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1

A comparison of bowel preparations for flexible sigmoidoscopy: oral magnesium citrate combined with oral bisacodyl, one hypertonic phosphate enema, or two hypertonic phosphate enemasFig. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Magnesium citrate with hypertonic enemas or oral bisacodyl provides superior preparation quality for sigmoidoscopy over enemas alone. We compared three magnesium citrate sigmoidoscopy preparations in a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-one adults scheduled for routine sigmoidoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of three preparations containing oral magnesium citrate (296 cc) taken the night before the procedure in

Roger Keith Fincher; Eric M. Osgard; Jeffrey L. Jackson; Jeffrey S. Strong; Roy K. H. Wong

1999-01-01

2

Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax. PMID:10834891

Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

2000-01-01

3

Hyperphosphataemia after enemas in childhood: prevention and treatment.  

PubMed Central

The case of a child with severe hyperphosphataemia and symptomatic hypocalcaemia secondary to retention of phosphate administered through an antegrade continence enema is reported. Caution should be exercised with the use of phosphate enemas and prompt action taken to remedy retention. The use of glucose with insulin in the emergency management of acute hyperphosphataemia is discussed. PMID:8481047

Hunter, M F; Ashton, M R; Griffiths, D M; Ilangovan, P; Roberts, J P; Walker, V

1993-01-01

4

A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner

2004-01-01

5

Isoosmolar Enemas Demonstrate Preferential Gastrointestinal Distribution, Safety, and Acceptability Compared with Hyperosmolar and Hypoosmolar Enemas as a Potential Delivery Vehicle for Rectal Microbicides  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types—hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)—in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma 99mTc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the 99mTc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of 99mTc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma 99mTc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

Leyva, Francisco J.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S.; Goldsmith, Arthur J.; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Linda A.; Torbenson, Michael S.

2013-01-01

6

Sodium Phosphate Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

... the contents. To prepare this dose, unscrew the cap of the bottle and remove 2 tablespoons of ... using a measuring spoon. Then replace the bottle cap.To use the sodium phosphate enema, follow these ...

7

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2014-04-01

8

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2010-04-01

10

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2011-04-01

11

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2012-04-01

12

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

13

Rectal impaction following enema with concrete mix.  

PubMed

This article describes an unusual rectal foreign body resulting from homosexual anal erotic activities. The patient had used an enema containing a concrete mix which became impacted and required surgical removal. The use, abuse, and complications of enemas are reviewed. PMID:3649167

Stephens, P J; Taff, M L

1987-06-01

14

Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour - The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145  

PubMed Central

Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ? 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ?7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, Maria del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

2006-01-01

15

Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the

Luis Gabriel Cuervo; María del Pilar Bernal; Natalia Mendoza

2006-01-01

16

Barge fleet layout optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of layout optimization for barge fleet operations. In this context, layout refers to the positioning and allocation of river-based tow building sites for tow building, breaking, and cleaning operations in support of commodity shipments via barge transport. An integer programming model is developed and tested to solve the problem using data and information supplied by

Gail W. Depuy; G. Don Taylor; Todd C. Whyte

2004-01-01

17

Sucralfate and Methylprednisolone Enemas in Active Ulcerative Colitis (A Prospective, Single-Blind Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the role of sucralfatein active ulcerative colitis, 60 patients wererandomized to receive either sucralfate enemas (20 g\\/100ml) or methylprednisolone enemas (20 mg\\/100 ml). The enemas were administered twice daily for oneweek, and then once daily for three weeks. Clinicalevaluation was documented at entry and at two weeks andfour weeks. The sigmoidoscopic appearance of the rectal mucosa

John P. Wright; Trevor A. Winter; Sally Candy; In Marks

1999-01-01

18

Patient and occupational dosimetry in double contrast barium enema examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and relatively simple method is presented to distribute total dose-area product (DAP) over a number of projections that model exposure during double contrast barium enema (DCBE) examinations. In addition, hitherto unavailable entrance and effective doses to the physician performing the DCBE examination have been determined. DAP, fluoroscopy time, number of images as well as some patient data were

G J KEMERINK; A C W BORSTLAP; M J FRANTZEN; F W SCHULTZ; J ZOETELIEF; JMA VAN ENGELSHOVEN

19

Cell fleet planning : an industry case study  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the practical use of the Cell Fleet Planning Model in planning the fleet for the U.S. airline industry. The Cell Model is a cell theory, linear programming approach to fleet ...

Silva, Armando C.

1984-01-01

20

30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2010-07-01

21

30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2011-07-01

22

30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2011-07-01

23

30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2010-07-01

24

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

25

Cask fleet operations study  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

Not Available

1988-01-01

26

Fleet retrofit report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

1973-01-01

27

Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.  

PubMed

The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

Raveenthiran, V

2002-01-01

28

Adequacy of preparation for barium enema among elderly outpatients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether outpatients 75 years of age or older have a higher rate of inadequate bowel preparation for barium enema and of complications associated with the preparation and the test than patients aged 55 to 74 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Radiology department in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 55 years or older referred for a barium enema from March to August 1988. OUTCOME MEASURES: All films were reviewed independently by a study radiologist blind to the staff radiologist's report. Patients were interviewed by telephone within several days after the test to assess the occurrence of problems during the preparation or the test. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 213 patients assessed 72 were excluded: 43 refused to participate or could not be contacted, 16 had previously undergone colonic surgery, and 13 were excluded for other reasons. The remaining 141 patients were separated into three age groups: those 55 to 64 years (46 patients), those 65 to 74 (47) and those 75 or older (48). In 104 cases (74%) the bowel had been prepared adequately; there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the adequacy of preparation. The incidence of problems reported by the patients did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients aged 75 years or more are no more likely than those aged 55 to 74 to have problems with bowel preparation or the barium enema itself. Age should not be a criterion for exclusion from barium enema. To try to lower the rate of poor bowel preparation clinicians and radiologists should consider counselling patients more carefully about the importance of proper preparation. Also, the current method of preparation could be examined to determine whether simple changes would significantly improve colon cleanliness. PMID:2025821

Grad, R M; Clarfield, A M; Rosenbloom, M; Perrone, M

1991-01-01

29

Internal hemorrhoids: diagnosis with double-contrast barium enema examinations.  

PubMed

The authors retrospectively studied 43 patients suspected of having internal hemorrhoids at double-contrast barium enema examination. At endoscopy, 24 patients (56%) had internal hemorrhoids, four (9%) had other pathologic lesions in the rectum without evidence of hemorrhoids, and 15 (35%) had no reported abnormalities in the rectum. Internal hemorrhoids were found at endoscopy in 10 of 20 patients (50%) with lobulated folds extending 3 cm or less from the anorectal junction and 10 of 13 patients (77%) with multiple submucosal nodules. However, no patients with these characteristic radiographic findings were found to have other pathologic lesions in the rectum that had been mistaken for hemorrhoids at barium enema examination. Conversely, three of four patients with lobulated folds extending more than 3 cm from the anorectal junction and one of six patients with solitary nodules had proctitis or rectal neoplasms. Thus, specific criteria are suggested for the diagnosis of internal hemorrhoids on double-contrast barium enema examinations. Suspected hemorrhoids that do not fulfill these criteria should be evaluated endoscopically to rule out other more serious pathologic lesions in the rectum. PMID:2399313

Levine, M S; Kam, L W; Rubesin, S E; Ekberg, O

1990-10-01

30

Low volume bowel preparation for colonoscopy: randomized, endoscopist-blinded trial of liquid sodium phosphate versus tablet sodium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the colon-cleansing effectiveness, ease of consumption, and side effect profiles of two commercially available preparations of sodium phosphate: liquid Fleet Phospho-soda and Visicol tablets.

