxides (carbonates) of multivalent metals and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were used as initial components. However, the complicated and incessantly changing composition of decomposition products of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate in a wide temperature range virtually excludes the possibility to investigate

  20. Topical administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis. Studies on rectal absorption and excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Campieri, M; Lanfranchi, G A; Boschi, S; Brignola, C; Bazzocchi, G; Gionchetti, P; Minguzzi, M R; Belluzzi, A; Labò, G

    1985-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a new treatment for patients suffering from ulcerative colitis but only limited information is available about its rectal absorption. We therefore studied seven patients with ulcerative colitis in remission, and five with active disease to determine acetylated and free 5-ASA plasma concentrations and urinary acetyl 5-ASA after the administration of three different types of enemas: (2 g 5-ASA/100 ml, 4 g/100 ml, and 200 ml). In patients in remission urinary acetyl 5-ASA excretion was dose and volume dependent (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.05) but this correlation was absent in active disease. Because aminosalicylates are usually eliminated through the kidney, these low values (10% in active disease and 19% in those in remission) suggest that the beneficial action may be local. Urinary recovery was significantly lower in patients with active disease (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.02). No accumulation of 5-ASA was found in plasma after repeated daily administration. PMID:3979912

  1. Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate for the OASIS ASV system and allows for independent development and testing of higher-level software components. The Platform Communicator acts as a proxy for both actual and simulated platforms. It translates platform-independent messages from the higher control systems to the device-dependent communication protocols. This enables the higher-level control systems to interact identically with heterogeneous actual or simulated platforms.

  2. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  3. Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  4. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section...United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to...United States Postal Service substitute clean-fuel vehicle program, as allowed...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

  8. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey...in the form of a one-time survey of medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers...be issued at time of approval. Title: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet...

  9. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into, transit...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone...

  10. 77 FR 5747 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

  11. 76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored following...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and will do so by...

  12. 77 FR 40521 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

  13. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...USCG-2012-0146] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast...Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during 2012 Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012...

  14. 75 FR 71638 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This supplemental notice of proposed...NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot...

  15. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay...The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone...will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ...USCG-2012-0787] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port...23'27'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191,...

  17. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY...during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010...and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in...

  18. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week and will do so by prohibiting any person...vessels in the 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week event. Basis and Purpose Seattle's...

  19. 76 FR 47996 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction...participating the 2011 Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week. This document corrects the list of visiting...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored...

  20. How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

  1. Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing for Fleets Functionalities

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing for Fleets Functionalities §Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing + Calculate route based on historical traffic pattern + Find the best start time of delivery §Time-Dependent Window Vehicle Routing + Decision making and economical routing + Decide the appropriate time

  2. A Parallelizable Dynamic Fleet Management Model with Random Travel Times

    E-print Network

    Topaloglu, Huseyin

    A Parallelizable Dynamic Fleet Management Model with Random Travel Times Huseyin Topaloglu June 24 with random travel times. Our approach decomposes the problem into time-staged subproblems by formulating it as a dynamic program and uses approximations of the value function. In order to deal with random travel times

  3. Fleet Programming Paradigms Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Parallelism 3.1 Background The single program, multiple data (SPMD) model of parallelism is very common the application of three parallel programming paradigms on Fleet [4]: single program, multiple data (SPMD these data streams1 , and they can be run concurrently. The streaming model is conceptually similar to using

  4. Upgrading the US Space Shuttle fleet with a new \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Marchant; D. Eastin; R. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    As the space shuttle program celebrates its 20th anniversary of human space flight, work is underway to develop a major Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) for the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter fleet. The Command and Display Processing Subsystem (CDPS) represents the third generation of display avionics for the orbiters and builds upon the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) or \\

  5. Vincent J. Walls, Jr. Deputy Director, Fleet Readiness Division

    E-print Network

    allocation for Fleet readiness program portfolio which approximates $19 Billion. Programs include ship' professional career began in 1982 at the Defense Industrial Supply Center, an Inventory Control Point portfolio management Mr. Walls earned a Bachelor of Science in Business Management from the University

  6. Automated Mission Planning for a Fleet of Micro Air Vehicules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Selim Huard; Nicolas Barnier

    2007-01-01

    The ENAC University is using and developping the Paparazzi UAV system, which aims to provide a free and fully autonomous autopilot for a fleet of MAV, including fixed wing and rotary wing MAVs. The Paparazzi project has now succeeded in providing a fully autonomous navigation system for multiple fixed-wing aircraft system. One of the main concern of the project is

  7. Fatal accidents in the Icelandic fishing fleet 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hjoervar, Tryggvi; Snorrason, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes how the Icelandic fleet increased from 1980 to 2005, as well as the number of fishermen employed in the various sections of the fleet. All categories of the fleet have increased considerably in tonnage, while the number of fishermen has declined. At the same time the catch per man-year at sea has increased, rendering the Icelandic fisheries among the most efficient in the world in terms of catch and value per manpower. The number of fatalities in the Icelandic fisheries has declined steadily in this period. In absolute numbers these accidents are most common on decked vessels under 45m, but when weighed against man-years, fishermen on open boats are in greatest danger of losing their lives. The most common cause of fatalities is foundering of the vessel, which may cause multiple fatalities, then is man-over-board, followed by drowning in harbour and miscellaneous accidents. The reduction in the number of fatal accidents at sea may have several reasons. Mandatory safety and survival training of all fishermen, improved working conditions at sea, better telecommunications, constant VMS surveillance and a 24hr availability of airborne rescue teams have all helped to reduce fatalities in the Icelandic fishing fleet from 1980 until 2005. PMID:18350975

  8. Space policy and the size of the space shuttle fleet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Neal

    2004-01-01

    During the space shuttle era, policy makers have repeatedly wrestled with the issue of fleet size. The number of shuttles had both practical and symbolic significance, reflecting the robustness of the space transportation system and US preeminence in space. In debating how many shuttles were needed, NASA and other government entities weighed various arguments to determine the optimum number of

  9. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    E-print Network

    isn't new. More than 100 years ago, all- electric vehicles (EVs) held much of the U.S. car marketPlug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Choosing Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Photo from

  10. PHOSPHATE ABSORPTION IN EELGRASS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter McRoy; Robert J. Barsdate

    The absorption of phosphate by eelgrass (Zostera marina L. ) was studied using 32P in a partitioned container where leaves were separated from roots and rhizomes. Absorption, which was greatest in the light, occurred through both leaves and roots, and the absorbed phosphorus was transported rapidly to all parts of the plant. It therefore appears that eelgrass can use phosphate

  11. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  12. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Ahdieh, N.; Bentley, J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  13. Morphologic and morphometric analyses of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats after treatment with enemas from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira do Sertão).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Regadas, F Sérgio P; Matos, Délcio; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2002-05-01

    The present work showed the effects of Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All., popularly known as 'aroeira' (AE), in the form of enemas prepared from the stem bark, on several morphologic and morphometric parameters after acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Enemas from 5-ASA were used as standard while the vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose, was used as a control. The results of the morphological evaluation showed that on day 1 acetic acid produced significantly more necrosis in the groups treated with AE (10% and 20%) or 5-ASA than the controls. However, on day 60, there were more caliciform and absorptive cells in the treated groups compared with the controls. A significantly higher number of eosinophil and mononuclear cells and also collagen deposition in the controls compared with the treated groups were observed on day 60. However, a higher number of polymorphonuclear cells was detected on day 60 only in the AE treated group but not in the 5-ASA group. These data indicate that animals treated with AE or 5-ASA showed complete epithelial tissue regeneration, while in the controls chronic inflammatory exudate persisted and tissue regeneration occurred through fibrosis. PMID:12164275

  14. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  15. SIMONE: A fleet of Near-Earth Object rendezvous microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. F.; Wells, N. S.; Ball, A. J.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Perozzi, E.; Townend, M.; Walker, R. G.; Zarnecki, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The SIMONE (Spacecraft Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth) concept has recently been developed as part of an ESA-funded study (Near Earth Objects Space Mission Preparation). The SIMONE study, led by QinetiQ, with scientific aspects led by the Open University's Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, is to help understand the diversity of the NEO population using a fleet of microsatellite-class (~120 kg) interplanetary spacecraft with solar electric propulsion. The low cost approach (<50 MEuro for the first and 30 MEuro for subsequent spacecraft) allows a fleet of spacecraft to be deployed for the budget of a typical interplanetary mission. Each spacecraft will rendezvous with a different Near-Earth Object to perform key physical, morphological and compositional measurements relevant to NEO risk assessment as well as scientific investigation. We present the main features of the spacecraft design, measurement objectives, payload, target NEOs and mission operations.

  16. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Dimitriou; P. Sharfstein; M. Ignaszewski; M. Clancy

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http:\\/\\/www.fnmoc.navy.mil\\/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the

  17. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  18. Osteoinduction by calcium phosphate biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huipin Yuan; Zongjian Yang; Yubao Li; Xingdong Zhang; J. D. De Bruijn; K. De Groot

    1998-01-01

    Different materials were implanted in muscles of dogs to study the osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials. Bone formation was only seen in calcium phosphate biomaterials with micropores, and could be found in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic, tricalcium phosphate\\/hydroxyapatite ceramic (BCP), ß-TCP ceramic and calcium phosphate cement. The osteoinductive potential was different in different materials. The results indicate that osteoinduction can be

  19. The Federal Methanol Fleet: Summary of technical data

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.; Graves, R.L.; West, B.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated in 1985 with an appropriation from the US Congress, is now in its final stages of operation. A great deal has been learned while vehicles have accumulated approximately 1.4 million miles (2.2 million kilometers) in routine government fleet service. This paper summarizes those results that are technical in nature and that reveal the status of methanol engine technology. Specifically, results from emissions test, special lubricant tests, and cold-starting experiments are reported herein. Emissions control systems in methanol vehicles were found generally to decline somewhat in performance over time as compared to their gasoline counterpart vehicles, although this was not universally true. The severe effects on methanol engine lubricant performance resulting from cold-engine, short-trip service was demonstrated in a series of special tests of two cars, methanol and gasoline, in side-by-side service. Methanol fleet vehicles incorporated a variety of approaches to the cold-start problem -- ranging from no special engineering or systems to sophisticated systems designed to overcome the problem entirely. Cold-start systems specially designed for these vehicles did not perform as well as had been expected, probably because they were early prototype versions and were subject to some early, unforeseen problems.

  20. Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay, Abraham; OBrien, Eugene; Kroese, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model which aims to reproduce the mean and variance of dynamic loading of the truck fleet at a given site is developed here. This probabilistic model reflects the range and frequency of the different heavy trucks on the road and their dynamic properties. Multiple Sensor Weigh-in-Motion data can be used to calibrate the model. Truck properties such as suspension stiffness, suspension damping, sprung mass, unsprung mass and tyre stiffness are represented as randomly varying parameters in the fleet model. It is used to predict the statistical distribution of dynamic load at each measurement point. The concept is demonstrated by using a pre-defined truck fleet to calculate a pattern of statistical spatial repeatability and is tested by using that pattern to find the truck statistical properties that generated it.

  1. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  2. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  3. Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate 

    E-print Network

    Fine, Steven Beryl

    1980-01-01

    of y and u- zirconium phosphate 4 A plot of the interlayer spacing versus the number of moles of propylene oxide reactive in y-zirconium 2-hydroxyl-1-propyl phosphate. 5 The proposed interlayer structure of y-zirconium 1-phenyl phosphate, . 6 A... of hydration. Amines can be inter- calated into zirconium phosphate, spreading the layers apart. The success of amine intercalation lead researchers to believe that zirconium phosphate might react with other organic compounds. Because ethylene oxide, 1, 2...

  4. Evolution of the household vehicle fleet: Anticipating fleet composition, PHEV adoption and GHG emissions in Austin, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sashank Musti; Kara M. Kockelman

    2011-01-01

    In today’s world of volatile fuel prices and climate concerns, there is little study on the relationship between vehicle ownership patterns and attitudes toward vehicle cost (including fuel prices and feebates) and vehicle technologies. This work provides new data on ownership decisions and owner preferences under various scenarios, coupled with calibrated models to microsimulate Austin’s personal-fleet evolution.Opinion survey results suggest

  5. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

  6. Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

  7. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Electric vehicles in fleet operation at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.O.; Ostrowski, G.J.

    1982-06-01

    Detroit Edison operates a fleet of 24 electric cars in a cost-sharing demonstration program with the United States Department of Energy. The program features a unique lease program in which electric passenger cars are used by Detroit Edison employees for their personal driving needs, such as commuting to work, shopping, etc. Over 50,000 miles have been logged on the 24 cars during the first six months of operation. The project began in June, 1981. This paper describes the lease program and the Electric Car Service Center, charging stations and other facilities which Detroit Edison has set up to support the program.

  9. 33 CFR 165.1330 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington...Coast Guard District § 165.1330 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1330 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington...Coast Guard District § 165.1330 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington....

  11. 33 CFR 165.1330 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington...Coast Guard District § 165.1330 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington....

  12. 76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...MARAD-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction AGENCY: Maritime...inform the Maritime Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. MARAD inadvertently...

  13. Modelling the Spatial Behaviour of a Tropical Tuna Purse Seine Fleet

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tim K.; Mees, Chris C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures). PMID:25462165

  14. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: the waters of...

  15. 76 FR 30014 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This safety zone is necessary to promote...typically occurs on a Wednesday during the last week of July or the first week in August...

  16. Coordinated Control of an Underwater Glider Fleet in an Adaptive Ocean Sampling Field Experiment

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    Coordinated Control of an Underwater Glider Fleet in an Adaptive Ocean Sampling Field Experiment results for the heterogeneous fleet of autonomous underwater gliders that collected data continuously throughout the month-long experiment. Six of these gliders were coordinated autonomously for 24 days straight

  17. Coordination and Control of UAV Fleets using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Saunders Bellingham

    2002-01-01

    Abstract This thesis considers two important topics in the coordination and control of fleets of UAVs; the allocation and trajectory design problems The first allocates waypoints to individual vehicles in the fleet, and includes constraints on vehicle capability, waypoint visitation, and visit timing Formulations of the allocation problem are presented to find minimum mission completion time and maximum stochastic expectation

  18. (c) 2004 F. Estrada & A. Jepson & D. Fleet Local Features Tutorial: Nov. 8, '04

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Francisco

    . Jepson & D. Fleet SIFT features Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is an approach for detecting Features from Scale Invariant Features', International Journal of Computer Vision, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2004, pp(c) 2004 F. Estrada & A. Jepson & D. Fleet Local Features Tutorial: Nov. 8, '04 Local Features

  19. Economic costs and environmental impacts of alternative fuel vehicle fleets in local government: An interim assessment

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Economic costs and environmental impacts of alternative fuel vehicle fleets in local government provides little understanding of the implementation issues associated with alternative fuel vehicles fleet to alternative fuel vehicle technologies by a public organization at the mid-point of the project

  20. Applying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle Transport in a

    E-print Network

    for vehicle stock, fuel use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This method is implemented in the MITApplying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle Transport in a Computable://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Applying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle

  1. An approach for measuring the optimal fleet capacity: Evidence from the container shipping lines in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Ming Wu

    2009-01-01

    Excess capacity emerges as a persistent problem in the shipping industry and plays an essential role in determining the level of ocean freight. Consequently, the optimal fleet capacity has become a critical and frequently discussed issue within the container shipping industry. In practice, the designed capacity of a vessel is the most popular approach for measuring the fleet capacity for

  2. Solving the aerial fleet refueling problem using group theoretic tabu search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M Ryer

    2004-01-01

    The aerial fleet refueling problem (AFRP) is concerned with the efficient and effective use of a heterogeneous set of tanker (refueling) aircraft, located at diverse geographical locations, in the required operations associated with the deployment of a diverse fleet of military aircraft to a foreign theater of activity. Typically, the “receiving” aircraft must traverse great distances over large bodies of

  3. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  4. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. 80.62 Section 80.62 ...place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. One of the two following test...place them within the emitter group sub-fleets in accordance with the...

