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1

Phosphate enema toxicosis in a pygmy goat wether  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phosphate enema toxicity was diagnosed in a 7-month-old, castrated male, pygmy goat. On presentation, clinical findings included mild depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, rumen stasis, muscle tremors, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyperphosphatemia, azotemia, and metabolic acidosis. Fluid diuresis and parenteral antimicrobial therapy resulted in recovery after 3 d of treatment.

2004-01-01

2

Non-laxative CT colonography with barium-based faecal tagging: is additional phosphate enema beneficial and well tolerated?  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of an additional phosphate enema prior to non-laxative CT colonography (CTC). Methods 71 patients (mean age 80 years, 28 male, 43 female) underwent non-laxative CTC following 4 oral doses of diluted 2% w/w barium sulphate. Patients were invited to self-administer a phosphate enema 2 h before CTC. An experienced observer graded the volume of retained stool (1 (nil) to 4 (>75% bowel circumference coated)), retained fluid ((1 (nil) to 4 (>50% circumference obscured)), retained stool tagging quality (1 (untagged) to 5 (?75% to 100%) tagged) and confidence a polyp ?6 mm could be excluded (yes/no) for each of six colonic segments. Tolerance of the enema was assessed via questionnaire. Data were analysed between those using and not using the enema by Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact test. 18/71 patients declined the enema. Results There was no reduction in residual stool volume with enema use compared with non-use either overall (mean score 2.6 vs 2.7, p = 0.76) or in the left colon (mean 2.3 vs 2.4, p = 0.47). Overall tagging quality was no different (mean score 4.4 vs 4.3, p = 0.43). There was significantly more retained left colonic fluid post enema (mean score 1.9 vs 1.1, p<0.0001), and diagnostic confidence in excluding polyps was significantly reduced (exclusion not possible in 35% segments vs 21% without enema, p = 0.006). Of 53 patients, 30 (56%) found the enema straightforward to use, but 4 (8%) found it unpleasant. Conclusion Phosphate enema use prior to non-laxative CTC leads to greater retained fluid, reducing diagnostic confidence, and is not recommended.

Davis, W; Nisbet, P; Hare, C; Cooke, P; Taylor, S A

2011-01-01

3

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

4

Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides.  

PubMed

Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

Leyva, Francisco J; Bakshi, Rahul P; Fuchs, Edward J; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S; Goldsmith, Arthur J; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P; Lee, Linda A; Torbenson, Michael S; Hendrix, Craig W

2013-08-24

5

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

6

Bacteremia during barium enema study.  

PubMed

The occurrence of bacteremia was studied in patients undergoing barium enema. Blood cultures were done on 34 patients before, during, and after the procedure using two schedules. Cultures were obtained once during the procedure in the first schedule and four times in the second. None of the cultures were positive by the first schedule, while 23% of patients studied by the second schedule had one or more positive cultures. Organisms isolated were anaerobes. The bacteremia was transient and self-limited, without serious clinical sequelae. The incidence of bacteremia during barium enema examination was statistically indistinguishable from bacteremia previously reported during colonscopy. It is concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated in most patients undergoing colonic diagnostic procedures. Prophylaxis in selected high-risk patients requires further study. PMID:416682

Butt, J; Hentges, D; Pelican, G; Henstorf, H; Haag, T; Rolfe, R; Hutcheson, D

1978-04-01

7

Contrast enema diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Contrast enema was performed in a select group of 126 neonates with ambiguous diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Enema findings were compared with that on plain abdominal radiographs (AXR) and the clinical outcome. Thirty-one of the 34 patients with a discharge diagnosis of NEC were interpreted to have a positive contrast enema, and 91 of the 92 patients without a discharge diagnosis of NEC were interpreted to have a negative contrast enema. The AXR was interpreted as positive in 57 patients and as negative or indeterminate in 69. Not a single case of perforation was produced. Judicious use of contrast enema can improve specificity of diagnosis in cases with discordant clinical and plain radiographic findings. PMID:1501938

Kao, S C; Smith, W L; Franken, E A; Sato, Y; Sullivan, J H; McGee, J A

1992-01-01

8

Treatment of distal ulcerative colitis with beclomethasone enemas: High therapeutic efficacy without endocrine side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen patients with 18 attacks of distal ulcerative colitis were treated randomly with either 0.5 mg topically administered\\u000a beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) or 5 mg betamethasone phosphate (BMT). The effect of the steroid enemas on adrenocortical\\u000a function was examined by ACTH tests, which were performed before and 20 days after treatment. At completion of the trial,\\u000a a marked suppression of the

George Bansky; HUGO BIJHLER; Bernhard Stamm; Walter H. Häcki; Peter Buchmann; Jürg Müller

1987-01-01

9

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...enema kit is a device intended to instill water or other fluids into the colon through a nozzle inserted into the rectum to promote evacuation of the contents of the lower colon. The device consists of a container for fluid connected to the...

2013-04-01

10

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retained and tolerated than others because of their physical properties. Aim: To compare patient preference and retention of four therapeutic enemas, including a nicotine enema, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Twenty four patients with active UC received the four trial enemas—corticosteroid, 5-amino salicylate (5-ASA), and nicotine liquid enemas and a corticosteroid foam, in a randomised order, taking one enema on each of four successive nights. Patients scored them 1 to 4 for ease of administration and retention, degree of abdominal bloating, and for their overall preference. Results: Fifteen patients rated nicotine their overall favourite or second favourite, compared with 14 for corticosteroid foam and 11 for 5-ASA and corticosteroid liquids, but this was not significant (p = 0.302). Overall, there was no significant difference in overnight retention. However, the nicotine enema tended to be less well retained in patients with milder urgency but a higher proportion retained it overnight with more severe urgency (p = 0.031 compared with 5-ASA enema). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in patient preference or overall duration of retention for the four enemas.

Ingram, J; Rhodes, J; Evans, B; Newcombe, R; Thomas, G

2005-01-01

11

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation in 31%, spina bifida in 8% and Hirschsprung's disease in 4%. Mean age of operation was 10.7 years. Appendix was used as stoma in 73% of cases. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 6% of cases and continence was achieved in 92% of cases. A systematic search of database was performed for the same period. Twenty-four studies describing 676 patients were found. The mean age was 10 years and various sites used for ACE were, right side of abdomen in 71%, umbilicus in 15% and left side of abdomen in 14%. The incidence of open and laparoscopic procedures were 87 and 13%, respectively. Appendix was used for stoma in 76% procedures. Other operative modalities were retubularised colon, retubularised ileum, caecal button and caecostomy tube, etc. The mean volume of enema fluid used was 516 ml. The mean evacuation time was 42 min. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 13% of cases. Continence was achieved in 93% of cases. There has been significant improvement in the outcome during last 5 years in comparison to the outcome published in late 1990s. Advancements in techniques, better-trained stoma care nurses and better stoma appliances could have played major role in this success. PMID:18408942

Sinha, Chandrasen Kumar; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry C

2008-04-12

12

Barge fleet layout optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of layout optimization for barge fleet operations. In this context, layout refers to the positioning and allocation of river-based tow building sites for tow building, breaking, and cleaning operations in support of commodity shipments via barge transport. An integer programming model is developed and tested to solve the problem using data and information supplied by

Gail W. Depuy; G. Don Taylor; Todd C. Whyte

2004-01-01

13

The antegrade continence enema procedure: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the antegrade continence enema (ACE) was first described in 1990 for fecal incontinence, more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. This report reviews the indications, operative modifications, outcome, and complications of the procedure.

Joy L Graf; Christopher Strear; Barbara Bratton; H. Tamiko Housley; Russell W Jennings; Michael R Harrison; Craig T Albanese

1998-01-01

14

L-glutamine enemas attenuate mucosal injury in experimental colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of I-glutamine, short chain fatty acid, prednisolone, and mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) enemas on mucosal damage and inflammation in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in ethanol. Saline (n=14), prednisolone (n=13), 5-aminosalicylic acid (n=14), I-glutamine (n=14), and short chain fatty acid (n=13) enemas were

Ekrem Kaya; Esma Sürmen Gür; Halil Özgüç; Ahmet Bayer; Rifat Tokyay

1999-01-01

15

Impact of cecostomy and antegrade colonic enemas on management of fecal incontinence and constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn childhood and adolescence, fecal soiling represents a psychologically devastating problem. Physical and emotional distress associated with daily rectal enemas is minimized by the introduction of a cecostomy tube for colonic cleansing with antegrade colonic enemas (ACEs).

Andrew L. Wong; Dragan Kravarusic; Sarah L. Wong

2008-01-01

16

The use of antispasmodic drugs during barium enemas.  

PubMed

In 1958, Welin recommended the routine use of atropine before a barium enema to reduce mucus secretion and make the examination more comfortable. Currently, many radiologists believe that smooth-muscle spasmolysis is a useful adjunct during a barium enema and use such a spasmolytic agent. One survey found that spasmolytic agents were administered more frequently in 1987 than in 1976. The use of glucagon had increased 20% between 1976 and 1987. Among 34 foreign institutions responding to the survey, 37% used glucagon and 45% used scopolamine butylbromide (Buscopan). Nevertheless, it is still controversial whether spasmolytic agents play a significant role in the performance and interpretation of a barium enema. Some radiologists routinely use a spasmolytic agent; others do so only selectively. PMID:8191992

Skucas, J

1994-06-01

17

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2010-04-01

18

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2013-04-01

19

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2009-04-01

20

Predictive value of a diagnosis of colonic polyp on the double-contrast barium enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive predictive value of a diagnosis of colonic polyp on the double-contrast barium enema was determined by analyzing 160 polypoid lesions reported in 105 patients. Of the 160 polyps, 139 were confirmed by endoscopy, surgery, or repeat barium enema for a positive predictive value of 87%. Twenty-one lesions were not confirmed despite repeat endoscopy, repeat barium enema, review of

David J. Ott; Deborah S. Ablin; David W. Gelfand; Isadore Meschan

1983-01-01

21

Fecal incontinence successfully managed by antegrade continence enema in children: A report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two children with intractable fecal incontinence after correction of high anorectal malformations were successfully managed by the daily administration of a glycerin enema into the cecum via an appendicocecostomy or tubularized cecostomy, according to the method of Malone's antegrade continence enema (ACE). Fluoroscopic defecography performed during this procedure in each patient disclosed that the glycerin enema promptly evoked cecal peristalsis,

Takayuki Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Kubo; Makoto Honzumi

1996-01-01

22

Routine colonic lavage is unnecessary for double-contrast barium enema in outpatients  

PubMed Central

Four different cleansing regimens were assessed in a prospective survey of 435 patients referred for barium enema. A regimen using simple dietary instructions and laxatives is as effective as a preliminary cleansing enema. It is suggested that routine cleansing enemas in outpatients represent an unnecessary and uncomfortable ritual that might usefully be abandoned.

De Lacey, Gerald; Benson, Mark; Wilkins, Robert; Spencer, John; Cramer, Benvon

1982-01-01

23

Fleet Commanders: Afloat or Ashore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major fleet exercise in 1970 commanded by Admiral Peet and subsequently evaluated by Dr. Melich left both men with a lot of questions. The principal one, still officially unresolved, is whether a fleet commander needs to be, or even can afford to be, on...

R. Peet M. E. Melich

1976-01-01

24

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) supports Department of Defense (DoD) airlift requirements in emergencies when the need for airlift exceeds the capability of the military aircraft fleet. All CRAF participants must be U.S. carriers fully certified by the...

C. Bolkcom

2006-01-01

25

PERFORATION OF MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Severe bowel dysfunction often accompanies neurogenic bladder, and Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) procedures can lead to improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, complications such as catheter false passage with subsequent intraperitoneal instillation of irrigation can lead to significant morbidity. We present our experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition.

WILLIAM DeFOOR; EUGENE MINEVICH; PRAMOD REDDY; ALBAHA BARQAWI; DAVID KITCHENS; CURTIS SHELDON; MARTIN KOYLE

2005-01-01

26

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 8, fleet economics  

SciTech Connect

The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers, the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

NONE

1995-12-01

27

Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

Not Available

2012-10-01

28

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

29

Prospective comparison of double contrast barium enema plus flexible sigmoidoscopy v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding: barium enema v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Rectal bleeding often heralds serious colonic disease. The literature suggests that colonoscopy is superior to barium enema plus sigmoidoscopy, although no good comparative studies exist. Seventy one patients with overt rectal bleeding had prospectively flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy completed independently. Against the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopy were 0.69 and 0.78 respectively for a spectrum of colonic lesions, while for combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema these values were 0.80 and 0.56, respectively. When assessing adenoma or carcinoma, colonoscopy was more sensitive at 0.82 v 0.73, while flexible sigmoidoscopy plus double contrast barium enema was superior for detecting diverticular disease. The positive predictive value for colonoscopy was 0.87 against 0.81 for flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema. This study confirms that colonoscopy should be a first line investigation in subjects likely to require biopsy or therapeutic intervention.

Irvine, E J; O'Connor, J; Frost, R A; Shorvon, P; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Hunt, R H

1988-01-01

30

Self-administered disposable micro-enemas before outpatient sigmoidoscopy.  

PubMed Central

Many colorectal carcinomas can be diagnosed by rigid sigmoidoscopy. One important limiting factor in the usefulness of this investigation is the presence of faeces; another is inability to negotiate the recto-sigmoid bend. 101 patients (47 men) were sent a Microlax enema with instruction to use it before their first attendance in the outpatient department. The grade of preparation [on a scale of 0 (empty rectum) to 3, with grades 0 and 1 providing an adequate view], height achieved with the sigmoidoscope and whether or not the extent of the examination was limited by faeces were recorded. These data were compared with results in 78 patients (38 men) who did not receive any special preparation. There were no serious difficulties with self-administration. An adequate view was obtained in 89 (88%) of those who had received an enema and in 41 (53%) of those who were unprepared (P < 0.001, chi 2 test). The height achieved and the percentage of patients in whom the sigmoidoscopy was not limited by faeces were also significantly increased. The mailing of micro-enemas to patients who are likely to need sigmoidoscopy is a cheap measure that increases diagnostic yield and saves reattendances.

Marsh, S K; Huddy, S P

1996-01-01

31

Therapeutic enema for pediatric ileocolic intussusception: using a balloon catheter improves efficacy.  

PubMed

A therapeutic enema for pediatric intussusception may benefit by using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. We compared the efficacy of rectal catheters without and with an inflated balloon for air and liquid enemas. We retrospectively reviewed PACS images and hospital records of children who had a therapeutic enema for intussusception at our institution between January 2006 and May 2011. Sixty-two enemas in 60 children were included. Physician assistants with training in pediatric fluoroscopy and pediatric radiologists were more likely to use air enema (37/41 or 90 %), and general radiologists were more likely to use liquid enema (18/21 or 86 %). However, the reduction rate for air enema overall was only slightly higher than for liquid enema using an inflated balloon catheter (36/40 or 90 % versus 14/17 or 82 %) (P?=?0.653). For air enema, mean procedure time for successful reductions was shorter with an inflated balloon catheter than with a plastic catheter (7.6 versus 28.2 min) (P?enema, the reduction rate was higher with an inflated balloon catheter than without inflation (14/17 or 82 % versus 1/5 or 20 %; P?=?0.021), but the procedure time was not shortened. No procedural complications were directly attributed to using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. Using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon appears to safely shorten the procedure time of a successful air enema and improve the reduction rate of liquid enema. PMID:23748969

Betz, Bradford W; Hagedorn, Jeffrey E; Guikema, Jeffrey S; Barnes, Courtney L

2013-06-09

32

A novel tableted purgative for colonoscopic preparation: Efficacy and safety comparisons with Colyte and Fleet Phospho-Soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Currently available aqueous purgatives used before colonoscopy are poorly tolerated. We designed a tableted sodium phosphate purge that we believe will yield much greater patient acceptance. Methods: A total of 305 outpatients undergoing routine diagnostic colonoscopy were randomized to one of three preparation groups: Colyte (100 patients), Fleet Phospho-Soda (106 patients), or sodium phosphate tablets (99 patients). Endoscopists were

Craig A Aronchick; William H Lipshutz; Scott H Wright; Francis Dufrayne; Garrett Bergman

2000-01-01

33

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

34

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema Procedure in the Management of Patients with Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In patients with spina bifida, traditional bowel management programs such as suppositories, retrograde enemas, and manual disimpaction have been largely unsatisfactory. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure has largely changed our approach to bowel management in this patient group.Study Design: Over a 3-year period between January 1994 and January 1997, 27 patients with spina bifida underwent the Malone

Terry W. Hensle; Elizabeth A. Reiley; David T. Chang

1998-01-01

35

Colonoscopy without premedication versus barium enema: a comparison of patient discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Colonoscopy is considered a painful procedure requiring routine intravenous sedation. We investigated whether unsedated colonoscopy causes more discomfort than barium enema. Methods: Procedure-related discomfort was determined in 100 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy without premedication and in an equal number of patients referred for sigmoidoscopy and barium enema. All patients underwent such examinations for the first time and had no

Volker F. Eckardt; Gerd Kanzler; Dieter Willems; Alexander J. Eckardt; Gudrun Bernhard

1996-01-01

36

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

37

Fecal incontinence successfully managed by antegrade continence enema in children: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two children with intractable fecal incontinence after correction of high anorectal malformations were successfully managed by the daily administration of a glycerin enema into the cecum via an appendicocecostomy or tubularized cecostomy, according to the method of Malone's antegrade continence enema (ACE). Fluoroscopic defecography performed during this procedure in each patient disclosed that the glycerin enema promptly evoked cecal peristalsis, which was transmitted to the distal colon and rectum, and squeezed out almost all the fecal matter, evacuating it from the anus. However, two enemas within a short interval were required to achieve a complete washout of feces. Although this report describes only two patients, our experience confirmed that the ACE was very effective and that adding the word "continence" to antegrade enema was justifiable. Moreover, fluoroscopic defecography was proven to play a significant role in determining the appropriate regimens of this technique to achieve complete washout of the feces. PMID:9017969

Yamamoto, T; Kubo, H; Honzumi, M

1996-01-01

38

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

Not Available

2012-01-01

39

Can barium enema indicate when colonoscopy will be difficult?  

PubMed

The barium enemas of 48 consecutive patients, who were technically difficult to intubate at colonoscopy, were compared to those of 46 patients who were not. Measurements were taken of colonic length and mobility, and an assessment made of diverticular disease. Rectosigmoid length (mean difficult group = 61 cm, mean control = 54 cm, P = 0.01) and total colonic length (mean difficult group = 157 cm, mean control = 140 cm, P < 0.0001) were greater in the difficult colonoscopy group as were transverse colon mobility (mean difficult group = 10 cm, mean control = 7 cm, P = 0.003) or redundancy (transverse colon reaching the true pelvis on the erect film); 65% difficult group vs 17% control group, P < 0.0001. The presence of moderate or severe diverticular disease was also greater in the difficult (23%) compared to the control (4%) group, P = 0.02. When available, assessment of a previous barium enema is a useful guide to probable technical difficulty of colonscopy. It may allow appropriate allocation of potentially difficult cases to specialist endoscopy lists. PMID:7743720

Saunders, B P; Halligan, S; Jobling, C; Fukumoto, M; Moussa, M E; Williams, C B; Bartram, C I

1995-05-01

40

Airline fleet composition and deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airline responses to deregulation have been analyzed using a variety of models. This paper presents and empirically tests a model of airline behavior which explicitly treats hub-and-spoke route structures which emerged after deregulation. The change to hub-and-spoke route structure implies an alteration of airline fleet use and acquisition of aircraft after deregulation. The empirical section of this paper investigates the

John Howard Brown

1993-01-01

41

[Value of small bowel double contrast enema in clinical interventions].  

PubMed

The double contrast enema is the most effective morphological screening method for the evaluation of the whole small bowel. Its sensitivity is 85%, its specifity 96.7%. In specific clinical problems the number of pathological roentgen findings rises: from 34.4% when all indications are taken into consideration to 58% in indications specific to the small intestine such as Morbus Crohn or the malabsorption syndrome. Search for tumours and the double contrast of the small bowel in unclear gastro-intestinal bleeding are unproductive. The weak point of this screening method is the lower part of the small intestine. Therefore, the selective peroral or retrograde analysis of the terminal ileum supplement the contrast method. A precondition for good results is an adequate technical standard. Besides the clinical results some technical results are therefore discussed such as contrast medium quantities, examination and X-ray time, radiation exposure and influences on the image quality. PMID:3083480

Rödl, W; Possel, H M; Prull, A; Wunderlich, L

1986-02-01

42

Assessment of patient exposure for barium enema examinations.  

PubMed

Methods are described for the assessment of patient exposure during clinical fluoroscopic procedures. Values of the roentgen-area-product (RAP) and their distribution throughout the examination are presented for both single-contrast and double-contrast barium enema studies. The double-contrast procedure was measured to give 50% more radiation to the patient than the single-contrast procedure when the same size optical aperture is used between the intensifier and TV pick-up tube. However, it was possible to decrease the fluoroscopic RAP value by over a factor of two for the double-contrast procedure without an adverse clinical effect by increasing the area of the aperture diaphragm. PMID:6642942

Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S; Wong, R

43

Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

Not Available

2009-08-01

44

Left-colon antegrade continence enema (LACE) procedure for fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Antegrade continence enemas (ACE) are an efficacious therapeutic option for patients with fecal incontinence. The authors review their institution’s experience with a variation of the Monti-Malone ACE procedure using the left colon as a source of an intestinal conduit and enema reservoir.Methods: From 2000 to 2002, 18 patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation underwent left-colon ACE (LACE) procedure.

Bernard M Churchill; Daniel A De Ugarte; James B Atkinson

2003-01-01

45

Rebamipide Enemas–New Effective Treatment for Patients with Corticosteroid Dependent or Resistant Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the effect of rebamipide enema in patients with steroid-resistant and\\/or dependent ulcerative colitis. Rebamipide enemas were administered twice daily for a 12-week period; this treatment was further continued longer in patients who requested this. Disease activity index as reflecting the clinical condition and endoscopic index with histological grading were determined before and after the treatment

Mitsuki Miyata; Kunio Kasugai; Tetsuya Ishikawa; Shinichi Kakumu; Masafumi Onishi; Takeshi Mori

2005-01-01

46

Antegrade continence enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade continence enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade continence enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:

Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens

2000-01-01

47

Bacterial Translocation in the Course of Acute Pancreatitis: Beneficial Role of Nonabsorbable Antibiotics and Lactitol Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred Wistar rats were allocated to 4 groups. The groups, 3 representing our acute pancreatitis model induced by intrabiliary injection of a trypsin\\/enterokinase mixture, were studied as follows: (A) no treatment; (B) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin; (C) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin plus lactitol 0.5 g\\/kg, and (D) given a daily

F. Marotta; T. C. Geng; C. C. Wu; G. Barbi

1996-01-01

48

Forecasting automobile-fleet fuel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automobile fleet fuel efficiency model considers impacts of prevailing economic conditions, governmental policy decisions regarding new vehicle fuel efficiency standards, and auto usage characteristics, all of which are vital to the accurate projection of automobile-fleet fuel efficiency. The basic approach is to determine the number of automobiles in use by model year, estimate automobile fuel efficiencies by model year,

F. L. Mannering; K. C. Sinha

1979-01-01

49

Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles a...

K. K. M. J. Peg Whalen

1999-01-01

50

Fleet vehicles in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As fleets become a larger proportion of the new vehicle population on the road, they have more influence on the characteristics of the total US motor vehicle population. Because of the relatively large market share and the high turnover rate of fleet vehi...

S. Miaou P. S. Hu J. R. Young

1992-01-01

51

The greening of local fleets  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses how as the demands facing fleet adiministrators will accelerate during the 90s, environmental issues will dominate the agenda. It is noted that because of new regulations, the nature of vehicles and their fuel will soon change. There will be more electric vehicles, more vehicles using compressed natural gas, and, for gasoline-powered vehicles, more stringent internal control mechanisms for emissions and gasoline chemical composition. Vehicle emission testing programs are discussed, as well as legal actions for violation of environmental laws. Third party claims are discussed, as well as court cases that have eroded the historical protection afforded to governments by the doctrine of sovereign immunity. Comments are made on the Clean Water Act, and waste management.

Williams, A.

1994-01-01

52

Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

53

Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5' green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10(6.95) tissue culture infective dose(50) (TCID(50))/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3 dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14 dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Nuckols, John T; Ziegler, Sarah A; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Klowden, Marc J; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A; Higgs, Stephen

2012-12-18

54

Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strategic requirement of the Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) segment of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) has never been formally tested and validated during an actual joint or interagency exercise or operation. Research indicates that January 2002 was t...