David H Balaban; Byrd S Leavell; Michael J Oblinger; William O Thompson; Nancy D Bolton; Daniel J Pambianco

2003-01-01

31

Coffee enema for preparation for small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-07-01

32

Acute left colonic diverticulitis—compared performance of computed tomography and water-soluble contrast enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The most valuable radiologic examination to be done initially when acute left colonic diverticulitis is suspected is still a matter of controversy. This study compares the performance between water-soluble contrast enema and computed tomography. METHODS: From 1986 to 1997, all patients admitted in our emergency center with clinically suspected left-colonic diverticulitis had a contrast enema and a computed tomography

Patrick Ambrosetti; Alexandra Jenny; Christophe Becker; François Terrier; Philippe Morel

2000-01-01

33

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

34

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

35

Routine barium enema prior to closure of defunctioning ileostomy is not necessary  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of barium enemas to confirm the anastomotic integrity prior to ileostomy closure is still controversial. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of routine contrast enema prior to ileostomy closure and its impact on patient management in patients with a low pelvic anastomosis. Methods One hundred forty-five patients had a temporary loop ileostomy constructed to protect a low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis following low anterior resection for rectal cancer. All patients were evaluated by physical examination, proctoscopy, and barium enema prior to ileostomy closure. Results The median time from ileostomy creation to closure was 8 months. Five (3.5%) of the 144 patients were found to have clinically relevant strictures at the colorectal anastomosis on routine barium enema. One patient (0.7%) showed anastomotic leak on their barium enema. Overall, 141 patients (97.9%) had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Postoperative complication occurred in three patients (2.1%). None of them showed abnormal barium enema finding, which suggested that routine contrast enema examination did not predict postoperative complication. Conclusion Routine barium enema evaluation of low pelvic anastomoses before loop ileostomy closure did not provide any additional information for postoperative colorectal anastomotic complication. PMID:22880182

Hong, Sung Yeon; Kim, Do Yun; Suh, Kwang Wook

2012-01-01

36

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

37

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

Not Available

2014-01-01

38

Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described.

Levin, B.M. [Central Research Marine Fleet Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, V.K.; Sinyaev, A.K. [Murmansk Shipping Co., Murmansk (Russian Federation)

1993-12-31

39

IDS: Improving Aircraft Fleet Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Integrated Diagnostic System (IDS), an applied AI project concerned with the development of hybrid information systems to diagnose problems and help manage repair processes of commercial aircraft fleets. A study at one major airline indicated that significant bene- fits could accrue (approximately 2% of overall maintenance budget) through the use of innovative information technol- ogy. The

Rob Wylie; Robert Orchard; Michael Halasz; François Dubé

1997-01-01

40

Sponsored By: Airline Fleet Readiness  

E-print Network

) of electrical wire" - Boeing #12;Aircraft Complexity 11 System # of sub- systems Navigation 182 Air Conditioning shall reduce number of maintenance actions required by the aircraft. 3. The system shall reduceSponsored By: Airline Fleet Readiness: Trade-off Analysis of Alternate Maintenance Systems 1 #12

41

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

Not Available

2012-01-01

42

Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema?  

PubMed

The effectiveness of topical peppermint oil added to barium sulphate suspension in relieving colonic muscle spasm during double contrast barium enema examination was assessed in a double blind study. 141 patients were randomized either to a control group (71 patients) examined with standard barium suspension or to the treatment group which received peppermint oil mixed with the barium preparation. No residual spasm was evident in a significant proportion of patients in the treated group (60%) compared with the control group (35%) (p < 0.001). The patients' acceptability of the procedure was good and there were no adverse effects on the overall quality of the examination. In conclusion, the addition of peppermint oil to the barium suspension seems to reduce the incidence of colonic spasm during the examination. The technique is simple, safe, cheap and it may lessen the need for intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents. PMID:7551780

Sparks, M J; O'Sullivan, P; Herrington, A A; Morcos, S K

1995-08-01

43

Appendicitis in children. Accuracy of the barium enema.  

PubMed

The barium enema (BE) may be useful in the diagnosis of atypical appendicitis in children. We analyzed our experience with 18 children in whom appendicitis was suspected and BE was performed. All of the children underwent surgical exploration. Nonfilling of the appendix with cecal indentation, extravasation of barium from the appendix, or both, were considered positive signs of an inflamed appendix on BE. Using these criteria, 12 of 14 cases of proved appendicitis were true positive and two were equivocal. Four children were proved not to have appendicitis; one of these patients had a true-negative BE, two had equivocal BEs, and there was one false-positive BE (Schönlein-Henoch purpura). Extravasation of barium into the peritoneal cavity was noted in one patient; this was a rare complication. PMID:3687874

Garcia, C; Rosenfield, N S; Markowitz, R I; Seashore, J H; Touloukian, R J; Cicchetti, D V

1987-12-01

44

A cask fleet operations study  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

Not Available

1988-03-01

45

Bacterial Translocation in the Course of Acute Pancreatitis: Beneficial Role of Nonabsorbable Antibiotics and Lactitol Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred Wistar rats were allocated to 4 groups. The groups, 3 representing our acute pancreatitis model induced by intrabiliary injection of a trypsin\\/enterokinase mixture, were studied as follows: (A) no treatment; (B) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin; (C) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin plus lactitol 0.5 g\\/kg, and (D) given a daily

F. Marotta; T. C. Geng; C. C. Wu; G. Barbi

1996-01-01

46

Alternative fuelds in urban fleets  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

Lindsay, T.

1994-12-31

47

Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

Not Available

2009-08-01

48

Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

49

University of California Santa Cruz Fleet Services  

E-print Network

depreciation. Fleet Services will work to find another department to purchase the vehicle, upon written request. If the vehicle is not fully depreciated at such time, the division/department will have to pay Fleet Services for a price equal to the undepreciated balance of the original loan. Drivers shall bring veh

California at Santa Cruz, University of

50

Further refinements in the plain radiologic diagnosis of splenic rupture: the air enema.  

PubMed

Plain film radiography, by appraisal of the soft tissues of the descending colon and left paracolonic gutter, comprises a safe, accurate, and quick determination of the presence of free fluid, which, in the proper clinical setting, indicates splenic rupture. The air enema, introduced under fluoroscopic control, is a valuable aid in eliminating false negatives and false positives, and also in distinguishing intraperitoneal clots from subserosal hematoma. The preoperative diagnosis was correct in 27 of 28 cases. The one error occurred in a case in which the interpretation of paravesical fluid (dog ears) was faulty, and in which the air enema had not been used. PMID:663152

Cimmino, C V; Southworth, L E

1978-06-01

51

Method for estimating technological penetration rates in commercial automobile fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating market penetration rates of electric and hybrid cars in commercial (including police and nonfederal government) fleets is described. The approach is also applicable to other vehicle technologies in the fleet market. It employs survey data collected from 142 fleet operators in March 1979. The data describe physical and economic criteria used by fleet operators to select

1980-01-01

52

2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet  

NASA Video Gallery

Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, ...

53

Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strategic requirement of the Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) segment of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) has never been formally tested and validated during an actual joint or interagency exercise or operation. Research indicates that January 2002 was t...

D. K. Gooch

2009-01-01

54

Reuben H. Fleet Science Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center focuses mainly on astronomy, there are also exhibits and educational programming on science and technology, human physiology, and physics. A new photographic exhibition looks at the scientific accomplishments and technological spin-offs that have resulted from NASA missions. Comet Impact is a 23-passenger simulator ride that simulates what might happen when comet Kirsch-Kennedy appears to be on a collision path with Earth. The Nierman Challenger Learning Center programs use a realistic mock-up of a Mission Control center and a futuristic Space Station to transport participants in simulated space voyages. A Teacher Resource Guide is available online, as well as information on Inquiry Learning Partnership professional development, field trips, family science nights, workshops, and alignment with California Teaching Standards. The Center is also a partner with TryScience, providing the experience of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide. There are several TryScience exhibits at the facility, and a link to the TryScience website where there are science activities, Live Cams, and downloads.