  5. 75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA AGENCY: Coast...Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict vessel...spectators and participants attending Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Delaying the...

  6. 77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration...and City of San Francisco sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight...the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels...

  7. Efficient Heuristics for the Heterogeneous Fleet Multitrip VRP with Application to a Large-Scale Real Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Prins

    2002-01-01

    The basic Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) consists of computing a set of trips of minimum total cost, to deliver fixed amounts of goods to customers with a fleet of identical vehicles. Few papers address the case with several types of vehicles (heterogeneous fleet). Most of them assume an unlimited number of vehicles of each type, to dimension the fleet from

  8. An optimization method for condition based maintenance of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiang; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

  9. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huipin Yuan; KLAAS DE GROOT

    Calcium phosphates are used by our body to build bones and are being applied to produce biomaterials for bone repair. It is\\u000a well-known that calcium phosphate biomaterials guide new bone formation, form a tight bond with the newly formed bone, and\\u000a are therefore, by definition, osteoconductive. Besides their osteoconductive property, it was found that calcium phosphate\\u000a biomaterials, only with specific

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01... Notice of establishment of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section...104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section...105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  12. Mobile-Source Emissions: Analysis of Spatial Variability in Vehicle Activity Patterns and Vehicle Fleet Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie Malcolm; Theodore Younglove; Matthew Barth; Nicole Davis

    2003-01-01

    Accurate estimation of emissions from mobile sources requires a good understanding of the vehicle activity as well as on-road vehicle fleet characteristics. Spatial variability in both vehicle activity patterns and vehicle fleet composition can have a significant effect on the overall emissions inventory. Simply determining total vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) is not sufficient for emission inventory calculations from the new generation of

  13. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. Recent advances in phosphate glass fiber lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schulzgen; L. Li; X. Zhu; J. Albert; N. Peyghambarian

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate glasses are excellent host materials for lasers using rare-earth ion transitions. Combining highly-doped phosphate glasses and advanced fiber drawing techniques, we developed phosphate glass fiber lasers and will review recent advances in their performance.

  7. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    PubMed

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine. PMID:23288614

  8. Liquefied natural gas experience of a large transit fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Pentz, R. [Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority (METRO) is the mass transit authority for an area of 1,275 square miles and a population of 3.5 million. METRO is organized as an independent authority responsible to an appointed board of directors. METRO operates over 1,160 buses which use approximately 2,000 miles of bus routes. Each year METRO provides over 60 million passenger trips. The low cost to the customer can only be achieved through aggressive cost control and efficient operation with effective equipment maintenance and availability. METRO utilizes approximately nine million gallons of diesel fuel per year. Fuel costs are approximately 4.5% of operating costs equivalent to approximately $.18 cents per mile. METRO has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of LNG fuel usage for a centrally refueled fleet. This pioneering effort used the free market and intense cooperation with suppliers to create an LNG supply where there was none, convert theoretical concepts to on the road hardware and mobilize a large organization to accommodate a drastic change in operations. Experience leads them to recommend others considering this approach to fully commit their own resources to the tasks, cooperate and exchange information openly with all concerned and only accept project participants which have the competence and resources to persevere through developments.

  9. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Karen; Evans, Todd; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin. In vertebrates, S1P is secreted into the extracellular environment and signals via G protein-coupled S1P receptors to regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, and thereby influence cell migration, differentiation and survival. The expression and localization of S1P receptors is dynamically regulated and controls vascular development, vessel stability and immune cell trafficking. In addition, crucial events during embryogenesis, such as angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, limb development and neurogenesis, are regulated by S1P signalling. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of S1P signalling in development and in disease. PMID:24346695

  10. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  11. Phosphate base laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Izumitani, T.; Tsuru, M.

    1980-12-16

    A phosphate base laser glass comprising 55-70% P2O5, 1-15% Al2O3, 0-25% Li2O, 0-25% Na2O, 0-8% K2O, the total proportion of Li2O, Na2O, and K2O being 10-25%, 0-15% BaO, 0-15% ZnO, 0-15% CaO , 0-15%, sro, 0-15% MgO, the total proportion of BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and MgO being 5-15%, 0-5% Y2O3, 0-5% La2O3, 0-5% GeO2, 0-5% CeO2, 0-3% Nb2O5, 0-3% MnO2, 0-2% Ta2O5, 0-1% Sb2O3, and 0.01-5% Nd2O3, all % being mole %. The phosphate base laser glass of this invention has a high induced emission cross section, a low non-linear refractive index coefficient, and excellent acid resistance and divitrification resistance. By replacing partially or wholely one or more of LiO2, Na2O, K2O, BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, MgO or Al2O3 by LiF, NaF, KF , BaF2ZnF2, CaF2, SrF2, MgF2 or AlF3, respectively, the above properties of the laser glass are further improved.

  12. To learn more about AT&T Fleet Management Solutions, visit www.att.com/fleet-management or have us contact you.

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    and increase company profitability are always goals. But, to reach those goals, companies must determine what understand how a location-based application can help companies with remote workers, remote assets or fleets Thousands of companies are already reaping the benefits of location-based applications. This guide

  13. Phosphate limitation to control biofouling.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Beyer, F; Dahmani, K; Hasan, N; Galjaard, G; Kruithof, J C; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-06-01

    Phosphate limitation as a method to control biofouling of spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied at a full-scale installation fed with extensively pretreated water. The RO installation is characterized by (i) a low feed channel pressure drop increase and (ii) low biomass concentrations in membrane elements at the installation feed side. This installation contrasted sharply with installations fed with less extensively pretreated feed water (and therefore higher phosphate concentrations) experiencing a high-pressure drop increase and high biomass concentrations in lead elements. Membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies showed that low phosphate concentrations (approximately 0.3 microg P L(-1)) in the feed water restricted the pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation, even at high substrate (organic carbon) concentrations. In the MFS under ortho-phosphate limiting conditions, dosing phosphonate based antiscalants caused biofouling while no biofouling was observed when acids or phosphonate-free antiscalants were used. Antiscalant dosage could increase both phosphate and substrate concentrations of the water. Therefore, antiscalant selection may be critical for biofouling control. Since no biofouling was observed at low phosphate concentrations, restricting biomass growth by phosphate limitation may be a feasible approach to control biofouling, even in the presence of high organic carbon levels. PMID:20394959

  14. Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Reilly; Amir S. Alizadeh Naderi

    2010-01-01

    Inherited diseases of renal phosphate handling lead to urinary phosphate wasting and depletion of total body phosphorus stores. Clinical sequelae of inherited disorders that are associated with increased urinary phosphate excretion are deleterious and can lead to abnormal skeletal growth and deformities. This Review describes hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting taking into account developments in our understanding of renal

  15. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  16. Recent advances in phosphate biosensors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2015-07-01

    A number of biosensors have been developed for phosphate analysis particularly, concerning its negative impact within the environmental and biological systems. Enzymatic biosensors comprising either a single or multiple enzymatic system have been extensively used for the direct and indirect analysis of phosphate ions. Furthermore, some non-enzymatic biosensors, such as affinity-based biosensors, provide an alternative analytical approach with a higher selectivity. This article reviews the recent advances in the field of biosensor developed for phosphate estimation in clinical and environmental samples, concerning the techniques involved, and the sensitivity toward phosphate ions. The biosensors have been classified and discussed on the basis of the number of enzymes used to develop the analytical system, and a comparative analysis has been performed. PMID:25808820

  17. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare Earths Rhenium Rubidium Salt Sand and Gravel Platinum Tellurium Bromine Indium Potash Thallium Cadmium Iodine Pumice Thorium Cement Iron Ore Quartz

  18. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare Earths Rhenium Rubidium Salt Sand and Gravel Cadmium Iodine Pumice Thorium Cement Iron Ore Quartz Crystal Tin Cesium Iron and Steel Rare Earths

  19. Taxonomy of phosphate solublizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kämpfer

    Although phosphate solubilizing capabilities seem to be widespread within bacterial taxa, it is surprising, that the description\\u000a of phosphate solubilizing bacteria is restricted to relatively few bacterial genera. Among the bacteria, strains belonging\\u000a to the genus Rhizobium and related organisms have been investigated most extensively until now. In addition, several other organisms belonging to\\u000a taxonomically different and phylogenetic largely unrelated

  20. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  1. Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M

    1979-04-01

    Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was found in flesh tissue of mature fruit of the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. var. Tanaka). The enzyme was purified about 30-fold from the crude extract of the fruit, and was demonstrated to catalyze sorbitol-6-phosphate + NADP right harpoon over left harpoon glucose-6-phosphate + NADPH. The optimal pH values for sorbitol 6-phosphate oxidation and glucose 6-phosphate reduction were 9.8 and 9.1, respectively. PMID:16660798

  2. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Santic, A.; Reis, S. T.; Day, D. E.

    2009-07-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  3. Energy use and taxation policy in the New Zealand car fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The report describes the composition of the New Zealand car fleet and the relationship between design factors, fleet composition, vehicle useage and fuel consumption. The indirect energy content of the vehicle and roadway are discussed. Existing and potential Government policy instruments for promoting fuel economy in the car fleet are discussed and evaluated. The report conclusions favor flat rate sales tax on vehicles regardless of engine size together with an appropriate level of petrol tax in preference to taxation that varies with vehicle size or engine capacity. A review of hire purchase regulations is proposed. Prior to publication of this report the Industries Development Commission Plan for the motor vehicle industry was released which proposes changes to the tariff, taxation and credit purchase regime applying to motor vehicles. These changes are summarized.

  4. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

    2003-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

  6. Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

  7. DYNAMIC RIDE-SHARING AND OPTIMAL FLEET SIZING FOR A SYSTEM OF1 SHARED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES2

    E-print Network

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    DYNAMIC RIDE-SHARING AND OPTIMAL FLEET SIZING FOR A SYSTEM OF1 SHARED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES2 3 4 and for publication in Transportation21 22 23 ABSTRACT24 25 Shared autonomous (fully-automated) vehicles (SAVs, destinations and departure times in the same vehicle), optimizing fleet sizing, and32 anticipating

  8. [Comorbidity profile of the Russian Northern fleet flying personnel disqualified for health reasons].

    PubMed

    Miloshevskiy, A V; Myznikov, I L

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of 202 medical histories of the Northern fleet naval pilots suggested the necessity to introduce the criteria of comorbidity number and formulation. It has been found that psychosomatic diseases (up to 60% of the cases) with the pathogenesis engendered by stress factor remain the leading cause for medical disqualification of Northern fleet naval pilots. The authors recommend changing over the nosologic diagnostics to physiological to optimize the aeromedical certification process. Probabilistic modeling of chronic pathology pathogenesis may be viewed as a foundation stone for programming as part of the pilots' anti-risk rehabilitation technology. PMID:25035896

  9. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  10. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  11. Factors influencing the successful expansion of Ecuadors tuna purse seine fleet 

    E-print Network

    Jelley, Susan Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    R!a!eel!!eats for Lhe dec". ee of IIASTER OF SCIENCF Ang ist 1977 NaJor' SnhJcct: Nanar/ament. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESSFUL EXPANSION OF ECUADOR'S TUNA PURSE SEINE FLEET A Thesis by SUSAN ELIZABETH JELLEY Approved as to style and content by: hai rman o... Co i ttee Head of De rtment Member Member August 1977 ABSTRACT Factors Influencing the Successful Expansion of Ecuador's Tuna Purse Seine Fleet, (August 1977) Susan Elizabeth Jel1ey, A. B. , Occidental Colleqe Chairman of Advisory Committee...

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-06-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25580878

  15. Thiosulfate Reduces Calcium Phosphate Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Asplin, John R.; Donahue, Susan E.; Lindeman, Christina; Michalenka, Anne; Strutz, Kelly Laplante; Bushinsky, David A.

    2009-01-01

    An uncontrolled trial reported that sodium thiosulfate reduces formation of calcium kidney stones in humans, but this has not been established in a controlled human study or animal model. Using the genetic hypercalciuric rat, an animal model of calcium phosphate stone formation, we studied the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urine chemistries and stone formation. We fed genetic hypercalciuric rats normal food with or without sodium thiosulfate for 18 wk and measured urine chemistries, supersaturation, and the upper limit of metastability of urine. Eleven of 12 untreated rats formed stones compared with only three of 12 thiosulfate-treated rats (P < 0.002). Urine calcium and phosphorus were higher and urine citrate and volume were lower in the thiosulfate-treated rats, changes that would increase calcium phosphate supersaturation. Thiosulfate treatment lowered urine pH, which would lower calcium phosphate supersaturation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in calcium phosphate supersaturation or upper limit of metastability between thiosulfate-treated and control rats. In vitro, thiosulfate only minimally affected ionized calcium, suggesting a mechanism of action other than calcium chelation. In summary, sodium thiosulfate reduces calcium phosphate stone formation in the genetic hypercalciuric rat. Controlled trials testing the efficacy and safety of sodium thiosulfate for recurrent kidney stones in humans are needed. PMID:19369406

  16. Car survival in a national car fleet : non-parametric and parametric approaches applied to French data. KOLLI, Zhir; DUPONT, Ariane ; HIVERT, Laurent.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Car survival in a national car fleet : non-parametric and parametric approaches applied to French CAR SURVIVAL IN A NATIONAL CAR FLEET: NON-PARAMETRIC AND PARAMETRIC APPROACHES APPLIED TO FRENCH DATA demographic conditions and variables that affect light cars survival in the national fleet. The essential aim

  17. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Wee, Mark J.; Sinha, Sumi; Huang, Joanne; DeRobertis, Charles; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Cohen, Jonathan; Friedman, Adam; Kulkarni, Meghana; Hu, Yanhui; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. Conversely, life span is reduced when adult flies are cultured on high phosphate medium or when hemolymph phosphate is increased in flies with impaired Malpighian tubules. In addition, RNAi-mediated inhibition of MAPK-signaling by knockdown of Ras85D, phl/D-Raf or Dsor1/MEK affects larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate, suggesting that some in vivo effects involve activation of this signaling pathway by phosphate. To identify novel genetic determinants of phosphate responses, we used Drosophila hemocyte-like cultured cells (S2R+) to perform a genome-wide RNAi screen using MAPK activation as the readout. We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels. PMID:23520455

  19. Evaluation and Selection of a Fleet of Aircraft for a Local Airline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wail I. Harasani

    The present work simulates the evaluation and selection of a fleet of aircraft for an airline located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in an assumed network that includes both local and international destinations. This is carried out through a series of phases and subsequent levels of analysis. At the end of these phases some recommendations are given for selecting the suitable

  20. Electric power requirement for large-scale production of hydrogen fuel for the world vehicle fleet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kruger

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of fossil fuels by hydrogen in motor vehicles throughout the world is postulated to occur over the next 50 years as mass production of fuel-cell engines accelerates. For the estimated size of the world vehicle fleet by 2050, large-scale electrolysis of water may become the primary means to produce hydrogen in sufficient quantity. Unlike petroleum production, which is concentrated

  1. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  2. he fleet management system (FMS) was created for Airport Limousine Services Ltd. (Airport Limousine), a subsidiary

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    . The main business of Airport Limousine is a 24-hour luxury limousine and shuttle service that serves mainly) that supports the scheduling and man- agement of a fleet of luxury limousines for busi- ness travelers. The AI. #12;IAAI Articles 28 AI MAGAZINE Figure 1. A View of the Business Districts in Hong Kong Island

  3. Improving the environmental performance of the fishing fleet by use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Bouwer Utne

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for improving the environmental performance of the Norwegian fishing fleet. Systems engineering has been introduced as a feasible process for handling sustainability issues in the fisheries, because it contains methods for general system design, operation, and support in a life-cycle perspective. QFD is related to systems engineering as a method

  4. An analysis of the costs of running a station car fleet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zurn

    1995-01-01

    Station cars are electric vehicles available at transit stations which may be used for transportation between the transit station and home, work, and\\/or for errands. This transportation service would be provided by the local transit agency. This report discusses an economic model of the costs of running a station car fleet. While some of these costs are highly uncertain, this

  5. Assessment of Inlet Cooling to Enhance Output of a Fleet of Gas Turbines 

    E-print Network

    Wang, T.; Braquet, L.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was made to assess the potential enhancement of a fleet of 14 small gas turbines' power output by employing an inlet air cooling scheme at a gas process plant. Various gas turbine (GT) inlet air cooling schemes were reviewed. The inlet...