D. K. Gooch

2009-01-01

55

Holy Loch Fleet Moorings Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains results of the inspection of selected Fleet Moorings and Navigation Buoys at the Naval Activity, Holy Loch, Scotland. Divers from UCT-1 and an engineer from the Ocean Engineering & Construction Project Office of CHESNAVFACENGCOM condu...

1982-01-01

56

CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

NONE

1995-12-01

57

DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL--Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast  

PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required.

Robinson, J. Maurice

1954-01-01

58

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU.

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

59

Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations  

SciTech Connect

Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure.

Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

1983-12-01

60

Sulphasalazine retention enemas in ulcerative colitis: a double-blind trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four patients with ulcerative colitis completed a double-blind assessment comparing the efficacy of two weeks of treatment with nightly retention enemas containing 3 g sulphasalazine or placebo. Symptom grading, sigmoidoscopic appearance, rectal biopsy specimens, and diary records were used to assess benefit and side effects. The active drug conferred significant benefit compared with placebo as shown by several criteria, but

K R Palmer; J R Goepel; C D Holdsworth

1981-01-01

61

Primary lymphoma of the colon and rectum: CT and barium enema correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the computed tomographic (CT) and barium enema (BE) findings in seven patients with proven primary lymphoma of the colon and rectum. CT and BE examination are complimentary studies in the evaluation of primary lymphoma of the colorectum, and certain relevant findings may be missed when radiographic evaluation does not include both modalities. Both CT and barium studies

Susan H. Wyatt; Elliot K. Fishman; Bronwyn Jones

1993-01-01

62

Antegrade continence enema in the treatment of obstructed defaecation with or without faecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Obstructed defaecation and faecal incontinence are complex functional disorders that pose management challenges. In recent times, the antegrade continence enema (ACE) has been tried both as a primary procedure and as a final resort to avoid a colostomy in patients with a variety of functional problems. The pur- pose of this study was to evaluate the role of the

G. R. Hirst; P. J. Arumugam; A. J. Watkins; P. Mackey; A. R. Morgan; N. D. Carr; J. Beynon

2005-01-01

63

Y-appendicoplasty: A technique to minimize stomal complications in antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The antegrade continence enema (ACE) is an effective method of treatment of fecal incontinence and constipation. However, the original procedure described is not easy to perform and is associated with a high complication rate, especially stomal stenosis-necrosis (55%). Even with introduction of orthotopic appendicostomy, composite series still report an incidence of 30% with stomal problems. The authors report a

Paul K. H Tam

1999-01-01

64

The Malone antegrade continence enema combined with urinary diversion in adult neurogenic patients: early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction often have coexisting neurogenic bowel problems. Impaired bowel evacuation is a cause of major morbidity and impaired lifestyle for these patients. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) performed synchronously with a urinary continence procedure has been successful in pediatric patients. We report early experience combining the ACE with a urinary continence procedure in adult

Joel M. H. Teichman; Vince J. Rogenes; Douglas B. Barber

1997-01-01

65

Combined Mitrofanoff and Antegrade Continence Enema Procedures for Urinary and Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFecal soiling or intractable constipation frequently occurs in association with urinary incontinence in children undergoing major reconstructive urological operations. To treat double incontinence or the combination of wetting and severe constipation, we constructed a Mitrofanoff conduit and a channel for antegrade continence enemas in 18 patients between 1989 and 1995. We review the underlying pathological conditions, various surgical techniques and

Y. Mor; F. M. J. Quinn; B. Carr; P. D. Mouriquand; P. G. Duffy; P. G. Ransley

1997-01-01

66

Method for Estimating Technological Penetration Rates in Commercial Automobile Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for estimating market penetration rates of electric and hybrid cars in commercial (including police and nonfederal government) fleets is described. The approach is also applicable to other vehicle technologies in the fleet market. It employs s...

J. R. Wagner

1980-01-01

67

A Fleet Monitoring System for Advanced Tracking of Commercial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial off-the-shelf fleet telematics systems can provide basic tracking & tracing functionalities for vehicle fleets. These systems, however, require that dispatchers manually identify any discrepancies between the actual data available in the fleet telematics system and the planned data in the logistics system. Furthermore, actual data such as arrival and departure times at customer locations must be transferred manually

Asvin GoelandVolker Gruhn; Volker Gruhn

2006-01-01

68

A statistical computer experiments approach to airline fleet assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fleet assignment model allocates a fleet of aircraft to scheduled flight legs in an airline timetable. The fleet assignment model addressed in this paper uses a two-stage stochastic programming framework along with the Boeing concept of demand driven dispatch to assign crew compatible aircraft in the first stage, so as to enhance the demand capturing potential of swapping in

Venkata L. Pilla; Jay M. Rosenberger; Victoria C. P. Chen; Barry C. Smith

2008-01-01

69

An assessment of bisacodyl-based bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The most commonly used methods for bowel preparation are polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) and sodium\\u000a phosphate. Both are problematic in children. The use of bisacodyl together with fleet enema has been suggested as an alternative;\\u000a however, its use without dietary restriction is inferior to other preparations. We aimed to study the effect of bisacodyl\\u000a together with fleet enema and

Ron Shaoul; Lina Haloon

2007-01-01

70

CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

NONE

1995-12-01

71

Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis  

SciTech Connect

Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

1989-05-01

72

[A case of hepatic encephalopathy successfully treated by antegrade glycerin enema through percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy].  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man with liver cirrhosis, a chronic defecation disorder and a refractory hepatic encephalopathy was hospitalized for the hepatic encephalopathy. The encephalopathy quickly improved upon treatment, but a high level of serum ammonia persisted. We inserted a percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy at the cecum and an antegrade glycerin enema through it to treat the chronic defecation disorder, which was a deteriorative factor of the hepatic encephalopathy. After the aforementioned procedure, the chronic defecation disorder improved and the serum ammonia level dramatically decreased. The patient continued the antegrade glycerin enema at home, and serum ammonia values remained low in comparison to levels measured prior to the administration of treatment. The subject has not experienced a recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:18176043

Tomikashi, Koichi; Nomura, Yuh; Miyawaki, Kiichiro; Shimada, Ayumi; Kanemitsu, Daisuke; Takashima, Hidetaka; Abe, Mitsumasa

2008-01-01

73

Perforation of the colon and rectum during administration of barium enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Perforation of the colon or rectum, with an attendant high mortality rate, is apt to occur during administration of barium\\u000a enema in patients in whom the bowel has been weakened by disease or trauma. This accident is probably more common than reports\\u000a in medical literature would indicate.\\u000a \\u000a Five cases have been presented in which either intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal rupture of

Lewis Grodsky

1959-01-01

74

Efficacy of Rebamipide Enemas in Active Distal Ulcerative Colitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Study Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebamipide has a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions that include suppression of neutrophil functions and stimulation\\u000a of mucosal epithelial cell regeneration by increasing the expression of epithelial growth factor (EGF) and the EGF receptor.\\u000a Sixteen patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC; mild in 1 patient, moderate in 11, and severe in 4) were recruited. Enemas\\u000a containing 150 mg rebamipide per

K. Makiyama; F. Takeshima; T. Hamamoto

2005-01-01

75

Comparison of results of laparoscopic and open antegrade continence enema procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications of the Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure have now been reported. In this study we have\\u000a compared the results of our experience with the laparoscopic appendicostomy (LACE procedure) with the published results of\\u000a previously described open ACE procedures. Children who had the LACE procedure at our institutions were reviewed. Intra- and\\u000a postoperative problems were identified by review

A. C. Lynch; S. W. Beasley; R. W. Robertson; P. N. Morreau

1999-01-01

76

Evaluation of the barium-enema examination and colonoscopy in diagnosis of colonic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The diagnostic value of colonoscopy was investigated in 123 patients with certain or questionable cancer of the colon as demonstrated\\u000a by an ordinary barium-enema examination. The diagnosis was revised by laparotomy or clinical follow-up studied in cases of\\u000a patients having no operation. The following conclusions were deduced: 1) The number of unnecessary laparotomies may be reduced\\u000a by doing

Ole Kronborg; Asser Østergaard

1975-01-01

77

Appendicostomy for Antegrade Enema: Effects on Somatic and Psychosocial Functioning in Children With Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess changes in somatic variables, psychosocial functioning, mental health and self-esteem after appendicostomy for antegrade enema (MACE) in children with myelomeningocele (MMC). Methods. We performed the MACE procedure in 20 children, aged 6.3 to 17.0 years. Twelve patients had an open and 8 had a laparoscopic operation. Somatic func- tion was assessed preoperatively and 6 and 16 months

Marianne Stange; Gabrielle Aafos; Ragnhild Emblem

2010-01-01

78

Archimedes’ Cannons Against the Roman Fleet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the paper is discussed the possibility tat Archimedes built and used against the Roman fleet a steam cannon. It is well-known\\u000a that Archimedes, during the siege of Syracuse, designed and built several war machines to fight against the Romans. Among\\u000a these war machines, the legend about the large concave mirrors that concentrated the sun rays burning the Roman ships

Cesare Rossi

79

LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

80

Randomized controlled trial of prophylactic rectal stimulation and enemas on stooling patterns in extremely low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

Objective:We hypothesized that rectal stimulation and small volume enemas would accelerate normalization of stooling patterns in extremely low birth weight infants.Study Design:In a randomized controlled trial, infants with a gestational age ?28 weeks received one of the following: twice daily rectal stimulation and/or enemas until two stools were passed daily, without enemas or stimulation, for three consecutive days. Intervention only occurred when symptoms, abdominal distension and no defecation, occurred in the previous 24?h. Enema administration occurred if abdominal distension persisted without defecation occurring after rectal stimulation. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the contribution of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on normalization of stooling patterns and feeding tolerance.Result:Rectal stimulation and/or small volume enemas did not accelerate the median (quartile range) time normalization of stooling patterns, 13 (11-20) days in control group and 16 (12-25.5) days in intervention group. A higher frequency of PDA occurred in the intervention than the non-intervention group. Infants with a persistent PDA had a longer duration of parenteral nutrition, worse feeding tolerance and more days to achieve normal stooling patterns. In multivariable regression analysis, a PDA, not repeated rectal stimulation and/or enemas, was significantly related to stooling and feeding tolerance.Conclusion:Twice daily administration of rectal stimulation and/or enemas did not normalize stooling patterns (fecal frequency). A PDA is an important determinant of acquisition of normal stooling patterns and feeding tolerance of very immature newborns. PMID:23907087

Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, M; Teresa Montes Bueno, M; Sanjosé, B; Gil, M; Parada, I; Amo, P

2013-08-01

81

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene  

SciTech Connect

The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

NONE

1995-12-01

82

Mashup - Based End User Interface for Fleet Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fleet monitoring of commercial vehicles has received a major attention in the last period. A good monitoring solution increases the fleet efficiency by reducing the transportation durations, by optimizing the planned routes and by providing determinism at the intermediate and final destinations. This paper presents a fleet monitoring system for commercial vehicles using the Internet as data infrastructure. The mashup concept was implemented for creating a user interface.

Popa, M.; Popa, A. S.; Slavici, T.; Darvasi, D.

83

Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

2003-03-25

84

Sodium Phosphate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium phosphate is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a colonoscopy (examination of the ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called ...

85

Diagnostic yield from barium enemas: a study among patients referred by general practitioners and hospital outpatient departments.  

PubMed Central

Although the double contrast barium enema is the standard radiological examination of the colon, it is not universally available to patients referred by their general practitioners. A retrospective survey of all double contrast barium enemas carried out over a two year period in one health district was undertaken to determine the diagnostic yield of pathological findings for patients referred by general practitioners and hospital outpatient departments and for patients who had rigid sigmoidoscopy prior to the enema and those who did not. A total of 530 patients were studied. The diagnostic yield for the hospital outpatients was 41.6% and in the general practitioner group 35.6%. In the patients who had rigid sigmoidoscopy the yield was 42.7% compared with 32.6% in those who had no prior sigmoidoscopy. It is concluded that the withdrawal of direct access for barium enemas to general practitioner patients in this district because of a low diagnostic yield cannot be justified. The lower diagnostic yield in the patients who did not have sigmoidoscopy supports the policy of requiring this examination prior to all barium enemas.

Wafula, J M

1992-01-01

86

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally.

Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

87

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-03-04

88

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34.340...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department...

2013-01-01

89

Central Intelligence Agency Fleet Alternative Fuel Use and Vehicle Acquisition Report, FY 1999-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is developing methods to increase the Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) percentage in its qualifying fleet, enhance its qualifying fleets alternative fuel usage, and improve its fleets overall fuel economy. In reviewing ...

2005-01-01

90

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34... Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a...agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January...

2009-07-01

91

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34... Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a...agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January...

2010-07-01

92

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34.340 Section...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or...

2009-07-01

93

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34.340 Section...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or...

2010-07-01

94

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program. 88.304-94 ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program. (a)...

2013-07-01

95

Fleet Support Community: Meeting Its Mission in the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet Support community's management practices in meeting the dynamic changes in the complex fleet support arena, while increasing its value to the Navy in the future. The Fleet Support community's mission st...

D. M. Murdy

1999-01-01

96

77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...will enforce Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels Security Zones from 12...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships. The Designated...

2012-07-30

97

Mucosal colonic tube fistula with antireflux wrap for antegrade colonic enema.  

PubMed

Antegrade enemas can provide children with excellent faecal continence in situations where adequate control has been compromised because of underlying congential anomaly or poor surgical outcome in their treatment. The enema is often delivered through an appendicostomy. If the appendix is absent or utilized for another purpose, then placement of a chait tube or caecostomy button can provide access to the colon for the enema. However, these devices may be associated with breakages, accidental removal and leakage and replacement may require another operative procedure under a general anaesthetic. Full thickness colonic tubes can also be constructed at any point along the colon but in the author's experience, they can be associated with significant leakage of both gas and faecal material. The construction of a mucosal colonic tube with anti-reflux wrap is a technique that avoids the above problems and offers a distinctive advantage in selected situations. The technique relies on tabularising mucosa alone to create a continent fistula. Six children with severe soiling underwent the technique. The outcomes were evaluated using a modified quality of life score (QOLI). The score included assessment of soiling, staining, odour, self-esteem and socialization measure. Technical evaluation included analysis of the ease of catheterization and continence of the mucosal fistula site. All six patients had dramatic improvement in their faecal continence with complete resolution of soiling in all six. Follow up median is 42 months and the range is 6-48 months. QOLI scores improved from a total of 4.75 to 18.5. Possible range is 0-21. All the six fistula sites catheterize easily and no stenosis or faecal leakage has occurred. Two patients required treatment of minor granulations at the entry site of the fistula during the early healing phase. PMID:19455343

Bowkett, Brendon Douglas; Kelly, E W

2009-05-20

98

Colon polyp morphology on double-contrast berium enema: its pathologic predictive value  

SciTech Connect

The morphologic appearance of 96 polyps seen on double-contrast barium enema was reviewed to assess the predictive value of various signs described to diagnose malignancy. Size, surface contour, basal indentation, and pedunculation were studied. Sessile polyps had an appreciable incidence of malignancy, with size being the best indicator of that risk. Pedunculation was found to be a reliable sign of benignity in predicting the absence of malignant invasion into the adjacent colonic wall. Polyps under 1 cm and having a smooth contour were invariably benign. Conversely, polyps larger than 1 cm with a lobulated contour and basal indentation had a significant incidence of malignancy.

Ott, D.J. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC); Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Ablin, D.S.

1983-11-01

99

Modeling Fleet Planning Strategy Based on Multimode Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a survey of existing methods, a fleet planning mixed integer programming model based on multimode investment is developed in accordance with route and transport demand forecast under the fluctuant market environment. This optimization model not only considers investment alternatives to fleet capacity expansion concerning building new ships, purchase or sale of second-hand ships, charter ships, but also takes into

Qiuping Yang; Xinlian Xie; Weiwei Huo

2009-01-01

100

40. General layout plan of fleet supply base, South Brooklyn, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. General layout plan of fleet supply base, South Brooklyn, Third Naval District, Public Works Department, October, 1918. Drawing #301A103. Scale 1 - 100. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

101

Project for Reliability Fleet Testing of Alcohol/Gasoline Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of the US Department of Energy Project for Reliability Fleet Testing of Alcohol/Gasoline Blends. During the 5 1/2 year program, fleet tests were conducted in various geographic locations using four different alcohol/gaso...

A. F. Stulsas J. A. Russell J. D. Tosh J. P. Buckingham J. P. Cuellar

1985-01-01

102

How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting a rich data set of passenger vehicle registrations in twenty U.S. metropolitan statistical areas from 1997 to 2005, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on the automotive fleet's composition. We find that high gasoline prices affect fleet fuel economy through two channels: (1) shifting new auto purchases towards more fuel-efficient vehicles, and (2) speeding the scrappage of older,

Shanjun Li; Roger von Haefen; Christopher Timmins

2008-01-01

103

Capacity Development of the EU and Danish Fishing Fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fishing capacity issue has lately received considerable global attention. The application of an embracing structural policy in the European Union (EU) during the 1980's and 90's has indicated the desire of fisheries managers and administrators to rebalance the level of capacity of fishing fleets with resource availability. The resulting effect of this structural policy on fleet development is reviewed.

Erik Lindebo

104

Fleet-Car Market Penetration Simulator: CPEN User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates o...

R. Weil

1980-01-01

105

How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs  

SciTech Connect

CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA (France); Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M. [COGEMA LOGISTICS - AREVA Group (France)

2006-07-01

106

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 1, summary  

SciTech Connect

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

NONE

1995-12-01

107

Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

1994-12-31

108

Regulatory Impact Analysis Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA) require the establishment of a Clean Fuel Fleet Program in certain areas of the country which have significant air pollution problems. The purpose of the program is to introduce and encourage the use of lower-emitting motor vehicles and clean alternative fuels in the covered areas. To accomplish these objectives in an efficient and effective manner, centrally-controlled vehicle fleets were chosen by Congress as the focus of the program. The document presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) estimates of the likely costs, benefits, and impacts of the Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

Not Available

1993-05-01

109

[Treatment of severe chronic constipation through the antegrade continent enema procedure].  

PubMed

The antegrade continent enema procedure was first described in 1990 by Malone for the treatment of severe fecal neurogenic incontinence in children. Since then, this technique has been successfully carried out in adults, as well as in patients with refractory constipation. The procedure provides a continent and catheterizable channel, generally an appendicostomy, through which antegrade washouts are given to produce colonic emptying. We describe the case of a 23-year-old man with severe constipation and overflow fecal incontinence who underwent an appendicostomy. There were no immediate postoperative complications and saline washouts were started on the fourth day. Since then, the patient has had a bowel movement between 1 and 3 hours after each washout, has recovered continence, and no longer wears an absorbent pad. PMID:17192226

Pera, Miguel; Parés, David; Pascual, Marta; Pérez, Marta; Cañete, Nuria; Sánchez de la Blanca, M Isabel; Andréu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis

2006-12-01

110

40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reached. (c) Once the number of vehicles to be tested has been determined, the Administrator will specify the test fleet makeup by make, model, model year, engine displacement and carburetor, transmission type, and such other factors as he may...

2013-07-01

111

Fleet Reliability Assessment Program. Volume 1. General Program Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FLEET RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (FRAP) was created as a result of a top priority Chief of Naval Materiel (CNM) requirement for a fast, reliable, and accurate system of problem identification on new electronic equipment installations aboard ships....

W. E. Wallace

1979-01-01

112

Accelerated Domestic Bulk Fleet Rehabilitation/Modernization. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program investigated the technical and economic viability of modernizing existing T-2 conversions in the U.S. Merchant Fleet. Bid specifications were prepared by Marine Transport Lines, Inc., a T-2 conversion owner/operator, defining propulsion plant...

L. E. Haraldsen

1983-01-01

113

Civil Reserve Air Fleet: Trends and Selected Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research analyzes selected issues affecting Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) capability to augment U.S. organic military airlift in future crises. The report provides background on the U.S. airline industry's different interest groups, concerns arising...

R. K. Coffey F. R. Frola

1996-01-01

114

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combinati...

1995-01-01

115

The Management Control of Aviation Fleet Maintenance Funds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contains the results of a management control system review of the United States Navy Aviation Fleet Maintenance (AFM) funds program. The research presents the AFM budget formulation and execution process and management control system procedure...

J. D. Reily T. J. Sheppard

1980-01-01

116

MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia.

Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

2012-01-01

117

Evaluation of fleet systems model for vehicle compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

On behalf of NHTSA, the European Commission, and the Dutch Ministry of Traffic and Transport, the Safety department of TNO Automotive is performing numerical fleet studies using multi-body models. Aim is to develop strategies for optimisation and evaluating the effects in new vehicles based on proposed test procedures to minimise the total harm in car-to-car crashes on a fleet-wide basis.

C. D. van der Zweep; G. Kellendonk; P. Lemmen

2005-01-01

118

A guide to surveys of motor vehicle fleets  

SciTech Connect

In response to directives in Section 407 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) developed a data collection program designed to provide information useful to persons interested in the alternative fuels market. The target audience includes those seeking to manufacture, convert, sell, own, or operate alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) or alternative fueling facilities. Among the various projects EIA conducted as part of this data collection program were two fleet surveys conducted in Department of Energy-designated Clean Cities. The Clean Cities program is a locally-based government/industry partnership coordinated by the Department of Energy to expand the use of alternative transportation fuels. These surveys were designed to collect a broad range of information regarding the fleets and fleet vehicles in operation in the Atlanta, Georgia and Denver, Colorado areas. One of the objectives of these surveys was to attempt to identify and describe the market for AFVs. Due to inherent limitations associated with AFVs and limited alternative-fuel infrastructure, it`s believed that the first practical applications for AFVs will be within private and government fleets. Another objective in conducting the Clean Cities Fleet surveys was to develop a useful methodology for accessing and surveying private and municipal fleets that would aid other interested parties in conducting similar surveys. This report is intended to provide a description of how EIA gathered information on private and municipal fleets, but the basic survey design could be used to design surveys of other difficult-to-access populations. There are 3 basic steps to any survey: define the target population, constructing the survey frame, and implementing the survey. The procedures outlined in this report are, for the most part, the procedures used for the fleet survey conducted in Denver. The major changes between the two surveys are described in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-11-01

119

Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important

Jasna Tomi?; Willett Kempton

2007-01-01

120

The Art of the First Fleet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural History Museum of London website features an online collection of some of the artworks that were created by the members of the First Fleet, the group of nine ships that set sail from Portsmouth to establish a colony in New South Wales, Australia. The artworks are considered to be "outstanding drawings of aboriginal people, the environment and wildlife found on arrival as well as of the early foundation of the colony." Bird lovers out there will find this collection quite a treat, as there are a slew of drawings of birds. Mammal lovers will get to see drawings that are some of the only know record of species that have become extinct since 1788. The drawings are divided up into four different topics, "Natural History", "Ethnography", "Topography", and "History", and can be accessed by their links on the homepage. Each topic can be viewed as a "list" or "gallery", with the gallery view providing thumbnails and the title, and the list providing the title and the name of the artist. Once visitors have chosen a drawing to view, they can click on it to see the dimensions and date of the drawings, as well as an enlarged image of the drawing. Those with interest in more details, such as the donor of the drawing or where it's held at the Museum, should click on "show notes". The "interactive enlargement" link below the image allows visitors to zoom and pan within the image.

121

Calcium Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood dental caries is defined by its complex etiology of intersecting causations. Diet in combination with good\\u000a oral hygiene, is the most prominently alterable component of this etiology.\\u000a \\u000a Providing enough calcium phosphate in the diet of the pregnant and nursing mother and eventually in the weaning infant ensures\\u000a that a prominent component (calcium phosphate deficiency) of the complex diagram

Rainy Dawn Warf; Ronald Ross Watson

122

Metrology tool fleet management: applying FMP tool matching and monitoring concepts to an overlay fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay tool matching and accuracy issues are quickly reaching a comparable complexity to that of critical dimensional metrology. While both issues warrant serious investigation, this paper deals with the matching issues associated with overlay tools. Overlay tools need to run and measure as if they are a single tool - they need to act as one. In this paper a matching methodology is used to assess a set of overlay tools in a multiple of overlay applications. The methodology proposed in a prior2 SPIE paper is applied here to a fleet of two generations of overlay tools to detect measurement problems not seen with convention Statistical Process Control techniques. Four studies were used to examine the benefits of this matching methodology for this fleet of overlay tools. The first study was a matching assessment study. The second study was a hardware comparison between generations of tools. The third study was a measurement strategy comparison. The final study was a long term matching exercise where one example of a traditional long term monitoring strategy was compared to a new long term monitoring strategy. It is shown that this new tool matching method can be effectively applied to overlay metrology.