55

The Malone Antegrade Colonic Enema Enhances the Quality of Life in Children Undergoing Urological Incontinence Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFunctional alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, and physical limitations in children with spina bifida, imperforate anus and spinal cord injury challenge the ability to have independent fecal and urinary continence. Urologists have successfully helped these patients achieve urinary continence. We report our experience with the antegrade colonic enema procedure, which allows select individuals to achieve continence of stool,

P. I. Ellsworth; H. W. Webb; J. M. Crump; M. A. Barraza; P. S. Stevens; H.-G. J. Mesrobian

1996-01-01

56

Use of Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients With Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Abdominoperineal resection, with iliac colostomy, remains the gold standard treatment for very low-lying rectal cancer, but it alters patients quality of life. Alternatives to iliac colostomy need to be experimented. Antegrade enemas via a cecal access (Malone operation) obtains a colonic emptying and improves continence for incontinent patients. Continence and quality of life after abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy associated

Guillaume Portier; Nicolas Bonhomme; Ivan Platonoff; Frank Lazorthes

2005-01-01

57

An assessment of bisacodyl-based bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The most commonly used methods for bowel preparation are polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) and sodium\\u000a phosphate. Both are problematic in children. The use of bisacodyl together with fleet enema has been suggested as an alternative;\\u000a however, its use without dietary restriction is inferior to other preparations. We aimed to study the effect of bisacodyl\\u000a together with fleet enema and

Ron Shaoul; Lina Haloon

2007-01-01

58

Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

1999-05-03

59

Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention.  

PubMed

Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-05-01

60

Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis  

SciTech Connect

Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

1989-05-01

61

A Fleet Monitoring System for Advanced Tracking of Commercial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial off-the-shelf fleet telematics systems can provide basic tracking & tracing functionalities for vehicle fleets. These systems, however, require that dispatchers manually identify any discrepancies between the actual data available in the fleet telematics system and the planned data in the logistics system. Furthermore, actual data such as arrival and departure times at customer locations must be transferred manually

Asvin GoelandVolker Gruhn; Volker Gruhn

2006-01-01

62

Sensitivity of double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Double contrast barium enema (DCBE) is the examination carried out most frequently for investigation of patients\\u000a with large bowel symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of DCBE and colonoscopy for the detection\\u000a of colorectal cancer and neoplastic polyps ?1 cm. Methods: All patients undergoing DCBE (1389) or colonoscopy (1081) as the\\u000a primary investigation for

G. A. Smith; P. J. O'Dwyer

2001-01-01

63

Complications of Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Impact of Prebiopsy Enema  

PubMed Central

Purpose Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate is usually safe. However, some patients are hospitalized owing to complications from TRUS biopsy. We identified the risk factors for complications and effective preventive measures for treating complications after TRUS biopsy. Materials and Methods Medical records and radiological images of 1,083 patients who underwent TRUS biopsy of the prostate over 10 years in Gyeongsang National University Hospital were examined retrospectively to investigate the correlation between complications after TRUS biopsy and preventive antibiotics, prebiopsy enema, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings. Results Complications occurred in 69 patients (6.4%). The complication rates of the 1,008 patients who received antibiotics and the 75 patients who did not were 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively (p=0.469). Complication rates of the pre-biopsy enema group (n=658) and the group without prebiopsy enema (n=425) were 4.7% and 8.9%, respectively (p=0.007). Complication rates of the 6-core biopsy group (n=41) and the 12-core biopsy group (n=955) were 7.3% and 6.3%, respectively (p=0.891). Complication rates of the prostate cancer group (n=306) and the no prostate cancer group (n=713) were 6.2% and 6.6%, respectively (p=0.740). Conclusions A prebiopsy enema was associated with a reduced risk of complications after TRUS biopsy. Preventive antibiotics, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings did not significantly influence the complication rate.

Kam, Sung Chul; Choi, See Min; Yoon, Sol; Choi, Jae Hui; Lee, Seong Hyun; Hwa, Jeong Seok; Chung, Ky Hyun

2014-01-01

64

Use of butyrate or glutamine in enema solution reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental diversion colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis. METHODS: Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann’s end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine, butyrate, or saline. Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk. The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia, increased number of vessels, bleeding and mucus discharge. Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P = 0.015; P = 0.001), the number of goblet cells (P = 0.021; P = 0.029), and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P = 0.043; P = 0.011) to normal values. The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine. CONCLUSION: The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis. PMID:22969190

Pacheco, Rodrigo Goulart; Esposito, Christiano Costa; Muller, Lucas CM; Castelo-Branco, Morgana TL; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Chagas, Vera Lucia A; de Souza, Heitor Siffert P; Schanaider, Alberto

2012-01-01

65

Centralized fleet management system for cybernetic transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present a centralized fleet management system (CFMS) for cybernetic vehicles called cybercars. Cybercars are automatically guided vehicles for passenger transport on dedicated networks like amusement parks, shopping centres etc. The users make reservations for the vehicles through phone, internet, kiosk etc and the CFMS schedules the cybercars to pick the users at their respective stations at

Anjali Awasthi; Satyaveer Singh Chauhan; Michel Parent; Jean-Marie Proth

2011-01-01

66

Model for fleet sizing and vehicle allocation  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental premise upon which this dissertation is based is that fleet-sizing and vehicle-utilization decisions are interdependent and together have a significant affect on the long-run profitability of a transportation system. The objective of this research is to develop a model to aid decisions on fleet sizing in situations in which demand fluctuates over time (including both deterministic and stochastic changes), and vehicle travel times over the network are uncertain, leading to uncertainty regarding when specific vehicles will be available for use to meet specific demands. Since the interaction between fleet sizing and vehicle-utilization decisions under dynamic and uncertain conditions has not previously been studied, the model is specifically intended to provide insight into the nature of that relationship. After identifying the potentially important interactions of fleet size and vehicle utilization, a mathematical programming formulation of the problem is presented. An approximation to the exact formulation is developed based on a time-space representation of a dynamic network, which can be solved using network-optimization algorithms.

Beaujon, G.J.

1987-01-01

67

Sodium Phosphate  

MedlinePLUS

... at other times before, during, and after your treatment with sodium phosphate. Clear liquids are liquids that can be seen through such as water, flavored water, lemonade without pulp, apple juice, and ginger ale. Do not drink ...

68

Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats. PMID:23843880

Song, Eunyoung; Lee, Euiju; Bu, Yongmin; Lee, Junhee; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Junghee; Park, Jaewoo

2013-01-01

69

A case of cap polyposis remission by betamethasone enema after antibiotics therapy including Helicobacter pylori eradication.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to frequent bloody mucus diarrhea. She was diagnosed with cap polyposis based on typical endoscopic and histological findings. Colonoscopy revealed multiple, reddish, mucus-capped polypoid lesions from the rectum to the sigmoid colon. A pathological examination revealed that the polyps were covered by erosive and inflamed granulation tissue with decreased crypt cells. Laboratory data indicated positive values for Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody and hypoproteinemia. Metronidazole, H. pylori eradication, and levofloxacin therapies were not effective; however, the subsequent administration of betamethasone enema dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The hypoproteinemia was normalized after the therapy. The dose of the betamethasone enema was tapered gradually, and no recurrence was observed 6 months after discontinuation of the treatment. This case suggests that betamethasone enema may be considered as the second treatment choice for cap polyposis patients after H. pylori eradication, metronidazole or levofloxacin therapy. PMID:24949613

Suzuki, Hideo; Sato, Masashi; Akutsu, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Sato, Taiki; Mizokami, Yuji

2014-06-01

70

How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.  

PubMed

In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars. PMID:15077372

Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

2004-04-01

71

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

72

[Clinical case of the month. Portal venous gas due to a hydrogen peroxide colic enema].  

PubMed

Portal venous gas is a worrying radiological sign that was described for the first time in 1955 among newborn children suffering from necrotizing enterocolitis. It was often related to mesenteric ischemia which mortality remains very high. Now, as radiological explorations increase, portal venous gas is more and more described in less pejorative contexts, such as hydrogen peroxide intoxication. It is what happened to our patient who underwent a hydrogen peroxide colic enema followed by a major and transient portal venous gas onset. This solved quickly and spontaneously. PMID:21638834

El, Hachemi M; Couvreur, T; Meunier, P

2011-04-01

73

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene  

SciTech Connect

The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

NONE

1995-12-01

74

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a)...