  6. A simulation model to design a supply vessel fleet for Petrobras offshore works

    SciTech Connect

    Botter, R.C.; Souza, R.L. de; Borges, M.J.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Naval and Ocean Engineering Dept.

    1998-12-31

    This work presents an operational model to design offshore vessels fleet that are responsible for the delivery of supplies to ocean platforms. All stochastic factors of the real problem are considered and the ARENA software is used, including templates and animation features, which helps the understanding of system`s behavior.

  7. Development of an airport noise model suitable for fleet-level studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakash Natarajan Dikshit

    2009-01-01

    There is growing community awareness of the deleterious effects of aviation. Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding community are important issues in the aviation industry. It will be imperative, for the sustainable growth of aviation, to study these impacts at the fleet-level. Although there are several noise models capable of accurately predicting the noise for a single airport

  8. Experimental Evaluation of RF Modems for Use in Fleets of Multiple Cooperating Autonomous

    E-print Network

    Experimental Evaluation of RF Modems for Use in Fleets of Multiple Cooperating Autonomous Undersea) modems for use as com- munication infrastructure among multiple surfaced cooperating autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs), gateway buoys, and land or ship based operators. RF modems are inherently more complex

  9. United States navy fleet problems and the development of carrier aviation, 1929-1933 

    E-print Network

    Wadle, Ryan David

    2005-11-01

    of the carriers Lexington and Saratoga in Fleet Problem IX. After this exercise, which included a raid by aircraft from the Saratoga that ??destroyed?? the Pacific side of the Panama Canal, the carriers were assigned a wider variety of roles over the next five...

  10. IV 2005 paper #213 1 Abstract--We describe two prototype Remote Fleet

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    expect that this technology will provide increased officer safety, an efficient work environment, and substantial financial savings for law enforcement fleets. AVL increases the safety of police officers for police cruisers. One of the modules is used for automatic vehicle location (AVL) the other is used

  11. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  12. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...the DoN analyzed areas where training and testing will continue as...adjustments to type and tempo of training and testing and the establishment...Statement for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August...upon request by contacting: Naval Facilities Engineering...

  13. The Fleet DNA Project aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and

    E-print Network

    and research projects, particularly those that focus on the vocations and vehicles that consume the most fuel at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste. 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120 Center, the Fleet DNA Project will feature similar safeguards to protect proprietary data while providing

  14. Navigation and digital maps interface for fleet management and driver information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter B. Zavoli

    1989-01-01

    Companies developing navigation and map technologies are faced with the problem of providing products that can be utilized in the wide range of emerging market applications. The author explores one company's approach in developing products with layered interfaces to meet this challenge. Examples are given of fleet management and driver guidance systems utilizing command layer interfaces. The simplicity of the

  15. Assessment of Inlet Cooling to Enhance Output of a Fleet of Gas Turbines

    E-print Network

    Wang, T.; Braquet, L.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was made to assess the potential enhancement of a fleet of 14 small gas turbines' power output by employing an inlet air cooling scheme at a gas process plant. Various gas turbine (GT) inlet air cooling schemes were reviewed. The inlet...

  16. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry Report Number 110 A silver-lined anniversary of Fleet iminosugars: 19842009, from DIM

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    ­2009, from DIM to DRAM to LABNAc Benjamin G. Davis * Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 1. Introduction Since his first endeavours in the field of carbohydrate chemistry George Fleet has used over the past 25 years to build a remarkable col- lection of these sugar mimetics. These syntheses

  17. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  18. A multiobjective approach to fleet, fuel and operating cost efficiency of European airlines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastián Lozano; Ester Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a multiobjective DEA approach to airlines target setting has been proposed allowing for more control and flexibility in the determination of the trade-offs among environmental impact, fleet cost and operating cost. These variables are considered as inputs. Revenue Tonne-Kilometres (RTK) is the single output considered. For each airline, the proposed multiobjective Linear Programming model is solved using

  19. Applying engineering and fleet detail to represent passenger vehicle transport in

    E-print Network

    efficiency Alternative fuel vehicles A well-known challenge in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for passenger vehicle transport, retaining supplemental physical accounting for vehicle stock, fuel useApplying engineering and fleet detail to represent passenger vehicle transport in a computable

  20. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  1. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  2. Optimizing Multibeam Data Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V.; Beaudoin, J.; Johnson, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Multibeam sonars are fundamental mapping tools for a wide range of oceanographic studies throughout the global oceans. Initially installed on only a few academic research vessels, they have become standard sensors across global- and ocean-class ships in the U.S. academic research fleet. While ongoing efforts including the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R, http://rvdata.us) and the Global Multi-Resolution Topography Synthesis (GMRT, http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt) are focused on data documentation, preservation, synthesis and dissemination, the Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC, http://mac.unols.org) was recently established with the primary goal of optimizing multibeam data quality during acquisition. Our strategy is to engage operators, technical specialists and users to develop common protocols, guidelines and tools for use across the fleet. Technical teams are focused on specific aspects of multibeam sonar operation and maintenance, including Sea Acceptance, Acoustic Noise, and Quality Assurance. Key to our effort is working with the community of stakeholders to ensure that protocols and tools suit the needs of the community and can be easily implemented across the fleet. Although MAC efforts are initially focused on deep water systems in the US Academic Research Fleet, we recognize that our community of stakeholders is much broader and also includes operators and users of shallow water. All MAC-generated reports, guidelines and software tools, as well as links to related online resources are being made publicly available through the MAC website (http://mac.unols.org).

  3. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  4. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...vehicles for the test fleet must be screened for their exhaust VOC emissions in accordance with the provisions in § 80.62... 3W = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air injection EGR =...

  5. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...vehicles for the test fleet must be screened for their exhaust VOC emissions in accordance with the provisions in § 80.62... 3W = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air injection EGR =...

  6. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...vehicles for the test fleet must be screened for their exhaust VOC emissions in accordance with the provisions in § 80.62... 3W = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air injection EGR =...

  7. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...vehicles for the test fleet must be screened for their exhaust VOC emissions in accordance with the provisions in § 80.62... 3W = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air injection EGR =...

  8. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...vehicles for the test fleet must be screened for their exhaust VOC emissions in accordance with the provisions in § 80.62... 3W = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air injection EGR =...

  9. Nephrocalcinosis, Oral Sodium Phosphate Solution, and Phosphate Nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIOT C. HEHER; HELMUT G. RENNKE; BENJAMIN D. HUMPHREYS; Reza Abdi; Jessamyn Bagley; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Charles B. Carpenter; Anil K. Chandraker; David M. Charytan; Kenneth B. Christopher; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker; John P. Forman; Markus H. Frank; M. D. Won; Kook Han; Dirk M. Hentschel; Li-Li Hsiao; Stephen Hsu; John J. Iacomini; Takaharu Ichimura; Julie Lin; M. P. H. Colm; C. Magee; M. P. H. Edgar; L. Milford; David B. Mount; Nader Najafian; Shona Pendse; Martin R. Pollack; Stephen T. Reeders; Mohamed H. Sayegh; Julian L. Seifter; Jagesh V. Shah; Alice M. Sheridan; Ajay K. Singh; Theodore I. Steinman; Eric N. Taylor; Kathryn Tinckam; John K. Tucker; Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer; D. Xueli Yuan; D. Kambiz Zandi-Nejad; Jing Zhou

    Nephrocalcinosis, a syndrome of renal parenchymal calcification, is associated with both acute and chronic kidney disease. Traditionally seen in patients with hypercalciuric disorders, medullary sponge kidney, or tumor lysis syndrome, recent reports have doc- umented nephrocalcinosis following bowel preparation with oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS), in a syndrome termed \\

  10. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...Final)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International...from China of certain potassium phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24...in solution (collectively ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate...

  11. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...Final)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis...from China of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate...1, 2010 (Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from China, 75 FR 16509). The...

  12. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... series by talking with a health care provider cleansing the bowel Talking with a health care provider. ... he or she may suggest a different procedure. Cleansing the bowel. The health care provider will give ...

  13. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  14. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Yousef, Abraham L

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a) quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b), although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light. PMID:25246963

  15. Phosphate corrosion in high-pressure boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Herro; A. Banweg

    1995-01-01

    As operating pressures have increased, the frequency of corrosion-related failures in phosphate-treated boilers has also increased. Congruent phosphate control was derived to prevent the formation of free caustic by feeding orthophosphates to maintain a boiler water sodium-to-phosphate ratio at which theory surmised free caustic could not form. Unfortunately, conventional congruent control did not take into account the interaction of phosphate

  16. Working with the phosphate factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides and their decay products are found throughout the environment. However, some geological strata, such as granitic and marine phosphoric deposits, contain significantly elevated concentrations of uranium, thorium, and their decay products, including radon. The phosphate deposits of Florida contain concentrations of these elements at levels about 30 to 60 times greater than those found in average soil

  17. Platinum in phosphate laser glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Ann Click

    2002-01-01

    The platinum concentration in phosphate laser glasses has been characterized as a function of composition, melting time and temperature. The highest measured ionic platinum concentration is 2042 ppmw in a potassium-alumino-metaphosphate glass after 24 hours of melting at 900°C. The maximum platinum concentration in a given composition decreases with increasing temperature. The time, temperature and composition dependent platinum concentration in

  18. Phosphate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Amine; Giuseppe Palleschi

    2004-01-01

    Construction and assembly of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate biosensors has been reviewed to give readers up?to?date information on the state of the art in this area which is becoming more and more important for the solution of practical problems faced in the monitoring of food safety and the environment. Special attention was paid concerning the papers published during the last

  19. Use of partially acidulated phosphate rocks as phosphate fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. S. Rajan; B. C. Marwaha

    1993-01-01

    Partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) are manufactured by acidulation of PRs with less than the stoichiometric amounts\\u000a of, usually, phosphoric or sulphuric acids. Products of similar composition to PAPRs are also prepared by cogranulating superphosphate\\u000a with PRs. For most crops the agronomic value of PAPRs is determined by the availability to plants of their water-soluble P\\u000a as well as their

  20. 40 CFR 88.105-94 - Clean-fuel fleet emission standards for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Clean-fuel fleet emission standards...Section 88.105-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Emission...The vehicle fuel system(s) must not...

  1. 40 CFR 88.105-94 - Clean-fuel fleet emission standards for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Clean-fuel fleet emission standards...Section 88.105-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Emission...The vehicle fuel system(s) must not...

  2. 75 FR 5055 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST) AGENCY: National Marine...marine mammals incidental to Navy training, maintenance, and research...take resulting from the 2009 military readiness training and research activities...

  3. Assessing deployment strategies for ethanol and flex fuel vehicles in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-print Network

    McAulay, Jeffrey L. (Jeffrey Lewis)

    2009-01-01

    Within the next 3-7 years the US light duty fleet and fuel supply will encounter what is commonly referred to as the "blend wall". This phenomenon describes the situation when more ethanol production has been mandated than ...

  4. Li, Miao & Wang 1 A Column Generation Method for the U.S. Army Logistics Air Fleet

    E-print Network

    Wang, Bruce

    . In contrast, in the multiple vehicle routing and scheduling problem (m-VRP), vehicles are dispatched to pick characteristics with both commercial air fleet assignment and the m-VRP problem. The problem is about the U

  5. Chloride- and alkali-containing calcium phosphates as basic materials to prepare calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O; Boltong, M G; Driessens, F C; Ginebra, M P; Fernández, E; Planell, J A

    1994-10-01

    Combinations of an alkali-containing calcium phosphate-like rhenanite, sodium whitlockite or calcium potassium phosphate and a chloride-containing calcium phosphate-like spodiosite or chloroapatite with or without additions of other calcium phosphates like monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, dicalcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate were made and mixed with water into pastes. The setting time of these pastes was determined. After soaking for a day in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength were determined. Two of the combinations tried in this study resulted in the formation of cements at room temperature. One cement was of the type dicalcium phosphate, whereas the other gave octocalcium phosphate as the solid reaction product. The byproducts formed were an aqueous solution of NaCl and one of K2HPO4, respectively. Applications for bone repair and augmentation are envisaged. PMID:7841290

  6. Profile of motor-vehicle fleets in Atlanta 1994. Assessing the market for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-06

    This document reports the results of the EIA survey of motorvehicle fleets, both private and municipal, in Atlanta. These data should be useful to those whose goal is to assist or participate in the early development of alternative-fuel vehicle markets. The data also should be useful to persons implementing motor-vehicle-related clean air programs or analyzing transportation energy use. Persons in the petroleum industry will find useful information regarding conventional fuels and the fuel-purchasing behavior of fleets.

  7. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  8. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel J. Pyne; Susan Pyne

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in cancer. S1P regulates processes such as inflammation, which can drive tumorigenesis; neovascularization, which provides cancer cells with nutrients and oxygen; and cell growth and survival. This occurs at multiple levels and involves S1P receptors, sphingosine kinases, S1P phosphatases and S1P lyase. This Review summarizes current research findings and examines

  9. Fleet test of re-refined oil. First annual progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrichson

    1977-01-01

    This test is designed to obtain comparative performance data on re-refined and virgin 10W-30 motor oils and hydraulic oils in fleet use. The vehicles are provided by the Iowa Department of Transportation. The re-refined oils are the commercial product from Motor Oils Refining Company, MORCO, and the experimental product from the Bartlesville Energy Research Center, BERC. Forty-six vehicles which include

  10. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Decision support for yard capacity, fleet composition, truck substitutability, and scalability issues at seaport container terminals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew E. H. Petering

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of nine independent studies that link a seaport container terminal’s long-run average quay crane rate to various strategic and tactical decisions made by the terminal operating company. New numerical results on yard capacity, fleet composition, truck substitutability, and terminal scalability issues are obtained using a fully-integrated, discrete event simulation model of a vessel-to-vessel transshipment terminal

  12. Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992May 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Lillo; R. Ruby; D. D. Gummin; W. R. Porter; J. M. Caldwell

    1995-01-01

    Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized

  13. Air Forces, Moments and Damping on Model of Fleet Airship Shenandoah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Smith, R H; Louden, F A

    1926-01-01

    To furnish data for the design of the fleet airship Shenandoah, a model was made and tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel for wind forces, moments, and damping, under conditions described in this report. The results are given for air of standard density. P=0.00237 slugs per cubic foot with vl/v correction, and with but a brief discussion of the aerodynamic design features of the airship.

  14. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. How do demersal fishing fleets interact with aggregate extraction in a congested sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Paul; Desprez, Michel; Vermard, Youen; Tidd, Alex

    2014-08-01

    The effects of the aggregate extraction intensity and the distance to extraction sites on the distribution of fishing effort were investigated for a broad selection of French and English demersal fleets operating in the Eastern English Channel. The most prominent result was that most fleets fishing near to aggregate extraction sites were not deterred by extraction activities. The fishing effort of dredgers and potters could be greater adjacent to marine aggregates sites than elsewhere, and also positively correlated to extraction intensity with a lag of 0-9 months. The distribution of fishing effort of French netters remained consistent over the study period. However, it is of note that the fishing effort of netters has increased substantially in the impacted area of the Dieppe site (where it is correlated to extraction intensity with a lag of 6 months), while slightly decreasing in the intermediate and reference areas. The attraction of fishing fleets is likely due to a local temporary concentration of their main target species. However, knowledge of their life-history characteristics and habitat preferences suggests that some of these species could be particularly vulnerable to aggregate extractions in the longer term.