Morningstar, Jennifer; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Banke, Bill

2006-04-01

123

Cold weather methanol vehicle demonstration fleet at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The basis for introducing methanol vehicles into federal inventory included evaluation of vehicle performance under normal and cold weather conditions, assessment of fuel economy, emissions and safety, comparison of operations and maintenance costs, and establishment of refueling stations for public use. A primary goal of the project was to introduce and assimilate methanol-fueled vehicles within the federal fleet in a manner common to, and consistent with, the use of gasoline vehicles in that fleet. Methanol fleet operations began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in early fall of 1986 with the delivery of five light-duty pickup trucks. Nine production gasoline-fueled control vehicles had already been delivered in late summer. The methanol fleet was augmented in December, 1986 by delivery of five methanol-converted cars, bringing the total vehicle population at ANL to 19. This paper describes the experience of over one full year of operation of the ANL fleet and its ancillary infrastructure (the refueling station, etc.), and offers conclusions based on this experience about the likely timing of and remaining obstacles to commercial production of methanol-capable vehicles.

Saricks, C.L; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL (US))

1988-01-01

124

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: closure by over-the-scope-clip.  

PubMed

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-06-28

125

Fleet management based on satellite positioning and communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized systems for vehicle location, communication and fleet management provide permanent and direct on route access to the fleet. Thus time schedules, routes and cargo assignments can be optimized. Transport hazards can be identifed and minimized or avoided. The functionality of such a system is based on the following matched components: sufficiently accurate positioning of each vehicle based on GPS (Global Positioning System); communication system, functioning no matter what the position of the vehicle is via Inmarsat; centralized, computer based management system, which will keep the dispatcher free from routine tasks, provide hints for decision finding in tactical situations, enables access and control based on a digital map information system.

Hossfeld, Bernd

1992-07-01

126

Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

Not Available

2009-06-01

127

77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY...statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this...

2012-03-28

128

A Cost Comparison of Alternative Methods for Fleet Introduction of the CG 47 Class.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Manning of new construction ships in preparation for fleet introduction requires the utilization of considerable Navy resources, both in terms of personnel lost to the fleet and dollar costs. Criticism by the General Accounting Office and Navy self-evalua...

D. S. Johnson

1980-01-01

129

Economic Data Collection of the Fishing Fleet: What are we aiming for?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the common fleet segmentation in the DCR, it is still quite difficult to compare economic figures among countries. The reason behind this is that some member states are using thresholds based on the activity level of the fleet and some are not. From 2004 onwards, each EU member state is obliged to collect economic information on their fishing fleet,

Heleen Bartelings

130

How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

2007-01-01

131

40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. 86.1865-12 Section 86...1865-12 How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. (a) Applicability. ...the provisions of § 86.1801-12(j), CO2 fleet average exhaust emission...

2010-07-01

132

33 CFR 165.1333 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving...165.1333 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving...CFR 3.65-10, during a time specified in paragraph (e...days before the start of the Seattle Seafair Fleet Week to...

2013-07-01

133

A decision support framework for multi-fleet routing and multi-stop flight scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fleet routing and flight scheduling are important in airline carrier operations. Ineffective and inefficient fleet routing and flight scheduling will result in a substantial loss of profits. This research aims at developing a framework to help carriers adjust their draft timetables and fleet routes, when market demand conditions are expected to change in the near future. The framework is based

Shangyao Yan; Hwei-Fwa Young

1996-01-01

134

77 FR 5747 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

2012-02-06

135

76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored following...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and will do so by...

2011-07-11

136

75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week and will do so by prohibiting any person...vessels in the 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week event. Basis and Purpose Seattle's...

2010-08-02

137

75 FR 71638 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This supplemental notice of proposed...NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot...

2010-11-24

138

77 FR 40521 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

2012-07-10

139

75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into, transit...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone...

2010-02-25

140

75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY...during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010...and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in...

2010-04-21

141

77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay...The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone...will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR...

2012-06-15

142

76 FR 47996 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction...participating the 2011 Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week. This document corrects the list of visiting...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored...

2011-08-08

143

77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0787] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port...23'27'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191,...

2012-09-18

144

77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0146] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast...Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during 2012 Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012...

2012-04-10

145

Fleet Forecasts for the United States to 2020.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world commercial shipping fleet is due for considerable revamping over the next ten years as vessels' age forces increased scrapping and new building. At the same time, world trade is forecast to grow, in general terms, at real rates in excess of real...

1990-01-01

146

Fuel Efficiency of the Austrian Passenger Vehicle Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger cars contribute a large – and moreover dynamically growing – share of CO2 emissions. Accordingly they are central to climate protection strategies. Improving the fuel efficiency of passenger car fleets is a key strategic objective of transport-related mitigation policies because it can, ceteris paribus, cut down on fossil fuel demand and facilitate the achievement of targets for the use

Ina Meyer; Stefan Wessely

2010-01-01

147

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Evaluation--Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies is to promote the development and deployment of transportation technologies that reduce US dependence on foreign oil, while helping to improve the nation's air quality and promoting US competitiveness. In support of this mission, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of alternative fuel vehicles. NREL has undertaken several fleet study projects, which seek to provide objective real-world fleet experiences with AFVs. For this type of study we collect, analyze, and report on operational, cost, emissions, and performance data from AFVs being driven in a fleet application. The primary purpose of such studies is to make real-world information on AFVs available to fleet managers and other potential AFV purchasers. For this project, data was collected from 13 passenger vans operating in the Boulder/Denver, Colorado area. The study vehicles were all 1999 Ford E-350 passenger vans based at SuperShuttle's Boulder location. Five of the vans were dedicated CNG, five were bi-fuel CNG/gasoline, and three were standard gasoline vans that were used for comparison.

Eudy, L.

2000-12-07

148

Occupational Fleet Safety Research: A Case Study Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational fleet safety is an emerging issue for organisations across Australia and overseas. Research has shown that road crashes are the most common cause of work-related fatalities, injuries and absences from work. Changes in industry\\/employer accountability, business processes, Occupational Health and Safety, Chain of Responsibility (COR), Workers Compensation legislation, insurance and third party coverage, and a generally more litigious environment

Darren Wishart; Jeremy Davey

149

Economic Evaluation of Washington's 1967 Troll Salmon Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Application of average ex-vessel prices to reported landings of a random 10% sample of Washington's 1967 commercial ocean salmon fleet showed the troller boat category producing 80% of total landed value and demonstrating the highest gross return on inves...

M. Fraidenburg

1972-01-01

150

Analysis of Fleet Reports of Bioluminescence in the Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From June 1980 to June 1981, units of the Seventh Fleet stationed in the Indian Ocean have sent reports of bioluminescence and ancillary data to the Naval Research Laboratory to aid its study of the geographical and seasonal distribution of bioluminescenc...

R. V. Lynch

1981-01-01

151

Application of Cost Index to Fleet Hub Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost index is used to describe a family of minimum cost flight profiles with a single number expressing the ratio of time cost to fuel cost. A unique cost index for each segment can be used to minimize fuel consumption within the time constraints dictated by hub operation. This paper addresses application of cost index to the fleet of

M. K. DeJonge; W. H. Syblon

1984-01-01

152

Fleet testing of methanol gasoline blends in public filling stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of adding a 3% methanol blend to the normal gasoline for the existing vehicle population in the climatic conditions of Israel. The fleet test was performed with the help of three public stations in which the methanol gasoline blend is sold to the general public on a voluntary basis. After

M. Gutman; A. Stotter; S. Borik; B. Cernia

1987-01-01

153

Non-Traditional Approach to Improving Fleet Supportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parts obsolescence in military avionics is inevitable. By the time the new system is deployed in the fleet, it is usually well behind the current state-of-the-art. Often, the threat that the system was designed to counter has been replaced by a different,...

J. A. Raley D. Nedresky

1996-01-01

154

Space policy and the size of the space shuttle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the space shuttle era, policy makers have repeatedly wrestled with the issue of fleet size. The number of shuttles had both practical and symbolic significance, reflecting the robustness of the space transportation system and US preeminence in space. In debating how many shuttles were needed, NASA and other government entities weighed various arguments to determine the optimum number of

Valerie Neal

2004-01-01

155

Improving the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for a strong military and civilian air carrier partnership is fundamental to our nation's ability to project military power throughout the world. This paper studies the development of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet from the late 1940s to present. Th...

D. P. Kegel

1993-01-01

156

Characterizing Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by Open-Path Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, I present the conceptual combination of the tunnel study with remote sensing. In other words, I present a technique for measuring fleet-averaged modal emissions from a large aggregate population of vehicles (as in a tunnel study), which em...

D. M. Branan

2002-01-01

157

Gasohol Fleet-Testing Project: Land Between The Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fleet testing of gasohol, a blend of 10% ethyl alcohol and 90% unleaded gasoline, was performed at the Land Between The Lakes recreation area in western Tennessee and Kentucky. During the year-long test (March 1979 to March 1980), approximately two millio...

1980-01-01

158

Lifetime emissions for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents EPA's current estimates for the exhaust emissions produced by several types of motor vehicles which may be purchased in response to the Clean Air Act Fuel Fleet Program. The appendices include a detailed explanation of the calculation methodology used and potential future changes.

Not Available

1993-10-01

159

A ONE OCEAN FLEET: THE ATLANTIC AND CANADIAN NAVAL POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the beginnings of the Cold War until the présent the Canadian Navy has been a one océan fleet, postured primarily to supply anti-submarine warfare (ASW) forces to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the Atlantic. Various plans, including the 1987 White Paper on defence, to give the Navy more balance in terms of its areas of opération, mix

Joël J. SOKOLSKY

160

Automated Mission Planning for a Fleet of Micro Air Vehicules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ENAC University is using and developping the Paparazzi UAV system, which aims to provide a free and fully autonomous autopilot for a fleet of MAV, including fixed wing and rotary wing MAVs. The Paparazzi project has now succeeded in providing a fully autonomous navigation system for multiple fixed-wing aircraft system. One of the main concern of the project is

Pierre-Selim Huard; Nicolas Barnier

2007-01-01

161

Upgrading the US Space Shuttle fleet with a new \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the space shuttle program celebrates its 20th anniversary of human space flight, work is underway to develop a major Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) for the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter fleet. The Command and Display Processing Subsystem (CDPS) represents the third generation of display avionics for the orbiters and builds upon the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) or \\

C. Marchant; D. Eastin; R. Ferguson

2001-01-01

162

Alcohol-gasoline blends as vehicular fleet fuels: summaries of blended-fuel usage by 26 vehicular fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiences of 26 groups from 15 different states that have tested alcohol fuel blends in their fleet vehicles under various controlled conditions are summarized. While most tests were performed using alcohol fuel blends in vehicles during normal operations, a few groups also tested a control set of vehicles on gasoline at the same time. Variables monitored include weather, vehicle

1981-01-01

163

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging.

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

164

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

2012-01-01

165

Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was conducted to determine the mechanism by which superior manganese phosphate coatings are produced. The phosphate coatings were applied at temperatures above 212 F and with manganese-organic compounds added to the phosphating solution. Experimental...

H. Crain

1975-01-01

166

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment  

SciTech Connect

The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

NONE

1995-12-01

167

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

168

Integrating the Fleet Assignment Model with Uncertain Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fleet assignment models (FAM) are used by many airlines to assign aircraft to flights in a schedule to maximize profit. We first state the basic FAM before proposing new FAMs (i.e. DFAM1 and DFAM2) that tackles the common problem associated with aircraft utilization. Through the use of a two-stage Stochastic Programming (SP) with recourse technique, the DFAMs are extended to

Anwar H. Ahmed

2009-01-01

169

The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

NONE

1997-06-01

170

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http:\\/\\/www.fnmoc.navy.mil\\/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the

D. Dimitriou; P. Sharfstein; M. Ignaszewski; M. Clancy

2003-01-01

171

Lower Mississippi River Regional Barge Fleeting Assessment, Plan, and Handbook Guide. Volume 2. Barge Fleeting Handbook Guide and Site-Evaluation Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a three volume study on barge fleeting in the 235-mile-long corridor of the Lower Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to the Gulf of Mexico. Barge fleeting is identified as the assembly, mooring, shifting and breaking out of non-self-propell...

1984-01-01

172

First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

Not Available

1993-08-01

173

The Federal Methanol Fleet: Summary of technical data  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated in 1985 with an appropriation from the US Congress, is now in its final stages of operation. A great deal has been learned while vehicles have accumulated approximately 1.4 million miles (2.2 million kilometers) in routine government fleet service. This paper summarizes those results that are technical in nature and that reveal the status of methanol engine technology. Specifically, results from emissions test, special lubricant tests, and cold-starting experiments are reported herein. Emissions control systems in methanol vehicles were found generally to decline somewhat in performance over time as compared to their gasoline counterpart vehicles, although this was not universally true. The severe effects on methanol engine lubricant performance resulting from cold-engine, short-trip service was demonstrated in a series of special tests of two cars, methanol and gasoline, in side-by-side service. Methanol fleet vehicles incorporated a variety of approaches to the cold-start problem -- ranging from no special engineering or systems to sophisticated systems designed to overcome the problem entirely. Cold-start systems specially designed for these vehicles did not perform as well as had been expected, probably because they were early prototype versions and were subject to some early, unforeseen problems.

McGill, R.N.; Graves, R.L.; West, B.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1991-04-01

174

Documentation for propane fleet conversion cost-effectiveness model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas instituted an alternative fuels program for public fleet operations beginning in the 1991-92 fiscal year. Life-cycle cost/benefit models for evaluating the economic implications of the action have been developed at the University of Texas at Austin Center for Transportation Research for both compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane. The report documents the various input data, calculations, and assumptions of the Propane Net Present Value (NPV) model. A similar report (number 983-1) documents the same for the CNG model. Input data with constant values across different fleets and locations are discussed first and include basic parameters for on-board storage capacity, vehicle conversion costs, equipment salvage values, etc. Variable input data, reflecting a given fleet size, composition, and location, include the number and types of vehicles, fuel consumption, etc. The next section presents the formulas for the internal model calculations. The final section discusses the basic assumptions underlying the model.

Taylor, D.; Euritt, M.; Mahmassani, H.

1992-10-01

175

Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model which aims to reproduce the mean and variance of dynamic loading of the truck fleet at a given site is developed here. This probabilistic model reflects the range and frequency of the different heavy trucks on the road and their dynamic properties. Multiple Sensor Weigh-in-Motion data can be used to calibrate the model. Truck properties such as suspension stiffness, suspension damping, sprung mass, unsprung mass and tyre stiffness are represented as randomly varying parameters in the fleet model. It is used to predict the statistical distribution of dynamic load at each measurement point. The concept is demonstrated by using a pre-defined truck fleet to calculate a pattern of statistical spatial repeatability and is tested by using that pattern to find the truck statistical properties that generated it.

Belay, Abraham; Obrien, Eugene; Kroese, Dirk

2008-04-01

176

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

177

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

178

Short chain fatty acid distributions of enema samples from a sigmoidoscopy population: an association of high acetate and low butyrate ratios with adenomatous polyps and colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in enema samples taken from subjects before sigmoidoscopy as an indicator of possible microbial community differences between subjects subsequently diagnosed as normal or having colonic disorders. The major SCFA in all groups were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. A significantly higher ratio of acetate to total SCFA and lower ratio

G A Weaver; J A Krause; T L Miller; M J Wolin

1988-01-01

179

Colon imaging in radiology departments in 2008: goodbye to the routine double contrast barium enema.  

PubMed

We radiologists are free to choose DCBE or CTC when patients are referred to us for colonic examination. The studies reported during 2007 have confirmed that CTC is more accurate, preferred by patients, with a shorter room time, fewer complications, lower radiation exposure, and reveals therapeutically significant extracolonic lesions in 5% to 10% of cases, so that it is beginning to seem rather irresponsible to continue to offer routine DCBE examinations. In older patients the yield of extracolonic abnormalities is even greater, with 505 abnormalities found in 268 of 400 consecutive patients aged 70 years and older, including 23 extracolonic malignancies. More than 90 Canadian radiology departments have bought the necessary carbon dioxide insufflators, so there is clearly great interest. Many training workshops are available in Europe and the United States to help radiologists become familiar and skilled with CTC, and it will be helpful to have more local ones within Canada over the next few years. Some studies have shown that CTC can be done with poorer results than those I have quoted, and this is often in the early experience of departments. As large numbers of radiologists train, there is the potential for hundreds of errors while experience is being gained. We have the advantage over endoscopists, in that we can train on known data sets. Several institutions have put together sets of 50 complete CTC cases, mixed abnormal and normal, and these are an ideal training tool so that one can make one's mistakes in training rather than on live patients. One such data set is even available with one of the recent textbooks. Would it be useful for the CAR, or provincial radiology associations, to purchase several of these sets, and make them available for an appropriate fee to radiologists who are learning? CTC technologists will necessarily have a role on the workstations, including doing the primary read. Additional budgets will be needed for CTC with a diminution in fluoroscopy budgets as barium enemas are discontinued. Some larger hospitals may reserve a scanner purely for alimentary tract work- perhaps CTC and CT enterography. The essential administrative breakthrough will be to establish either a technical fee for CTC or an appropriate increase in the hospital global budget to allow high-volume CTC to flourish Nationally standards and guidelines will be needed, and if we are to play a major role in screening, where high standards have to be evaluated and maintained, we may need nationally organized individual audit feedback, much as we have with breast screening. Should the known data sets have a role in training for radiologists embarking on screening or in demonstrating continued competence? It is an exciting time once again for radiologists interested in colonic disease. We now know that CTC can be done very well. The challenges are going to be achieving consistency and deciding which of the 6 areas of opportunity described above are our priorities. PMID:19069601

Stevenson, Giles

2008-10-01

180

Myths regarding alternative fuel vehicle demand by light-duty vehicle fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public and private vehicle fleets have long been targeted as an ideal initial market for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). We examine seven widely accepted hypotheses regarding the potential fleet market for AFVs. The hypotheses are tested using data and information collected from focus group sessions, one-on-one interviews with fleet operators, and a large two-part survey administered to over 2700 California

Kevin Nesbitt; Daniel Sperling

1998-01-01

181

Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

Not Available

2012-03-01

182

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Start-Up Experience  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with several industry partners, are collaborating with SuperShuttle of Denver, Colorado, to evaluate natural gas vans added to the SuperShuttle fleet in 1999. Brand new (1999 model year) dedicated and bi-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG) vans manufactured by Ford Motor Company will be operated side-by-side with several similar gasoline vehicles in normal revenue service. Once the study is complete, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will analyze and compile the results for release.

Eudy, L.

1999-05-18

183

EGT`s 9F fleet back in service  

SciTech Connect

Following a reries of similar component faiiures across the GE-designed MS9001F/FA fleet, in the winter of 1994-5, European Gas Turbines has completed repair and renovation of the 17 gas turbines that they sold. The units in the five power stations have collectively run 25,000 hours by the end of July this year. This paper discusses the origins of the problem, the solution and the repairs and organization of the whole effort. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Jeffs, E.

1996-09-01

184

Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

2009-09-01

185

Coordination and Control of UAV Fleets using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis considers two important topics in the coordination and control of fleets of UAVs; the allocation and trajectory design problems The first allocates waypoints to individual vehicles in the fleet, and includes constraints on vehicle capability, waypoint visitation, and visit timing Formulations of the allocation problem are presented to find minimum mission completion time and maximum stochastic expectation

John Saunders Bellingham

2002-01-01

186

Technologies and policies for increased efficency in the automobile and light truck fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fuel economies of successive model years of U.S. new cars and light trucks have been essentially constant for the past decade - in 1988, the new car and new light truck fleet mpgs were 28.6 and 21.2 mgp, respectively, and in 1996 the fleet mpg's were ...

S. Plotkin

1999-01-01

187

Results from the first year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Argonne National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, has managed the Federal Methanol Fleet Project since its inception in fiscal year 1985. This congressionally-mandated project directed the Department of Energy to introduce methanol-fueled vehicles into civilian government fleet operations. This interim report describes the first year of operation of a methanol

R. N. McGill; S. L. Hillis; R. P. Larsen

1988-01-01

188

29. U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Brooklyn, NY. View looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Brooklyn, NY. View looking northwest. Power plant at far left, storehouse #2 at center, storehouse #1 at right rear. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

189

Army Tactical Wheeled Vehicles: Current Fleet Profiles and Potential Strategy Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of a multipart research project on evolving a fleet strategy for Army tactical wheeled vehicles. The first phase of the study focused on the light tactical vehicle fleet. The second phase focused on the medium and heavy t...

A. Bower B. Pascuzzi C. Wong E. N. Loredo L. R. Moore

2011-01-01

190

Oral fleet ® phospho ® soda laxative-induced hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany in an adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to report an adverse outcome of the routine use of Fleet® Phospho®-Soda for bowel cleansing and to review the available literature. METHOD: Report of a case and review of the literature is presented. RESULT: Administration of Fleet® Phospho®Soda for bowel preparation in an adult resulted in hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany. Review of the literature shows

Petar Vukasin; Lynn A. Weston; Robert W. Beart

1997-01-01

191

Solving the aerial fleet refueling problem using group theoretic tabu search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial fleet refueling problem (AFRP) is concerned with the efficient and effective use of a heterogeneous set of tanker (refueling) aircraft, located at diverse geographical locations, in the required operations associated with the deployment of a diverse fleet of military aircraft to a foreign theater of activity. Typically, the “receiving” aircraft must traverse great distances over large bodies of

D. M Ryer

2004-01-01

192

Solving the Aerial Fleet Refueling Problem using Group Theoretic Tabu Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aerial Fleet Refueling Problem (AFRP) is concerned with the efficient and effective use of a heterogeneous set of tanker (refueling) aircraft, located at diverse geographical locations, in the required operations associated with the deployment of a diverse fleet of military aircraft to a foreign theater of activity. Typically, the \\

J. Wesley Barnes; Victor D. Wiley; James T. Moore; David M. Ryer

2002-01-01

193

76 FR 30014 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This safety zone is necessary to promote...typically occurs on a Wednesday during the last week of July or the first week in August...

2011-05-24

194

40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification...fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification...86.094-23(b)(3). (e) Parameter adjustment requirements. When...

2010-07-01

195

33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone. ...Coast Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of...

2013-07-01

196

Phosphate Management: FY2010 Results of Phosphate Precipitation Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic soluti...

2011-01-01

197

Chloroquine Phosphate Oral  

MedlinePLUS

Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It is used to prevent ... Chloroquine phosphate comes as a tablet to take by mouth. For prevention of malaria in adults, one ...

198

Uranium from phosphate ores  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

Hurst, F.J.

1983-01-01

199

40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards ...Manufacturers producing any light-duty vehicles, light-duty...Fleet average cold temperature NMHC value. (D...the fleet average cold temperature NMHC value. (ii...Manufacturers producing any light-duty vehicles,...

2010-07-01

200

40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards ...Manufacturers producing any light-duty vehicles, light-duty...Fleet average cold temperature NMHC value. (D...the fleet average cold temperature NMHC value. (ii...Manufacturers producing any light-duty vehicles,...

2009-07-01

201

75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA AGENCY: Coast...Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict vessel...spectators and participants attending Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Delaying the...

2010-06-21

202

77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration...and City of San Francisco sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight...the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels...

2012-10-01

203

Does large-bowel enema reduce septic complications in acute pancreatitis? 1 1 This study was performed in the Experimental Medical Research Center of Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The source of septic complications in acute pancreatitis was unknown until recent years. The pathogenesis of bacterial translocation from the gut has been accepted as the main source of pancreatic or peripancreatic infection. This study was designed to investigate the role of large bowel enema during acute pancreatitis in preventing bacterial translocation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley rats were used in

Serdar Yol; Mahmut Baykan; ?ükrü Özer; Mehmet Aköz; Osman Yilmaz; Cüneyt Kuru

1998-01-01

204

33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities. 105.296 Section 105.296 Navigation and...SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.296...

2013-07-01

205

Major Impacts of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's a...

R. W. Maters R. de Roode Torres R. A. Espirito Santo

2005-01-01

206

Pearl Harbor Fleet Maintenance Pilot Program: Conversion from the Navy Working Capital Fund to Appropriated Funding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During fiscal year 1999, the Navy conducted the Pearl Harbor Fleet Maintenance Pilot program, converting the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard from a revolving fund activity to merge with the Naval Intermediate Maintenance Facility and consolidate under appropr...

J. S. Turner

2002-01-01

207

47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Application for a fleet station...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80...vessels on the same application. Under these circumstances...Communications Act or the Safety...

2011-10-01

208

Assessment of Institutional Barriers to the Use of Natural Gas Fuel in Automotive Vehicle Fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe desi...