2010-07-01

75

76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels AGENCY...availability of a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning...material on the draft policy on Safety Requirements...Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet...

2011-01-20

76

76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels...requirements. This final policy clarifies the requirements...allow a distant water tuna fleet vessel...Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels policy.\\1\\ A...

2011-05-31

77

77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...will enforce Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels Security Zones from 12...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships. The Designated...

2012-07-30

78

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment...Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1...

2012-07-01

79

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment...Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1...

2011-07-01

80

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2010-10-01

81

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2010-10-01

82

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment...Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1...

2010-07-01

83

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2011-10-01

84

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2013-10-01

85

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment...Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1...

2013-07-01

86

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2012-10-01

87

Limitations in the CT Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis: Comparison of CT, Contrast Enema, and Pathologic Findings in 16 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfalls in CT diagnosis of acute diverticuhitis were investigated in 16 patients with the disease who had misleading or equivocal CT features. The CT appearance was corre- hated with contrast enemas (13 cases) and with surgical assessment and pathologic evaluation of resected specimens (12 cases). Limitations in the CT diagnosis were related to (1) marked thickening of the colonic wall,

Emil J. Balthazar; Alec Megibow; Roger A. Schinella; Richard Gordon

88

Biofuels, Climate Policy, and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

Biofuels, Climate Policy, and the European Vehicle Fleet Xavier Gitiaux, Sebastian Rausch, Sergey on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Abstract We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate incorporates current generation biofuels, accounts for stock turnover of the vehicle fleets, disaggregates

89

Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

2003-01-01

90

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2012-04-01

91

Fleet deployment optimization for liner shipping: an integer programming model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending and improving an earlier work of the second author, an Integer Programming (IP) model is developed to minimize the operating and lay-up costs for a fleet of liner ships operating on various routes. The IP model determines the optimal deployment of an existing fleet, given route, service, charter, and compatibility constraints. Two examples are worked with extensive actual data

B. J. Powell; A.. N. Perkins

1997-01-01

92

Ice Control in River Harbors and Fleeting Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ice control in river harbors and fleeting areas in the northern tier of the United States east of the Mississippi River is handled mainly by the barge and towboat companies. Fleeting area protection in many locations is provided by ice piers and mooring c...

R. E. Perham

1988-01-01

93

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

... be done in a doctor's office or hospital radiology department. It is done after your colon is ... Grainger RG, et al., eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

94

Lower Mississippi River Regional Barge Fleeting Assessment, Plan, and Handbook Guide. Volume 1. The Barge Fleeting Industry and Port Competitiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a three volume study on barge fleeting in the 235-mile-long corridor of the Lower Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to the Gulf of Mexico. Barge fleeting is identified as the assembly, mooring, shifting and breaking out of non-self-propell...

1984-01-01

95

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 1, summary  

SciTech Connect

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

NONE

1995-12-01

96

Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

1994-12-31

97

Cooperation is Fleeting in the World of Transposable Elements  

E-print Network

in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment examples include, on one hand, genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, perhaps the most serious

Wagner, Andreas

98

Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

Rausch, Sebastian

99

Network design and fleet allocation model for vessel operation  

E-print Network

Containership operators in the U.S. are confronted with a number of problems in the way they make critical fleet allocation decisions to meet the increase of shippers' demands. Instead of the empirical approach, this ...

Li, Xiaojing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

100

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Choosing Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Photo from Infrastructure Successfully deploying plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging infrastructure requires

101

Dynamic incentive scheme for rental vehicle fleet management  

E-print Network

Mobility on Demand is a new transportation paradigm aimed to provide sustainable transportation in urban settings with a fleet of electric vehicles. Usage scenarios prpopsed by Mobility on Demand systems must allow one-way ...

Zhou, SiZhi

2012-01-01

102

A guide to surveys of motor vehicle fleets  

SciTech Connect

In response to directives in Section 407 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) developed a data collection program designed to provide information useful to persons interested in the alternative fuels market. The target audience includes those seeking to manufacture, convert, sell, own, or operate alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) or alternative fueling facilities. Among the various projects EIA conducted as part of this data collection program were two fleet surveys conducted in Department of Energy-designated Clean Cities. The Clean Cities program is a locally-based government/industry partnership coordinated by the Department of Energy to expand the use of alternative transportation fuels. These surveys were designed to collect a broad range of information regarding the fleets and fleet vehicles in operation in the Atlanta, Georgia and Denver, Colorado areas. One of the objectives of these surveys was to attempt to identify and describe the market for AFVs. Due to inherent limitations associated with AFVs and limited alternative-fuel infrastructure, it`s believed that the first practical applications for AFVs will be within private and government fleets. Another objective in conducting the Clean Cities Fleet surveys was to develop a useful methodology for accessing and surveying private and municipal fleets that would aid other interested parties in conducting similar surveys. This report is intended to provide a description of how EIA gathered information on private and municipal fleets, but the basic survey design could be used to design surveys of other difficult-to-access populations. There are 3 basic steps to any survey: define the target population, constructing the survey frame, and implementing the survey. The procedures outlined in this report are, for the most part, the procedures used for the fleet survey conducted in Denver. The major changes between the two surveys are described in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-11-01

103

On the availability of the CH149 Cormorant fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CH149 Cormorant is the Canadian Forces (CF) designation for the AgustaWestland EH101, the Canadian Air Force¿s only dedicated search and rescue (SAR) helicopter. Since its procurement, the availability for operations of the CH149 fleet has been less than what was initially predicted. This study was undertaken to determine if the low service-ability of the fleet was due to its

Raman Pall

2008-01-01

104

A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

2013-11-01

105

The Art of the First Fleet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural History Museum of London website features an online collection of some of the artworks that were created by the members of the First Fleet, the group of nine ships that set sail from Portsmouth to establish a colony in New South Wales, Australia. The artworks are considered to be "outstanding drawings of aboriginal people, the environment and wildlife found on arrival as well as of the early foundation of the colony." Bird lovers out there will find this collection quite a treat, as there are a slew of drawings of birds. Mammal lovers will get to see drawings that are some of the only know record of species that have become extinct since 1788. The drawings are divided up into four different topics, "Natural History", "Ethnography", "Topography", and "History", and can be accessed by their links on the homepage. Each topic can be viewed as a "list" or "gallery", with the gallery view providing thumbnails and the title, and the list providing the title and the name of the artist. Once visitors have chosen a drawing to view, they can click on it to see the dimensions and date of the drawings, as well as an enlarged image of the drawing. Those with interest in more details, such as the donor of the drawing or where it's held at the Museum, should click on "show notes". The "interactive enlargement" link below the image allows visitors to zoom and pan within the image.

106

Regulation of serum phosphate.  

PubMed

The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as 'normal' and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

Lederer, Eleanor

2014-09-15

107

Metrology tool fleet management: applying FMP tool matching and monitoring concepts to an overlay fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay tool matching and accuracy issues are quickly reaching a comparable complexity to that of critical dimensional metrology. While both issues warrant serious investigation, this paper deals with the matching issues associated with overlay tools. Overlay tools need to run and measure as if they are a single tool - they need to act as one. In this paper a matching methodology is used to assess a set of overlay tools in a multiple of overlay applications. The methodology proposed in a prior2 SPIE paper is applied here to a fleet of two generations of overlay tools to detect measurement problems not seen with convention Statistical Process Control techniques. Four studies were used to examine the benefits of this matching methodology for this fleet of overlay tools. The first study was a matching assessment study. The second study was a hardware comparison between generations of tools. The third study was a measurement strategy comparison. The final study was a long term matching exercise where one example of a traditional long term monitoring strategy was compared to a new long term monitoring strategy. It is shown that this new tool matching method can be effectively applied to overlay metrology.