  16. Estimation of local fleet characteristics data for improved emission inventory development

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.; Pollack, A.; Austin, B. [ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Considerable effort in recent years has been focused on the improvement of on-road mobile source emission factors with much less attention paid to the refinement of activity and fleet characteristics estimates. Current emissions modeling practices commonly use emission factor model defaults or statewide averages for fleet and activity data. As part of the US EPA`s Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), ENVIRON developed methodologies to derive locality-specific fleet characteristics data from existing data sources in order to improve local emission inventory estimates. Data sources examined included remote sensing studies and inspection and maintenance (I/M) program data. In this paper, we focus on two specific examples: (1) the calculation of mileage accumulation rates from Arizona I/M program data, and (2) the calculation of registration distribution from a Sacramento remote sensing database. In both examples, differences exist between the calculated distributions and those currently used for air quality modeling, resulting in significant impacts on the estimated mobile source emissions inventory. For example, use of the automobile registration distribution data derived from the Sacramento Pilot I/M Program remote sensing database results in an increase in estimated automobile TOG, CO and NO{sub x} of 15, 24 and 17 percent, respectively, when used in place of the default registration distribution in the current California Air Resources Board MVEI7G emissions model.

  17. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine SN 002A injector replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Joseph R.; Hoppe, David L.

    1992-01-01

    During testing of the Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) Serial Number (SN) 002A at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in 1983 the injector was inadvertently damaged. After testing was completed in 1985, there was a concern that the performance of the engine and its response to specific test conditions might not be sufficiently representative of flight engines to provide valid test results. To correct this damage, the engine was returned to the manufacturer to replace the injector. The task assigned was to evaluate the damage and generate a unique process to repair the Fleet Leader OME while providing minimum impact to the overall life condition of the engine. In addition to successfully performing the repair operation, the as received condition of the engine and its components were documented for Fleet Leader reference. The engine is currently at WSTF where it has accumulated 11,341 seconds of firing time to date, 2615 seconds of which have occurred since the engine repair.

  19. Space Shuttle Orbiter Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine SN 002A injector replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Joseph R.; Hoppe, David L.

    1992-07-01

    During testing of the Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) Serial Number (SN) 002A at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in 1983 the injector was inadvertently damaged. After testing was completed in 1985, there was a concern that the performance of the engine and its response to specific test conditions might not be sufficiently representative of flight engines to provide valid test results. To correct this damage, the engine was returned to the manufacturer to replace the injector. The task assigned was to evaluate the damage and generate a unique process to repair the Fleet Leader OME while providing minimum impact to the overall life condition of the engine. In addition to successfully performing the repair operation, the as received condition of the engine and its components were documented for Fleet Leader reference. The engine is currently at WSTF where it has accumulated 11,341 seconds of firing time to date, 2615 seconds of which have occurred since the engine repair.

  20. Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-01

    Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

  1. Solubilization of rock phosphate by rape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellis Hoffland; Günter R. Findenegg; Jacob A. Nelemans

    1989-01-01

    Rape and sunflower were compared with respect to their rock phosphate mobilizing capacities, cationanion balance and uptake of Ca and NO3 at P-starvation. Rape was able to mobilize P from rock phosphate, whereas sunflower was not.When grown on a complete nutrient solution with NO3 as the only nitrogen source, both species took up more nutrient anions than cations. Withholding phosphate

  2. Root branching responses to phosphate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Desnos, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Plant roots favour colonization of nutrient-rich zones in soil. Molecular genetic evidences demonstrate that roots sense and respond to local and global concentrations of inorganic phosphate and nitrate, in a fashion that depends on the shoot nutrient status. Recent investigations in Arabidopsis highlighted the role of the root tip in phosphate sensing and attributed to already known proteins (multicopper oxidases and nitrate transporters) new and unexpected functions in the root growth response to phosphate or nitrate. PMID:18024148

  3. In vivo study of calcium phosphate cements: implantation of an ?-tricalcium phosphate\\/dicalcium phosphate dibasic\\/tetracalcium phosphate monoxide cement paste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kurashina; H. Kurita; M. Hirano; A. Kotani; C. P. A. T. Klein; K. de Groot

    1997-01-01

    ?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP)\\/dicalcium phosphate dibasic (DCPD)\\/tetracalcium phosphate monoxide (TeCP) cement was implanted in paste form into soft tissue (rate subcutaneous sockets) and bone tissue (defects in rabbit mandibles) to evaluate the setting behaviour of the cement and tissue responses to the cement. A histological study of the soft tissue implants revealed thin fibrous capsule formation, the appearance of multinucleated giant

  4. Hydrothermal Modification of Granular Steel Slag for Phosphate Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangwei Wang; Liping Qiu; Shoubin Zhang; Xuedong Zhai; Jun Ma

    2011-01-01

    The performance of phosphate removal using hydrothermal modified granular steel slag was evaluated. The effects of steel slag dosage, reaction time, solution pH and initial phosphate concentration of synthesized wastewater on phosphate removal were also investigated. The results show that the modified steel slag is more efficient than raw granular steel slag in phosphate removal. The residual phosphate concentration decreased

  5. Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijia; He, Wen; Wang, Meiting; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Peng; Yan, Shunpu; Tian, Xiuying; Sun, Xianan; Han, Xiuxiu

    2008-12-01

    Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic-inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented.

  6. Low temperature ultrasonic attenuation in phosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Laermans, C. [University of Leuven; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements on phosphate glasses with different chain lengths, lead metaphosphate and lead-indium phosphate, have been carried out at low temperatures (0.3 10 K) and high frequencies (100 160 MHz). The materials investigated are lead metaphosphate (average chain length > 15) and lead indium phosphate (average chain length = 3). Both materials have the typical glasslike behavior, explained by the presence of tunneling states (TS). A detailed analysis reveals that the density of states of these TS is significantly lower in the lead metaphosphate glass compared to the lead indium glass. This difference can be related to the difference in length of the phosphate tetrahedra chains.

  7. Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    LC, Chow

    2009-01-01

    It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials. PMID:19280963

  8. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses containing TiO2: Effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, N. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Abo-Naf, S. M.; Moustafa, F. A.; ElBadry, Kh. M.

    2013-03-01

    Pristine lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses and glasses of the same compositions containing TiO2 (0.25 ? 2.5%) were prepared. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of the prepared samples were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Optical spectra of these prepared glasses reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in lithium and zinc phosphate glasses while the broad UV bands in lead phosphate glasses were related to absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The TiO2-containing glasses reveal an extra two visible bands at about 550-580 and 680-740 nm due to the transitions 2B2g ? 2B1g and 2B2g ? 2A1g of distorted octahedral Ti3+ ions. The effects of gamma irradiation reveal variations, extended in the UV-visible region in the lithium phosphate while with lead phosphate and zinc phosphate samples the variations are restricted to UV spectra. The response to gamma irradiation on optical absorption has been analyzed for both the sharing of all glass constituents including trace iron impurities. Lead and zinc phosphate glasses reveal only induced UV bands from photochemical effect of trace iron impurities while lithium phosphate shows extra induced visible band due to positive holes. The effects of gamma irradiation on the IR spectra are limited to a slight decrease of the intensities for some IR bands. The IR spectra are observed to be slightly affected by the increase of TiO2 indicating the stability of the main phosphate network units and the shielding behavior of titanium ions.

  10. Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

    2013-03-01

    An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate as a probe for the glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase Michaelis complex

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    . The UDP-GlcNAc biosyn- thetic pathway is formed by four enzymes. The first enzyme, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA1), is bifunctional, converting fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine and glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferases, histone acetyltransferase, mycothiol synthase, protein a

  12. Can acidification associated with nitrification increase available soil phosphate or reduce the rate of phosphate fixation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Faurie; J.-C. Fardeau

    1990-01-01

    It is often proposed that soil acidification by microorganisms dissolves unavailable soil phosphates, especially crystalline Ca phosphates. Unavailable phosphates, it is suggested, could thus become available to crops. Microorganisms that oxidize one ammonium ion to one nitrate ion excrete two protons into the soil solution. In the present study, this universal biological process of soil acidification was used to measure,

  13. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 ...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

  5. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, T.

    1988-03-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

  6. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781...Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Schipper; A. Klapwijk; A. Potjer; W. H. Rulkens; B. G. Temmink; F. D. G. Kiestra; A. C. M. Lijmbach

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the treatment plant; using Ca or Al, or bio-P-removal, increases the recycling potential

  11. Phosphate Recovery - where do we stand today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lijmbach

    Phosphorus is essential for all life. The application of the EU Urban Waste Water Treat- ment 91\\/271means that phosphates in domestic waste water, be they from detergents, food wastes or from natural bodily emissions are effectively no longer an environmental issue. This Directive requires that phosphates be removed wherever sewage works discharge into surface waters which are susceptible or potentially

  12. Coprecipitation of polonium with bismuth phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Hölgye

    2007-01-01

    It was found that Po(IV) coprecipitates to a high degree with bismuth phosphate from weakly acidic solutions. The degree of\\u000a coprecipitation of Po(II) under the same conditions is substantially lower. Coprecipitation with bismuth phosphate can be\\u000a utilized for the separation of polonium from inorganic salts present in urine.

  13. Comparison of Phosphate Levels in Stream Sediments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Van Faasen

    2009-04-01

    Phosphorus is an important nutrient to all life. Unfortunately, when phosphate reaches the soil it is not all used up by the plants. If excess phosphate enters the waterways in the watershed, it can cause increased plant growth in lakes and streams and le

  14. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  15. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern Coastal Plain phosphate province, principally in Florida and North Carolina and offshore in the shallow Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina to southern Florida. This resource is considered to be hypothetical because it is based on geologic inference combined with sparse drilling data. Total resources of phosphate rock in the United States are sufficient to supply domestic demands for the foreseeable future, provided that drilling is done to confirm hypothetical resources and the chemistry of the deposits is determined. Mining and beneficiation techniques will have to be modified or improved, and new techniques will have to be developed so that these deposits can be profitably exploited.

  16. An analysis of the costs of running a station car fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Zurn, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    Station cars are electric vehicles available at transit stations which may be used for transportation between the transit station and home, work, and/or for errands. This transportation service would be provided by the local transit agency. This report discusses an economic model of the costs of running a station car fleet. While some of these costs are highly uncertain, this analysis is a first look at the required user fees for full cost recovery. The model considers the capital costs of the vehicles and the required infrastructure; the annual fixed vehicle costs for insurance, registration, etc.; the mileage-based costs; and the annual non-vehicle costs for administration, infrastructure maintenance, etc. The model also includes various factors such as the fleet size, the annual mileage, the number of transit stations that would have facilities for station cars, and the number of users. The model specifically examines the cost of using of electric vehicles; however, for comparison, the cost of using a fleet of gasoline-powered vehicles also is calculated. This report examines the sensitivity of the model to the various factors. A principal conclusion from the analysis is that the largest cost contributor is the initial vehicle purchase price. For a given initial purchase price, the factor driving the user fee required for full cost recovery is the number of different daily users of a vehicle. The model also compares the annual cost of transportation using station cars and mass transit to the annual cost of solo commuting. If a station car is used by more than one person a day, and this use replaces the ownership of a conventional vehicle, the annual cost of transportation may be similar. However, for the base case assumptions, the station car user fee required for full cost recovery is higher than the cost of solo commuting.

  17. Annual Report for Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI)/Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC) and Foundation for Agronomic Research (FAR)

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    or precipitated out as a calcium phosphate. Phosphoric acid (18-0-0) was the P source used in this study, which1 Annual Report for Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI)/Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC

  18. Root architecture responses: in search of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Péret, Benjamin; Desnos, Thierry; Jost, Ricarda; Kanno, Satomi; Berkowitz, Oliver; Nussaume, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Soil phosphate represents the only source of phosphorus for plants and, consequently, is its entry into the trophic chain. This major component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and energy currency of the cell (ATP) can limit plant growth because of its low mobility in soil. As a result, root responses to low phosphate favor the exploration of the shallower part of the soil, where phosphate tends to be more abundant, a strategy described as topsoil foraging. We will review the diverse developmental strategies that can be observed among plants by detailing the effect of phosphate deficiency on primary and lateral roots. We also discuss the formation of cluster roots: an advanced adaptive strategy to cope with low phosphate availability observed in a limited number of species. Finally, we will put this work into perspective for future research directions. PMID:25341534

  19. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  20. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the TMC meeting. Twenty-one responses were received, spanning fleet sizes between 12 and 170,000 vehicles. Responses are summarized in a series of tables separated into responses from small (100 or fewer powered vehicles), medium (101-1000 vehicles), and large fleets (>1000 vehicles). The vast majority of fleets do their own brake maintenance, relying primarily on experience and lining manufactures to select aftermarket linings. At least half of the responders are familiar to some extent with TMC Recommended Practice 628 on brake linings, but most do not use this source of test data as the sole criterion to select linings. Significant shortfalls in the applicability of TMC RP 628 to certain types of brake systems were noted.

  1. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting R&D activity, the Marine Meteorology Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL Code 7500). NRL Code 7500 is a world-class research organization, with focus on weather-related support for the warfighter. Fleet Numerical and NRL Code 7500 share space, data, software and computer systems, and together represent one of the largest concentrations of weather-related intellectual capital in the nation. As documented, for example, by the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC) of the National Research Council, investment in R&D is crucial for maintaining state-of-the-art operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) capabilities (see BASC, 1998). And collocation and close cooperation between research and operations, such as exists between NRL Code 7500 and Fleet Numerical, is the optimum arrangement for transitioning R&D quickly and cost-effectively into new and improved operational weather prediction capabilities.

  2. Recent fracture mechanics results from NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks initiating at the rivets of fuselage splice joints are reviewed.

  3. Dtermination par traage isotopique de la valeur fertilisante du phosphate alumino-calci-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of aluminium-calcium phosphate, diammonium phosphate and rock phosphate. The efficiency of 3 phosphate fertilizers (diammonium phosphate (DAP), aluminium-calcium phosphate and rock phosphate), labelled with P32Détermination par traçage isotopique de la valeur fertilisante du phosphate alumino-calci- que

  4. Ribose-5-Phosphate Biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Occurs in the Absence of a Pentose-Phosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Grochowski, Laura L.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has raised a question as to the involvement of erythrose-4-phosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the metabolism of the methanogenic archaea (R. H. White, Biochemistry 43:7618-7627, 2004). To address the possible absence of erythrose-4-phosphate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we have assayed cell extracts of this methanogen for the presence of this and other intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and have determined and compared the labeling patterns of sugar phosphates derived metabolically from [6,6-2H2]- and [U-13C]-labeled glucose-6-phosphate incubated with cell extracts. The results of this work have established the absence of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates erythrose-4-phosphate, xylose-5-phosphate, and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in these cells and the presence of d-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, an intermediate in the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The labeling of the d-ara-bino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, as well as the other sugar-Ps, indicates that this hexose-6-phosphate was the precursor to ribulose-5-phosphate that in turn was converted into ribose-5-phosphate by ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. Additional work has demonstrated that ribulose-5-phosphate is derived by the loss of formaldehyde from d-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by the protein product of the MJ1447 gene. PMID:16237021

  5. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  6. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates as cholinesterases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Št?pánková, Šárka; Vor?áková, Katarína; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2015-02-01

    Based on the presence of dialkyl phosphate moiety, we evaluated twenty-seven salicylanilide diethyl phosphates (diethyl [2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phosphates) for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus L.) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from equine serum. Ellman's spectrophotometric method was used. The inhibitory activity (expressed as IC50 values) was compared with that of the established drugs galantamine and rivastigmine. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates showed significant activity against both cholinesterases with IC50 values from 0.903 to 86.3 ?M. IC50s for BChE were comparatively lower than those obtained for AChE. All of the investigated compounds showed higher inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, and six of them inhibited BChE more effectively than both rivastigmine and galantamine. In general, derivatives of 4-chlorosalicylic acid showed enhanced activity when compared to derivatives of 5-halogenated salicylic acids, especially against BChE. The most effective inhibitor of AChE was O-{5-chloro-2-[(3-bromophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphate with IC50 of 35.4 ?M, which is also one of the most potent inhibitors of BChE. O-{5-Chloro-2-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphate exhibited in vitro the strongest inhibition of BChE (0.90 ?M). Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates act as pseudo-irreversible cholinesterases inhibitors. PMID:25462625

  7. Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1968-01-01

    The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 ?c per ?mole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 ?c per ?mole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 m?moles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 m?moles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 m?moles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 m?moles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

  8. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Maza?kin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency. PMID:24000629

  9. The Potential of Different Concepts of Fast Breeder Reactor for the French Fleet Renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, Simone; Tetart, Philippe; Lecarpentier, David; Garzenne, Claude; Mourogov, Alexandre [Electricite de France, EDF R and D (France)

    2006-07-01

    The performances of different concepts of Fast Breeder Reactor (Na-cooled, He-cooled and Pb-cooled FBR) for the current French fleet renewal are analyzed in the framework of a transition scenario to a 100% FBR fleet at the end of the 21. century. Firstly, the modeling of these three FBR types by means of a semi-analytical approach in TIRELIRE - STRATEGIE, the EDF fuel cycle simulation code, is presented, together with some validation elements against ERANOS, the French reference code system for neutronic FBR analysis (CEA). Afterwards, performances comparisons are made in terms of maximum deployable power, natural uranium consumption and waste production. The results show that the FBR maximum deployable capacity, independently from the FBR technology, is highly sensitive to the fuel cycle options, like the spent nuclear fuel cooling time or the Minor Actinides management strategy. Thus, some of the key parameters defining the dynamic of FBR deployment are highlighted, to inform the orientation of R and D in the development and optimization of these systems. (authors)

  10. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ``Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility`` issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan.