J. Jablonski L. Lent M. Lawrence L. White

1983-01-01

209

Optimization of crude and product tanker fleets: a dynamic profit maximization model  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum tanker market crashed in the mid-seventies and has remained weak ever since. The cyclical pattern in tanker trade has yet to rebound from famine to feast. This research develops an original multi-stage optimization to improve the management of specific fleet operating and composition decisions. The model maximizes profits over the long term via a relaxation of the demand constraint, and a compact heuristic solving for the general integer problem within a quadratic formulations. Alternative formulations are tested and the original model is compared to an actual fleet history. In all cases, the Dynamic Fleet Optimization Model (DFOM) consistently generates the largest profits. The performance of DFOM in the historical validation supports the hypothesis that improved fleet management has the potential to improve tanker market efficiency. The analysis identifies a trading syndrome in tanker management leading to the chronic oversupply of tankers, and prescribes management guidelines along with model applications to avoid the mistakes of past tanker operators,

Selman, M.L.

1987-01-01

210

40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.351 United States Postal...Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon...area. The revisions were adopted by the Colorado Air Quality Control Commission...

2013-07-01

211

Undergraduate Academic Achievement as an Indicator of Fleet Performance and Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research analyzes the relationship between academic performance and fleet performance and retention of United States Naval Academy graduates. Linear regression and LOGIT models are developed for USNA classes of 1980 through 1985 to analyze the effect...

J. D. Gremillion

1998-01-01

212

Newark Liberty International Airport (ERW) Vehicle Tracking Demonstration Wireless Fleet Management System, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wireless Fleet Management System (WFMS) has been installed at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) in a trial version as a technology demonstration and evaluation program that implements radio frequency identification (RFID) based tracking of th...

A. T. Cerino

2005-01-01

213

NHTSA's Research Program for Vehicle Aggressivity and Fleet Compatibility. Paper No. 249.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an overview of NHTSA's vehicle aggressivity and fleet compatibility research activities. This research program is being conducted in close cooperation with the International Harmonized Research Agenda (IHRA) compatibility research grou...

S. M. Summers A. Prasad W. T. Hollowell

2002-01-01

214

U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Retail Warehouse, Fleet Landing Halawa, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Retail Warehouse, Fleet Landing Halawa, near Kamehameha Highway between Richardson Recreation Center & USS Arizona Memorial Visitor Center, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

215

Monitoring measurement tools: new methods for driving continuous improvements in fleet measurement uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever shrinking measurement uncertainty requirements are difficult to achieve for a typical metrology toolset, especially over the entire expected life of the fleet. Many times, acceptable performance can be demonstrated during brief evaluation periods on a tool or two in the fleet. Over time and across the rest of the fleet, the most demanding processes often have measurement uncertainty concerns that prevent optimal process control, thereby limiting premium part yield, especially on the most aggressive technology nodes. Current metrology statistical process control (SPC) monitoring techniques focus on maintaining the performance of the fleet where toolset control chart limits are derived from a stable time period. These tools are prevented from measuring product when a statistical deviation is detected. Lastly, these charts are primarily concerned with daily fluctuations and do not consider the overall measurement uncertainty. It is possible that the control charts implemented for a given toolset suggest a healthy fleet while many of these demanding processes continue to suffer measurement uncertainty issues. This is especially true when extendibility is expected in a given generation of toolset. With this said, there is a need to continually improve the measurement uncertainty of the fleet until it can no longer meet the needed requirements at which point new technology needs to be entertained. This paper explores new methods in analyzing existing SPC monitor data to assess the measurement performance of the fleet and look for opportunities to drive improvements. Long term monitor data from a fleet of overlay and scatterometry tools will be analyzed. The paper also discusses using other methods besides SPC monitors to ensure the fleet stays matched; a set of SPC monitors provides a good baseline of fleet stability but it cannot represent all measurement scenarios happening in product recipes. The analyses presented deal with measurement uncertainty on non-measurement altering metrology toolsets such as scatterometry, overlay, atomic force microscopy (AFM) or thin film tools. The challenges associated with monitoring toolsets that damage the sample such as the CD-SEMs will also be discussed. This paper also explores improving the monitoring strategy through better sampling and monitor selection. The industry also needs to converge regarding the metrics used to describe the matching component of measurement uncertainty so that a unified approach is reached regarding how to best drive the much needed improvements. In conclusion, there will be a discussion on automating these new methods3,4 so they can complement the existing methods to provide a better method and system for controlling and driving matching improvements in the fleet.

Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Sendelbach, Matthew; Fiege, Ron; Zaitz, Mary; Shneyder, Dmitriy; Strocchia-Rivera, Carlos; Munoz, Andres; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Muth, William; Brendler, Andrew; Banke, Bill; Schulz, Bernd; Hartig, Carsten; Hoeft, Jon-Tobias; Vaid, Alok; Kelling, Mark; Bunday, Benjamin; Allgair, John

2009-03-01

216

A new multi-objective optimization formulation for rail-car fleet sizing problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With potential application to a variety of industries, fleet sizing problems present a prevalent and significant challenge\\u000a for engineers and managers. This is especially true of applications involving rail cars, where origins and destinations have\\u000a capacity restrictions. This paper presents a new multi-objective optimization formulation, solution method, and analysis for\\u000a multi-periodic fleet sizing problems of various sizes. Profit and quality

Hamid Reza Sayarshad; Timothy Marler

2010-01-01

217

An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Target Assignment, Optimization of Naval Fleet Air Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a weapon-target assignment problem (WTA), the fire-allocation of naval fleet air defense was studied and an optimal target assignment model was established. By combining the features of naval fleet anti-air combat, several classical assignment algorithms were discussed. To find global optimal results efficiently, an effective global search method i.e. genetic algorithms (GAs) was applied. However, this method still has

Houqing Lu; Hongjun Zhang; Xiaojuan Zhang; Ruixin Han

2006-01-01

218

Results from the first year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under the auspices of the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, has been managing the Federal Methanol Fleet Project since its beginning in fiscal year 1985. This congressionally mandated project directed the Department of Energy to begin to implement methanol-fueled vehicles into civilian government fleet operations. This interim report describes the first year's operations. This interim report describes the first year's operation of the methanol fleet activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. Operation of methanol cars at LBL officially began on November 1, 1985. The fleet consists of five 1984 methanol-fueled Chevrolet Citation sedans paired with five analogous gasoline-fueled Citations for comparison. Data have been collected and tabulated on fuel consumption, maintenance records, driver perceptions of operability and safety, and oil sample analyses. Although drivers have expressed some concerns regarding the off-site availability of methanol fuel, they generally reported no significant differences in their perceptions of safety and operability between the methanol and gasoline vehicles. No major maintenance problems were encountered. Oil sample analyses revealed higher engine wear rates in the methanol vehicles, but not alarmingly high. These results are in agreement with those obtained from other methanol fleets. It is concluded that the Federal Methanol Fleet operation at LBL has been highly successful during its first year of operation.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.; Wantland, J.L.

1987-08-01

219

Electric vehicle fleet operations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively supporting the development and commercialization of advanced electric vehicles, batteries, and propulsion systems. As part of this effort, the DOE Field Operations Program is performing commercial validation testing of electric vehicles and supporting the development of an electric vehicle infrastructure. These efforts include the evaluation of electric vehicles in baseline performance, accelerated reliability, and fleet operations testing. The baseline performance testing focuses on parameters such as range, acceleration, and battery charging. This testing, performed in conjunction with EV America, has included the baseline performance testing of 16 electric vehicle models from 1994 through 1997. During 1997, the Chevrolet S10 and Ford Ranger electric vehicles were tested. During 1998, several additional electric vehicles from original equipment manufacturers will also be baseline performance tested. This and additional information is made available to the public via the Program`s web page (http://ev.inel.gov/sop). In conjunction with industry and other groups, the Program also supports the Infrastructure Working Council in its development of electric vehicle communications, charging, health and safety, and power quality standards. The Field Operations Program continues to support the development of electric vehicles and infrastructure in conjunction with its qualified vehicle test partners: Electric Transportation Applications, and Southern California Edison. The Field Operations Program is managed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; O`Hara, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-03-01

220

Gras Dowr joins world`s FPSO fleet  

SciTech Connect

The Gras Dowr, a floating production, storage, and offloading vessel (FPSD) for Amerada Hess Ltd.`s North Sea Durward and Dauntless fields, is one of the latest additions to the world`s growing FPSO fleet. The Gras Dowr, anchored in about 90 m of water, lies between the Durward (U.K. Block 21/16) and Dauntless (U.K. Block 21/11) fields, about 3.5 km from the subsea wellhead locations. The Gras Dowr`s main functions, according to Bluewater Offshore Production Systems Ltd., are to: receive fluids from well risers; process incoming fluids to separate the fluid into crude, water, and gas; store dry crude oil and maintain the required temperature; treat effluent to allow for water discharge to the sea; compress gas for gas lift as a future option; provide chemical injection skid for process chemical injection; use a part of the produced gas for fuel gas, and flare excess gas; inject treated seawater into the injection wells; house power generation for process and offloading operation and utilities; offload to a tandem moored shuttle tanker including receiving liquid fuel from the same tanker; provide accommodations for operating and maintenance crews; allow helicopters landings and takeoffs; allow handling and storage of goods transported by supply vessels; moor a shuttle tanker; and control the subsea wells.

NONE

1997-05-05

221

Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.  

PubMed

Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine. PMID:23288614

Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

2013-01-04

222

CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS  

DOEpatents

A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

1963-04-01

223

PHOSPHATE ABSORPTION IN EELGRASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of phosphate by eelgrass (Zostera marina L. ) was studied using 32P in a partitioned container where leaves were separated from roots and rhizomes. Absorption, which was greatest in the light, occurred through both leaves and roots, and the absorbed phosphorus was transported rapidly to all parts of the plant. It therefore appears that eelgrass can use phosphate

C. Peter McRoy; Robert J. Barsdate

224

Study of Manganese Phosphating Reactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was conducted to determine the composition of and the reactions associated with the formation of manganese-phosphate coatings. An improved phosphate coating was studied as produced from a stock manganese phosphating bath to which an addition of manga...

J. Menke

1971-01-01

225

Potential for compressed natural gas vehicles in centrally-fueled automobile-, truck-, and bus-fleet applications  

SciTech Connect

Two prospective alternative fuel implementation scenarios were created to quantify the potential range of compressed natural gas use in fleet vehicles including fleet automobiles; light-, medium-, and heavy-duty fleet trucks; public transit buses; and school buses. The scenarios are based principally on the clean-fuel fleet vehicle provisions contained in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the California Low Emission Vehicle Regulations, and the assumed future capability of compressed natural gas to meet various levels of tailpipe emission standards. The potential for using compressed natural gas in fleet vehicle applications varies significantly between the scenarios primarily due to assumption about differences in affected vehicle classes, timing of the regulations, and emission levels. By 2010, the potential for compressed natural gas vehicle use ranges from less than 840 thousand to more than 1.3 million fleet vehicles of all types with corresponding gas demand ranging from 140 to 200 billion cubic feet per year.

Samsa, M.E.

1991-06-01

226

PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

Hay, M.; King, W.

2011-04-04

227

Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

Not Available

2011-10-01

228

[Diagnostic accuracy and clinical significance of combined small bowel enema and scintigraphy with pure fractions of neutrophil granulocytes labeled with HMPAO-Tc99m in chronic intestinal inflammation].  

PubMed

Enema is the primary imaging method in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease in the small bowel, with clinical follow-up examinations performed by gastroenterologists as the gold standard. The information provided by small bowel enema, in addition to endoscopic findings, is usually sufficient for the gastroenterologist to make the definitive diagnosis and to plan the whole treatment. Scintigraphy with leukocytes labelled with HMPAO-Tc99m has several unique characteristics favoring its use as a diagnostic imaging method in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It is a noninvasive method requiring no bowel preparation and it is safe in severely ill patients in whom such conventional imaging methods as barium enema or colonscopy might be hazardous. In this study, the authors report the results of their experience with diagnostic small bowel enema and leukocyte scintigraphy with HMPAO-Tc99m in 28 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease in 18 patients, ulcerative colitis in 7 and radiation-induced inflammatory stenosis of the sigma-rectum, bowel inflammation after appendicectomy and bladder surgery, respectively, in 1 patient each). Scintigraphy with autologous granulocytes with HMPAO-Tc99m was positive in 26 patients and negative in 2. Twenty-five patients were true positives and 1 was a false positive. Fifteen patients were also submitted to small bowel enema: 12 of them were positive (true positive) and 3 negative (1 false negative and 2 true negative). The results of granulocytes scintigraphy were compared with those of small bowel enema: the radionuclide study appeared superior in the assessment of bowel inflammation associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Indeed, scintigraphy depicted granulocyte uptake in the colon where enema had shown no major findings in 4 patients with Crohn's disease. In the author's opinion, the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of combined leukocyte scintigraphy and small bowel enema play a major role in the early diagnosis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and in the assessment of disease extent and activity. PMID:9045240

Celentano, L; Cirillo, L C; D'Arienzo, A; De Santis, D A

1996-10-01

229

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOEpatents

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12

230

In vivo study of a calcium phosphate cement consisting of ?-tricalcium phosphate\\/dicalcium phosphate dibasic\\/tetracalcium phosphate monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prehardened calcium phosphate cement consisting of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), dicalcium phosphate dibasic (DCPD) and tetracalcium phosphate monoxide (TeCP) was implanted in rabbit mandibles and back muscles, and studied histologically and microradiographically. In the mandibles, new bone formation occurred around the implants and increased in quantity the longer the implant period lasted. Histology, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated direct

K. Kurashina; H. Kurita; A. Kotani; H. Takeuchi; M. Hirano

1997-01-01

231

Oxidative Degradation of Phosphate Esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin film oxidation (microoxidation) test has been developed to simulate severe liquid phase oxidation in typical lubrication systems. Tributyl phosphate (TBP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), trixylyl phosphate (TXP) and t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (TBB) have been evaluated and compared. At low rates, oxidation is not limited by oxygen diffusion at the air-liquid interface. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) has been adapted to

L. Cho; E. E. Klaus

1981-01-01

232

Osteoinduction by calcium phosphate biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different materials were implanted in muscles of dogs to study the osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials. Bone formation was only seen in calcium phosphate biomaterials with micropores, and could be found in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic, tricalcium phosphate\\/hydroxyapatite ceramic (BCP), ß-TCP ceramic and calcium phosphate cement. The osteoinductive potential was different in different materials. The results indicate that osteoinduction can be

Huipin Yuan; Zongjian Yang; Yubao Li; Xingdong Zhang; J. D. De Bruijn; K. De Groot

1998-01-01

233

Phosphate control in dialysis  

PubMed Central

Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.

Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

2013-01-01

234

Frittage du phosphate tricalcique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

xml:lang="fr">RésuméCe travail aborde l'étude du frittage du ? phosphate tricalcique obtenu par voie sèche, en vue d'élaborer des matériaux denses. L'évolution de la densité du matériau fritté en fonction du temps et de la température, a été suivie. Le phosphate tricalcique présente une bonne aptitude au frittage dans le domaine de température 1200 1350?°C, ainsi des taux de densification de 92% ont pu être atteints à 1300?°C. A des températures supérieures à 1350?°C, la densification est entravée par le grossissement exagéré des grains et la formation de larges pores. La diffraction des rayons X montre en plus du ? phosphate tricalcique, la présence de traces de la phase ? du phosphate tricalcique et du phosphate tétracalcique. L'analyse par résonance magnétique nucléaire du solide 31P illustre la présence de trois types de site tétraédrique. L'analyse thermique différentielle montre que les deux transformations allotropiques du phosphate tricalcique se produisent respectivement à 1285 et 1475?°C. Pour citer cet article : F. Ben Ayed et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

Ben Ayed, Foued; Chaari, Kamel; Bouaziz, Jamel; Bouzouita, Khaled

2006-09-01

235

A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market information, evaluating the impact of external business environment, and considering cross-scale interactions between decision actions. Along with this process, system operation strategies, maintenance schedules, and capacity expansion plans that guide the operation of the power plant are optimally identified, and the total life cycle costs are estimated.

Chen, Hongmei

236

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.  

SciTech Connect

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

2003-06-01

237

Energy use and taxation policy in the New Zealand car fleet  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the composition of the New Zealand car fleet and the relationship between design factors, fleet composition, vehicle useage and fuel consumption. The indirect energy content of the vehicle and roadway are discussed. Existing and potential Government policy instruments for promoting fuel economy in the car fleet are discussed and evaluated. The report conclusions favor flat rate sales tax on vehicles regardless of engine size together with an appropriate level of petrol tax in preference to taxation that varies with vehicle size or engine capacity. A review of hire purchase regulations is proposed. Prior to publication of this report the Industries Development Commission Plan for the motor vehicle industry was released which proposes changes to the tariff, taxation and credit purchase regime applying to motor vehicles. These changes are summarized.

Not Available

1984-02-01

238

First year results from the Federal Methanol Fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the first year's operation and results of the Federal Methanol Fleet activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The fleet consists of five 1984 methanol-fueled Chevrolet Citation sedans paired with five analogous gasoline-fueled Citations for comparison. Data are presented on fuel consumption, maintenance records, driver perceptions of operability and safety, and oil sample analyses. Drivers generally reported no significant differences in their perceptions of safety and operability between the methanol and gasoline vehicles. No major maintenance problems were encountered. Oil sample analyses revealed higher engine wear rates in the methanol vehicles, but not alarmingly high. It is concluded that the Federal Methanol Fleet operation at LBL has been highly successful during its first year of operation.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.; Wantland, J.L.

1987-01-01

239

Fleet health monitoring of large populations: aged concrete T-beam bridges in Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of rational decision-making for optimum resource distribution of civil infrastructure systems management is well recognized. Bridges, serving as node points of the highway transportation system, are critical components of the nation's infrastructure. As the nation's bridge population is aging, management decisions must be based on an objective, complete, accurate and compatible information for maximum reliable bridge lifecycle. For bridges sharing common materials, similar geometric design attributes and behavior mechanisms, fleet-strategies for health monitoring would offer significant advantages. Improvements from fleet health monitoring would lead to objective engineering knowledge for optimal decision making. This paper provides an overview of fleet health monitoring concept, then summarizes an on-going research on re- qualification of reinforced concrete T-beam bridge population in Pennsylvania.

Catbas, Fikret N.; Ciloglu, Korhan; Celebioglu, Arda; Popovics, John S.; Aktan, A. Emin

2001-08-01

240

Medical department operations in a fleet hospital during Operation Desert Storm.  

PubMed

Fleet hospital 15 was deployed to Saudi Arabia in Operation Desert Storm. The facility was a 500-bed echelon-3 hospital located near Al Jubail, which served the fleet marines from February to April 1991. The medical staff of the department of medicine consisted of reserve medical officers with a variety of backgrounds. The desert environment, concern for endemic diseases, limitations of equipment, and the environment of conflict presented challenges to the medical department that required adaptation of civilian skills to this new environment. The hospital served as a community medical center, with 86% of the inpatient and outpatient treatment provided for non-battle-related illness and injury. Design considerations of fleet hospitals for future deployments should include the likelihood of treating a large number of non-battle-related injuries and illnesses. PMID:8524463

Bove, A A; Oxler, S J

1995-08-01

241

Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.  

PubMed

Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications of fleet electrification and inform better decision making. PMID:23869607

Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

2013-08-01

242

Navy nurse anesthetists at Fleet Hospital Five: the Desert Shield/Storm experience.  

PubMed

In 1990, the United States Navy deployed its first operational fleet hospital: "Fleet Hospital Five" in support of Operation Desert Shield/Storm. Within 2 weeks of notification, the 900 medical providers assigned to this medical facility, which was capable of providing major trauma surgery and critical care, were on their way to Al Jabayl, Saudi Arabia. This article discusses the unique characteristics of this facility and introduces the crucial role that nurse anesthetists play. The article also introduces several innovative ideas that were developed and tested to expand the capabilities of the hospital. PMID:12755187

Hrezo, Richard J

2003-06-01

243

Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

2009-05-01

244

A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

245

WORK RELATED MORTALITY AMONG MERCHANT SEAFARERS EMPLOYED IN UK ROYAL FLEET AUXILLARY SHIPPING FROM 1976 TO 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Over 2300 merchant seafarers are currently employed on board UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ships. However, little is known about work related mortality among these seafarers, and whether it is lower than among seafarers in merchant fleets. Objectives : To establish the causes and circumstances of all work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in RFA ships

STEPHEN E. ROBERTS; PETER B. MARLOW

246

40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle. 88.306-94 Section 88.306-94... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program §...

2013-07-01

247

Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean

LaRocque

2001-01-01

248

On the phosphate problem.  

PubMed

Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) of phosphorus set by the FAO/WHO Committee are fixed at 70 and 30 mg P/kg body weight, for conditional (C) (where Ca intake is high) and unconditional (UC) intake, respectively. In light of the increasing application of phosphates in food industries, the question arises whether these permissible limits are not exceeded by certain population group (s). The groups studied in this paper included: children, nursing mothers, farmers and town's men, and students. Average per capita and excessive consumptions were also estimated. Spectrometric techniques were used for analysis of both phosphorus and calcium. Unless for few items, Dutch Food Composition Tables were found accurate enough to use for calculations. Intake of P was found to exceed the UC ADI in most groups, and even the C ADI in infants (1 year). Food intakes of all groups resulted in P/Ca ratios higher than the recommended dietary allowances of U.S.A. Milk and dairy products proved important items for lowering this ratio in the Dutch diet. It is concluded that more investigation for the toxicological evaluation of phosphates is required, and a more clear ADI need be set. Food laws must take into account addition of phosphates during food processing. Estimation of P intake should be carried out particularly in countries of low calcium intake or high consumption of phosphate-treated or phosphate-rich foods (e.g. wholemeal bread and nut consumption in Iran). PMID:1272595

El-Shaarawy, M I; Reith, J F

1976-04-01

249

Phosphated calcined alumina  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of making a phosphated alumina comprising: (a) calcining alumina at a temperature of about 450/sup 0/C to about 900/sup 0/C; and (b) thereafter treating the thus calcined alumina with a phosphating agent selected from the group consisting of orthophosphoric acid, orthophosphates, POCl/sub 3/, PCl/sub 3/, phosphorous acid and NH/sub 4/H/sub 2/PO/sub 3/ to give a surface treatment wherein the atom ratio P/Al is in the range of about 0.2:1 to 2:1.

Klendworth, D.D.

1988-11-29

250

Dewey at Manila Bay: Lessons in Operational Art and Operational Leadership from America's First Fleet Admiral.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decisive U.S. Asiatic Squadron victory over the Spanish South Pacific Fleet at the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898 illustrates the brilliance of Admiral George Dewey as an operational leader and his keen sense of operational art. Due to the U.S. Navy's v...

D. B. Granger

2010-01-01

251

Liner shipping cycle cost modelling, fleet deployment optimization and what-if analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article formulates the mathematical model of the liner shipping company cycle cost and attempts to optimize the operational profile of company assets in regards to specific network of routes of cargo flows and vessels portfolio. In other words it attempts to give a practical solution to the modern shipping company fleet deployment problem. This is achieved by developing a

Panayotis G Zacharioudakis; Stylianos Iordanis; Dimitrios V Lyridis; Harilaos N Psaraftis

2011-01-01

252

Results from the third year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Argonne National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory has completed three full years of operation of 19 vehicles in the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; ten of the vehicles are fueled with M85 (85% methanol, 15% unleaded gasoline). Nearly 675,000 miles have been accumulated on the ...

B. H. West R. N. McGill S. L. Hillis J. W. Hodgson

1991-01-01

253

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we dispose...

2013-01-01

254

Electric power requirement for large-scale production of hydrogen fuel for the world vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of fossil fuels by hydrogen in motor vehicles throughout the world is postulated to occur over the next 50 years as mass production of fuel-cell engines accelerates. For the estimated size of the world vehicle fleet by 2050, large-scale electrolysis of water may become the primary means to produce hydrogen in sufficient quantity. Unlike petroleum production, which is concentrated

Paul Kruger

2001-01-01

255

The growth of fleets registered in the newly-emerging maritime countries and maritime crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests the existence of a feedback relationship between the dynamic entrance of less-developed countries in shipping and the prolongation and deepening of maritime crises. The duration and extent of the transitional period of crisis depends also on the specific terms of the ‘succession’ procedure between fleets with different cost levels. During the last major maritime crisis, nations at

Helen A. Thanopoulou

1995-01-01

256

Cost Estimation of Biofuels for Naval Aviation: Budgeting for the Great Green Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis estimates the cost of biofuel to meet the Department of the Navy's (DON) stated energy objectives, i.e., sailing the Great Green Fleet in 2016 and transitioning to 50 percent alternative fuel by 2020. The first estimate is for the additional c...