Morningstar, Jennifer; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Banke, Bill

2006-03-01

108

The Future of the USCG Icebreaker Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) operates three icebreakers to support science in polar regions: the USCGC HEALY (WAGB-20), the USCGC POLAR STAR (WABG-10) and the USCGC POLAR SEA (WAGB-11). USCGC HEALY, the youngest of the icebreakers, has successfully completed four field seasons in the Arctic Ocean and one deployment to Antarctica since the ship was delivered in late 1999. Operations on board HEALY have improved with each deployment thanks to the feedback provided by science users and the responsiveness of USCG personnel to suggestions for enhancing shipboard support of data and sample acquisition. The POLAR-class icebreakers have been used primarily to support Deep Freeze by carrying supplies to McMurdo Station in Antarctica. Unfortunately, both POLAR STAR and SEA are approaching the end of their useful service life. The main propulsion system of the POLAR SEA has recently been declared unfit to support another trip to Antarctica until at least the 2007 field season, which places an additional burden on the already ailing POLAR STAR and potentially impacts the arctic science schedule of HEALY. The Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee (AICC), which was initially formed to oversee the design and building of the USCGC Healy, now works to liaise and facilitate communications between scientists, funding agencies and facility providers and assist with the planning of polar science projects. Incumbent in this is the requirement that AICC provide continuing oversight for scientific aspects of the potential refitting or replacement of POLAR STAR and POLAR SEA as well as HEALY's scientific spaces and outfitting. The purpose of this presentation is to provide the polar science community with the most recent information about the status of the USCG icebreaker fleet and to solicit, synthesize and present the needs of the community to the Coast Guard to facilitate efficient and effective utilization of U.S. icebreakers.

Edwards, M. H.; Prince, M.

2004-12-01

109

Microbial solubilization of phosphate  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wolfram, James H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

110

Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis  

PubMed Central

Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications. PMID:24696577

Gujarathi, Rahul H.; Gokhale, Vivek M.; Tongaonkar, Jayashree N.

2013-01-01

111

An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema).  

PubMed

Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B K; Thakar, Anup B; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

112

An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema)  

PubMed Central

Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B.K.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

2011-01-01

113

[Perineal colostomy with antegrade continence enemas as an alternative after abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer].  

PubMed

Some young and active patients requiring abdominoperineal resection for rectum cancer ask for an alternative of an abdominal colostomy. We analysed the results after a combination of a perineal colostomy and antegrade continence enemas (ACE). Fifteen patients have been operated between 1999 and 2004. Follow-up was >six months in 12 patients with a mean of two years and with a maximum of 55 months. The QLQ-C30 (version 3) and CR 38 questionnaires of the EORTC have been used to evaluate quality of life aspects. Five out of 15 patients presented complications: infection of the caecal conduit (2), small bowel obstruction (1), prolapse of the perineal colostomy (1), eventration (1), urologic complications (2). ACE are still used by all patients. The volume needed was 400 ml and duration of irrigation was 30 minutes (15-45 minutes). The median score for faecal incontinence was 0 ; faecal pseudocontinence was obtained by 7/12 patients. The scores for all aspects of functioning were excellent, as well as the score for body image. The general health status and quality of life were estimated at 75% from normal value. The procedure is simple and can be performed in one operative session. A perineal colostomy with ACE seems to be a valuable and less expensive alternative for an abdominal colostomy, and certainly for total anorectal reconstruction. PMID:15935789

Penninckx, F; D'Hoore, A; Vanden Bosch, A

2005-06-01

114

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2010-07-01

115

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2011-07-01

116

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2012-07-01

117

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2013-07-01

118

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related... Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2010-10-01

119

Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

2010-01-01

120

Long-term Follow-up of Patients After Antegrade Continence Enema Procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. Results One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7–178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Conclusions Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma. PMID:21502828

Siddiqui, Anees A.; Fishman, Steven J.; Bauer, Stuart B.; Nurko, Samuel

2013-01-01

121

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

...Consolidations into a fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39...Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment,...

2014-07-01

122

41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL...of Federal fleet statistics based upon fleet...compiled by GSA from information submitted...

2010-07-01

123

33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...restricted areas within the barge fleeting facility to handle those barges carrying, in bulk, cargoes...3) Ensure that at least one towing vessel is available to service...fleeting facility for every 100 barges within the facility....

2013-07-01

124

33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...restricted areas within the barge fleeting facility to handle those barges carrying, in bulk, cargoes...3) Ensure that at least one towing vessel is available to service...fleeting facility for every 100 barges within the facility....

2011-07-01

125

33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...restricted areas within the barge fleeting facility to handle those barges carrying, in bulk, cargoes...3) Ensure that at least one towing vessel is available to service...fleeting facility for every 100 barges within the facility....

2010-07-01

126

33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...restricted areas within the barge fleeting facility to handle those barges carrying, in bulk, cargoes...3) Ensure that at least one towing vessel is available to service...fleeting facility for every 100 barges within the facility....

2012-07-01

127

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

...we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor...we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the...

2014-01-01

128

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34.340 Section...Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must...

2013-07-01

129

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34.340 Section...Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must...

2012-01-01

130

41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Do we need a fleet management information system? 102-34.340 Section...Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must...

2011-01-01

131

Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway System Navigation Study: Fleeting Analysis. Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fleeting Report is an interim product of the Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway System Navigation Study and addresses the impacts of fleeting as related to traffic increases. The Navigation Study is a feasibility study addressing navigation imp...

2000-01-01

132

Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

2014-01-01

133

CT colonography versus double-contrast barium enema for screening of colorectal cancer: comparison of radiation burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to compare the radiation dose associated with a low-dose CT colonography (CTC) protocol for colorectal cancer screening\\u000a with that delivered by double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). CTC of twenty asymptomatic individuals (M:F = 10:10) participating\\u000a to a colorectal cancer screening program and DCBE of fifteen patients (M:F = 6:9) were evaluated. For CTC, absorbed dose was\\u000a determined by calculating the dose-length product

Emanuele Neri; Lorenzo Faggioni; Francesca Cerri; Francesca Turini; Simone Angeli; Lorenzo Cini; Franco Perrone; Fabio Paolicchi; Carlo Bartolozzi

2010-01-01

134

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

135

Long-Term Functional Assessment of Antegrade Colonic Enema for Combined Incontinence and Constipation Using a Modified Marsh and Kiff Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  Constipation and fecal incontinence can severely affect quality of life for patients, particularly when simultaneously present.\\u000a Malone antegrade colonic enema enables periodic colonic emptying, thus preventing uncontrolled passage of feces and constipation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven patients with fecal incontinence and severe constipation or perineal colostomy after Miles’ operation underwent a modified\\u000a Marsh and Kiff ileostomy for antegrade colonic enema. Before and after

Donato F. Altomare; Marcella Rinaldi; Domenico Rubini; Giuseppe Rubini; Piero Portincasa; Michele Vacca; Niccoli-Asabella Artor; Giovanni Romano; Vincenzo Memeo

2007-01-01

136

The fleet assignment problem: Solving a large-scale integer program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a flight schedule and set of aircraft, the fleet assignment problem is to determine which type of aircraft should fly each flight segment. This paper describes a basic daily, domestic fleet assignment problem and then presents chronologically the steps taken to solve it efficiently. Our model of the fleet assignment problem is a large multi-commodity flow problem with side

Christopher A. Hane; Cynthia Barnhart; Ellis L. Johnson; Roy E. Marsten; George L. Nemhauser; Gabriele Sigismondi

1995-01-01

137

A capital equipment replacement model for a fleet with variable size  

Microsoft Academic Search

A replacement model over two cycles, with decision variables based on age at replacement of the current fleet and size of the new fleet is considered. In order to consider both age at replacement and fleet size, the concept of penalty cost for unmet demand is introduced and modelled using results from birth-and-death processes. Optimal values for decision variables may

P. A. Scarf; O. Bouamra

1999-01-01

138

40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.  

...false How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. 86.1865-12 Section 86...1865-12 How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. (a) Applicability. ...provisions of § 86.1801-12(j) or (k), CO2 fleet average exhaust emission...

2014-07-01

139

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2013-07-01

140

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2010-07-01

141

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2012-01-01

142

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2011-01-01

143

41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of establishment of a fleet management system. GSA will inform...for establishment of a fleet management system and of the agency's...for discussions at the local level between the agencies concerned...responsible for operating the fleet management system in order to work...