  11. Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, E. C.; Johnson, Gordon; Summey, Delbert C.; Portmann, Helmut H., Jr.

    2004-09-01

    This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS/TR-01/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from a Joint perspective in USJFCOM Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) Report #03-10 (Unmanned Effects (UFX): Taking the Human Out of the Loop). Here, the authors build on this foundation by reviewing the major findings and laying out the roadmap for achieving the vision and truly transforming how we fight wars. The focus is on broad impact across the Fleet - but the implications reach across all Joint forces. The term "Unmanned System" means different things to different people. Most think of vehicles that are remotely teleoperated that perform tasks under remote human control. Actually, unmanned systems are stand-alone systems that can execute missions and tasks without direct physical manned presence under varying levels of human control - from teleoperation to full autonomy. It is important to note that an unmanned system comprises a lot more than just a vehicle - it includes payloads, command and control, and communications and information processing.

  12. Alternative fuel vehicles for the state fleets: Results of the 5-year planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the first attempt by the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with states to prepare five-year Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) acquisition plans to identify alternative fuels and vehicles that they are planning on or would like to acquire. The DOE Regional Support Offices (RSOs) met with representatives from the states in their regions and assisted in the preparation of the plans. These plans will be used in conjunction with previously gathered Federal five-year plans to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. By identifying the needs and requirements of state fleets, DOE can begin to describe the specific nature of the future state fleets, and establish a defined market for OEMs and fuel suppliers. DOE initiated the development and collection of the state five-year plans before the signing of the Energy Policy Act, to raise the awareness of states that they will be required by law to acquire AFVs. As a result, several states that had no AFV acquisition plan when queried have developed or are in the process of developing plans. The DOE and its RSOs are still working with the states to develop and refine acquisition plans, and this report should be treated as documentation of work in progress.

  13. Fleeting Smile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

  14. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  15. The association of metallothionein with phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan; Wei, Genshuan

    1995-07-01

    Dose-dependent binding of inorganic phosphate to pre-irradiated metallothionein (MT) was observed by gel-filtration using sodium [ 32P]phosphate, whereas no association of phosphate with the natural MT can be observed. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicate that after irradiation, some terminal thiolate ligands in MT are transformed to bridging ones, and some destroyed, which results in unsaturated coordination of metal ions. Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume that in irradiated MT, nonsulfur liganss, e.g. oxygen in Pi, take part in metal coordinations, which leads to the interactions of MT with Pi.

  16. [Screening, identification, and phosphate-solubilizing capability of phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain B25].

    PubMed

    He, Meng-Xing; Gao, Yi; Hu, Zheng-Xue; Xu, Yao; Long, Rui; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2012-01-01

    Various phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated from the Hippochaete ramosissimum rhizosphere in Tongguanshan copper tailings in Tongling of Anhui Province, East China. After many times of screening and purification, a strain B25 with stronger phosphate-solubilizing capability was obtained, which belonged to Bacillus genus, as identified by transmission electron microscope and DNA molecular approaches. A culture experiment was conducted to study the phosphate-solubilizing capability of the B25 within 168 h and the variations of the medium pH and B25 growth as well as the phosphate-solubilizing capability of B25 under different culture conditions. A weak correlation was observed between the phosphate-solubilizing capability of B25 and the medium pH. The B25 displayed a better phosphate-solubilizing capability when the carbon source was glucose, medium initial pH was 7.0, and culture temperature was 30 degrees C. PMID:22489504

  17. Phosphate absorption by Aplysia californica gut: thyroid hormone stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, George A; Levin, Randy; Zhang, Jianliang

    2002-06-01

    Mucosal membranes of foregut epithelia of Aplysia californica contain a sodium/phosphate symporter. Triiodothyronine stimulated the absorptive activity of the sodium/phosphate symporter, whereas reverse triiodothyronine had no effect on the sodium/phosphate symporter. It appears that thyroid hormone or its molluscan equivalent plays a role in the overall regulation of phosphate homeostasis by the Aplysia californica gut. PMID:12117309

  18. The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play a critical role in the collection of oceanographic, atmospheric, hydrographic, and fisheries data. NOAA's current fleet of 16

    E-print Network

    The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play aircraft, are operated, managed, and maintained by NOAA's Office of Marine and Aviation Operations (OMAO on the Table of Contents entry below to be taken directly to a specific ship, aircraft, asset, program

  19. The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play a critical role in the collection of oceanographic, atmospheric, hydrographic, and fisheries data. NOAA's current fleet of 16

    E-print Network

    The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play aircraft, are operated, managed, and maintained by NOAA's Office of Marine and Aviation Operations (OMAO of Contents entry below to be taken directly to a specific ship, center, aircraft, asset, program

  20. The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play a critical role in the collection of oceanographic, atmospheric, hydrographic, and fisheries data. NOAA's current fleet of 16

    E-print Network

    The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play aircraft, are operated, managed, and maintained by NOAA's Office of Marine and Aviation Operations (OMAO of Contents entry below to be taken directly to a specific ship, aircraft, asset, program, or information

  1. Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Hussein

    1994-01-01

    A measurement of the radioactivity content of phosphate ore material, phosphatic fertilizer (superphosphate), and by-product phosphogypsum in the Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt, has been carried out. According to the results of gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, ²³⁸U was found in concentrations of 523, 473, and 134 Bq kg⁻¹; ²²⁶Ra in concentrations of 514, 301, and 411 Bq kg⁻¹; ²³²Th in concentrations of

  2. Osteoclastic resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics with different hydroxyapatite\\/?-tricalcium phosphate ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yamada; D. Heymann; J.-M. Bouler; G. Daculsi

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of calcium phosphate ceramic solubility on osteoclastic resorption, neonatal rabbit bone cells were cultured for 2 days on hydroxyapatite (HA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and two types of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with HA\\/?-TCP ratios of 2575 and 7525. Solubility was regulated by varying the ratio of less-soluble HA and more-soluble ?-TCP. After removal of stromal cells

  3. Analysis of serum phosphate control and phosphate binder utilization in incident hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Farrand, Kimberly F; Copley, J Brian; Heise, Jamie; Fridman, Moshe; Keith, Michael S; Poole, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of serum phosphate level variability in patients new to hemodialysis (HD) and to identify patient characteristics associated with this variability. The medical records of 47,742 incident HD patients attending US outpatient dialysis centers between January 1, 2006 and March 31, 2009 were analyzed. Monthly mean serum phosphate levels determined over a 6-month evaluation period (months 4–9 after HD initiation) were assigned to one of three strata: low (<1.13 mmol/L [<3.5 mg/dL]); target (1.13–1.78 mmol/L [3.5–5.5 mg/dL]); or high (>1.78 mmol/L [>5.5 mg/dL]). Patients were classified into one of six serum phosphate variability groups based on variability among monthly mean phosphate levels over the 6-month evaluation period: consistently target; consistently high; high-to-target; high-to-low; target-to-low; or consistently low. Only 15% of patients (consistently target group) maintained monthly mean serum phosphate levels within the target range throughout the 6-month evaluation period. Age, Charlson comorbidity index, serum phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels prior to HD initiation were strongly associated (P<0.001) with serum phosphate levels after HD initiation. Overall patient-reported phosphate binder usage increased from 35% at baseline to 52% at end of study. The low proportion of patients achieving target phosphate levels and low rates of phosphate binder usage observed during the study suggest that alternative strategies could be developed to control serum phosphate levels. Possible strategies that might be incorporated to help improve the management of hyperphosphatemia in incident HD patients include dietary modification, dialysis optimization, and earlier and sustained use of phosphate binders. PMID:25045277

  4. FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM.

    PubMed

    ZANCAN, G T; BACILA, M

    1964-03-01

    Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614-618. 1964.-A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 x 10(-4)m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 x 10(-5)m for NADH. The Q(10), reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

  5. Structure of RNA 3 -phosphate cyclase bound

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    -dependent reaction catalyzed by RNA 3 -phosphate cyclase (RtcA), an enzyme conserved in bacteria, archaea no structural similarities between RtcA and RtcB, both enzymes proceed through en- zyme-(histidine-N )­NMP

  6. Controlled potential polarography in tributyl phosphate 

    E-print Network

    Karnes, John Herbert

    1966-01-01

    . . 55 61 65 iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. The Conventional Polarogram, Z. The First Derivative Polarogram. Page 3, Determination of' Dielectric Constant of' Tributyl Phosphate by Comparison, 14 4. Electrocapillary Curves for 0. 10M Lithium... and determination of' uranium. Le Strange, Lerner, and Petretic (14), working for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in 1954, were successful in isolatinq uranium from trioutyl phosphate solution only after it wes made 5N in nitric a- cid. In 1956 Fisher...

  7. An investigation of iron phosphate glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyu Fang

    2000-01-01

    The effect of melting history on the iron redox equilibrium, structure, crystallization and properties of a binary iron phosphate glass with a 40Fe 2O3-60P2O5, mol%, batch composition were investigated. The structure and properties of single and mixed alkali iron phosphate glasses were also studied. Mossbauer, Raman and infrared spectroscopy were used to determine the changes in the concentration of iron

  8. Methodologies for the determination of adenosine phosphates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Bostick; B. S. Ausmus

    1978-01-01

    Measures of adenosine trichosphate (ATP) and other adenosine phosphate compounds are useful indices of microbial biomass and microbiological activity. Various photometric procedures for the determination of these compounds are compared. A modification in the well-known hexokinase--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase procedure for ATP, which permits a very sensitive kinetic measurement of ATP + ADP (approximately 3.1 pmole), is presented. The procedure utilizes phosphoenol

  9. 382 Mlle J. BRIGANDO ET MM. CHAMP ET CLOSSON. -LES PHOSPHATES LES PHOSPHATES DE CALCIUM DU LAIT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    382 Mlle J. BRIGANDO ET MM. CHAMP ET CLOSSON. -LES PHOSPHATES LES PHOSPHATES DE CALCIUM DU LAIT, est conditionnée par leur teneur en phosphates insolubles de calcium. En raison de l'importance au intéressant d'étudier les facteurs qui modifient les phosphates de calcium du lait et d'examiner les

  10. The residual value of superphosphate and rock phosphates for lateritic soils and its evaluation using three soil phosphate tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. A. Bolland; R. J. Gilkes; D. G. Allen

    1988-01-01

    The residual value of superphosphate and several rock phosphates was measured in three field experiments in Western Australia. The rock phosphates were Christmas Island C-grade ore, calcined C-grade ore (Calciphos) and apatite rock phosphates. The predictive capacity of the Colwell, Olsen and Bray 1 soil tests for phosphate were also evaluated.

  11. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Margaret A; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W; Earnest, Thomas N; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2006-05-01

    The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum, PFE0730c, has been determined by molecular replacement at 2.09 angstroms resolution. The enzyme, which catalyzes the isomerization reaction that interconverts ribose 5-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate, is a member of the pentose phosphate pathway. The P. falciparum enzyme belongs to the ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A family, Pfam family PF06562 (DUF1124), and is structurally similar to other members of the family. PMID:16682767

  12. Sorbitol-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Loquat Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Masashi

    1979-01-01

    Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was found in flesh tissue of mature fruit of the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. var. Tanaka). The enzyme was purified about 30-fold from the crude extract of the fruit, and was demonstrated to catalyze sorbitol-6-phosphate + NADP ? glucose-6-phosphate + NADPH. The optimal pH values for sorbitol 6-phosphate oxidation and glucose 6-phosphate reduction were 9.8 and 9.1, respectively. PMID:16660798

  13. RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

    2007-05-01

    At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data sets. Recent accomplishments include deployment of a glider in Antarctica for LTER, control of a fleet of gliders during the ONR sponsored Shallow Water 06, RIMPAC, LATTE, ASAP, and the continuation of long-term observation at the LEO-15 New Jersey site Endurance Line. To date Rutgers has flown close to 100 glider missions, with over 27,000 km flown over 760 calendar days and 1,350 glider days in the water. Operations around the world are orchestrated remotely from COOL at Rutgers. Computer networking allows for command and control of the glider fleet from the COOL Lab or remotely via the internet. This system has enabled new oceanographic experiments at significantly reduced cost, with increased reliability, and with extended continuous operational deployments in the global oceans since 2003.

  14. Fleet Performance of Project 100,000 Personnel in the Aviation Structural Mechanic S (Structures) Rating. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, George D.

    The fleet performance of a small group of Project 100,000 (low aptitude) personnel was assessed by means of an evaluation form completed by their supervisors after the men had been on board for approximately seven months. The men had previously been trained for the Navy rating, Aviation Structural Mechanic S (Structures), AMS. The performance of…

  15. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1860-17 - How to comply with the Tier 3 fleet-average standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...standards, and SFTP exhaust standards in a given model year. (c) Do not include...corresponding fleet-average standard for the model year. (e) You may generate...respect to a given emission standard during a model year in which you have...