M. D. Callahan

2011-01-01

257

Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

2009-01-01

258

Utilizing fleet-driven metrics to identify and forecast system degrader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) is responsible for cradle-to-grave development and support of Aircraft Launch and Recovery Equipment (ALRE). As this equipment and its associated development, maintenance, and support become increasingly complex, and the budgetary pressures facing the Navy become increasingly strong, there arises a need for an Integrated Support Environment (ISE) for ALRE. For the Fleet, the ISE streamlines

Crystal Wagner; Mike Burger; Gail Edwards

2010-01-01

259

Market Analysis of Publications, Trade Conferences, and Key Events for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this MBA Project is to develop a well-defined process to ensure reasonable access to industry publications for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FRCSW) through the compilation of a user-friendly database. For each of the targeted publicatio...

J. Endress R. Valencia S. Guptill

2007-01-01

260

Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to determine emissions from the actual car fleet under realistic driving conditions has been developed. The method is based on air quality measurements, traffic counts and inverse application of street air quality models. Many pollutants are of importance for assessing the adverse impact of the air pollution, e.g. NO2, CO, lead, VOCs and particulate matter. Aromatic VOCs are

Finn Palmgren; Ruwim Berkowicz; Alexander Ziv; Ole Hertel

1999-01-01

261

Providing Networking to the DEOS Fleet of Moored Ocean Observatories: High-Seas ROADNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the technologies associated with computation, data telemetry and multidisciplinary sensors, have motivated the scientific community to develop a plan for long-term `ocean observatories' where sensors are deployed at the air-sea interface, within the water column, and on and beneath the seafloor. The establishment of a fleet of moored ocean buoy observatories will be an important element of

J. Orcutt; J. Berger; F. Vernon; T. Hansen

2003-01-01

262

Development of energy efficient mid-water trawls to Murmansk trawl fleets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experimental trawls were designed as a joint task between the Danish partners and the Russian trawler fleets which were going to test them. The new design incorporate use of modern Western high strength material. The engineering performance of the tra...

1996-01-01

263

Catch per unit effort standardization of the eastern Bering Sea walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general linear model (GLM) was used to standardize catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from the Bering Sea fleet for the years 1995–1999. Data were stratified temporally by year and season and spatially by area using either Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) or National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) reporting areas. Four

Brian C. Battaile; Terrance J. Quinn

2004-01-01

264

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

NONE

1997-06-01

265

Toward the Development of a Criterion for Fleet Effectiveness in the F-4 Fighter Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recurring problem in naval aviation has been the lack of adequate criteria for pilot performance in fleet-type aircraft. In a previous investigation, an attempt was made to isolate the most critical skills and procedures within each of the stages compri...

R. H. Shannon W. L. Waag

1972-01-01

266

Reliability-Growth Analysis of Wind Turbines from Fleet Field Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of failure data for complex and commercially relevant systems, like wind turbines, is often restricted to a few publicly accessible databases, which collect failures in grouped form for entire fleets of units. Despite the deficiencies of this data, reliability-growth analysis methods do allow the extraction of reliability trends over an observed period. The analysis can also differentiate between

Fabio Spinato; Peter Tavner

267

Management of the fleet satellite communications satellite acquisition for the Naval Postgraduate School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the management of the acquisition of the fleet Satellite Communications Satellite (FLTSATCOM) Qualification Model for the Naval Postgraduate School. The preparations, scheduling, and accomplishment of the delivery and the efforts required to establish the FLTSATCO laboratory are discussed. The interaction between the Naval Postgraduate School, various government agencies, and the FLTSATCOM prime contractor necessary to accomplish the project is also described.

Eyler, David E.

1991-06-01

268

Applying online fleet driver assessment to help identify, target and reduce occupational road safety risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown that driver attitude and behaviour are important determinants of the likelihood of collision involvement. Knowledge of the Rules of the Road and the perception of hazards are also associated with collision involvement. The aim of this paper is to review the practical application of an online fleet driver assessment program to help identify, target and reduce

Phil Darby; Will Murray; Robert Raeside

2009-01-01

269

Recommended Organizational Design for the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, San Diego Purchasing Department.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Downsizing is and will continue to be a fact of life in the U. S. Military for the foreseeable future. Many military organizations are reorganizing to reduce expenses and increase efficiency in an effort to survive budget cuts. The Fleet and Industrial Su...

T. E. Jablonski

1993-01-01

270

Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived…

Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

2009-01-01

271

A Comparison of Heuristic Methods for Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addressed the planning and scheduling problem for earth observing satellites fleet of China. The author first described the problem scope naturally, then proposed a mixed-integer programming model for a simplified version of the problem, which only considered the data-take activities of the satellites. Then the author gave two heuristic methods for it and made experimental comparisons based on

Pei Wang; Yuejin Tan; Gerhard Reinelt

2009-01-01

272

Project for Reliability Fleet Testing of Alcohol/Gasoline Blends. Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized are the status and results of the DOE Project for Reliability Fleet Testing of Alcohol/Gasoline Blends. The period covered, March 1979 through June 1982, includes a little more than 3 years of the planned 4-year project. The project background ...

1982-01-01

273

Transport control of forest fuels by fleet manager, mobile terminals and GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip transportation is undertaken by private transportation enterprises that are contracted by a larger wood fuel trader. Compared with industrial roundwood supply the volumes and value of wood fuel supply are markedly lower. As a result, the possibilities to invest in information systems for transport management are limited. New portable, wireless communication techniques and internet-based systems for fleet management enable

Lauri Sikanen; Antti Asikainen; Mikko Lehikoinen

2005-01-01

274

50,000 Mile Methanol/Gasoline Blend Fleet Study: A Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven current production automobiles are being used in a fleet study to obtain operational experience in using 10% methanol/90% gasoline blends as an automotive fuel. Data from chassis dynamometer tests (run according to the 1975--1978 Federal test proced...

K. R. Stamper

1979-01-01

275

Sociocultural Assessment of Filipino Crew Members Working in the Hawaii-Based Longline Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a subset of the results from a 2003-2004 sociocultural study of fishermen in the Hawaii-based longline fleet. Explored here are the perspectives and experiences of Filipino fishermen working as crew in the Hawaii longline industry. T...

A. Gough S. D. Allen

2006-01-01

276

Case Study: Solving a Rental Fleet Sizing Model with a Large Time–Space Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses a rental fleet sizing problem (RFS) in the context of the truck rental industry, subject to uncertain customer travel time and nonstationary customer demand that is dependent on geographical location, time, and the economic cycle of the industry. We integrate tactical (asset purchases and sales) and operational (empty truck movement and vehicle assignment) decisions, with the explicit

Peiling Wu; Joseph C. Hartman

2010-01-01

277

FleetManager: a microcomputer-based decision support system for vehicle routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a decision support system (DSS) that recommends solutions to a particular version of the vehicle routing problem occurring in the New Zealand dairy industry. FleetManager is a DSS developed for use by New Zealand milk tanker schedulers and is designed to aid them in creating or improving milk tanker routes using their experience and preferences. The DSS

Chuda Basnet; Les Foulds; Magid Igbaria

1996-01-01

278

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

279

Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.  

SciTech Connect

The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

Engi, Dennis

2006-10-01

280

Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term

Anup Bandivadekar; Lynette Cheah; Christopher Evans; Tiffany Groode; John Heywood; Emmanuel Kasseris; Matthew Kromer; Malcolm Weiss

2008-01-01

281

Services to Conduct Seminars on Truck Fuel Economy for Fleet Owners and Owner Operators. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program was established by the DOE to expand the exposure of the Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel Economy Program. The intent of the program was to reach two audiences: (1) dealers and (2) owner operators and small fleets. The aim was to educate the deal...

1982-01-01

282

Solving a Stochastic Facility Location\\/Fleet Management Problem with Logic-Based Benders Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address a stochastic facility location and vehicle assignment problem in which customers are served by full return trips. The problem consists of simultaneously locating a set of facilities, determining the vehicle fleet size at each facility, and allocating customers to facilities and vehicles in the presence of random travel times. Such travel times can arise, for example, due to

Mohammad M. Fazel-Zarandi; Oded Berman; J. Christopher Beck

2012-01-01

283

78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet management system vehicles. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 23935, on April 23,......

2013-10-29

284

Detection of rectal and rectosigmoid lesions by double-contrast barium enema examination and sigmoidoscopy. Accuracy of technique and efficacy of standard overhead views.  

PubMed

The double-contrast barium-enema examination (DC-BE) and endoscopy were compared in 100 patients (126 lesions) to determine the accuracy of each method and assess the efficacy of standard overhead views in detecting rectal and rectosigmoid masses. Seven lesions were missed with DB-BE (accurate rate, 95%) and 20 with endoscopy (accuracy rate, 84%). Lateral and angled rectum views were positive in 74% and 94%, respectively; combining these with supine, prone, and left posterior oblique views, 95% of 121 lesions were detected on at least 2 radiographs. Fifteen of 41 lesions (37%) were missed with the rigid sigmoidoscope, but only 5 of 85 (6%) with the flexible sigmoidoscope. The authors conclude that suspected rectal or rectosigmoid tumors can be diagnosed accurately with only 5 projections, rather than the 11 often employed for the entire colon, and that the flexible sigmoidoscope should be used routinely instead of the rigid sigmoidoscope. PMID:7053548

Thoeni, R F; Petras, A

1982-01-01

285

Ultrasound Guided Reduction of an Ileocolic Intussusception by a Hydrostatic Method by Using Normal Saline Enema in Paediatric Patients: A Study of 30 Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Method Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. Results This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

2012-01-01

286

Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients—phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of

M. L. Weiner; W. F. Salminen; P. R. Larson; R. A. Barter; J. L. Kranetz; G. S. Simon

2001-01-01

287

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt...

2009-04-01

288

Development of the Fleet Air Readiness Training Model for the Integrated Facilities Requirements Study (IFRS) Phase III. Volume I. Summary of the Fleet Readiness Training (FRT) Management Planning Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the Fleet Readiness Training (FRT) Planning model developed as part of the third phase of the Integrated Facilities Requirements Study (IFRS). In Phase I, two analytic submodels were developed. The first, a Logistics Support Requirem...

T. N. Kyle R. J. Craig M. C. Fisk W. Liggett F. McCoy

1971-01-01

289

Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer  

DOEpatents

A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

1999-06-15

290

Sphingosine-1-phosphate  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Colitis-associated cancer is a classical inflammation-driven cancer in which constitutive NF?B and STAT3 activation drive tumorigenesis. Recent findings published by Liang et al. in Cancer Cell demonstrate that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-mediated upregulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) drives a persistent NF?B/IL-6/STAT3/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) amplification loop that is critical to the development of chronic colitis and colitis-associated cancer. FTY720, an antagonist of S1PR1, abolished persistent NF?B/IL-6/STAT3 signaling and reduced the development and progression of colitis-associated cancer. Targeting SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 may provide a therapeutic option to prevent the progression of colitis to cancer.

2013-01-01

291

Nanocrystalline Tetracalcium Phosphate Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium hydroxide cements can lack long-term stability and achieve sustained release by matrix-controlled diffusion of hydroxyl ions. Tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) hydrolyzes slowly to form calcium hydroxide and a thin insoluble apatite layer that prevents further reaction. In this study, mechanical amorphization was used to create a setting calcium-hydroxide-releasing cement from TTCP. The effect of high-energy ball milling of TTCP on

U. Gbureck; J. E. Barralet; M. P. Hofmann

2004-01-01

292

Evaluation of Mess Management Specialist (MS) 'A' School Training by Advanced MS NAVEDTRACOM Students and by Fleet MS Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feedback information concerning Mess Management Specialist (MS) 'A' School training was collected from 65 MS personnel attending advanced courses within the Naval Education and Training Command (NAVEDTRACOM) and also from 82 MSs currently serving in fleet...

E. R. Hall C. F. Denton

1979-01-01

293

49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...185 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION...WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.185 Fleet... Each large operator subject to the requirements of § 37.183 shall...

2012-10-01

294

Test plan for reliability fleet testing of alcohol/gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) addresses several options as petroleum replacements for highway vehicles. At this time, the AFUP effort is concentrating on alcohol fuels with the goal of bringing the end-use technology for alcohol/gasoline blends to the point of commercial readiness by 1982-83. This Test Plan covers the operational and reporting procedures associated with the fleet vehicles and supporting facilities, the latter encompassing both the garage/fueling complex and the emissions/fuel economy test facility. The operational instructions and requirements provide for pretest and daily fleet activities; vehicle maintenance and replacement; fuel surveillance; and dynamometer testing for emissions and fuel economy on a chassis dynamometer.

Not Available

1979-09-01

295

Cold weather methanol vehicle demonstration fleet at Argonne National Laboratory - implications for flexible fuel and dedicated methanol commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the US Dept. of Energy-sponsored fleet testing of methanol-fueled vehicles at various sites around the country, Argonne National Laboratory has been operating five M85 (85% methanol blend)-fueled Chevrolet S-10 pickups and five M85 Ford Crown Victorias on- and off-site since late 1986. Each fleet has a corresponding set of gasoline-fueled control vehicles. The objective of the Argonne

C. L. Saricks; R. P. Larsen

1988-01-01

296

An event driven decision support algorithm for command and control of UAV fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we focus on solving large-scale UAV fleets scheduling problem in dynamically changing (i.e. external event-driven or operator induced selection) scenarios. This autonomous scheduling of planned tasks and allocation of resources is designed to provide real-time decision support to the operator for problem sizes that is intractable or infeasible by one or a set of operators. We begin

Oktay Arslan; Gokhan Inalhan

2009-01-01

297

A Self-Powered Polymeric Material that Responds Autonomously and Continuously to Fleeting Stimuli.  

PubMed

Pumped up: Building an autoinductive, self-propagating reaction directly into a polymer has resulted in stimuli-responsive materials that are capable of remembering the presence of a stimulus, even after the stimulus is no longer present. As a proof of concept, a nonmechanical, polymer-based pump has been made that is capable of pumping fluids surrounding the polymer when exposed to a fleeting signal (UV light, see picture). PMID:23939613

Baker, Matthew S; Yadav, Vinita; Sen, Ayusman; Phillips, Scott T

2013-08-12

298

Political Advertisements in the Era of Fleeting Indecent Images and Utterances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political Advertisements in the Era of Fleeting Indecent Images and Utterances by LaVonda N. Reed-Huff\\u000aThis article is both timely and beneficial to the legal profession in its analysis of the Federal Communications Commission’s (the “FCC”) efforts to craft regulations regarding broadcast indecency and to address the prevalence of increasingly sexually suggestive material in political broadcast advertisements. This five-part article

LaVonda N Reed-Huff

2009-01-01

299

From State-of-the-Art Static Fleet Assignment to Flexible Stochastic Planning of the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a flight schedule, which is a set of non-stop flights, called legs, with specified departure and arrival times, and\\u000a a set of aircraft types, called subfleets, the fleet assignment problem is to determine which aircraft type should fly each\\u000a leg. The objective is to maximize the overall profit.\\u000a \\u000a Usually, planners assume that precise input data are determininstically available at

Sven Grothklags; Ulf Lorenz; Burkhard Monien

2009-01-01

300

Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important

Engi

2006-01-01

301

A Fleet Operator’s Perspective on Commercial Vehicle Drag Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research establishment has proven the potential fuel-savings for many devices\\/modifications for commercial trucks, however\\u000a many of these developments remain in limited use. The primary reason that these substantial fuel-savings are not being realized\\u000a is that fleet operators have chosen not to adopt them in their current form. Why have roof fairings been accepted while trailer\\u000a skirts haven’t? The reasoning

Réjean Laflamme

302

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments  

SciTech Connect

The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

Not Available

1982-02-01

303

Infrastructure suited for supporting a fleet of wireless miniature robots designed for atomic-scale operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coordination of a fleet of miniature instrumented wireless robots operating within a half-meter diameter surface area requires a special infrastructure. The infrastructure described in this paper allows an excess of 100 of these robots to operate simultaneously and continuously at the atomic scale. Among many tasks, the infrastructure provides 4 Mb\\/s half-duplex infrared communication with all robots. It also

Sylvain M. Martel; Torsten Koker; Stefen Riebel; Mark Sherwood; Jeremy Suurkivi; Ian W. Hunter

2001-01-01

304

Solving multi-objective optimization formulation for fleet planning in a railway industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel three-objective mathematical model and a solution procedure for optimizing fleet planning\\u000a for rail-cars in a railway industry. These objectives are to: (1) minimize the sum of the cost related to service quality,\\u000a (2) maximize profit calculated as the difference between revenues generated by serving customer demand and the combined costs\\u000a of rail-car ownership and rail-car

Hamid Reza Sayarshad; Nikbakhsh Javadian; Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam; Nastaran Forghani

2010-01-01

305

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability  

SciTech Connect

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

NONE

1995-12-01

306

Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Pyridox(am)ine-5?-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5?-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unresponsive to pyridoxine.

Bagci, S; Zschocke, J; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T; Klepper, J; Muller, A; Heep, A; Bartmann, P; Franz, A R

2009-01-01

307

Potassium Phosphate Catalyzed Nitroaldol Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium phosphate was found to catalyze condensation of nitroalkanes with various aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to form nitroaldols in excellent yields in acetonitrile medium at room temperature.

Uday V. Desai; D. M. Pore; R. B. Mane; S. B. Solabannavar; P. P. Wadgaonkar

2004-01-01

308

Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters.

Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

2001-01-01

309

21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

310

21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

311

Calcium Phosphate Precipitation in Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precipitation of calcium phosphate from both synthetically derived wastewater and from actual wastewater was investigated. An amorphous tricalcium phosphate was the steady state solid phase that controlled dissolved phosphate residuals. The solubility of ...

A. B. Menar D. Jenkins

1972-01-01

312

21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

2013-04-01

313

21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

2009-04-01

314

21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

2013-04-01

315

21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

2009-04-01

316

21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

2010-01-01

317

21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

2010-01-01

318

[Phosphate sensing and osteocyte].  

PubMed

Osteocyte expresses molecules responsible for hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets such as FGF23, DMP1 and PHEX. FGF23 exerts its effects in kidney by decreasing both renal phosphate (Pi) reabsorption and vitamin D activation. It is suggested that DMP1 and PHEX negatively regulate the expression of FGF23, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Circulating level of FGF23 appears to be regulated by systemic factors as well, including vitamin D and PTH. Although it is unknown how mammals sense the Pi availability, it has been recently reported that extracellular Pi itself triggers signal transduction in some cell types such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes, suggesting that osteocytes also respond to the alteration in extracellular Pi level. PMID:23023636

Michigami, Toshimi

2012-10-01

319

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

320

Phosphate base laser glasses  

SciTech Connect

A phosphate base laser glass comprising 55-70% P2O5, 1-15% Al2O3, 0-25% Li2O, 0-25% Na2O, 0-8% K2O, the total proportion of Li2O, Na2O, and K2O being 10-25%, 0-15% BaO, 0-15% ZnO, 0-15% CaO , 0-15%, sro, 0-15% MgO, the total proportion of BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and MgO being 5-15%, 0-5% Y2O3, 0-5% La2O3, 0-5% GeO2, 0-5% CeO2, 0-3% Nb2O5, 0-3% MnO2, 0-2% Ta2O5, 0-1% Sb2O3, and 0.01-5% Nd2O3, all % being mole %. The phosphate base laser glass of this invention has a high induced emission cross section, a low non-linear refractive index coefficient, and excellent acid resistance and divitrification resistance. By replacing partially or wholely one or more of LiO2, Na2O, K2O, BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, MgO or Al2O3 by LiF, NaF, KF , BaF2ZnF2, CaF2, SrF2, MgF2 or AlF3, respectively, the above properties of the laser glass are further improved.

Izumitani, T.; Tsuru, M.

1980-12-16

321

Draft Guidance on Oseltamivir Phosphate Active ingredient ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Oseltamivir Phosphate ... Active ingredient: Oseltamivir Phosphate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

322

Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues. Options for financing alternative fuel vehicles fleets and infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country`s need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels.

Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

1992-06-01

323

REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the TMC meeting. Twenty-one responses were received, spanning fleet sizes between 12 and 170,000 vehicles. Responses are summarized in a series of tables separated into responses from small (100 or fewer powered vehicles), medium (101-1000 vehicles), and large fleets (>1000 vehicles). The vast majority of fleets do their own brake maintenance, relying primarily on experience and lining manufactures to select aftermarket linings. At least half of the responders are familiar to some extent with TMC Recommended Practice 628 on brake linings, but most do not use this source of test data as the sole criterion to select linings. Significant shortfalls in the applicability of TMC RP 628 to certain types of brake systems were noted.

Blau, P.J.

2003-02-03

324

A prospective randomised study comparing polyethylene glycol and sodium phosphate bowel cleansing solutions for colonoscopy.  

PubMed Central

Polyethylene glycol (Klean-Prep, Norgine) is widely used for bowel cleansing in the United Kingdom. This study compares the efficacy, acceptability and adverse effects of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution with sodium phosphate (Fleet Phospho-soda, De Witt) for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients were prospectively randomised to either PEG or sodium phosphate (SP) preparation. The endoscopist was blinded to the randomisation process. Fifty patients were excluded from the study because of previous colectomies or incomplete data. Of the remaining 159 patients, 88 had been randomised to the PEG group and 71 to the SP group. There was no difference in sex distribution between the groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of patient acceptability, side effects (nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramps), adequacy of bowel preparation and colonoscopy completion rates. 74% of the PEG and 70.4% of the SP group were rated by the endoscopist as having good or excellent bowel preparation. Sodium phosphate is well tolerated without additional side effects when compared with PEG solution. Both solutions were found to be equally effective in bowel cleansing.

Lee, J.; McCallion, K.; Acheson, A. G.; Irwin, S. T.

1999-01-01

325

Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

Robles-Porras, H.

1985-01-01

326

Fleeting Smile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

Davidson, Sally

2006-01-01

327

A water setting tetracalcium phosphate-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cement.  

PubMed

The development of a calcium phosphate cement, comprising tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), that hardens in 14 min with water as the liquid or 6 min with a 0.25 mol/L sodium phosphate solution as the liquid, without using hydroxyapatite (HA) seeds as setting accelerator, is reported. It was postulated that reduction in porosity would increase cement strength. Thus, the effects of applied pressure during the initial stages of the cement setting reaction on cement strength and porosity were studied. The cement powder comprised an equimolar mixture of TTCP and DCPD (median particle sizes 17 and 1.7 microm, respectively). Compressive strengths (CS) of samples prepared with distilled water were 47.6 +/- 2.4 MPa, 50.7 +/- 4.2 MPa, and 52.9 +/- 4.7 MPa at applied pressures of 5 MPa, 15 MPa, and 25 MPa, respectively. When phosphate solution was used, the CS values obtained were 41.5 +/- 2.3 MPa, 37.9 +/- 1.7 MPa, and 38.1 +/- 2.3 MPa at the same pressure levels. Statistical analysis of the results showed that pressure produced an improvement in CS when water was used as liquid but not when the phosphate solution was used. Compared to previously reported TTCP-DCPD cements, the greater CS values and shorter setting times together with a simplified formulation should make the present TTCP-DCPD cement a useful material as a bone substitute for clinical applications. PMID:15386489

Burguera, E F; Guitián, F; Chow, L C

2004-11-01

328

Results from the second year of operation of the federal methanol fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This interim report describes the second year's operation of the methanol fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. The fleet consists of five 1984 methanol-fueled Chevrolet Citation sedans paired with five comparable gasoline-fueled Citations for comparison. Data have been collected and tabulated on fuel consumption, maintenance records, oil sample analyses, and driver perceptions of vehicle operability. Fuel efficiency was slightly improved as compared to the first year for both the methanol and gasoline vehicles. The methanol vehicles continued to experience slightly less energy efficiency than the gasoline vehicles. Maintenance data reveal that the methanol vehicles required substantially more service than the gasoline vehicles, which may be due partially to a greater sensitivity on the part of users about methanol vehicle problems. Oil sample analyses revealed that engine wear rates are lower for the second year as compared to the first year and are probably not cause for great alarm. Drivers still rate all of the vehicles quite highly, but the methanol vehicles were rated not as highly during the second year of operation as in the first year. 5 refs., 1 figs., 16 tabs.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.

1988-08-01

329

[Gil Eannes--the hospital ship of the Portuguese fishing fleet].  