2010-07-01

144

Fleet Introduction Logistics and Major New Weapon Systems: Are There Operational Level Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operational commander must be cognizant of major new weapon systems in his force, the degree to which they have been introduced to the Fleet and the level of success that Fleet Introduction effort has achieved. Fleet Introduction Logistics is an occas...

J. L. Jones

1991-01-01

145

77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey...in the form of a one-time survey of medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers...be issued at time of approval. Title: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet...

2012-12-19

146

Department of Biological Engineering Fall 2012 Solar Innovations Inc. Biodiesel Fleet Fuel  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Biological Engineering Fall 2012 Solar Innovations Inc. Biodiesel Fleet work. The goal was to research and implement biodiesel into their fleet by finding the best biodiesel for the implementation of biodiesel into their fleet. This will include: · Prospective suppliers of biodiesel fuel

Demirel, Melik C.

147

75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week and will do so by prohibiting any person...vessels in the 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week event. Basis and Purpose Seattle's...

2010-08-02

148

77 FR 40521 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

2012-07-10

149

75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into, transit...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone...

2010-02-25

150

76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored following...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and will do so by...

2011-07-11

151

77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay...The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone...will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR...

2012-06-15

152

75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY...during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010...and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in...

2010-04-21

153

77 FR 5747 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

2012-02-06

154

76 FR 47996 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction...participating the 2011 Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week. This document corrects the list of visiting...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored...

2011-08-08

155

77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0146] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast...Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during 2012 Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012...

2012-04-10

156

75 FR 71638 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This supplemental notice of proposed...NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot...

2010-11-24

157

77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0787] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port...23'27'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191,...

2012-09-18

158

[Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].  

PubMed

Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection. PMID:25046938

Kostiuk, A V

2014-03-01

159

JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

Hummel, Kirck

2009-01-01

160

CASE STUDY: US ARMY UTILITY HELICOPTER FLEET MODERNIZATION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army has relied heavily on helicopter support for more than 30 years. These aircraft have been used for a variety of purposes, with the most widely identified category being the utility, or general-purpose transport, mission area. Currently, the US Army is confronting the problem of managing an aging equipment fleet (its helicopters) in the face of significant budgetary

GEORGE C. PRUEITT

2000-01-01

161

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

162

Analysis of the NAFA fleet data base: passenger cars only  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the potential market penetration of new vehicular concepts, it is first necessary to determine the current level of demand in terms of physical capabilities and economic constraints. The survey described in this report attempts to measure these characteristics for the fleet market sector in the U.S. The data analyzed come from a survey taken in March 1979 of

Shonka

1980-01-01

163

Hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken only fleetingly  

E-print Network

Hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken only fleetingly J. D. Eaves* , J. J. Loparo* , C. J that the local structure of liquid water has tetrahedral arrangements of molecules ordered by hydrogen bonds, the mechanism by which water molecules switch hydrogen-bonded partners remains unclear. In this mechanism

Geissler, Phillip

164

On the indentation recovery and fleeting hardness of polymers  

E-print Network

On the indentation recovery and fleeting hardness of polymers Catherine A. Tweedie and Krystyn J and volume within 48 h. This viscoelastic response demonstrates that indentation hardness values indentation hardness does not quantitatively or qualitatively predict recoverable work or residual deformation

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

165

Design Methodology for Satisfying Fleet Weapon System Performance Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical approach that can be used in the design of a weapon system fire control so as to ensure performance compliance for a given percentage of a fleet weapon system is described. Specifically, by taking into consideration the statistical nature of...

R. C. Pfeilsticker, W. J. Dziwak

1998-01-01

166

Simulation of an inland waterway barge fleet distribution network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses how a discrete event simulation model was developed using ProModel Software for application as a PC based decision support tool in the logistical management of a marine based distribution system. The system is operated on an inland waterway network with a dedicated fleet of barges and tugboats to transport products from several source plant loading points to

Julian A. Swedish

1998-01-01

167

Humble adds skimming barge to its dockside--cleanup fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humble Oil and Refining Co. has added a small but sturdy skimming barge to its Baton Rouge, La., dockside fleet. The barge aims at recovery of any spill that might occur in the company's dock area. The skimming vessel serves as a floating work platform as well as a spill-recovery tool. Two outboard motors at the front power the 20-ft

Ewing

1972-01-01

168

Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

2005-01-01

169

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

170

Storied Era of Journalism Passes on Fleet Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world characterized by impersonal and sometimes distant interactions over the phone or email, Fleet Street in central London remained a place where journalists (amateur and professional) gathered to ruminate about the news and just about any topic that came to mind. For more than 300 years, the area was the nerve center of British journalism, as it served as the home of many of the country's leading newspapers. The death-knell for this era effectively ended this past Wednesday as the last major news office on the street closed its doors for good. A variety of technological improvements in the past several decades allowed newspapers to move their primary publishing plants outside of the area, and this part of central London is primarily a legal and banking center. As the former editor of the Daily Mirror commented, "You can practice journalism anywhere. It's become an electronic industry now, not so much with people going out into the towns and streets and telephoning their copy back to the office." There were several special events planned this week to mark this event, including a service held at St. Bride's, which is known as a journalists' church in the area.The first link leads to a story from Newsday which talks about the recent demise of Fleet Street as a hub for journalists and news agencies. The second link leads to a story from the BBC regarding the church service held to mark the departure of Reuters from Fleet Street this past week. The third story is from the Guardian, and offers some first-hand recollections of Fleet Street from Mark Oliver, along with a few helpful hypertext links. The fourth link allows visitors the ability to listen to a feature from NPR's Morning Edition about Fleet Street. The fifth link takes visitors to the homepage of St. Brides, popularly known as the "journalists' church" in the Fleet Street area. The sixth and final link will take users to a page that provides a bit of information about the Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese pub, a gathering place for salty journalists and other such curmudgeons.

171

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment  

SciTech Connect

The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

NONE

1995-12-01

172

Monitoring fleets of electric vehicles: optimizing operational use and maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicles can make a substantial contribution to an improved urban environment. Reduced atmospheric pollution and noise emissions make the increased use of electric vehicles highly desirable and their suitability for dedicated fleets of vehicles is well recognized. As a result, a suitable system of supervision and management is necessary for fleet operators, to allow them to see the key parameters for the optimum use of the electric vehicle at all times. A computer-based data acquisition and analysis system will allow access to critical control parameters and display the operation of chargers and batteries in real time. Battery condition and charging can be followed. Information is stored in a database and can be readily analyzed and retrieved to manage extensive charging installations. In this paper, the operation of a battery/charger management system is described. The effective use of the system in electric utility vans is demonstrated.

Lenain, P.; Kechmire, M.; Smaha, J. P.

173

Assessment of taxicab fleet operation in New York City  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary assessment of the impacts resulting from incorporation of flywheel energy storage systems into automotive fleets in a large metropolitan city is described. Specifically, the case of taxicab fleet operation within New York City is examined. Based upon available taxicab operational data, a levelized life-cycle cost comparison between a standard internal combustion engine vehicle in present use as a taxicab and a projected hybrid flywheel-internal combustion engine vehicle (taxicab) has been generated. Energy conservation and environmental benefits are discussed and potential institutional barriers to rapid deployment of flywheel energy storage systems are identified. The results obtained from this study generally emphasize the value of incorporating flywheel energy storage systems into future vehicles designed for taxicab use.

Krupka, M.C.; Jackson, S.V.