  17. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Zhang, Qing-yu; Shi, Yao; Wang, Da-hui; Ding, Shu-ying; Yan, Sha-sha

    2006-07-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Hangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%+/-0.02%, while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72+/-1.16)x10(-6) and (233.53+/-1.80)x10(-6), respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000-2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action. PMID:16773726

  18. 77 FR 23118 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0249...Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet...Bayou La Batre, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. University partners with China to help it develop electric vehicle fleet Anne C. Mulkern, E&E reporter

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    also recently unveiled new incentives for electric car purchases, UC Davis said. China will also study technologies, especially as it relates to plug-in electric and hydrogen fuel-cell cars, Eggert said. The schoolUniversity partners with China to help it develop electric vehicle fleet Anne C. Mulkern, E

  20. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui; Zhang, Qing-yu; Shi, Yao; Wang, Da-hui; Ding, Shu-ying; Yan, Sha-sha

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Hangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02%, while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72±1.16)×10?6 and (233.53±1.80)×10?6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action. PMID:16773726

  1. Renal handling of phosphate and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Biber, J; Murer, H; Mohebbi, N; Wagner, C A

    2014-04-01

    In the kidney, both anions, phosphate and sulfate, are almost freely filtered and afterwards reclaimed (reabsorbed) to a large extent from tubular fluid along the proximal tubules. Under normal dietary conditions, fractional excretion of these anions is approximately 10%. Reabsorption of both anions occurs along the proximal tubules by active, saturable, and regulated transepithelial processes. Most of the transporters involved in renal handling of phosphate and sulfate have been identified and their transport functions as well as their cellular localizations have been described in detail. The role of these transporters in the renal handling of phosphate and sulfate has been investigated by the use of several mice knock out models and also by analysis of several inherited human diseases. Numerous hormonal and nonhormonal factors, have been described that alter renal excretion of phosphate or sulfate by mechanisms that alter the abundance of known phosphate/sulfate transporters and consequently renal excretion. These mechanisms contribute to the homeostasis of the extracellular concentrations of phosphate and sulfate. PMID:24715567

  2. Phosphate separation and recovery from wastewater by novel electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Desmidt, Evelyn; Van Looveren, Arnaud; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-06-01

    Stimulated by the depletion of phosphate resources, phosphate recovery systems have been studied in recent years. The use of struvite reactors has proven to be an effective phosphate recovery process. However, the struvite reactor effluent still consists of an excessive amount of phosphate that cannot be recovered nor can be directly discharged. In this study, selectrodialysis (SED) was used to improve the efficiency of phosphate recovery from a struvite reactor: SED was implemented in such a way that phosphate from the effluent of an USAB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor was transferred to the recycled effluent of a struvite reactor. Prior to the experiments, synthetic water with chloride and phosphate was used to characterize the efficiency of SED for phosphate separation. Results indicate that SED was successful in concentrating phosphate from the feed stream. The initial current efficiency reached 72%, with a satisfying (9 mmol L(-1)) phosphate concentration. In the experiments with the anaerobic effluent as the phosphate source for enrichment of the effluent of the struvite reactor, the phosphate flux was 16 mmol m(-2) h(-1). A cost evaluation shows that 1 kWh electricity can produce 60 g of phosphate by using a full scale stack, with a desalination rate of 95% on the feed wastewater. Finally, a struvite precipitation experiment shows that 93% of phosphate can be recovered. Thus, an integrated SED-struvite reactor process can be used to improve phosphate recovery from wastewater. PMID:23651001

  3. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  4. Quality assessment of marine geoscience data collected with the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Morton, J. J.; Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Marine science data collected using the U.S. academic research fleet support a diverse array of investigations across the ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation, to the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Each vessel within the academic fleet is equipped with a suite of sensors (geophysical, water column, and meteorological) available for continuous operation during each expedition, that provide characterization of basic environmental conditions from sea surface to subseafloor. Given the vast expanse of the oceans, many expeditions collect data in previously unexplored regions and these data are of high value for later re-use to build global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. Understanding the quality of these "underway" data streams is essential for any of these science applications. However, documentation of data quality is rare and historically, routine quality assessment (QA) of these data streams has been lacking. In most cases, QA has been the domain of the science party for each expedition but limited to the data types of interest for the scientific goals of the specific program, with the quality of other underway data types remaining unassessed. Under the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, QA of sensor data collected across the academic fleet will be routinely conducted as part of the R2R data pipeline that begins with the submission of cruise data distributions by ship operators. R2R will assemble datasets and documentation, and perform QA for submission to the NOAA National Data Centers (NDCs) for long-term archiving. The goals of the QA are two fold: 1. To provide feedback to shipboard operators to ensure that high quality data are consistently acquired, and 2. To inform future science users of the status of a field data set with detailed information regarding the nature of any problems identified. A wide array of factors impact the quality of data collected at sea, including weather conditions (e.g. winds, sea state), instrument functioning, and operator controlled settings and calibrations. Some data quality issues are best identified visually, but with the volume and diversity of data collected across the research fleet, QA is focused on tests that can be fully scripted. QA tests fall into two general categories: 1. minimal tests of the validity of a submitted data set (existence and validity of the metadata, and verification that all expected data files exist and can be read) and 2. data file level tests (each file can be read, data values are within valid limits, and calculation of statistical quality). Output of the QA is provided as a quality report included within an ISO standard data set metadata record, which is submitted with the data set to the NDCs for long-term archiving.

  5. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  6. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  7. Network Topology and Time Criticality Effects in the Modularised Fleet Mix Problem

    E-print Network

    Whitacre, James M; Baker, Stephen; Fan, Qi; Sarker, Ruhul A; Abbass, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the interplay between network topology and time criticality in a military logistics system. A general goal of this work (and previous work) is to evaluate land transportation requirements or, more specifically, how to design appropriate fleets of military general service vehicles that are tasked with the supply and re-supply of military units dispersed in an area of operation. The particular focus of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how the logistics environment changes when current Army vehicles with fixed transport characteristics are replaced by a new generation of modularised vehicles that can be configured task-specifically. The experimental work is conducted within a well developed strategic planning simulation environment which includes a scenario generation engine for automatically sampling supply and re-supply missions and a multi-objective meta-heuristic search algorithm (i.e. Evolutionary Algorithm) for solving the particular scheduling and routing problems....

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  9. Recovery of phosphates and metals from waste phosphate sludge by reduction-sinter processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Waters; H. E. Powell; A. A. Cochran

    1971-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines developed laboratory-scale processes to recover sodium phosphates and metal values from waste sludges generated by the phosphate treatment of automobile and appliance components. After treatment of the sludge with NaOH, followed by coke or hydrogen reduction and sintering, zinc and lead were recovered as fume; the sinter was separated by leaching into a metallic product, chiefly

  10. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Wagh; S. Y. Jeong; D. Singh

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They

  11. Phosphorus Fractions of Soils Treated with Phosphate Rock and Monocalcium Phosphate after Ryegrass Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Guo; Q. C. Zhang; G. H. Wang; S. H. Chien

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in two acidic soils (pH 4.8) with similar properties except for phosphorus (P) status to investigate the influence of different P fertilizers [Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR), monocalcium phosphate (MCP)] on ryegrass growth and different soil P fractions in the two soils. The P treatments were KPR at 50, 100, and 250 mg P kg and

  12. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chen; P. D. Rekha; A. B. Arun; F. T. Shen; W.-A. Lai; C. C. Young

    2006-01-01

    The ability of a few soil microorganisms to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in plant growth-promoting bacteria for increasing plant yields. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants increases the P uptake by plants. In this study, isolation, screening and characterization of 36 strains of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from Central

  13. COMPARATIVE KINETIC STUDIES OF PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH AND PHOSPHATE UPTAKE IN PHYTOPLANKTON IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative kinetic study of phosphate-limited growth and phosphate uptake was carried out in chemostat cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae Lyng. Breb., Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs, Asterionella formosa Hass., Fragilaria crotonensis Kitt., and Microcystis sp. Lemm. For ea...

  14. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases and Glyoxylate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Cerff, R.

    1973-01-01

    The development of NADP- and NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADH-specific glyoxylate reductase was followed in Sinapis alba cotyledons grown in the dark or under continuous red and far red light. All three enzyme activities are promoted by light, continuous far red light being more than twice as effective as continuous red light. The activities of the NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate reductase increase in the far red light from 36 to 96 hours. They remain constant until at least 120 hours after sowing and are respectively 11 and 6 times higher than the maximum dark activities. Contrary to this, the activity of the NAD-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is scarcely more than doubled under continuous far red irradiation relative to its maximal dark level, and its time course curve is displaced along the time axis, with the activity increasing between 24 and 72 hours after sowing. The increase in activity of NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate reductase is inhibited by d-threo-chloramphenicol but not by the l-threo isomer at concentrations of 200 micrograms per milliliter or less, whereas the slight inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on the NAD-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not stereospecific. The three enzyme activities are inhibited by cycloheximide. When Knop's solution is used as growth medium it strongly promotes NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in vivo and is twice as effective in the red light as in the far red light and dark. The activity of NAD-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is only slightly and almost equally enhanced by Knop's solution in the dark, red, and far red light. These results are consistent with the following conclusions. [List: see text] PMID:16658301

  15. Single superphosphate-reactive phosphate rock mixtures. 2. The effect of phosphate rock type and denning time on the amounts of acidulated and extractable phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Hedley; N. S. Bolan; A. C. Braithwaite

    1988-01-01

    Ground samples of Nauru (N), Christmas Island A (X), Jordan (J) or North Carolina (NC) phosphate rocks (PRs) were acidulated with32P ‘spiked’ sulphuric acid to produce single superphosphate (SSP) reaction mixtures. Subsequently, single superphosphatereactive phosphate rock (SSP-RPR) mixtures were manufactured by adding reactive phosphate rock (RPR) as either ground or unground NCPR or ground JPR to SSP reaction mixtures that

  16. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer form on the plant availability of phosphate from soil, phosphate rock and mono-calcium phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Apthorp; M. J. Hedley; R. W. Tillman

    1987-01-01

    A glasshouse trial using lettuce as the test crop, and laboratory incubations were used to evaluate the influence of various nitrogen fertilizers on the availability of phosphate from an unfertilized loamy sand soil and from the same soil fertilized with Sechura phosphate rock or monocalcium phosphate. The order in which nitrogen fertilizer form increased plant yield and P uptake from

  17. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 ?m in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as ?-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  20. Assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) adjusted non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions of a motor fleet - A long tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Su, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Yue-Chuen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Speciated hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and CO were simultaneously measured by evenly distributed samples along the entire length (12.9 km) of the tunnel in different traffic conditions. Four passes (two round-trips) were made at four different fleet speeds (i.e., 45, 65, 75 and 85 km h-1). Individual NMHC and CO mixing ratios were observed to be sensitive to the fleet speed, which is compounded by driving conditions and traffic volumes. We propose using ratios of NMHCs to CO to cancel out the factor of traffic volumes to determine CO-normalized NMHC emissions, such that a less biased comparison can be made between different fleet speeds in this study and even between different studies. Moreover, to obtain robust CO-normalized NMHC emissions which are sufficiently representative of the fleet speeds, only samples collected deep inside the long-tunnels between 8 and 12 km were used. Of the 61 target NMHCs, isomers of butane, pentane, ethylene, acetylene and toluene were the most abundant species regardless of the driving conditions. We observed that different driving conditions not only affected the emission strengths but also altered the compositions of the NMHCs. To simplify the data analysis, the target NMHCs were classified into four chemical groups, i.e., alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and alkynes. For the slower and more congested driving condition (fleet speed = 45 km h-1), the CO-normalized NMHC emissions were the highest, with alkanes contributing to approximately 60% of the total NMHC levels, suggesting poorer fuel utilization at slower driving conditions. In terms of the CO-normalized ozone forming potentials (OFPs), the contribution of the alkanes diminished dramatically to approximately 9-22% despite their high weight percentage, whereas the contribution of the alkenes was enhanced significantly to 50-60% from their weight percent of only approximately 26%. Our total NMHC to CO ratios of 0.06-0.20 for the four fleet speeds generally fall within the range constrained by many other tunnel or chassis dynamometer studies; however, the sensitivity to the driving conditions and the robustness with the long-tunnel data are better demonstrated in this study.

  1. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

  2. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, François; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate. PMID:24721058

  3. Phosphate excretion and phosphate transporter messenger RNA in uremic rats treated with phosphonoformic acid.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D P; Ali, S M; Contino, L C; Stack, E; Fredrickson, T A; Feild, J; Edwards, R M

    1997-06-01

    The prevention of phosphate retention in chronic renal disease may reduce both renal osteodystrophy and disease progression. We evaluated the expression of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, NaPi-2, and the response to phosphonoformic acid (PFA) in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy-induced renal failure. Partial nephrectomy resulted in a significant proteinuria and reduced renal function. In addition, there was an approximately 50% reduction in the expression of NaPi-2 mRNA. Treatment of rats for 48 hr with PFA (0.6% in glucose drinking fluid) had no effect on NaPi-2 mRNA; however, PFA resulted in a significant increase in fractional phosphate excretion in both normal (7 +/- 0.5% vs. 3 +/- 0.2%) and uremic (60 +/- 4% vs. 36 +/- 4%) rats. Plasma phosphate concentration was higher in uremic rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 mM) compared with normal rats (1.9 +/- 0.04 mM) but not in uremic rats treated with PFA (2.1 +/- 0.04 mM). These data suggest that PFA can increase renal phosphate excretion independent of changes in phosphate transporter expression and prevent phosphate retention. PMID:9190881

  4. Evaluation of Intestinal Phosphate Binding to Improve the Safety Profile of Oral Sodium Phosphate Bowel Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Robijn, Stef; Vervaet, Benjamin A.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Verhulst, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP) is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis) are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage) with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea) and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline). Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline) and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections). Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide) was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders. PMID:25790436

  5. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  6. Exploring phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase function

    PubMed Central

    Bulley, Simon J.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Droubi, Alaa; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Irvine, Robin F.

    2015-01-01

    The family of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) is emerging from a comparative backwater in inositide signalling into the mainstream, as is their substrate, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P). Here we review some of the key questions about the PI5P4Ks, their localisation, interaction, and regulation and also we summarise our current understanding of how PI5P is synthesised and what its cellular functions might be. Finally, some of the evidence for the involvement of PI5P4Ks in pathology is discussed. PMID:25311266

  7. Thermal expansion behaviour of sodium zirconium phosphate structure type phosphates containing tin

    SciTech Connect

    Buvaneswari, G.; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Varadaraju, U.V

    2004-03-01

    Thermal expansion behaviour of sodium zirconium phosphate structure type phosphates of the formula AM{sup 3+}SnP{sub 3}O{sub 12} (A=Ca, Sr and Ba; M{sup 3+}=Cr and Fe) was studied by high temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry in the temperature range 298-1073 K. The variation in the hexagonal lattice parameters of the Ca-containing compounds is in line with the 'sodium zirconium phosphate behaviour'. However, the strontium- and barium-containing compounds display an altogether different behaviour of axial expansion. The results are explained based on the crystal chemistry of these compounds.

  8. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from...acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely...The standards set for human food grade calcium phosphates...

  9. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from...acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely...The standards set for human food grade calcium phosphates...

  10. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from...acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely...The standards set for human food grade calcium phosphates...

  11. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from...acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely...The standards set for human food grade calcium phosphates...

  12. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from...acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely...The standards set for human food grade calcium phosphates...

  13. Factors influencing the efficiency of arsenic extraction by phosphate 

    E-print Network

    Yean, Su Jin

    2005-11-01

    Extraction with sodium phosphate has been used as a method of accessing arsenic in soils. Arsenic extraction efficiency by phosphate from rice-paddy soils of Bangladesh usually has been low and highly variable between soils. The major objectives...

  14. Inhibition studies of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli 

    E-print Network

    Tripathi, Neha

    2007-04-25

    subunit. These two nucleotide binding sites are homologous. Six compounds were designed to mimic the reactive intermediate species carboxy phosphate, and product cabamoyl phosphate. The apparent Ki values calculated estimated the inhibitory strengths...