PubMed

The history of Portuguese hospital-ships dates back to the fleets in the era of the Great Discoveries. In 1916, during the First World War, the Allies appealed to Portugal to act as a neutral country. All the German ships on the river Tagus were impounded and adapted for tasks related to the war. The Hanseatic line vessel Lahneck had its name changed to Gil Eannes and was modified for troop transport and to give assistance to fishing boats. Many years later, when the old Gil Eanes came to the end of its life and needed to be replaced, a new ship was built in the Viana do Castelo shipyard, using up-to-date designs for a hospital-ship. The new ship was launched in 1955, mainly to assist the Portuguese cod fish fleet, working in the seas around Newfoundland. More recently, it has returned to Viana do Castelo docks and, after restoration, has been transformed into a nautical museum and a student residence, to keep alive the memories of this traditional Portuguese fishermen's activity. PMID:19579337

Ramos, Samuel; Doria, José Luís; Pina, Madalena Esperança

2008-06-01

330

The Potential of Different Concepts of Fast Breeder Reactor for the French Fleet Renewal  

SciTech Connect

The performances of different concepts of Fast Breeder Reactor (Na-cooled, He-cooled and Pb-cooled FBR) for the current French fleet renewal are analyzed in the framework of a transition scenario to a 100% FBR fleet at the end of the 21. century. Firstly, the modeling of these three FBR types by means of a semi-analytical approach in TIRELIRE - STRATEGIE, the EDF fuel cycle simulation code, is presented, together with some validation elements against ERANOS, the French reference code system for neutronic FBR analysis (CEA). Afterwards, performances comparisons are made in terms of maximum deployable power, natural uranium consumption and waste production. The results show that the FBR maximum deployable capacity, independently from the FBR technology, is highly sensitive to the fuel cycle options, like the spent nuclear fuel cooling time or the Minor Actinides management strategy. Thus, some of the key parameters defining the dynamic of FBR deployment are highlighted, to inform the orientation of R and D in the development and optimization of these systems. (authors)

Massara, Simone; Tetart, Philippe; Lecarpentier, David; Garzenne, Claude; Mourogov, Alexandre [Electricite de France, EDF R and D (France)

2006-07-01

331

Safety of cargo handling and transport liquefied natural gas by sea. Dangerous properties of LNG and actual situation of LNG Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas becomes very important source of energy. There is only one economical solution of transport natural gas to distant destination - LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas. The LNG fleet is growing very fast and fleet characteristic is changing. Very popular is myth that gas carriers are sailing bombs - is it true? Properties of LNG compare with other liquid

A. Starosta

332

Nanocrystalline tetracalcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxide cements can lack long-term stability and achieve sustained release by matrix-controlled diffusion of hydroxyl ions. Tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) hydrolyzes slowly to form calcium hydroxide and a thin insoluble apatite layer that prevents further reaction. In this study, mechanical amorphization was used to create a setting calcium-hydroxide-releasing cement from TTCP. The effect of high-energy ball milling of TTCP on the mechanical properties of the cement was investigated. X-ray diffraction data were used to determine the phase composition of the set cements. An accelerated in vitro test compared pH of water after prolonged boiling of nanocrystalline TTCP cements and a calcium salicylate material. As milling time increased, cement compressive strength and degree of conversion increased. Hydroxyl ion release from the cement was comparable with that from a calcium salicylate material. This new cement system offers the antimicrobial potential of calcium salicylate materials combined with the long-term stability of insoluble apatite cements. PMID:15111637

Gbureck, U; Barralet, J E; Hofmann, M P; Thulí, R

2004-05-01

333

Lime Silico-Phosphate Cement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quick setting lime silico-phosphate cement prepared by reacting Wollastonite (CaSiO3) and buffered phosphoric acid is described. The cement has particular utility in highway patching operations. (Author)

C. E. Semler

1972-01-01

334

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

335

TAMIFLU (oseltamivir phosphate) CAPSULESAND FOR ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 6. Repeat the rinsing (Step 5) with the remainder of the vehicle. ... The active drug, oseltamivir phosphate, readily dissolves in the specified vehicles. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

336

Early Mars: Without phosphate limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an important element for biogeochemical development. According to a set of experiments, martian phosphate minerals dissolve more quickly than terrestrial ones, possibly providing nutrients in aqueous environments for early martian life.

Pasek, Matthew

2013-10-01

337

Growth and characterization of sulphate mixed L-arginine phosphate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate/potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our investigations on the growth of the mixed crystals of L-arginine phosphate sulphate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate/potassium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP/KDP) are presented. The structural, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of L-arginine phosphate (LAP) and L-arginine phosphate sulphate (LAPS) crystals are discussed. Pure and mixed crystals of KDP and ADP have been grown on KDP seeds for the entire range of compositions.

Ravi, G.; Srinivasan, K.; Anbukumar, S.; Ramasamy, P.

1994-04-01

338

Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases of renal phosphate handling lead to urinary phosphate wasting and depletion of total body phosphorus stores. Clinical sequelae of inherited disorders that are associated with increased urinary phosphate excretion are deleterious and can lead to abnormal skeletal growth and deformities. This Review describes hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting taking into account developments in our understanding of renal

Robert F. Reilly; Amir S. Alizadeh Naderi

2010-01-01

339

Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.  

PubMed

Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains below 70 mg/kg/day (JECFA, 1964, 1982a) [JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 1964. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and their Toxicological Evaluation) Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Bleaching, and Maturing Agents. Technical Report Series of the World Health Organization 281; ECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 1982a. Phosphoric Acid and Phosphate Salts. ICS/FA/82)]. PMID:11434984

Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

2001-08-01

340

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

2003-11-01

341

Electrical properties of phosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Santic, A.; Reis, S. T.; Day, D. E.

2009-07-01

342

Characterization of calcium phosphate cements modified by addition of amorphous calcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the influence of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) on the setting of, and the formed apatite crystallite size in, a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) based on ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) or tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)\\/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) was investigated. Setting times at 22°C were measured in air atmosphere; those at 37°C were measured at 100% relative humidity. The phase

Natasja M. F. Van den Vreken; Ilse Y. Pieters; Heidi A. Declercq; Maria J. Cornelissen; Ronald M. H. Verbeeck

2010-01-01

343

STUDIES ON OBTAINING OF ZINC PHOSPHATE NANOMATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the phosphate pigments, zinc phosphate found the widest application in paints, since it provides excellent corrosion resistance and is non-toxic. The two methods of preparation of zinc phosphate with the average crystallite size of 30-40 nm have been developed. Nanocrystalline zinc phosphate tetrahydrate was formed in the three-stage process: the synthesis of Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O from diammonium phosphate and zinc nitrate,

B. Grzmil; B. Kic; K. Lubkowski

344

Performance Evaluation of INMARSAT Fleet 77 Services Aboard the R/V Ewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late 2001, the R/V Ewing was asked to conduct a trial installation of the Thrane and Thrane [of Denmark] F77 antennae [TT-3084A Capsat] and the newest IMNARSAT communications channel, INMARSAT F. Branded as "Fleet F77 Service" by INMARSAT, the service provides ISDN 64kbps and 56kbps high quality voice and data connections as well as Mobile Packet Data Service which allows an "always on" connection under which users pay for the packets they send rather than the time they are connected. Fleet F77 also allows low bandwidth [2.4kbps] "Mini-M" voice and fax services. While not currently available, the Capsat antennae also is prepared to take advantage of 4th Generation Inm-IV satellites [expected in 2004] allowing LAN speeds up to 432kbps. The F77 antenna consists of two units, the TT-3084A antenna and a single "Below Deck Unit". The Capsat antennae radome is a mere 84 cm in diameter - considerably smaller than that typically associated with INMARSAT A or B. It was mounted above the forward port corner of the pilot house atop a reinforced mast. Below deck electronics consist of a single unit containing three analog RJ-11 interfaces, a single ISDN interface, two RS-232 serial interfaces, a USB interface [not functional on our test unit] and a standard Handset. This was mounted in the pilot house electronics space. The Capsat antennae and associated electronics were installed in Guam in mid February 2002 and the system began operational trials during the following cruise on February 24th. Tests of the Fleet 77 system consisted of Mini-M voice and fax both to and from the ship, 64kbs voice to and from the ship, MPDS connects to shore, and operational tests with the INMARSAT Command Center. The trial period completed May 12th after which the F77 became an integral part of the Ewing's communication suite. Results of these tests as well as latency and packet loss measurements made over various data connection types will be presented.

Schmidt, V. E.; Chayes, D. N.; Gold, E.

2002-12-01

345

RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data sets. Recent accomplishments include deployment of a glider in Antarctica for LTER, control of a fleet of gliders during the ONR sponsored Shallow Water 06, RIMPAC, LATTE, ASAP, and the continuation of long-term observation at the LEO-15 New Jersey site Endurance Line. To date Rutgers has flown close to 100 glider missions, with over 27,000 km flown over 760 calendar days and 1,350 glider days in the water. Operations around the world are orchestrated remotely from COOL at Rutgers. Computer networking allows for command and control of the glider fleet from the COOL Lab or remotely via the internet. This system has enabled new oceanographic experiments at significantly reduced cost, with increased reliability, and with extended continuous operational deployments in the global oceans since 2003.

Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

2007-05-01

346

Assessment criteria for the sustainable competitive advantage of the national merchant fleet from a resource-based view  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the competitive advantage of the national merchant fleet, based on the resource-based view, we collect competitive advantage assessment factors from literature, and use the analytic hierarchy process methodology to compare the importance of assessment dimensions and variables. The article's conclusions include a recommendation that the government review the current allocation of resources and implement measures to reinforce the

Yi-Chih Yang

2010-01-01

347

Making the Surface Fleet Green: The DOTMLPF, Policy, and Cost Implications of Using Biofuel in Surface Ships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the goals of the Department of the Navy's (DON) alternative energy initiative is to reduce the Navy's dependence on fossil fuels. This project uses DOTMLPF criteria to measure the impact of biofuel use on the Surface Fleet. It provides analysis and...

I. C. Beads

2012-01-01

348

Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The public...

T. LaRocque

2001-01-01

349

Development of Performance-Based Physical Screening Criteria for the U.S. Navy Fleet Diving Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current U.S. Navy fleet diver physical screening test has been found to be a poor predictor of representative physically demanding job performance. A mismatch between diver physical capabilities and job requirements may increase the risk of injury and...

E. J. Marcinik D. E. Hyde W. F. Taylor

1994-01-01

350

Cold Weather Methanol Vehicle Demonstration Fleet at Argonne National Laboratory - Implications for Flexible Fuel and Dedicated Methanol Commercialization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the US Dept. of Energy-sponsored fleet testing of methanol-fueled vehicles at various sites around the country, Argonne National Laboratory has been operating five M85 (85% methanol blend)-fueled Chevrolet S-10 pickups and five M85 Ford Crown V...

C. L. Saricks R. P. Larsen

1988-01-01

351

DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY  

SciTech Connect

Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new packagings, but also to the addition of new payload containers (used inside the NRC-approved Type B packaging) with revised design limits. For example, to address the shipment of specific TRU waste forms, a series of pipe overpack payload containers have been designed and approved by the NRC. The ''standard'' pipe overpack configuration is designed to allow the shipment of higher fissile gram containers, each with a maximum fissile gram equivalent (FGE) loading of 200 grams (g). For shipments of waste packaged in the standard pipe overpack, the FGE limit is 2,800 g per TRUPACT-II and 1,400 g per HalfPACT. The ''S100'' and ''S200'' pipe overpack configurations allow the use of shielded configurations of the pipe overpack for shipment of specific gamma- and neutron-emitting waste forms. The 72-B Cask and the 10-160B Cask have been approved by the NRC for the transportation of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste, which comprises a small fraction of the overall inventory that will be shipped to WIPP.

Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

2003-02-27

352

Quality assessment of marine geoscience data collected with the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine science data collected using the U.S. academic research fleet support a diverse array of investigations across the ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation, to the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Each vessel within the academic fleet is equipped with a suite of sensors (geophysical, water column, and meteorological) available for continuous operation during each expedition, that provide characterization of basic environmental conditions from sea surface to subseafloor. Given the vast expanse of the oceans, many expeditions collect data in previously unexplored regions and these data are of high value for later re-use to build global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. Understanding the quality of these "underway" data streams is essential for any of these science applications. However, documentation of data quality is rare and historically, routine quality assessment (QA) of these data streams has been lacking. In most cases, QA has been the domain of the science party for each expedition but limited to the data types of interest for the scientific goals of the specific program, with the quality of other underway data types remaining unassessed. Under the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, QA of sensor data collected across the academic fleet will be routinely conducted as part of the R2R data pipeline that begins with the submission of cruise data distributions by ship operators. R2R will assemble datasets and documentation, and perform QA for submission to the NOAA National Data Centers (NDCs) for long-term archiving. The goals of the QA are two fold: 1. To provide feedback to shipboard operators to ensure that high quality data are consistently acquired, and 2. To inform future science users of the status of a field data set with detailed information regarding the nature of any problems identified. A wide array of factors impact the quality of data collected at sea, including weather conditions (e.g. winds, sea state), instrument functioning, and operator controlled settings and calibrations. Some data quality issues are best identified visually, but with the volume and diversity of data collected across the research fleet, QA is focused on tests that can be fully scripted. QA tests fall into two general categories: 1. minimal tests of the validity of a submitted data set (existence and validity of the metadata, and verification that all expected data files exist and can be read) and 2. data file level tests (each file can be read, data values are within valid limits, and calculation of statistical quality). Output of the QA is provided as a quality report included within an ISO standard data set metadata record, which is submitted with the data set to the NDCs for long-term archiving.

Carbotte, S. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Morton, J. J.; Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

2011-12-01

353

A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

1992-11-01

354

A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

1992-11-01

355

Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types of public transit service, and their usefulness in helping a transit agency to reduce its carbon footprint through informed vehicle and fuel procurement decisions. Available calculators fall into two categories: registry/inventory based calculators most suitable for standardized voluntary reporting, carbon trading, and regulatory compliance; and multi-modal life cycle analysis calculators that seek comprehensive coverage of all direct and indirect emissions. Despite significant progress in calculator development, no single calculator as yet contains all of the information needed by transit agencies to develop a truly comprehensive, life cycle analysis-based accounting of the emissions produced by its vehicle fleet operations, and for a wide range of vehicle/fuel technology options.

Weigel, Brent [Georgia Institute of Technology; Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Meyer, Michael D [Georgia Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

356

Mobile Gas and Particulate Emission Studies of the New York City Transit Bus Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from both diesel and gasoline powered motor vehicles are a significant source of particulate (PM2.5) and trace gas pollution, especially in urban environments. Emission characterizations of motor vehicles can be performed using a dynamometer but these studies make fleet characterization impractical. Few studies have been performed which characterize emissions from in-use vehicles using a mobile sampling platform. This work describes application of new technology instrumentation for rapid (1-5 second) and real-time characterization of both gas and particulate emissions from in-use vehicles and is part of the PM2.5 Technology Assessment and Characterization Study in New York (PMTACS-NY). An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) system were deployed on the Aerodyne Research mobile laboratory designed to "chase" target vehicles in and around the New York City area and measure their emissions under actual driving conditions. The AMS provides particle size and composition information for volatile and semi-volatile matter while the TILDAS system was configured to measure NO, NO2, CO, CH4, SO2 and formaldehyde. In addition to a GPS, an ELPI and a condensation particle counter, the mobile laboratory was also equipped with a CO2 monitor to allow emission ratios to be computed for the targeted vehicles. Emission ratios for both particulate and trace gases are reported for a representative fraction of the NYC Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) bus fleet in an effort to characterize new emission control technologies currently implemented by the NYC MTA.

Jayne, J. T.; Canagaratna, M.; Herndon, S.; Shorter, J.; Zahniser, M.; Shi, Q.; Kolb, C.; Worsnop, D.; Jimenez, J.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K.; Lanni, T.

2001-12-01

357

CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants  

SciTech Connect

To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

NONE

2007-01-15

358

Fleet and backup tank sizing under regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study involves logistics issues surrounding the industrial gas business. The industrial gas business is a major industry (approximately $30 billion/year) and has been experiencing substantial growth in recent years. The industrial gas business supports two types of customers. The first type is the traditional merchant customers who rely entirely on the logistics system for product. Their demand is of a stochastic nature. The second type of customers is referred to as customers. These customers have air separation plants on their own sites and they must rely on the logistics system when their separation plant fails. To assist in providing a continuous flow of product, all onsite plants also have a backup tank which can provide sufficient product for relatively short durations of time, 24 to 96 hours of supply. The onsite separation plants are approximately 98% reliable, but when they fail, the customer generally requires a significant amount of product. This type of demand pattern will be defined as impulse stochastic. This study focuses on two areas of the logistics support system. The first part deals with the economic sizing of onsite backup tanks. For a given onsite, we determine the most economical choice for a backup system considering numerous characteristics of the onsite customer as well as the logistics system. In the second part, we develop methods for determining the optimal fleet size under both regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns. The methods provide support for long range forecasting, short-term vehicle reallocation and private verses contract carrier vehicle mix determination. The methods further provide a means to describe the effect future onsite growth will have on distribution as it is related to vehicle fleet size.

Dupuis, Ronald Gerard

359

Bonding in simple phosphate glass  

SciTech Connect

The bonding configurations for simple phosphate glasses are quantitatively described by both the relative concentrations of different polyhedral phosphate sites (i.e., the Q{sup n} description) determined by {sup 31}p magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy and by the relative concentrations of bridging and nonbridging oxygen as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both spectroscopies illustrate the depolymerizing effects of modifier additions in two series of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO-P{sub 2}0{sub 5} glasses.

Brow, R.K.

1992-09-01

360

Bonding in simple phosphate glass  

SciTech Connect

The bonding configurations for simple phosphate glasses are quantitatively described by both the relative concentrations of different polyhedral phosphate sites (i.e., the Q{sup n} description) determined by {sup 31}p magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy and by the relative concentrations of bridging and nonbridging oxygen as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both spectroscopies illustrate the depolymerizing effects of modifier additions in two series of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO-P{sub 2}0{sub 5} glasses.

Brow, R.K.

1992-01-01

361

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Velletri.  

PubMed

A new variant of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) has been found in a Caucasian man with congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. This variant has reduced activity, increased thermolability, increased Michaelis constants for glucose-6-phosphate and NADP, slightly increased electrophoretic mobility, and a biphasic pH-activity profile. The red cell adenine compounds and ATP, are in normal limits. The increased activity of red cell NADP-glutathione reductase is probably the expression of a mechanism of compensation for the decrease of G6PD and a consequence of the decrease of NADPH. PMID:14470

Mandelli, F; Amadori, S; De Laurenzi, A; Kahn, A; Isacchi, G; Papa, G

1977-01-01

362

Evidence for a signaling axis by which intestinal phosphate rapidly modulates renal phosphate reabsorption  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which phosphorus homeostasis is preserved in mammals are not completely understood. We demonstrate the presence of a mechanism by which the intestine detects the presence of increased dietary phosphate and rapidly increases renal phosphate excretion. The mechanism is of physiological relevance because it maintains plasma phosphate concentrations in the normal range after ingestion of a phosphate-containing meal. When inorganic phosphate is infused into the duodenum, there is a rapid increase in the renal fractional excretion of phosphate (FE Pi). The phosphaturic effect of intestinal phosphate is specific for phosphate because administration of sodium chloride does not elicit a similar response. Phosphaturia after intestinal phosphate administration occurs in thyro-parathyroidectomized rats, demonstrating that parathyroid hormone is not essential for this effect. The increase in renal FE Pi in response to the intestinal administration of phosphate occurs without changes in plasma concentrations of phosphate (filtered load), parathyroid hormone, FGF-23, or secreted frizzled related protein-4. Denervation of the kidney does not attenuate phosphaturia elicited after intestinal phosphate administration. Phosphaturia is not elicited when phosphate is instilled in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract such as the stomach. Infusion of homogenates of the duodenal mucosa increases FE Pi, which demonstrates the presence of one or more substances within the intestinal mucosa that directly modulate renal phosphate reabsorption. Our experiments demonstrate the presence of a previously unrecognized phosphate gut–renal axis that rapidly modulates renal phosphate excretion after the intestinal administration of phosphate.

Berndt, Theresa; Thomas, Leslie F.; Craig, Theodore A.; Sommer, Stacy; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Kumar, Rajiv

2007-01-01

363

Genetic determinants of phosphate response in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. Conversely, life span is reduced when adult flies are cultured on high phosphate medium or when hemolymph phosphate is increased in flies with impaired malpighian tubules. In addition, RNAi-mediated inhibition of MAPK-signaling by knockdown of Ras85D, phl/D-Raf or Dsor1/MEK affects larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate, suggesting that some in vivo effects involve activation of this signaling pathway by phosphate. To identify novel genetic determinants of phosphate responses, we used Drosophila hemocyte-like cultured cells (S2R+) to perform a genome-wide RNAi screen using MAPK activation as the readout. We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels. PMID:23520455

Bergwitz, Clemens; Wee, Mark J; Sinha, Sumi; Huang, Joanne; DeRobertis, Charles; Mensah, Lawrence B; Cohen, Jonathan; Friedman, Adam; Kulkarni, Meghana; Hu, Yanhui; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Perkins, Lizabeth A; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert

2013-03-08

364

Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. Conversely, life span is reduced when adult flies are cultured on high phosphate medium or when hemolymph phosphate is increased in flies with impaired Malpighian tubules. In addition, RNAi-mediated inhibition of MAPK-signaling by knockdown of Ras85D, phl/D-Raf or Dsor1/MEK affects larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate, suggesting that some in vivo effects involve activation of this signaling pathway by phosphate. To identify novel genetic determinants of phosphate responses, we used Drosophila hemocyte-like cultured cells (S2R+) to perform a genome-wide RNAi screen using MAPK activation as the readout. We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels.

Bergwitz, Clemens; Wee, Mark J.; Sinha, Sumi; Huang, Joanne; DeRobertis, Charles; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Cohen, Jonathan; Friedman, Adam; Kulkarni, Meghana; Hu, Yanhui; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Perrimon, Norbert

2013-01-01

365

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... because the large intestine is filled with barium liquid. The barium liquid coats the lining of the large intestine and ... bowel prep instructions. Generally, patients follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the ...

366

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health. Overview What is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency? What are the signs and symptoms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency? What causes glucose-6- ...

367

21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and...

2013-04-01

368

21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

2013-04-01

369

21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b)...

2013-04-01

370

Review of Phosphatic Clay Dewatering Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Bureau of Mines study surveys the current state of technology and the various research efforts that have been undertaken to dewater the dilute phosphatic clays generated in the production of phosphate rock. The research described includes early dewat...

W. E. Pittman J. T. McLendon J. W. Sweeney

1984-01-01

371

Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of our work was to develop polyelectrolyte-modified zinc phosphate conversion coatings to protect cold-rolled steels against corrosion. Accordingly, we formulated environmentally acceptable material systems for the zinc phosphating make-up solutio...

T. Sugama N. Carciello C. I. Handsy

1995-01-01

372

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2013-04-01

373

Complexes in Calcium Phosphate Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potentiometric measurements were used to determine the association constants for the formation of the complexes CaH2PO4(+), CaHPO4, and CaPO4(-) in solutions of calcium phosphate at 25.0 and 37.0C. Approximate values of the thermodynamic functions for the...

A. Chughtai R. Marshall G. H. Nancollas

1968-01-01

374

Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4(PO4)2O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO–P2O5) system at temperatures>1300°C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca\\/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate

C. Moseke; U. Gbureck

2010-01-01

375

75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International...from China of certain potassium phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24...in solution (collectively ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate...

2010-04-01

376

75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis...from China of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate...1, 2010 (Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from China, 75 FR 16509). The...

2010-07-22

377

An Octacalcium Phosphate Forming Cement  

PubMed Central

The osteoconductive and possibly osteoinductive characteristics of OCP increased the interest in preparation of bone graft materials that contain OCP in its composition. Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using a mixture of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with ?-TCP / DCPA molar ratio of 1/1 and distilled water or 0.5 mol / L phosphate aqueous solution (pH = 6.1 ± 0.1) as the cement liquid. Hardening time was (30 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with water and (5 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with phosphate solution. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity (P), and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the hardened specimens had been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d. In CPC specimens prepared with water, calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed and DTS and P were (9.03 ± 0.48) MPa and (37.05 ± 0.20) vol % after 1 d, respectively, and (9.15 ± 0.45) MPa and (37.24 ± 0.63) vol % after 3 d, respectively. In CPC specimens prepared with phosphate solution OCP and HA were formed and DTS and P were (4.38 ± 0.49) MPa and (41.44 ± 1.25) vol % after 1 d, respectively,(4.38 ± 0.29) MPa and (42.52 ± 2.15) vol % after 3 d, respectively, and (4.30 ± 0.60) MPa and (41.38 ± 1.65) vol % after 7 d, respectively. For each group DTS and P did not change with PLS immersion time. DTS was significantly higher and P was significantly lower for CPCs prepared with water. HA formation slightly increased with immersion time from 40 mass % after 1 d to 50 mass % after 3 d in CPCs prepared with water. OCP + HA formation increased with immersion time from 30 mass % after 1 d to 35 mass % after 3 d and to 45 mass % after 7 d in CPCs prepared with 0.5 mol / L phosphate solution.