1981-01-01

174

Web information system for transport telematics and fleet management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a Web information system for fleet management and transport telematics is described. The system is developed based on MOWIS - a service-oriented open software platform for location-based and context-aware mobile and Web applications. Based on MOWIS services such as routing service, directory service, traffic information service and moving object service, as well as real AVL bus tracking

D. Stojanovic; B. Predic; I. Antolovic; S. Dordevic-Kajan

2009-01-01

175

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

176

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http:\\/\\/www.fnmoc.navy.mil\\/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the

D. Dimitriou; P. Sharfstein; M. Ignaszewski; M. Clancy

2003-01-01

177

The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

NONE

1997-06-01

178

Lower Mississippi River Regional Barge Fleeting Assessment, Plan, and Handbook Guide. Volume 2. Barge Fleeting Handbook Guide and Site-Evaluation Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a three volume study on barge fleeting in the 235-mile-long corridor of the Lower Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to the Gulf of Mexico. Barge fleeting is identified as the assembly, mooring, shifting and breaking out of non-self-propell...

1984-01-01

179

Documentation for propane fleet conversion cost-effectiveness model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas instituted an alternative fuels program for public fleet operations beginning in the 1991-92 fiscal year. Life-cycle cost/benefit models for evaluating the economic implications of the action have been developed at the University of Texas at Austin Center for Transportation Research for both compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane. The report documents the various input data, calculations, and assumptions of the Propane Net Present Value (NPV) model. A similar report (number 983-1) documents the same for the CNG model. Input data with constant values across different fleets and locations are discussed first and include basic parameters for on-board storage capacity, vehicle conversion costs, equipment salvage values, etc. Variable input data, reflecting a given fleet size, composition, and location, include the number and types of vehicles, fuel consumption, etc. The next section presents the formulas for the internal model calculations. The final section discusses the basic assumptions underlying the model.

Taylor, D.; Euritt, M.; Mahmassani, H.

1992-10-01

180

Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model which aims to reproduce the mean and variance of dynamic loading of the truck fleet at a given site is developed here. This probabilistic model reflects the range and frequency of the different heavy trucks on the road and their dynamic properties. Multiple Sensor Weigh-in-Motion data can be used to calibrate the model. Truck properties such as suspension stiffness, suspension damping, sprung mass, unsprung mass and tyre stiffness are represented as randomly varying parameters in the fleet model. It is used to predict the statistical distribution of dynamic load at each measurement point. The concept is demonstrated by using a pre-defined truck fleet to calculate a pattern of statistical spatial repeatability and is tested by using that pattern to find the truck statistical properties that generated it.

Belay, Abraham; OBrien, Eugene; Kroese, Dirk

2008-04-01

181

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

182

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

183

A novel alternative for renal replacement therapy: 2-year successful colonic dialysis via a Malone antegrade continent enema stoma.  

PubMed

This study is a case report of home-based colonic dialysis (CD) for treating end-stage renal disease in a 20-year-old woman. She had a history of Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) for treating neuropathic bowel at the age of 11 years. The patient refused any type of renal replacement therapy. However, she agreed to CD through the MACE stoma by changing the colonic irrigation solution to the peritoneal dialysis solution. The patient was discharged with a plasma creatinine (Cr) level of 1.7 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 8 mg/dL. She has continued CD on a regular basis at home. The patient's serum Cr and BUN has remained in the steady low state during 24 months of follow-up (mean Cr level = 2.8 mg/dL and mean BUN level = 10.7 mg/dL). PMID:24345419

Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; NaserHodjjati, Haleh; Tourchi, Ali

2014-06-01

184

Biosynthesis of Dolichyl Phosphate  

PubMed Central

This is the first report not only on the presence of polyprenyl phosphates and their site of synthesis in algae, but also on the formation of their sugar derivatives in this system. A glucose acceptor lipid was isolated from the nonphotosynthetic alga Prototheca zopfii. The lipid was acidic and resistant to mild acid and alkaline treatments. The glucosylated lipid was labile to mild acid hydrolysis and resistant to phenol treatment and catalytic hydrogenation, as dolichyl phosphate glucose is. These results are consistent with the properties of an ?-saturated polyprenyl phosphate. The polyprenylic nature of the lipid was confirmed by biosynthesis from radioactive mevalonate. The [14C]lipid had the same chromatographic properties as dolichyl phosphate in DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex LH-20. Strong alkaline treatment and enzymic hydrolysis liberated free alcohols with chain lengths ranging from C90 to C105, C95 and C100 being the most abundant molecular forms. The glucose acceptor activity of the biosynthesized polyprenyl phosphate was confirmed. The ability of different subcellular fractions to synthesize dolichyl phosphate was studied. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus were the sites of dolichyl phosphate synthesis from mevalonate. PMID:16660269

Hopp, H. Esteban; Daleo, Gustavo R.; Romero, Pedro A.; Lezica, Rafael Pont

1978-01-01

185

Osteoinduction by calcium phosphate biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different materials were implanted in muscles of dogs to study the osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials. Bone formation was only seen in calcium phosphate biomaterials with micropores, and could be found in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic, tricalcium phosphate\\/hydroxyapatite ceramic (BCP), ß-TCP ceramic and calcium phosphate cement. The osteoinductive potential was different in different materials. The results indicate that osteoinduction can be

Huipin Yuan; Zongjian Yang; Yubao Li; Xingdong Zhang; J. D. De Bruijn; K. De Groot

1998-01-01

186

Phosphate/hexose 6-phosphate antiport in Streptococcus lactis.  

PubMed

After growth in appropriate media, resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 7962 showed a rapid exchange between external and internal pools of inorganic phosphate. This exchange was not found in other strains of S. lactis (ML3, 133, or K1) or in Streptococcus faecalis. Phosphate exchange in S. lactis 7962 did not require other anions or cations in the assay medium, nor was phosphate influx affected by the membrane potential and pH gradient formed during glycolysis. Thus, the exchange reaction was independent of known ionic drivers (H+, Na+, OH-, etc.). Experiments testing inhibitions of phosphate entry suggested that alternative substrates for exchange included arsenate, as well as the 6-phosphates of glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, fructose, mannose, or glucosamine, and direct studies with 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate verified that resting cells could accumulate this sugar phosphate to levels expected for exchange with internal phosphate. Two other observations supported the idea of an exchange between phosphate and sugar phosphate. First, early addition of the heterologous substrate blocked entry of the test compound, whereas later addition caused efflux of preaccumulated material. Second, expression of phosphate exchange and 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate transport varied in parallel. Both activities were found at high levels after growth in medium supplemented with rhamnose or arabinose, at intermediate levels with addition of galactose, and at low levels after growth with glucose, fructose, or mannose. We conclude that these findings describe a novel anion antiporter that mediates the exchange of phosphate (arsenate) and sugar 6-phosphates. PMID:6325388

Maloney, P C; Ambudkar, S V; Thomas, J; Schiller, L

1984-04-01

187

Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

2009-09-01

188

Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.

2014-01-01

189

Oral fleet ® phospho ® soda laxative-induced hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany in an adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to report an adverse outcome of the routine use of Fleet® Phospho®-Soda for bowel cleansing and to review the available literature. METHOD: Report of a case and review of the literature is presented. RESULT: Administration of Fleet® Phospho®Soda for bowel preparation in an adult resulted in hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany. Review of the literature shows

Petar Vukasin; Lynn A. Weston; Robert W. Beart

1997-01-01

190

The Kneed Walker for Human Pose Tracking Marcus A. Brubaker David J. Fleet  

E-print Network

The Kneed Walker for Human Pose Tracking Marcus A. Brubaker David J. Fleet Department of Computer Science University of Toronto {mbrubake,fleet}@cs.toronto.edu Abstract The Kneed Walker is a physics tracking comprises the Kneed Walker prior, a 3D kinematic model constrained to be consistent

Toronto, University of

191

Coordination and Control of UAV Fleets using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis considers two important topics in the coordination and control of fleets of UAVs; the allocation and trajectory design problems The first allocates waypoints to individual vehicles in the fleet, and includes constraints on vehicle capability, waypoint visitation, and visit timing Formulations of the allocation problem are presented to find minimum mission completion time and maximum stochastic expectation

John Saunders Bellingham

2002-01-01

192

Green Fleet of Fuel Cell Powered Light Utility Vehicles: An Energy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insights into the feasibility of clean energy sources for light utility vehicles (LUVs). First, energy analysis for the fleet of LUVs for a small college are presented. Secondly, the energy implications for a larger (>100) fleet of LUVs, and finally for the whole of the United States are presented. The technologies discussed include producing pure hydrogen, leaving

William A. Hornfeck; Shailesh Shrestha

2008-01-01

193

Economic impact of the integration of alternative vehicle technologies into the New Zealand vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-regional integrated energy systems model is developed to assess the economic impact of hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen internal combustion, and battery electric technologies on the economy of New Zealand. Base case results suggest that a hydrogen fuel dominant vehicle fleet offers economic savings over a conventional fleet but requires the largest sequestration capacity as 75% of hydrogen fuel production

Jonathan Leaver; Kenneth Gillingham

2010-01-01

194

Establishing an approach to systematically improve the effectiveness of fleet support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of technologies that support the implementation of condition based maintenance and autonomic logistics systems motivate the examination of the support systems associated with existing fleets of military and commercial aircraft with the goal of improving fleet performance. This paper describes an approach to answer the question of where one should invest to achieve the greatest return in an

Javier Cortez; Kirby Keller; James Poblete

2008-01-01

195

33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165...Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The...is a security zone: the waters of San Diego Bay extending approximately 100 feet from the...