  15. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  16. Homogenization of vehicle fleet frontal crash pulses from 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Locey, Caitlin M; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B; Maltese, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant's perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle's restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000-2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in the modern vehicle fleet; the range of peak deceleration values for all vehicle classes decreased from 17.1 g in 1997-1999 generation start years to 10.7 g in 2009-2010 generation years, and the pulse duration range decreased from 39.5 ms to 13.4 ms for the same generation year groupings. This latter finding suggests that the designs of restraint systems may become more universally applicable across vehicle body types, since the occupant compartment accelerations are not as divergent for newer vehicles. PMID:23169139

  17. Homogenization of Vehicle Fleet Frontal Crash Pulses from 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant’s perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle’s restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000–2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in the modern vehicle fleet; the range of peak deceleration values for all vehicle classes decreased from 17.1 g in 1997–1999 generation start years to 10.7 g in 2009–2010 generation years, and the pulse duration range decreased from 39.5 ms to 13.4 ms for the same generation year groupings. This latter finding suggests that the designs of restraint systems may become more universally applicable across vehicle body types, since the occupant compartment accelerations are not as divergent for newer vehicles. PMID:23169139

  18. Development of Molecular Marker Source Profiles for Emissions from On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Vehicle Fleets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glynis C. Lough; Charles G. Christensen; James J. Schauer; James Tortorelli; Erin Mani; Douglas R. Lawson; Nigel N. Clark; Peter A. Gabele; Herbert McKee; David Mobley; Yasuko Yoshida; Azusa Ito; Masashi Murakami; Takayuki Murakami; Hideharu Fujimoto; Kikuo Takeda; Shigeru Suzuki; Masahiro Hori; Huan Liu; Kebin He; Qidong Wang; Hong Huo; James Lents; Nicole Davis; Nick Nikkila; Changhong Chen; Mauricio Osses; Chunyu He; Thomas Hilber; Michalis Agraniotis; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras; Thomas Glorius; Uwe Becker; Willy Derichs; Hans-Peter Schiffer; Martin Jong; Lucia Torri; Aki Virkkula; Timo; Risto Hillamo; Tarja Yli-Tuomi; Anne Hirsikko; Ismo Koponen; Nicholas Doll; John Reisel; Aro´n Jazcilevich; Alejandro Garcý´a-Fragoso; Agustý´n Reynoso; Michel Grutter; Ulises Diego-Ayala; Igor Burstyn; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan; Hyang-Mi Kim; Nicola Cherry; Elise Pietroniro; Cheryl Waldner; Delbert Eatough; Nolan Mangelson; Richard Anderson; Donald Martello; Natalie Pekney; Cliff Davidson; William Modey

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Gasoline\\/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California’s South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe

  19. PHOSPHATE RECOVERY BY THE CRYSTALLISATION PROCESS: EXPERIENCE AND DEVELOPMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Piekema; Andreas Giesen

    An advanced alternative for phosphate removal by conventional precipitation is to apply crystallisation. DHV, a multi-national group of consulting engineers and general contractors with headquarters in The Netherlands, has developed and patented a fluid-bed type of crystallizer in which phosphate is removed and recovered from the wastewater while phosphate pellets with a typical diameter of 1 mm are produced. The

  20. Optimization of phosphate removal in anodizing aluminium wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Chimenos; A. I. Fernández; A. Hernández; L. Haurie; F. Espiell; C. Ayora

    2006-01-01

    The wastewater produced after brightening and anodizing aluminium has high concentrations of phosphates and sulphates. The addition of MgO in a first physico-chemical wastewater treatment step makes the selective recovery of phosphates in the form of magnesium phosphates feasible, which may be reused as fertilizer. The proposed wastewater treatment process allows manufacturers to reduce more than 70% of the volume

  1. Original article Acid gelation of colloidal calcium phosphate-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Acid gelation of colloidal calcium phosphate- depleted preheated milk Marie Abstract ­ This study aimed at understanding the role of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in acid gelation of acid gels. colloidal calcium phosphate / CCP / acid milk gel / dialysis ­ 90 °C 10 min p

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of calcium phosphate nanowhiskers

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of calcium phosphate nanowhiskers Sahil Jalota, A. Cuneyt Tas Carolina 29634 (Received 12 February 2004; accepted 29 March 2004) Calcium phosphate [single temperature for 1 h to obtain the nanowhiskers or powders of the desired calcium phosphate bioceramics. I

  3. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ensar Oguz

    2004-01-01

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

  4. Capture of Phosphopeptides Using r-Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Capture of Phosphopeptides Using r-Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets Songyun Xu,, John C. Whitin, College Station, Texas 77843-3123 r-Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets (r-ZrPN) were stud- ied as a binding agent for phosphopeptides. Nanoplatelets of r-zirconium phosphate were incubated overnight

  5. An Overview of Phosphate Mining and Reclamation in

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    An Overview of Phosphate Mining and Reclamation in Florida Casey Beavers Graduate Committee: Dr. This document is meant to provide an overview of phosphate mining and reclamation in Florida to address of mining in Florida, the regulations involved in mining, the process of phosphate mining, the reclamation

  6. Frequency of renal phosphate leak among patients with calcium nephrolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Prié; Vincent Ravery; Laurent Boccon-Gibod; Gérard Friedlander

    2001-01-01

    Frequency of renal phosphate leak among patients with calcium nephrolithiasis.BackgroundNephrolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting 10 to 15% of the population in Europe and the United States. More than 80% of renal stones are made of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The main identified risks for calcium renal stone formation are hypercalciuria and urinary saturation. A urine phosphate (Pi) loss

  7. Regulation of Blood Pyridoxal Phosphate in Riboflavin Deficiency in Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Lakshmi; M. S. Bamji

    1976-01-01

    Synthesis and breakdown of pyridoxal phosphate by erythrocytes were studied in subjects with oral lesions before and after treatment with riboflavin. In vivo conversion of pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate as well as in vitro synthesis of pyridoxal phosphate by erythrocytes were lower in subjects with lesions of the mouth and improved markedly after treatment with riboflavin. Erythrocyte phosphatase activity, with

  8. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  9. Phosphate starvation promotes swarming motility and cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bains, Manjeet; Fernández, Lucía; Hancock, Robert E W

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity. PMID:22773629

  10. Phosphate Starvation Promotes Swarming Motility and Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Manjeet; Fernández, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity. PMID:22773629

  11. Biocompatibility and resorption of a brushite calcium phosphate cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Theiss; Detlef Apelt; Bastian Brand; Annette Kutter; Katalin Zlinszky; Marc Bohner; Sandro Matter; Christian Frei; Joerg A. Auer; Brigitte von Rechenberg

    2005-01-01

    A hydraulic calcium phosphate cement with ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) granules embedded in a matrix of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was implanted in experimentally created defects in sheep. One type of defect consisted of a drill hole in the medial femoral condyle. The other, partial metaphyseal defect was located in the proximal aspect of the tibia plateau and was stabilized using

  12. Interaction between Plant Nutrients: IV. Interaction between Calcium and Phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svend Tage Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    The interaction between calcium and phosphate is complex because these ions both support and counteract each other. The supporting effect is due to a simultaneous uptake and translocation of calcium and phosphate. The counteracting effect is caused by precipitation of less soluble calcium phosphates at the vicinity of nutrient-absorbing roots.At high activity ratios between potassium and calcium the risk of

  13. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  14. Diethylamine phosphate as VPI for steel components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Subramania; A. R. Sathiya Priya; T. Vasudevan

    2006-01-01

    The use of vapour phase corrosion inhibitors (VPIs) is one of the most effective and convenient methods for preventing corrosion of metallic articles and equipments during storage and transportation. In the present investigation, diethylamine phosphate (DEAP) has been synthesized and its inhibitive performance was evaluated through accelerated vapour phase corrosion test and electrochemical methods such as Tafel polarization and impedance

  15. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  16. Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Q. Shang; K. Y. Lo

    1997-01-01

    The principles of electrokinetic dewatering are: (1) electrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a direct current electric field; (2) dielectrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a non-uniform electric field; and (3) electro-osmosis, the water flow in porous media in a direct current electric field. Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay was investigated in an experimental program. The results

  17. Production of phosphatized carbonyl iron powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Syrkin; L. N. Romanova; N. M. Maslov; A. I. Sazonov; O. R. Romanovskaya

    1973-01-01

    the measuring tank 4. A mixture of the acid and acetone (in the ratio of 1 part of the former to 30 or 40 parts of the latter) is prepared in the mixer 5, which is provided with an anchor type stirrer revolving at a speed of 56 rpm. Effective phosphatizing is possible when the amount of orthophosph0ric acid is

  18. Osseointegration of composite calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Frayssinet, P; Mathon, D; Lerch, A; Autefage, A; Collard, P; Rouquet, N

    2000-05-01

    The resistance of macroporous calcium phosphate ceramics to compressive strength generally is low and depends on, among other factors, porosity percentage and pore size. A compromise always is adopted between high porosity, required for a good integration, and mechanical strength, which increases with material density. We improved the strength of macroporous calcium phosphate ceramics of interconnected porosity by filling the pores with a highly soluble, self-setting calcium phosphate cement made of TCP and DCPD. Cylinders of the resulting material were implanted in sheep condyles and subjected to histological analysis after 20, 60, and 120 days. Microradiographs were made of the histological sections. The control material consisted of ceramic that had not been loaded with cement. Progressive ingrowth of bone into the ceramic pores occurred as the cement was degraded during the first implantation period. Marked degradation of the cement was apparent after 2 months, with fragmentation of the cement in most of the pores and the presence of bone tissue between the fragments. All the cement had been replaced by bone after 4 months. Some fragments of cement still were embedded in the newly formed bone. There was no significant difference between the integration of loaded and nonloaded ceramics. Filling the macroporous ceramic pores with a calcium phosphate cement significantly improved the mechanical strength of these ceramics without modifying their integration in the healing bone. PMID:10679675

  19. Insights from Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

  20. Solubility assessment for fertilizer containing phosphate rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Chien

    1993-01-01

    Various methods have been used worldwide for measuring the solubility of phosphate rock (PR) and fertilizers containing PR. In this review, chemical, mineralogical, and physical factors affecting various measurements of PR solubility are discussed. The most important factors are (1) PR solubility expression, (2) mineralogical composition of PR, (3) free carbonate (calcite dolomite) effect, (4) effect of apatite crystallinity and

  1. Clinical experience with sodium cellulose phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Y. C. Pak; Michael J. Nicar; Faye Britton

    1983-01-01

    There is currently no treatment program which is capable of correcting the basic abnormality of absorptive hypercalciuria, although several drugs are available which have been shown to restore normal calcium excretion. Sodium cellulose phosphate best meets the criteria for optimum therapy. When given orally, this non-absorbable ion exchange resin binds calcium and inhibits calcium absorption. However, this inhibition is caused

  2. Hydrolysis of Phosphates by Enzyme Preparations Derived from Carious Dentine, Bacterial Plaque and Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Mäkinen

    1970-01-01

    Enzyme preparations obtained from bacterial plaque, whole saliva and carious dentine were studied with respect to their ability to hydrolyze various phosphates. The substrates used were selected to represent the following biologically important phosphates: hydroxyalkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphates, enol phosphates, phosphoramidates, dialkyl phosphates, alkyl pyrophosphates, P1P2-dialkyl pyrophosphates, and alkyl triphosphates. The enzyme preparations exhibited a versatile reactivity pattern because all

  3. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays. The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspora, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore ("burley" clay). The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality. The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore host. The wavellite and variscite-strengite veinlets are secondary, precipitated from ion complexes in ground water percolating along cracks in the flint clay. The flint clay host of the variscite-strengite veinlet contains strontian crandallite. All of the phosphates contain significant amounts of strontium. The source of P, Ca and Sr was the marine carbonates. Dissolution of these carbonates produced the argillic residue that became the primordial Cheltenham paludal mud, which ultimately altered to fireclay. Preliminary firing tests show that the presence of phosphates lowers fusion temperature. However, it is not clear whether poor refractoriness is due to the presence of phosphates, per se, or to Ca, Sr and other alkaline elements present in the phosphates.

  4. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material

    PubMed Central

    Isherwood, F. A.; Barrett, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol–water–aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether–formic acid–2-methylpropan-2-ol–water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5?-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract simulating that from peas and potatoes, and isolated according to the standard procedures, was better than 95%. Estimation of naturally occurring d-glucose 6-phosphate and adenosine 5?-triphosphate in the initial extract of peas and potatoes and in the final purified extract also indicated a recovery of about 95%. A similar estimation of uridine diphosphate glucose in potatoes showed that little or no breakdown occurred. PMID:6049932

  5. Chlorination kinetics for actinoid and fission-product phosphates in chloride melts. 3. Cerium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, A.I.; Burnaeva, A.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Korshunov, I.A.

    1987-09-01

    Kinetic measurements have been made on the reactions of cerium phosphate with carbon tetrachloride vapor in the molten chlorides of sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. There is a discussion of the effects of temperature, gas flow, liquid composition, and grain size of the phosphate solid on the chlorination rate. Effective rate constants and activation energies have been calculated. A model has been constructed for the chlorination by means of a complete factor experiment.

  6. Agronomy, modelling and economics of reactive phosphate rocks as slow-release phosphate fertilizers for grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Sinclair; P. D. Johnstone; L. C. Smith; M. B. O'Connor; L. Nguyen

    1993-01-01

    Reactive phosphate rocks (RPRs) from Sechura, Peru (SPR) and North Carolina, USA (NCPR) were compared with triple superphosphate (TSP) as phosphate (P) fertilizers for permanent grass\\/clover pastures in four field trials in New Zealand. Trial sites ranged in initial pH (in water) from 5.7 to 6.3 and in rainfall from 712 to 1338 mm yr-1. SPR and NCPR were used

  7. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  8. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  9. First commercial fuel cell fleet: Experience, lessons learned, and future perspective

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, R.H. [North American Fuel Cell Owners Group, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The North American Fuel Cell Owners Group has successfully operated a fleet of over twenty 200 kW fuel cell power plants in a real world environment. These PC25{trademark} phosphoric acid fuel cells, designed and manufactured by ONSI{reg_sign}, have accumulated over 225,000 hours of unattended, automatic operation at various building sites covering a wide range of thermal recoveries and electric grids. MTBFD values are already in excess of 2,000 hours which is already threefold better than already mature gas turbine and engine technology. Moreover, corrected availabilities are already in excess of 96 percent for first-of-a-kind units. The PC25{trademark} power plant, designed and built by ONSI{reg_sign}, is the world`s first truly commercial fuel cell. The experience gained and lessons learned from this 200 kW fuel cell program have conclusively validated the phosphoric acid fuel cell technology and have key elements applicable to the entire emerging fuel cell industry.

  10. Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

  11. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  12. Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipke, K.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

  13. Bacterial Community Structures of Phosphate-Removing and Non-Phosphate-Removing Activated Sludges from Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP L. BOND; PHILIP HUGENHOLTZ; JURG KELLER; ANDLINDA L. BLACKALL

    1995-01-01

    The bacterial community structures of phosphate- and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges were compared. Sludge samples were obtained from two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), and 16S rDNA clone libraries of the bacterial sludge populations were established. Community structures were determined by phylogeneticanalysesof97and92partialclonesequencesfromSBR1(phosphate-removingsludge)andSBR2 (non-phosphate-removing sludge), respectively. For both sludges, the predominant bacterial group with which clones were affiliated was the beta subclass of

  14. [Management of phosphate in chronic kidney disease--Chemistry and history of phosphate binder].

    PubMed

    Koiwa, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshinori

    2009-02-01

    In 1960s and 1970s when hemodialysis therapy was started in Japan, calcium carbonate was used as a phosphate binder and as the purpose of calcium supplement. Aluminum preparations were widely used in Japan, Europe and United states since the end of 1970s, when these drugs were reported as a strong phosphate binder. After that, some adverse effects such as encephalopathy and bone lesions attributed to Aluminum administration have become serious problems in dialysis patients. As a result, Aluminum administration was prohibited in 1992 in Japan. Oral vitamin D pulse therapy was developed in 1990s as a treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japan, hypercalcemia have been occurred easily by combination use of vitamin D preparations and calcium carbonate. Since the 2000s, various complications, such as ectopic calcifications, cardiovascular diseases, and reduced life expectancy, which are associated with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia have been clarified. Therefore, sevelamer hydrochrolide, that is non calcium phosphate binder, became available from 2003. Moreover, Lanthanum carbonate, that is another type of non calcium phosphate binder, was effective in Europe and United States, and also developing in Japan. However, there are not any phosphate binders which solved all clinical problems such as phosphate adsorptive power, digestive symptoms, and organ accumulation. PMID:19182359

  15. The Metal-Phosphate Connection in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, C.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Marti, K.; Kim, J. S.; Crozaz, G.