Markovic, M.; Chow, L. C.

2010-01-01

378

Agronomic effectiveness of partially acidulated rock phosphate and fused calcium-magnesium phosphate compared with superphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic effectiveness of two partially acidulated rock phosphate (PARP) fertilizers, made from either North Carolina or Moroccan apatite rock phosphate, and a fused calcium-magnesium phosphate (thermal phosphate or TP), was compared with the effectiveness of superphosphate in two glasshouse experiments. A different lateritic soil from Western Australia was used for each experiment. Oats (Avena sativa) were grown in one

M. D. A. Bolland; R. N. Glencross; R. J. Gilkes; Vijay Kumar

1992-01-01

379

Oral phosphate binders: History and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract,

Junichiro James Kazama

2009-01-01

380

Synthesis and Electrorheology of Phosphate Cellulose Suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a candidate for the development in electrorheological (ER) materials, phosphate cellulose (PC) particles were synthesized from the phosphate-ester reaction between cellulose particles and ammonium phosphate solution prepared from six different molar concentrations of phosphoric acid. The synthesized particles were then dispersed in silicone oil to prepare the PC-based anhydrous ER fluid. The effects of electric field strength and particle

J. W. Kim; Y. H. Cho; H. J. Choi; M. S. Jhon

2002-01-01

381

Characterization Studies of Florida Phosphate Slimes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with phosphate companies in the Florida land pebble area, made a comprehensive study of the phosphate slimes, or waste clays, produced in the mining of phosphate rock in Florida. The slimes, or waste clays, repr...

I. L. Feld J. T. McLendon L. W. Clements W. E. Lamont

1975-01-01

382

Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

Champion, E

2012-12-02

383

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What...

2013-01-01

384

Reaction of calcium phosphate cements with different amounts of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) with different amounts of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) (TTCP/DCPA molar ratio from 0.25 to 2.00) were prepared to further understand the setting reaction and the factors that could influence the properties of CPCs. Quantitative X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform IR spectra, and diametral tensile strength of the set mass were measured along with pH measurements of the CPC suspension. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (d-HAP) with a calcium to phosphate molar ratio of approximately 1.5 was formed initially in the CPC setting consisting of an equimolar mixture of TTCP and DCPA. This gradually transformed into stoichiometric HA (s-HA) with increasing incubation time. The s-HA was formed in the initial stage when the CPC contained an excess amount of TTCP. In contrast, maturation to s-HAP was slow when the CPC contained excess amounts of DCPA. The highest mechanical strength of set CPC was associated with an equimolar mixture of TTCP and DCPA, and the mechanical strength decreased as the TTCP/DCPA molar ratio deviated from 1.00. We concluded, therefore, that the setting reaction and the nature of the resulting set mass are dependent on the molar ratios of TTCP and DCPA. PMID:10398011

Ishikawa, K; Takagi, S; Chow, L C; Suzuki, K

1999-09-15

385

Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate biology: the role of lipid phosphate phosphatases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological actions of the lysolipid agonists sphingosine 1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid, in addition to other bioactive lipid phosphates such as phosphatidic acid and ceramide 1-phosphate, can be influenced by a family of lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP), including LPP1, LPP2, LPP3, the Drosophila homologues Wunen (Wun) and Wunen2 (Wun2) and sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatases 1 and 2 (SPP1, SPP2). This review

Susan Pyne; Kok-Choi Kong; Peter I Darroch

2004-01-01

386

Radioactivity of A1 Hasa phosphates a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al Hasa phosphates constitute the second phosphatic deposit exploited by the Jordan phosphate Mines Company. To investigate the radioactivity of these phosphates, 13 samples of poor phosphatic rocks of an area not exploited at the present time were selected to commence with. This is not the place to discuss either the origin of phosphates in a general manner or Al

R. Coppens; S. Bashir; P. Richard

1977-01-01

387

Characterization of the mineral phosphate solubilizing activity of Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability of a Serratia marcescens strain, namely CTM 50650, isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa, was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP\\u000a broth). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including rock phosphate (RP), calcium phosphate (CaHPO4), tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and hydroxyapatite were tested as sole sources of phosphate for bacterial growth. Solubilization of these phosphates

Mounira Ben Farhat; Ameny Farhat; Wacim Bejar; Radhouan Kammoun; Kameleddine Bouchaala; Amin Fourati; Hani Antoun; Samir Bejar; Hichem Chouayekh

2009-01-01

388

Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

Not Available

1986-06-11

389

Ohio's first ethanol-fueled light-duty fleet: Clean cities alternative fuel information series case study  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the State of Ohio established a project to demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanol as an alternative to gasoline in its fleet operations. All vehicles in the study were 1996 model year Ford Tauruses: ten were flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) and three were standard gasoline models. Overall, the State of Ohio's staff has been pleased with the Taurus FFVs. The vehicles perform well and meet the operators' needs.

Whalen, P.

1999-05-21

390

NGV fleet fueling station business plan: A public, private and utility partnership to identify economical business options for implementation of CNG fueling infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The City of Long Beach recently incorporated an additional 61 natural gas vehicles (NGV) within its own fleet, bringing the City`s current NGV fleet to 171 NGVs. During January 1992, the City opened its first public access compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station (86 CFM). This action served as the City`s first step toward developing the required CNG infrastructure to accommodate its growing NGV fleet, as well as those of participating commercial and private fleet owners. The City of Long Beach is committed to promoting NGVs within its own fleet, as well as encouraging NGV use by commercial and private fleet owners and resolving market development barriers. The NGV Business Plan provides recommendations for priority locations, station size and design, capital investment, partnership and pricing options. The NGV Business Plan also includes an econometric model to calculate CNG infrastructure cost recovery options, based on CNG market research within the City of Long Beach and Southern California area. Furthermore, the NGV Business Plan provides the City with a guide regarding CNG infrastructure investment, partnerships and private fueling programs. Although the NGV Business Plan was developed to address the prevailing CNG-related issues affecting the City of Long Beach, the methodology used within the NGV Business Plan and, more significantly, the accompanying econometric model will assist local governments, nation-wide, in the successful implementation of similar CNG infrastructures required for effective market penetration of NGVs.

Not Available

1993-07-01

391

Cold weather methanol vehicle demonstration fleet at Argonne National Laboratory - implications for flexible fuel and dedicated methanol commercialization  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Dept. of Energy-sponsored fleet testing of methanol-fueled vehicles at various sites around the country, Argonne National Laboratory has been operating five M85 (85% methanol blend)-fueled Chevrolet S-10 pickups and five M85 Ford Crown Victorias on- and off-site since late 1986. Each fleet has a corresponding set of gasoline-fueled control vehicles. The objective of the Argonne testing program is to evaluate performance (including cold start-up), driver acceptance, durability and maintenance requirements of methanol-fueled engine systems operating in a cold climate. Results of the testing program will guide the Federal government in future use of methanol-powered fleets and vehicle manufacturers in making improvements and modifications to light-duty (spark-ignition) vehicle engine systems designed to operate on M85 or as flexible fuel (any mixture of gasoline and M85) vehicles. The paper presents some interim findings of this ongoing test program. Driveability, reliability and driver acceptance of the dedicated methanol vehicles has been found to be equivalent to their gasoline counterparts. Fuel economy (on an energy-equivalent basis) has overtaken that of the gasoline-powered units. Certification emissions for the vehicles met all Federal standards, and there is no indication to date of any accelerated degradation in emission system performance.

Saricks, C.L.; Larsen, R.P.

1988-01-01

392

Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

1995-06-01

393

Modeling the size and composition of the US personal vehicle fleet  

SciTech Connect

Rising household incomes and increases in the percentage of licensed drivers among the driving age population, are responsible for much of the growth in ownership and use of personal vehicles. We describe a set of demographically driven models that predict changes in vehicle ownership rates and project the size and composition of the personal vehicle fleet. Two approaches are discussed, and progress to implement those approaches is described. The first approach project aggregate changes to a matrix of household counts in which households are disaggregated by demographic attributes. A vehicle choice model, which allows for the introduction of new vehicle technology and for shifts between vehicle types (automobiles or light trucks) and size classes, then simulates the selection process. The second approach projects dynamic changes in the size and composition of the automobile and personal light truck stock by characterizing the base-year stock of vehicles by type and size class within each vehicle vintage. Then, separated models estimate new vehicle purchases and scrappage. Finally, an accounting process balances new registrations and scrappage to provide a detailed representation of the personal vehicle stock. This detailed representation -- by type, size, and vintage -- permits a more accurate forecast of personal travel and fuel use. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Gur, Y.

1989-11-01

394

Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; Allen, David T.

2011-04-01

395

Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

Wipke, K.

1994-09-01

396

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

397

A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion  

SciTech Connect

We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

1995-04-20

398

Fatigue reliability of wind turbine fleets: The effect of uncertainty of projected costs  

SciTech Connect

The cost of repairing or replacing failed components depends on the number and timing of failures. Although the total probability of individual component failure is sometimes interpreted as the percentage of components likely to fail, this perception is often far from correct. Different amounts of common versus independent uncertainty can cause different numbers of components to be at risk of failure. The FAROW tool for fatigue and reliability analysis of wind turbines makes it possible for the first time to conduct a detailed economic analysis of the effects of uncertainty on fleet costs. By dividing the uncertainty into common and independent parts, the percentage of components expected to fail in each year of operation is estimated. Costs are assigned to the failures and the yearly costs and present values are computed. If replacement cost is simply a constant multiple of the number of failures, the average, or expected cost is the same as would be calculated by multiplying by the probability of individual component failure. However, more complicated cost models require a break down of how many components are likely to fail. This break down enables the calculation of costs associated with various probability of occurrence levels, illustrating the variability in projected costs. Estimating how the numbers of components expected to fail evolves over time is also useful in calculating the present value of projected costs and in understanding the nature of the financial risk.

Veers, P.S.

1995-12-31

399

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-01

400

Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in cancer. S1P regulates processes such as inflammation, which can drive tumorigenesis; neovascularization, which provides cancer cells with nutrients and oxygen; and cell growth and survival. This occurs at multiple levels and involves S1P receptors, sphingosine kinases, S1P phosphatases and S1P lyase. This Review summarizes current research findings and examines

Nigel J. Pyne; Susan Pyne

2010-01-01

401

Molecular Structure of Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is an intermediate molecule involved in many essential reactions and processes occurring in the body. Some of these vital processes are glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycerophospholipid, glycerol metabolism, phosphatidic acid synthesis, fat metabolism, and the Calvin Cycle. DHAP derivatives play an important role in the human genome. It is also employed in the glycerophosphate shuttle, which functions as an electron-transporting mechanism in insect muscle.

2003-05-08

402

Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.  

PubMed

In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios. PMID:17412692

Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

2007-04-05

403

Phosphate transport in Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Epimastigoten vonTrypanosoma cruzi sind für Orthophosphate (Pi) relativ undurchlässig. Man kann trotzdem bei zellen, die aus Ortophosphat armen Kulturen stammen, einen signifikanten Übertritt von Ortophosphat ins Zellinnere messen. Bei diesen Zellen ist die Geschwindigkeit des Pi-Transportes ins Zellinnere trotz eines diesem Vorgang entgegenwirkenden Phosphat-Konzentrationsgradienten etwa 5 mal grösser als die der Pi-Abgabe aus dem Zellinnern des umgebenden Mediums. Die

J. F. de Boiso; A. O. M. Stoppani

1972-01-01

404

Apyrase Functions in Plant Phosphate Nutrition and Mobilizes Phosphate from Extracellular ATP1  

PubMed Central

ATP, which is present in the extracellular matrix of multicellular organisms and in the extracellular fluid of unicellular organisms, has been shown to function as a signaling molecule in animals. The concentration of extracellular ATP (xATP) is known to be functionally modulated in part by ectoapyrases, membrane-associated proteins that cleave the ?- and ?-phosphates on xATP. We present data showing a previously unreported (to our knowledge) linkage between apyrase and phosphate transport. An apyrase from pea (Pisum sativum) complements a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) phosphate-transport mutant and significantly increases the amount of phosphate taken up by transgenic plants overexpressing the gene. The transgenic plants show enhanced growth and augmented phosphate transport when the additional phosphate is supplied as inorganic phosphate or as ATP. When scavenging phosphate from xATP, apyrase mobilizes the ?-phosphate without promoting the transport of the purine or the ribose.

Thomas, Collin; Sun, Yu; Naus, Katie; Lloyd, Alan; Roux, Stanley

1999-01-01

405

Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cements With Different Tetracalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous Molar Ratios.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with TTCP/DCPA molar ratios of 1/1, 1/2, or 1/3, with the powder and water as the liquid. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity, and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the set specimens have been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 5 d, and 10 d. Cement dissolution rates in an acidified PLS were measured using a dual constant composition method. Setting times ((30 ± 1) min) were the same for all cements. DTS decreased with decreasing TTCP/DCPA ratio and, in some cases, also decreased with PLS immersion time. Porosity and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation increased with PLS immersion time. Cements with TTCP/DCPA ratios of 1/2 and 1/3, which formed calcium-deficient HA, dissolved more rapidly than the cement with a ratio of 1/1. In conclusion, cements may be prepared with a range of TTCP/DCPA ratios, and those with lower ratio had lower strengths but dissolved more rapidly in acidified PLS. PMID:19779581

Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Markovic, Milenko; Chow, Laurence C

2008-11-01

406

Formation of hydroxyapatite in new calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

SynopsisTetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) has been shown previously to be an essential component of self-setting calcium phosphate cements that form hydroxyapatite (HA) as the only end-product. We report herein on a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement that does not contain TTCP. These cements consist of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), ?-tricalcium phosphate, or amorphous calcium phosphate and, as

S. Takagi; L. C. Chow; K. Ishikawa

1998-01-01

407

Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

2013-01-01

408

Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO-P(2)O(5)) system at temperatures>1300 degrees C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, monetite) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite). Therefore it is widely used in self-setting calcium phosphate bone cements, which form HA under physiological conditions. This paper aims to review the synthesis and properties of TTCP in biomaterials applications such as cements, sintered ceramics and coatings on implant metals. PMID:20438869

Moseke, C; Gbureck, U

2010-05-21

409

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

NONE

1997-03-01

410

Molecular Structure of Fructose-6-phosphate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fructose-6-Phosphate is a phosphorylated form of fructose which is commonly found in plant cells and animal tissues. In plant cells, it serves as an intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Calvin cycle. It is also present in animal tissues in an equilibrium mixture with glucose-6-phosphate. In human genetics, its gene symbol is GFPT1, and its locus is 2p13.

2003-05-08

411

In vivo study of calcium phosphate cements: implantation of an ?-tricalcium phosphate\\/dicalcium phosphate dibasic\\/tetracalcium phosphate monoxide cement paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP)\\/dicalcium phosphate dibasic (DCPD)\\/tetracalcium phosphate monoxide (TeCP) cement was implanted in paste form into soft tissue (rate subcutaneous sockets) and bone tissue (defects in rabbit mandibles) to evaluate the setting behaviour of the cement and tissue responses to the cement. A histological study of the soft tissue implants revealed thin fibrous capsule formation, the appearance of multinucleated giant

K. Kurashina; H. Kurita; M. Hirano; A. Kotani; C. P. A. T. Klein; K. de Groot

1997-01-01

412

XPS analyses of lanthanides phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XPS measurements were performed on lanthanide orthophosphates LnPO4 (Ln: La, Ce, Nd, Gd), and correlated with XRD and some EDS analyses. Single lanthanide phosphates LnPO4 and mixed lanthanide phosphates LnLn1-xPO, all crystallized in a monoclinic structure similar to the monazite mineral. Results were examined qualitatively and quantitatively, by considering the Ln 3d lines, P 2p line and O 1s line. Ionic sputtering does not induce significant broadening nor an additional shift of the lanthanide peaks and does not have an effect on their chemical environments, except in the case of cerium. However, sputtering seems to significantly reduce the intensity of the O 1s and P 2p peaks, while Auger peaks of carbon and oxygen atoms interfere, respectively, with the 3d line of gadolinium and neodymium. Those phenomena are all the more important when the Nd and Gd content is weak and must be taken into account for a quantitative analysis of the spectra. The quantitative analyses reveal the expected results for single monazites. On mixed phosphates, the measured phosphorous and oxygen amounts are generally more valid for non-sputtered sample surfaces than for sputtered surfaces, while the calculated relative amount of lanthanides [Ln]/[Ln?] are correct in all the cases. One of the important goals of this work was to have a satisfactory value for the atomic ratio La/Gd, and particularly in the case of (La,Ce)PO4 and (La,Gd)PO4, to obtain good agreement between the calculated lanthanides ratio Nd/Gd and ratios estimated from XRD and EDS measurements.

Glorieux, B.; Berjoan, R.; Matecki, M.; Kammouni, A.; Perarnau, D.

2007-01-01

413

Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

2012-12-13

414

Solid titration of octacalcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is of considerable importance as a precursor in the formation of dental enamel and an intermediate phase in the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) in bone. However, agreement is poor on the solubility product (pK(sp)), possibly due to the formation of the more stable phase HAp. The system was investigated using solid titration, which has shown reliability in work on HAp and related fluoride minerals, with OCP in 100 mM KCl at 37.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The constitution of the end point precipitate was determined by X-ray diffraction and selected-electron area diffraction; the particle morphology and elements present were examined by high-resolution field emission scanning, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The titration curve for OCP was found for pH approximately 3.4-7.4. The precipitate was HAp at pH 3.6 and 4.5; no residual OCP or other phase was detected. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was then found to form at pH 3.6 on further addition of OCP titrant after equilibrium had been achieved, possibly due to easier nucleation at lower pH. However, markedly crystalline HAp was formed in equilibrium for OCP titration with HAp seeding, verifying HAp as the more stable phase. A solubility isotherm for OCP was not obtained as HAp appears to be less soluble in the pH range studied. This adds weight to the view that HAp may be the most stable phase of all calcium phosphates, with further doubt being cast on DCPD being the most stable phase below pH 4.2. However, metastable DCPD may form in an Ostwald succession, depending on supersaturation and nucleation conditions. PMID:19556792

Pan, H-B; Darvell, B W

2009-06-24

415

Evaluation of Phosphatic Clay Disposal and Reclamation Methods. Volume 2. Mineralogy of Phosphatic Clays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve phosphatic clays and three sand tailings from Florida phosphate mining areas were examined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. Quantitative estimates of mineral species were made using sample XRD da...

A. E. Z. Wissa N. F. Fuleihan T. S. Ingra

1982-01-01

416

Simulation of Phosphate Leaching in Catchments with Phosphate-Saturated Soils in the Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects on phosphate leaching to surface waters of two scenarios for net phosphate input to sandy agricultural soils were estimated. WATBAL and ANIMO simulations for manure surplus areas in the Netherlands were used. The methodology and models were ve...

J. E. Groenenberg G. J. Reinds A. Breeuwsma

1996-01-01

417

Dynamic properties of tributyl phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled impact methodology has been used on the powdergun to obtain dynamic behavior properties of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP). A novel test methodology is used to provide extremely accurate equation of state data of the liquid from 0.3 GPa to 13 GPa. The thin aluminum plate used for confining the liquid also serves as a diagnostic to provide (1) the reshock state from 0.6 GPa to 28 GPa and (2) subsequent release adiabats from the reshocked state. The test methodology and the results are presented in this paper. .

Reinhart, W. D.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Winfree, N. A.; Grady, D. E.

2000-04-01

418

TOXICOLOGY OF ORGANIC PHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES  

PubMed Central

The development of effective new insecticides has created potential industrial health hazards to people engaged in their manufacture and application, as well as to those with casual exposures. A group of these insecticides known as the organic phosphates is extremely toxic, destroying the enzyme cholinesterase and exerting a cholinergic action on the mammalian animal. A discussion of the origin, chemistry, and pharmacology of these compounds, along with a description of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of poisoning is presented. Methods of prevention of poisoning and control measures for the safe use of these compounds are described.

Abrams, Herbert K.; Leonard, Alvin R.

1950-01-01

419

Development of Calcium Phosphate-gelatin Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study was performed to investigate and develop a biomaterial of calcium phosphate/gelatin to be used as an injectable bone substitute. Gelatin is an ideal medium to transfer calcium phosphate because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, cheap, and can be injected without open surgery. The interaction of calcium and phosphate with gelatin will be studied; these include solubility, titration and precipitation. The calcium phosphate/gelatin composites will be characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical strength, such as DTS, will also be investigated.

Hwang, Jesse

2005-01-01

420

Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting.  

PubMed

Inherited diseases of renal phosphate handling lead to urinary phosphate wasting and depletion of total body phosphorus stores. Clinical sequelae of inherited disorders that are associated with increased urinary phosphate excretion are deleterious and can lead to abnormal skeletal growth and deformities. This Review describes hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting taking into account developments in our understanding of renal phosphate handling from the last decade. The cloning of genes involved in these disorders and further studies on their pathophysiological mechanisms have given important insights in to how phosphatonins, such as FGF-23, regulate renal phosphate reabsorption in health and disease. X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets results from mutation of a metalloprotease (PHEX) that has an unidentified role in FGF-23 degradation. Mutation of an RXXR proteolytic cleavage site in FGF-23 prevents degradation and increases circulating levels of FGF-23 in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. FGF-23 acts to remove sodium phosphate co-transporters from the luminal membrane of proximal tubular cells with resultant renal phosphate wasting. Loss of function mutations in genes encoding the transporters NaPi-IIc and NaPi-IIa also result in renal phosphate wasting and rickets. PMID:20924400

Alizadeh Naderi, Amir S; Reilly, Robert F

2010-10-05

421

Spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses containing TiO2: Effect of gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pristine lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses and glasses of the same compositions containing TiO2 (0.25 ? 2.5%) were prepared. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of the prepared samples were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Optical spectra of these prepared glasses reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in lithium and zinc phosphate glasses while the broad UV bands in lead phosphate glasses were related to absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The TiO2-containing glasses reveal an extra two visible bands at about 550-580 and 680-740 nm due to the transitions 2B2g ? 2B1g and 2B2g ? 2A1g of distorted octahedral Ti3+ ions. The effects of gamma irradiation reveal variations, extended in the UV-visible region in the lithium phosphate while with lead phosphate and zinc phosphate samples the variations are restricted to UV spectra. The response to gamma irradiation on optical absorption has been analyzed for both the sharing of all glass constituents including trace iron impurities. Lead and zinc phosphate glasses reveal only induced UV bands from photochemical effect of trace iron impurities while lithium phosphate shows extra induced visible band due to positive holes. The effects of gamma irradiation on the IR spectra are limited to a slight decrease of the intensities for some IR bands. The IR spectra are observed to be slightly affected by the increase of TiO2 indicating the stability of the main phosphate network units and the shielding behavior of titanium ions.

Ghoneim, N. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Abo-Naf, S. M.; Moustafa, F. A.; ElBadry, Kh. M.

2013-03-01

422

Effectiveness of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism in Increasing Plant Phosphate Uptake and Growth in Tropical Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Low soil phosphate availability is a major constraint for soil fertility in the tropics. Phosphate ions are either adsorbed\\u000a onto the surface of soil minerals or precipitated by free aluminum and iron ions in acidic soils. In highly weathered soils,\\u000a this is so intense that plant crops commonly exhibit phosphate deficiency. To overcome this problem, high rates of soluble\\u000a phosphate

Nelson Walter Osorio

423

Phosphate diabetes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate depletion is associated with neuromuscular dysfunction due to changes in mitochondrial respiration that result in a defect of intracellular oxidative metabolism. Phosphate diabetes causes phosphate depletion due to abnormal renal re-absorption of phosphate be the proximal renal tubule. Most of the symptoms presented by patients with phosphate diabetes such as myalgia, fatigue and mild depression, are also common in

F. De Lorenzo; J. Hargreaves; V. V. Kakkar

1998-01-01

424

Agronomic measures for better utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global known phosphate deposits are a finite resource which will run out in about four centuries at the present consumption rate. Since about 90% of the phosphate mined is used for fertilizer, soil and fertilizer phosphate should be efficiently used. Various agronomic measures are discussed relevant for saving phosphate and avoiding losses. Phosphate fertilizer rates should be adjusted to measured

Konrad Mengel

1997-01-01

425

Hydrothermal Modification of Granular Steel Slag for Phosphate Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of phosphate removal using hydrothermal modified granular steel slag was evaluated. The effects of steel slag dosage, reaction time, solution pH and initial phosphate concentration of synthesized wastewater on phosphate removal were also investigated. The results show that the modified steel slag is more efficient than raw granular steel slag in phosphate removal. The residual phosphate concentration decreased

Guangwei Wang; Liping Qiu; Shoubin Zhang; Xuedong Zhai; Jun Ma

2011-01-01

426

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Catalytic Activity of alpha-Zirconium Phosphate and Zirconium Phosphate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses were performed on alpha-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) and on an organic derivative of ZrP, zirconium phosphate sulfophenylphosphonate (ZrPS). The XPS results show that the change of half of the phosphate groups...