    1992-07-01

    Phosphates in ordinary chondrites are frequently associated with metal and troilite (e.g., Murrell and Burnett, 1983). They also constitute a large fraction of the inclusions present inside these two phases (Perron et al., 1990), in which they seem to have evolved from tiny precipitates formed from P solid solution in Fe-Ni (Zanda et al., 1990). Here, we further characterize these inclusions, and the external phosphates as well ("external" and "internal" will refer to phosphates located outside and inside metal grains, respectively). Polished sections of Dhajala, H3.8, and Forest Vale, H4 (hereafter DH and FV) were etched to reveal tracks in phosphates. Track densities were obtained with an SEM in internal phosphates in DH and FV, and in external phosphates in DH . The area of all phosphates larger than about 4 micrometers (224 grains in DH, 106 in FV) was measured, and their location noted. REE were measured with an ion probe in internal phosphates. Xe was analysed by stepwise heating in separated metal grains from both chondrites. A ^244Pu fission Xe component (Xe(sub)f) was released at low temperature, attributed to recoils from external phosphates, and another one at high temperature, attributed to internal phosphates. The strong link between phosphates and metal is confirmed: 74% by area (and thus, approximately, by mass) of the phosphates in DH are associated with metal, whether internal, or external in contact with metal (62% in FV). This translates into a ratio of metal-associated P to metal of 0.3% by mass, comparable to the P concentration in the metal of CM2 chondrites (Grossman and Olsen, 1974), of Semarkona (Paris, 1992), and of Leoville (under the form of tiny inclusions, Zanda et al., 1990). It is thus likely that a large proportion of chondritic phosphates formed from P originally contained in Fe-Ni as solid solution, through exsolution followed by growth of the original precipitates during parent-body metamorphism. Mean track densities of internal merrillites agree with those measured here in external grains for DH, and by Lavielle et al. (1992) for FV. So, in the moderately metamorphosed chondrites studied here, merrillite inclusions in metal had already their full share of Pu, as compared to external merrillites. On the other hand, REE abundances in internal merrillites are about a factor of two lower than in typical OC merrillites (Crozaz et al., 1989), with a less pronounced Eu anomaly. The elemental pattern varies somewhat from grain to grain (especially in FV) displaying sometimes a steady decrease of the CI-normalized abundances from light to heavy REE. This, together with the presence, inside the metal, of "exotic" phases like farringtonite (Perron et al., 1990), shows that internal phosphates are not completely equilibrated with the external ones. Track densities are considerably lower in DH (-50 x 10^6 cm^-2) than in FV (-350 x 10^6 cm^-2), which points to a lower Pu concentration or a slower cooling rate for the former. On the other hand, the fission Xe released at high temperature by the metal is larger for DH than for FV (~5 and ~3 x 10^-14 cm^3 ^136Xe/g, respectively). This is also true for low temperature Xe(sub)f (a factor -2 difference between DH and FV). Resolution of this conflict must await the measurement of Xe(sub)f in DH external phosphates. References: Crozaz G., Pellas P., Bourot-Denise M., de Chazal S.M., Fieni C., Lundberg L.L. and Zinner E. (1989) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 93, 157-169. Grossman L. and Olsen E. (1974) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 173-187. Lavielle B., Marti K., Pellas P. and Perron C. (1992) Meteoritics, submitted. Murrell M.T. and Burnett D.S. (1983) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 1999-2014. Perron C., Bourot-Denise M., Pellas P. and Marti K. (1990) Meteoritics (abstract) 25, 398-399. Zanda B., Bourot-Denise M. and Perron C. (1990) Meteoritics (abstract) 25, 422-423.

  16. A Phosphate Transporter from Medicago truncatula Involved in the Acquisition of Phosphate Released by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Harrison; Gary R. Dewbre; Jinyuan Liu

    2002-01-01

    Many plants have the capacity to obtain phosphate via a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In AM associations, the fungi release phosphate from differentiated hyphae called arbuscules, that develop within the cortical cells, and the plant transports the phosphate across a symbiotic membrane, called the periarbuscular mem- brane, into the cortical cell. In Medicago truncatula , a model

  17. Controlling reaction specificity in pyridoxal phosphate enzymes.

    PubMed

    Toney, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes are ubiquitous in the nitrogen metabolism of all organisms. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions including racemization, transamination, decarboxylation, elimination, retro-aldol cleavage, Claisen condensation, and others on substrates containing an amino group, most commonly ?-amino acids. The wide variety of reactions catalyzed by PLP enzymes is enabled by the ability of the covalent aldimine intermediate formed between substrate and PLP to stabilize carbanionic intermediates at C? of the substrate. This review attempts to summarize the mechanisms by which reaction specificity can be achieved in PLP enzymes by focusing on three aspects of these reactions: stereoelectronic effects, protonation state of the external aldimine intermediate, and interaction of the carbanionic intermediate with the protein side chains present in the active site. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pyridoxal Phosphate Enzymology. PMID:21664990

  18. Phosphate and phosphonate receptors in silicate materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daitch, C.E.; Sasaki, D.Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rush, D.J.; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Molecular imprinted silicate materials for phosphates and phosphonates have been prepared via the sol-gel method. Guanidine functionality, with its unique combination of electrostatic and hydrogen bonding ability, were used as selective binding points in imprinted receptor cavities. We prepared the monomer 1-trimethoxysilylpropyl-3-guanidinium chloride and incorporated it into TEOS xerogels with a phosphonate template molecule. Spectroscopic analyses, including solid state {sup 29}Si NMR, found that the guanidine monomer was quantitatively incorporated into the gel. Binding affinities of various phosphate and phosphonate substrates were determined for templated and non-templated materials using HPLC analysis and a modified Bartlett assay. Molecular memory was observed and these results of imprinted xerogels functionalized with amine and trimethylammonium groups.

  19. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  20. Special Features of Phosphatizing in Stage Evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Kozlov; É. D. Egorov; V. V. Kholshchev; V. D. Lymarev; M. N. Panchenko

    2004-01-01

    High-duty drum boilers (15.5 MPa in the drum) in Russia often function with double-stage evaporation, the first stage occurring in the drum and the second stage occurring in remote cyclones or end compartments of the drum connected to an individual circulation center. This process is accompanied by enhanced introduction of PO4 phosphates that contaminate the heating surfaces, i.e., waterwall pipes

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate cathodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoufeng Yang; Peter Y. Zavalij; M. Stanley Whittingham

    2001-01-01

    Hydrothermal methods have been successfully applied to the synthesis of lithium iron phosphates. Li3Fe2(PO4)3 was synthesized by heating at 700°C LiFePO4(OH), formed hydrothermally in an oxidizing environment. Crystalline LiFePO4 was formed in a direct hydrothermal reaction in just a few hours, and no impurities were detected. This result leads to the possibility of an easy scale-up to a commercial process.

  2. Dissolution of rock phosphate in silage leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Choudhary; T. R. Peck; L. D. Bailey

    1995-01-01

    Following a favourable crop response to rock phosphate (RP) in a long term fertility trial in DeKalb, IL, an experiment was designed to dissolve RP in silage leachate on the premise that silage has a pH of 4.0 to 4.2 and that once drained of its leachate, it can be used for animal feed. Two types of RP, Brown Sugar

  3. Metal Ammonium Phosphates and Their New Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L M Lapina

    1968-01-01

    The review deals with the methods of preparation and applications of double salts comprising metal and ammonium phosphates. Particular attention has been given to the methods of preparation and properties of divalent metal compounds of composition MNH4PO4·nH2O which are interesting as complex, long-acting fertilizers. The syntheses and investigations of those trivalent metal compounds which can be formed on interaction between

  4. Plant Plasma Membrane and Phosphate Deprivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Nussaume; Eric Maréchal; Marie Thibaud; Maryse Block

    \\u000a Phosphorus is a major plant macronutrient, but it is also one of the less accessible mineral elements for these organisms\\u000a due to the very low solubility of phosphate and phosphorus incorporation in organic matter in soils. Plants have developed\\u000a multiple strategies to enhance phosphorus acquisition, and much of that activity takes place at the plasma membrane. Phosphorus\\u000a remobilization from membrane

  5. Sphingosine1-phosphate: an enigmatic signalling lipid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon Milstien; Sarah Spiegel

    2003-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved actions of the sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), in yeast, plants and mammals have shown that it has important functions. In higher eukaryotes, S1P is the ligand for a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors. These S1P receptors are differentially expressed, coupled to various G proteins, and regulate angiogenesis, vascular maturation, cardiac development and immunity, and are important for

  6. Nano-porous calcium phosphate balls.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ildyko; Kosmella, Sabine; Prietzel, Claudia; Bagdahn, Christian; Koetz, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    By dropping a NaH2PO4·H2O precursor solution to a CaCl2 solution at 90°C under continuous stirring in presence of two biopolymers, i.e. gelatin (G) and chitosan (C), supramolecular calcium phosphate (CP) card house structures are formed. Light microscopic investigations in combination with scanning electron microscopy show that the GC-based flower-like structure is constructed from very thin CP platelets. Titration experiments indicate that H-bonding between both biopolymers is responsible for the synergistic effect in presence of both polymers. Gelatin-chitosan-water complexes play an important role with regard to supramolecular ordering. FTIR spectra in combination with powder X-ray diffraction show that after burning off all organic components (heating up >600°C) dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate crystallites are formed. From high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) it is obvious to conclude, that individual crystal platelets are dicalcium phosphates, which build up ball-like supramolecular structures. The results reveal that the GC guided crystal growth leads to nano-porous supramolecular structures, potentially attractive candidates for bone repair. PMID:26052107

  7. Revised AMBER parameters for bioorganic phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, T.; Latzer, J.; Case, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report AMBER force field parameters for biological simulations involving phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine. The initial parameters used RESP fitting for the atomic partial charges and standard values for all other parameters such as Lennard-Jones coefficients. These were refined with the aid of a thermodynamic cycle consisting of experimentally determined pKa values, solvation energies from molecular dynamics free energy simulations, and gas phase basicities from QM calculations. A polarization energy term was included to account for the charge density change between the gas-phase and solution, and solvation free energies were determined using thermodynamic integration. Parameter adjustment is required to obtain consistent thermodynamic results with better balanced electrostatic interactions between water and the phosphate oxygens. To achieve this we modified the phosphate oxygen radii. A thermodynamically consistent parameter set can be derived for monoanions and requires an increase of the van der Waals phosphate oxygen radii of approximately 0.09 Å. Larger, residue-specific radii appear to be needed for dianions. The revised parameters developed here should be of particular interest for environments where simulations of multiple protonation states may be of interest. PMID:23264757

  8. Method for phosphate-accelerated bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Lombard, Kenneth H. (Augusta, GA); Hazen, Terry C. (Augusta, GA); Pfiffner, Susan M. (Knoxville, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Borthen, James W. (Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for supplying a vapor-phase nutrient to contaminated soil for in situ bioremediation. The apparatus includes a housing adapted for containing a quantity of the liquid nutrient, a conduit in fluid communication with the interior of the housing, means for causing a gas to flow through the conduit, and means for contacting the gas with the liquid so that a portion thereof evaporates and mixes with the gas. The mixture of gas and nutrient vapor is delivered to the contaminated site via a system of injection and extraction wells configured to the site. The mixture has a partial pressure of vaporized nutrient that is no greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid. If desired, the nutrient and/or the gas may be heated to increase the vapor pressure and the nutrient concentration of the mixture. Preferably, the nutrient is a volatile, substantially nontoxic and nonflammable organic phosphate that is a liquid at environmental temperatures, such as triethyl phosphate or tributyl phosphate.

  9. Modifier coordination and phosphate glass networks

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.; Click, C.A.; Alam, T.M.

    1999-11-30

    The addition of up to approximately 16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to vitreous P{sub 2}O{sub 5} reduces the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) by 150 K, whereas further additions up to 50 mole% produce little additional change in T{sub g}. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicate that the phosphate network is progressively dipolymerized over the entire range of compositions. The property trend is explained by a transition in the Cs{sup +} coordination environment, from isolated Cs-polyhedra below {approximately}16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to a corner-sharing Cs-polyhedral sub-structure in the glasses with greater Cs{sub 2}O contents. This modifier transition does not occur in Al-phosphate glasses. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that the average Al coordination number decreases with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to avoid the formation of Al-O-Al bonds in these binary phosphate glasses.

  10. Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

  11. Phosphate sources and their suitability for remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Knox, A S; Kaplan, D I; Paller, M H

    2006-03-15

    Phosphate minerals and specifically apatite show promise for environmental cleanup because they can form stable compounds with a wide range of cationic contaminants. However, phosphate minerals naturally accumulate some heavy metals that may cause additional contamination of the environment if used improperly. Nine commercially available phosphate materials were evaluated for remediation of contaminated soil based on solubility, concentration of metal/metalloid impurities, and leachability of impurity metal/metalloids. The phosphate materials consisted of three groups: processed (i.e., fertilizers), mined (rock phosphates from different formations), and biogenic (ground fish bone). Processed and mined rock phosphates contained relatively high total concentrations of As, Co, Cr, and Cu but did not exceed the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Biogenic apatite contained much lower metal concentrations than processed and mined rock phosphate and was appreciably more soluble. By combining biogenic and mined phosphate it is possible to obtain a wide range of phosphate release rates, permitting rapid immobilization of contaminants while providing a slow release of phosphate for continued long-term treatment. PMID:16150478

  12. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  13. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  14. Prospective comparison of three bowel preparation regimens: fleet phosphosoda, two-liter and four-liter electrolyte lavage solutions.

    PubMed

    Ker, Tim S

    2008-10-01

    In an attempt to improve patients' tolerance for colon cleaning, three bowel preparation regimens: 90-mL Fleet phosphosoda (FPS), 2-L electrolyte lavage solution plus 20 mg oral bisacodyl, and 4-L lavage, were compared for efficacy and safety. A total of 912 patients were prospectively nonrandomized into three study groups. In Group A, 304 patients were given 45-mL Fleet phosphosoda at 9 AM and 6 PM the day before colonoscopy. In Group B, 304 patients were given four tablets of 5 mg bisacodyl at 12 PM the day before colonoscopy followed by 2 L electrolyte lavage by mouth at 6:00 PM the evening before colonoscopy. In Group C, 304 patients were given 4 L electrolyte lavage at 6:00 PM the evening before colonoscopy. All patients were kept on a clear liquid diet the day before colonoscopy. The bowel cleanliness was accessed by one colonoscopist. One registered nurse accessed the ease of the patient. In Group A (FPS), every patient finished the 90-mL Fleet phosphosoda. Colon cleanliness was 95.1 per cent. In Group B (2 L), three patients (0.6%) could not finish the laxative. Colon cleanliness was 95.9 per cent. In Group C (4 L), 22 patients (7.3%) could not finish the laxative preparation. Colon cleanliness was 95.3 per cent. The study found these three regimens can achieve equally good results of bowel preparation; however, the small volume laxative (FPS) has been accepted favorably by patients. PMID:18942638

  15. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  16. Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hussein, E M

    1994-09-01

    A measurement of the radioactivity content of phosphate ore material, phosphatic fertilizer (superphosphate), and by-product phosphogypsum in the Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt, has been carried out. According to the results of gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, 238U was found in concentrations of 523, 473, and 134 Bq kg-1; 226Ra in concentrations of 514, 301, and 411 Bq kg-1; 232Th in concentrations of 37, 24, and 19 Bq kg-1; and 40K in concentrations of 19, 3, and 16 Bq kg-1 for the analyzed materials, respectively. The data are discussed and compared with those given in the literature for some other countries in light of permissible radiation dose rates. PMID:8056596

  17. A safer disposal of hazardous phosphate coating sludge by formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Pérez-Nicolás, M; Fernández, J M; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

    2015-08-15

    Phosphate coating hazardous wastes originated from the automotive industry were efficiently encapsulated by an acid-base reaction between phosphates present in the sludge and calcium aluminate cement, yielding very inert and stable monolithic blocks of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Two different compositions of industrial sludge were characterized and loaded in ratios ranging from 10 to 50 wt.%. Setting times and compressive strengths were recorded to establish the feasibility of this method to achieve a good handling and a safe landfilling of these samples. Short solidification periods were found and leaching tests showed an excellent retention for toxic metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn) and for organic matter. Retentions over 99.9% for Zn and Mn were observed even for loadings as high as 50 wt.% of the wastes. The formation of ACP phase of low porosity and high stability accounted for the effective immobilization of the hazardous components of the wastes. PMID:26024992

  18. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  19. Resume of the status and benefits of the two-segment approach and its applicability to the jet transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, D. G.; White, K. C.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1974-01-01

    NASA, in cooperation with the FAA, is evaluating the two-segment approach as a routine procedure for reducing aircraft noise. The program calls for separate flight evaluations using a 727 and a DC-8, and an extrapolation of these results to determine the adaptability of the technique to the rest of the fleet. The total program is reviewed. The profile and procedures developed and the noise reduction achievable are presented. The vortex characteristics behind an aircraft on a two-segment path is covered. Finally, cost estimates for retrofitting aircraft with two-segment avionics are presented.

  20. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.