A. Clearfield C. R. Martin C. Y. Yang D. S. Thakur J. L. Colon

1990-01-01

427

Control of serum phosphate without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of serum phosphate without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis. We compared the efficacy and the long-term effects of nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) versus conventional hemodialysis (CHD) in controlling serum phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients underwent thrice weekly CHD and were subsequently switched to NHD six nights weekly. In the “acute” study

Istvan Mucsi; Gavril Hercz; Robert Uldall; Michaelene Ouwendyk; Robert Francoeur; Andreas Pierratos

1998-01-01

428

Simulation of phosphate leaching in catchments with phosphate-saturated soils in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on phosphate leaching to surface waters of two scenarios for net phosphate input to sandy agricultural soils were estimated. WATBAL and ANIMO simulations for manure surplus areas in the Netherlands were used. The methodology and models were verified by comparing model results with measured values of the Schuitenbeek catchment. Simulated values of phosphate loads to surface waters and

J. E. Groenenberg; G. J. Reinds; A. Breeuwsma

1996-01-01

429

Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.  

SciTech Connect

The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

Plotkin, S.

1999-01-01

430

Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

Provenzano, J.J.

1997-04-01

431

Measurements of metabolically active inorganic phosphate in plants growing in natural and agronomic settings and under water stress. [Stromal Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

At high rates of photosynthesis, the conflicting requirements of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis for phosphate and starch and sucrose synthesis for low phosphate, may limit the overall rate of photosynthesis. This is called feedback limitation of photosynthesis. A nonaqueous fractionation technique was used to measure stromal phosphate levels without contamination from vacuolar phosphate. Under normal conditions the stromal phosphate level

Sharkey

1988-01-01

432

Phosphate losses on four grassland plots used for dairy farming : measured phosphate losses and calibration of the model ANIMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in phosphate concentrations and pools were measured at four experimental plots from 1997 to 1999. The plots received phosphorus surpluses of 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 a-1. Significant changes in the phosphate pools were not yet found. Phosphate concentrations, phosphate budgets and changes in phosphate pools were simulated with the nutrient model ANIMO in combination with the hydrological

Salm van der C; O. F. Schoumans

2000-01-01

433

Enzyme-enzyme interaction in the chloroplast: Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase and aldolase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent physical interaction between pea chloroplast (Pisum sativum L.) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) and aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13) is seen in phase-partitioning, fluorescent-anisotropy and isoelectric-focusing experiments. Similarly, results obtained in phase-partitioning and isoelectric-focusing experiments indicate physical interaction between aldolase and triose-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1). Kinetic experiments suggest that both aldolase-bound glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and triose-phosphate isomerase bound glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can act as substrate for

Louise E. Anderson; Ilana M. Goldhaber-Gordon; Dong Li; Xiao-yi Tang; Minghui Xiang; Namita Prakash

1995-01-01

434

Adsorption of phosphate in anoxic marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dissolved phosphate in anoxic marine sediments has been investigated in samples of mud from two locations in Long Island Sound kept under strictly anoxic con- ditions. Kinetic cxpcriments showed that dcsorption is more rapid than adsorption, but that hot11 reach equilibrillm within 24 h. The process of adsorption of phosphate can bc described 1)~ a simple linear

MICHAEL D. KROM; ROBERT A. BERNER

1980-01-01

435

Crystal structure of a eukaryotic phosphate transporter.  

PubMed

Phosphate is crucial for structural and metabolic needs, including nucleotide and lipid synthesis, signalling and chemical energy storage. Proton-coupled transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) are essential for phosphate uptake in plants and fungi, and also have a function in sensing external phosphate levels as transceptors. Here we report the 2.9?Å structure of a fungal (Piriformospora indica) high-affinity phosphate transporter, PiPT, in an inward-facing occluded state, with bound phosphate visible in the membrane-buried binding site. The structure indicates both proton and phosphate exit pathways and suggests a modified asymmetrical 'rocker-switch' mechanism of phosphate transport. PiPT is related to several human transporter families, most notably the organic cation and anion transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC22), which are implicated in cancer-drug resistance. We modelled representative cation and anion SLC22 transporters based on the PiPT structure to surmise the structural basis for substrate binding and charge selectivity in this important family. The PiPT structure demonstrates and expands on principles of substrate transport by the MFS transporters and illuminates principles of phosphate uptake in particular. PMID:23542591

Pedersen, Bjørn P; Kumar, Hemant; Waight, Andrew B; Risenmay, Aaron J; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Chau, Bryant H; Schlessinger, Avner; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Harries, William; Sali, Andrej; Johri, Atul K; Stroud, Robert M

2013-03-31

436

Continuous Beneficiation of Dolomitic Phosphate Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 80 pct of domestic phosphate rock, which is the starting material for phosphorus-containing fertilizers, comes from central Florida deposits. As higher grade deposits are depleted, lower grade phosphate ores containing MgO in the form of dolomite are...

B. E. Davis T. O. Llewellyn C. W. Smith

1984-01-01

437

?-Tricalcium phosphate cement: “in vitro” cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate-based bioceramics have revolutionized orthopedic and dental repair of damaged parts of the bone system. Among these materials, calcium phosphate-based cements, with hydraulic setting, stand out due to their biocompatibility and in situ hardening, which allow easy manipulation and adaptation to the shape and dimensions of bone defects. An investigation was made of the in vitro cytotoxic effect of

L. A. dos Santosa; R. G Carrodéguas; S. O Rogero; O. Z Higa; A. O Boschi; A. C. F de Arruda

2002-01-01

438

Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate ceramics in biomedical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate based bioceramics are the new rage in biomaterials research. Conventionally, calcium phosphates based materials are preferred as bone grafts in hard tissue engineering because of their superior biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, this group of bioceramics exhibits poor mechanical performance, which restricts their uses in load bearing applications. The recent trend in bioceramic research is mainly concentrated on

Samar J. Kalita; Abhilasha Bhardwaj; Himesh A. Bhatt

2007-01-01

439

Plant succession after phosphate mining on Nauru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1907 phosphate mining and other forms of human?induced disturbance have severely modified Nauru's topography and vegetation. Through a series of 10 m × 10 m quadrats in mined and unmined sites, we examine the success of indigenous and exotic plant species in the initial colonization and succession of abandoned phosphate mined sites and the nature of the potential natural

H. I. Manner; R. R. Thaman; D. C. Hassall

1985-01-01

440

Comparison of Phosphate Levels in Stream Sediments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus is an important nutrient to all life. Unfortunately, when phosphate reaches the soil it is not all used up by the plants. If excess phosphate enters the waterways in the watershed, it can cause increased plant growth in lakes and streams and le

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

441

Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse gas emitting domestic electricity production. Extending the operating lifetimes of current plants beyond 60 years and, where possible, making further improvements in their productivity will generate early benefits from research, development, and demonstration investments in nuclear power. DOE’s role in Objective 1 is to partner with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in appropriate ways to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The DOE research, development, and demonstration role will focus on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and are generic to reactor type. Cost-shared demonstration activities will be conducted when appropriate.

Robert Youngblood

2011-02-01

442

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

443

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2013-07-01

444

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

445

40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic). 721.3080 Section...Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester (PMN P-85-730) is...

2013-07-01

446

40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). 721.10046 Section... § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as polyaromatic amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject...

2013-07-01

447

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

448

40 CFR 721.10436 - Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic). 721.10436 Section...10436 Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (PMN P-99-1217 and...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). ...substance identified generically as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

450

40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical substance and...phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is...

2013-07-01

451

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

452

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

453

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

454

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2013-04-01

455

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

456

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

457

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

458

Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis  

SciTech Connect

Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

Thiel, T.

1988-03-01

459

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

460

Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells. Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of Pi. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent Ki values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

Thiel, T

1988-01-01

461

Polymeric calcium phosphate cements: setting reaction modifiers.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of several additives on the setting behavior and mechanical properties of polymeric calcium phosphate cements were investigated. The cements were derived from a polycarboxylic acid (PCA) and a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) powder that consisted of equimolar amounts of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate (DCPA). Retardation of the setting reaction in the PCA-CPC cements was observed by adding tribasic sodium phosphate and fluorides such as stannous fluoride, zirconium(IV) fluoride and titanium(IV) fluoride. It was found that increasing the concentration of these additives decreased the mechanical strength of the cements. However, improvements in both setting and mechanical properties for the PCA-CPC cements were observed by the combined use of 8% (w/w) stannous fluoride and 10% (w/w) tartaric acid. The mechanical properties of the PCA-CPC cement also were improved by adding calcium acetate, calcium methacrylate, zirconium(IV) sulfate and phosphonoacetic acid. PMID:8299870

Miyazaki, K; Horibe, T; Antonucci, J M; Takagi, S; Chow, L C

1993-01-01

462

The Complex Regulation of the Phosphate Uptake System of Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Owing to the capacity of cyanobacteria to adapt physiologically to alterations of the environmental phosphate concentration,\\u000a the phosphate uptake system exhibits complex bioenergetic properties under phosphate deficient growth conditions. Physiological\\u000a adaptation to changes in the external phosphate concentration affects two energy dependent processes, namely the transport\\u000a of phosphate through the cell membrane and the subsequent conversion of internal phosphate to

Gernot Falkner; Renate Falkner

463

Integration of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and probabilistic dynamic programming in formulating an optimal fleet management model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with two major aspects of airlines, i.e. supply and demand management. The aspect of supply focuses on the mathematical formulation of an optimal fleet management model to maximize operational profit of the airlines while the aspect of demand focuses on the incorporation of mode choice modeling as parts of the developed model. The proposed methodology is outlined in two-stage, i.e. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is first adopted to capture mode choice modeling in order to quantify the probability of probable phenomena (for aircraft acquisition/leasing decision). Then, an optimization model is developed as a probabilistic dynamic programming model to determine the optimal number and types of aircraft to be acquired and/or leased in order to meet stochastic demand during the planning horizon. The findings of an illustrative case study show that the proposed methodology is viable. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of mode choice modeling could affect the operational profit and fleet management decision of the airlines at varying degrees.

Teoh, Lay Eng; Khoo, Hooi Ling

2013-09-01

464

Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the Port of Oakland.  

PubMed

Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NO(x) emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones. PMID:22039954

Dallmann, Timothy R; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

2011-11-14

465

Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil.

NONE

1997-12-01

466

Pharmacology of the phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [(32)P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

Damment, Stephen J P

2011-01-01

467

Regulation of the pentose phosphate cycle  

PubMed Central

1. A search was made for mechanisms which may exert a `fine' control of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in rat liver, the rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle. 2. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction is expected to go virtually to completion because the primary product (6-phosphogluconate lactone) is rapidly hydrolysed and the equilibrium of the joint dehydrogenase and lactonase reactions is in favour of virtually complete formation of phosphogluconate. However, the reaction does not go to completion, because glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADPH (Neglein & Haas, 1935). 3. Measurements of the inhibition (which is competitive with NADP+) show that at physiological concentrations of free NADP+ and free NADPH the enzyme is almost completely inhibited. This indicates that the regulation of the enzyme activity is a matter of de-inhibition. 4. Among over 100 cell constituents tested only GSSG and AMP counteracted the inhibition by NADPH; only GSSG was highly effective at concentrations that may be taken to occur physiologically. 5. The effect of GSSG was not due to the GSSG reductase activity of liver extracts, because under the test conditions the activity of this enzyme was very weak, and complete inhibition of the reductase by Zn2+ did not abolish the GSSG effect. 6. Preincubation of the enzyme preparation with GSSG in the presence of Mg2+ and NADP+ before the addition of glucose 6-phosphate and NADPH much increased the GSSG effect. 7. Dialysis of liver extracts and purification of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase abolished the GSSG effect, indicating the participation of a cofactor in the action of GSSG. 8. The cofactor removed by dialysis or purification is very unstable. The cofactor could be separated from glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase by ultrafiltration of liver homogenates. Some properties of the cofactor are described. 9. The hypothesis that GSSG exerts a fine control of the pentose phosphate cycle by counteracting the NADPH inhibition of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is discussed.

Eggleston, Leonard V.; Krebs, Hans A.

1974-01-01

468

BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY  

DOEpatents

An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

Finzel, T.G.

1959-02-01

469

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1993-01-01

470

Aerosol particle evolution in an aircraft wake: Implications for the high-speed civil transport fleet impact on ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous calculations of the ozone impact from a fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCTs) have been carried out by global two-dimensional (2-D) models [Bekki and PyIe, 1993; Pitari et al., 1993] which have not included explicit wake processing of sulfur species. This processing could be important for the global sulfate aerosol and ozone perturbations [Weisenstein et al., 1996]. For an HSCT scenario with emission indices of NOx and sulfur equal to 5 and 0.4, respectively, and a cruise speed of Mach 2.4 [Stolarski and Wesoky, 1993b], the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) 2-D model gives 0.50-1.1% as the range of the annually averaged O3 column depletion at 40°-50°N. This range is determined by the extreme assumption that emitted SO2 is diluted into the global model grid box either as gas or as 10 nm sulfate particles. A hierarchy of models is used here to investigate the impact of processes in the wake on the calculated global ozone response to sulfur emissions by a proposed HSCT fleet. We follow the evolution of aircraft emissions from the nozzle plane using three numerical models: the Standard Plume Flowfield-II/Plume Nucleation and Condensation model (SPF-II/PNC), an AER far wake model incorporating microphysics of aerosol particles, and the AER global 2-D chemistry-transport model. Particle measurements in the wake of the Concorde [Fahey et al., 1995a] are used to place constraints on sulfur oxidation processes in the engine and the near field. To explain the Concorde measurements, we consider cases with different fractions of SO3 (2%, 20%, and 40%) in the sulfur emissions at the nozzle plane and also the possibility of other unknown heterogeneous or homogeneous oxidation processes for SO2 in the wake. Assuming similar characteristics for the proposed HSCT fleet, the global ozone response is then calculated by the 2-D model. Using the model-calculated wake processing of sulfur emissions under the above assumptions and constrained by the Concorde particle measurements, the range of annually averaged O3 column depletion at 40°-50°N is reduced from 0.5-1.1% to 0.75-1.0%. Our analysis shows that the global ozone response is more sensitive to the assumed partitioning of sulfur emissions between SO2 and SO3 at the nozzle plane than to the wake dilution rate. Outstanding uncertainties and recommendations for further wake-sampling experiments are also discussed.

Danilin, M. Y.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.

1997-09-01

471

Osteoclastic resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics with different hydroxyapatite\\/?-tricalcium phosphate ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the influence of calcium phosphate ceramic solubility on osteoclastic resorption, neonatal rabbit bone cells were cultured for 2 days on hydroxyapatite (HA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and two types of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with HA\\/?-TCP ratios of 2575 and 7525. Solubility was regulated by varying the ratio of less-soluble HA and more-soluble ?-TCP. After removal of stromal cells

S. Yamada; D. Heymann; J.-M. Bouler; G. Daculsi

1997-01-01

472

Phosphoesterase activity and phosphate release from tributyl phosphate by a Citrobacter sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) and other alkyl phosphates represent a class of persistent organophosphorus compounds of widespread\\u000a use. Biodegradation of the phosphotriesters is postulated to occur through sequential hydrolytic cleavages via the phosphodiester\\u000a and monoester intermediates to alcohol and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Immobilized cells of aCitrobacter sp. liberated Pi upon challenge with TBP but the reaction was short-lived. In vitro studies

Byeong C. Jeong; Hyun-Won Klm; Stephen Owen; R. Elaine Dick; Lynne E. Macaskie

1994-01-01

473

Compartmentation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: NADP reductase in maize leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: NADP reductase activities in maize leaf blades was investigated by differential tissue fractionation. The reliability of this technique was verified on the basis of distribution of several marker enzymes (NADP-malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase for mesophyll cells, NADP-malic enzyme and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase for bundle-sheath cells). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is found

Vincenzo Valenti; Paolo Pupillo

1985-01-01

474

Phosphate Oxygen Isotopes as a Tracer for Sources and Cycling of Phosphate in San Francisco Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous is an essential macro-nutrient for primary productivity, but tracing sources and cycling of P in marine systems has been difficult to assess because P has only one stable isotope and can not be used as an isotopic tracer. Recently a new technique (McLaughlin et al., 2004) has been developed to track sources and cycling of phosphate in aquatic systems. This approach takes advantage of the strong P-O bond in phosphate, which is resistant to inorganic hydrolysis. The exchange of oxygen isotopes therein only occurs due to intracellular biological cycling. Because the d18O of phosphate will largely be determined by the isotopic composition of the water in which it is being recycled and because the isotopic composition of rivers and oceans is significantly different, the d18O of phosphate may be used as a tracer for different sources of phosphate to an estuarine system which is not phosphate limited. Consequently, the d18O of phosphate may be useful for quantifying the mixing of different sources of phosphate in estuarine systems. We applied this method to enhance our understanding of P sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay. To this end we conducted four sampling transects from Coyote Creek in the South Bay to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the North between October 2002 and August 2004. Phosphate d18O ranged from 10.1 to 20.1 per mil, with highest values at the Golden Gate and lowest at the San Joaquin River. Most of the Bay samples showed strong positive correlations with salinity, water d18O, and the inverse of phosphate concentration, suggesting a simple two-component mixing of oceanic and riverine sources. These data suggest that phosphate d18O can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in the ecosystem.

McLaughlin, K.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.

2004-12-01

475

Nonapotassium trialuminium hexa-phosphate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, K9Al3(PO4)6, the anionic substructure is built of inter­linked [PO4] and [AlO4] tetra­hedra. Each O atom of the [AlO4] tetra­hedron is common to a positionally different [PO4] tetra­hedron; thus, each [AlO4] tetra­hedron is surrounded by four positionally different [PO4] tetra­hedra. On the other hand, each [PO4] tetra­hedron shares its two O atoms with two positionally different [AlO4] tetra­hedra; the other two phosphate O atoms are terminal ones coordinated by K atoms. The terminal O atoms are usually closer to the K atoms than the bridging O atoms between the [AlO4] and [PO4] tetra­hedra. There are nine symmetry-independent K atoms in the structure. The coordination numbers of the K atoms are 6 or 7 or 8 up to a distance of 3.31?Å. There are channels in the anionic substructure oriented along the [10] direction that are filled by K atoms.

Liu, Zuoliang; Zhang, Guochun; Zhang, Jianxiu; Fu, Peizhen; Wu, Yicheng

2010-01-01

476

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What...

2009-07-01

477

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What...

2010-07-01

478

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2009-07-01

479

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2010-07-01

480

Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet--Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising

I. Meyer; S. Wessely

2009-01-01

481

SCIENTIFIC ESTIMATES OF BIGEYE (THUNNUS OBESUS) BYCATCH LANDED BY THE SPANISH SURFACE FLEET IN THE NORTH EAST ATLANTIC: 1998-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Bigeye (Thunnus obesus) by-catch data collected from the surface Spanish fleets are presented: troll and bait boat targeting albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Bay of Biscay and northeastern Atlantic fishing grounds. Monthly catch and length composition of the catch has been collected in the main landing fishing ports monitored by the albacore RIM (Network

V. Ortiz de Zárate; I. Artetxe

482

Commander Naval Air Forces (CNAF) Aircraft Operations Maintenance (AOM): An Examination of Effectiveness in Maintaining and Operating an Aging Aircraft Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Naval aviation serves as a vital component of many air and ground task organized forces vying for a share of the Department of Defense (DoD) budget. The decisions in the 1990s to reduce purchases of new equipment left the Navy with aging fleets of aircraf...

J. R. Cuskey L. R. Jones

2006-01-01

483

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's

Teresa L. Alleman; Leslie Eudy; Matt Miyasato; Adewale Oshinuga; Scott Allison; Tom Corcoran; S. Chatterjee; T. Jacobs; R. A. Cherrillo; R. Clark; I. Virrels; R. Nine; S. Wayne; R. Lansing

2005-01-01

484

Acanya (benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin phosphate)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Clindamycin phosphate was not genotoxic in the human lymphocyte chromosome ... and may be hyperpigmented, though not pink-red) Mild Some ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

485

21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 118-120, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the National Academy...

2013-04-01

486

A Solanum tuberosum inositol phosphate kinase (StITPK1) displaying inositol phosphate-inositol phosphate and inositol phosphate-ADP phosphotransferase activities.  

PubMed

We describe a multifunctional inositol polyphosphate kinase/phosphotransferase from Solanum tuberosum, StITPKalpha (GenBank accession number: EF362784), hereafter called StITPK1. StITPK1 displays inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate 1-kinase activity: K(m) = 27 microM, and V(max) = 19 nmol min(-1) mg(-1). The enzyme displays inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity in the absence of a nucleotide acceptor and inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate-ADP phosphotransferase activity in the presence of physiological concentrations of ADP. Additionally, StITPK1 shows inositol phosphate-inositol phosphate phosphotransferase activity. Homology modelling provides a structural rationale of the catalytic abilities of StITPK1. Inter-substrate transfer of phosphate groups between inositol phosphates is an evolutionarily conserved function of enzymes of this class. PMID:18442482

Caddick, Samuel E K; Harrison, Christopher J; Stavridou, Ioanna; Mitchell, Jennifer L; Hemmings, Andrew M; Brearley, Charles A

2008-04-28

487

Phosphates and Hyperactivity: Is There a Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article reviews evidence, developed mostly in Germany, suggesting that a low phosphate diet may improve the attention deficit disorder known as hyperkinesis in at least 50 percent of cases. (DB)|

Walker, Mildred M.

1982-01-01

488

Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany); Schnier, C. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Scholten, L.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

489

Science Background Paper: Acute Phosphate Nephropathy ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... An abnormally high [Ca 2+][PO 4 2-] product in renal tubular fluid causes precipitation of calcium-phosphate crystals in the kidney and the pattern of ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

490

Anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Solution (CPD)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... SUBJECT: Summary Review Memo for approval ofANDA: BA070025 - Anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose (CPD) Solution, USP by Caridian ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

491

Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for ...

D. F. Paddleford Y. Hou E. K. Barefield D. W. Tedder S. I. Abdel-Khalik

1995-01-01

492

Phosphate Measurements in Natural Waters, A Critique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The so-called molybdenum blue method for assaying the inorganic phosphate concentration of solutions is well established in scientific circles. This study was concerned with what, specifically, is being measured by the molybdenum blue method and whether o...

W. Chamberlain J. Shapiro

1970-01-01

493

Fluorine NMR reporter for phosphate anions.  

PubMed

A fluorine-labelled zinc(II)-dipicolylamine coordination complex reports the presence of phosphate anions in aqueous solution, especially pyrophosphate and ADP, and is used to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP. PMID:23619399

Gan, Haiying; Oliver, Allen G; Smith, Bradley D

2013-04-25

494

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2010-04-01

495

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2009-04-01

496

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2013-04-01

497

Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected.

Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

1997-09-30

498

Properties and mechanisms of fast-setting calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The setting time of a calcium phosphate cement consisting of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) was reduced from 30 to 5 min by use of a cement liquid that contained a phosphate concentration of 0.25 mol\\/l or higher. The diametral tensile strength and conversion of the cement ingredients to hydroxyapatite (OHAp) during the first 3 h were

Kunio Ishikawa; Shozo Takagi; Laurence C. Chow; Yoshiko Ishikawa

1995-01-01

499

Formation of Hydroxyapatite in Cement Systems: Effects of Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of hydroxyapatite (HA) formation in several calcium phosphate cement (CPC) systems was promoted when a phosphate solution instead of water was used as the cement liquid. The accelerated HA formation reduced the hardening time (HT) of the cements. In the cement system consisting of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), and distilled water, the presence of small

Laurence C. Chow; Milenko Markovic; Shozo Takagi

1999-01-01

500

Pharmacology, efficacy and safety of oral phosphate binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal serum level of phosphate in patients on dialysis, and the benefits of controlling levels of phosphate in serum remain unclear despite observational studies that associate phosphate levels with mortality. In the absence of robust data from trials, current guidelines are necessarily based on opinion. Oral phosphate binders are required by the majority of patients on dialysis, and all

Craig P. Smith; Paul E. C. Brenchley; Alastair J. Hutchison

2011-01-01