2010-07-01

196

Assessment of Inlet Cooling to Enhance Output of a Fleet of Gas Turbines  

E-print Network

potential power increase for the gas turbine fleet is 7.39% at $265/HP. Since the gas turbine fleet consists of small units, the installation cost is much higher than a typical cost of $34~60/HP for installing an inlet fogging system on a gas turbine larger...

Wang, T.; Braquet, L.

2008-01-01

197

76 FR 30014 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This safety zone is necessary to promote...typically occurs on a Wednesday during the last week of July or the first week in August...

2011-05-24

198

40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject...Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

2011-07-01

199

40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject...Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject...Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

2012-07-01

201

The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play a critical role in the collection of oceanographic, atmospheric, hydrographic, and fisheries data. NOAA's current fleet of 16  

E-print Network

in the Northeast and ending in the Pacific. Office of Marine and Aviation Operations' (OMAO) Ships and CentersThe following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play's current fleet of 16 ships � the largest civilian research and survey fleet in the world � and nine

202

The following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play a critical role in the collection of oceanographic, atmospheric, hydrographic, and fisheries data. NOAA's current fleet of 16  

E-print Network

and ending in the Pacific. Office of Marine and Aviation Operations' (OMAO) Ships and CentersThe following update provides the status of NOAA's fleet of ships and aircraft, which play's current fleet of 16 ships � the largest civilian research and survey fleet in the world � and nine

203

A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil,

Maria A. Gasalla; Amanda R. Rodrigues; Luis F. A. Duarte; U. Rashid Sumaila

2010-01-01

204

75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA AGENCY: Coast...Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict vessel...spectators and participants attending Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Delaying the...

2010-06-21

205

77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration...and City of San Francisco sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight...the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels...

2012-10-01

206

Magnesium phosphate treatment for steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New phosphate solution has been developed to treat the steel surfaces against the corrosion as well as a base for organic paint to improve the adhesion property between the topcoat and base metal. The solution is mainly composed of magnesium phosphate salts containing Ca, Ni and Mn metal ions. Magnesium phosphate layer was successively deposited on low carbon steel by

M. F. Morks

2004-01-01

207

An alternative fuels evaluation system for fleet vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a fuel-neutral, broad-based, automated evaluated system for comparing new alternative fuels and technologies to existing gasoline and diesel vehicles. Developed by Denver's Department of Health and Hospitals, the evaluation system provides fleet managers and policy makers with a tool for weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the major fuel alternatives (compressed natural gas, electricity, ethanol, methanol, LPG, and blended fuels). The results are available by category (e.g., emissions, national security), in a box score'' of sorts, which compares all the categories against each other. The system does not provide a definitive statement on how various fuels compare to gasoline or diesel. Rather, it can produce any number of comparisons based on the best available data and a weighting priority as determined by the user. 85 refs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

208

Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 2: Payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payloads for NASA and non-NASA missions of the integrated fleet are analyzed to generate payload data for the capture and cost analyses for the period 1979 to 1990. Most of the effort is on earth satellites, probes, and planetary missions because of the space shuttle's ability to retrieve payloads for repair, overhaul, and maintenance. Four types of payloads are considered: current expendable payload; current reusable payload; low cost expendable payload, (satellite to be used with expendable launch vehicles); and low cost reusable payload (satellite to be used with the space shuttle/space tug system). Payload weight analysis, structural sizing analysis, and the influence of mean mission duration on program cost are also discussed. The payload data were computerized, and printouts of the data for payloads for each program or mission are included.

1971-01-01

209

An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

2014-01-01

210

An optimization method for condition based maintenance of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty.  

PubMed

An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

Feng, Qiang; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

2014-01-01

211

Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer  

DOEpatents

A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

Goldstein, Alan H. (Beverly Hills, CA); Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

212

Analysis of influence of baicalin joint resveratrol retention enema on the TNF-?, SIgA, IL-2, IFN-? of rats with respiratory syncytial virus infection.  

PubMed

Explore the influence of baicalin joint resveratrol retention enema on TNF-?, SIgA, IL-2, and IFN-? of rats with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The 60 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, and ribavirin group. For model group, baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, and ribavirin group, rats were given RSV virus suspension intranasally for 3 days, and model group was not given administration. Baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, and ribavirin group were, respectively, given baicalin 100 mg/kg/day, resveratrol 30 mg/kg/day, baicalin joint resveratrol, and ribavirin 1 g/kg/day retention enema. After continuously given administration 7 days, rats were measured in serum TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-? levels and SIgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Model group, TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than the normal group (P < 0.05); Baicalin group, resveratrol group, ribavirin group, TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than the model group (P < 0.05); TNF-?, IL-2 between baicalin group, resveratrol group, ribavirin group, have no significant difference (P > 0.05); Baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than the ribavirin group (P < 0.05); Joint group TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than baicalin group, resveratrol group, and ribavirin group (P < 0.05). Baicalin joint resveratrol retention enema can increase RSV infection model in rats serum TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-? levels and SIgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which may anti-virus through this mechanism. PMID:24938899

Cheng, Kebin; Wu, Zhenghua; Gao, Beilan; Xu, Jinfu

2014-11-01

213

77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for...consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets...mandatory increases in annual alternative fuel consumption for Federal...

2012-03-12

214

77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for...consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets...calculating the fiscal year 2005 alternative fuel consumption baseline...

2012-03-28

215

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section...105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

2014-07-01

216

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section...105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

2011-07-01

217

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section...105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

2013-07-01

218

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section...105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

2012-07-01

219

41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.  

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01... Notice of establishment of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section...104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

2014-07-01

220

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we...

2010-07-01

221

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we...

2011-01-01

222

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we...

2012-01-01

223

41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we...

2013-07-01

224

76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...removing a security zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. The existing zone is around the former...

2011-01-11

225

41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section...105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

2010-07-01

226

Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphates are used by our body to build bones and are being applied to produce biomaterials for bone repair. It is\\u000a well-known that calcium phosphate biomaterials guide new bone formation, form a tight bond with the newly formed bone, and\\u000a are therefore, by definition, osteoconductive. Besides their osteoconductive property, it was found that calcium phosphate\\u000a biomaterials, only with specific

Huipin Yuan; KLAAS DE GROOT

227

Fleet matching performance for multiple registration measurement tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimisation and inverse lithography. These requirements trend to full in-die measurement capability of photomask metrology for registration. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which is already well established in the market. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. A key component for registration tool users is the cross site manufacturing flexibility given by the matching capability of all its metrology tools. Therefore all PROVE tools offer a tool matching procedure based on 2D Golden Grid references. In this paper we first review the optimal length standard and golden grid matching procedures of modern registration metrology tools. Systematic errors in fleet matching based on illumination differences, thermal expansionbased issues or line width roughness are addressed. The tool matching performance of PROVE tools is demonstrated by comparing up to 7 different tools. All tools are well within accuracy and long-term repeatability specification which considerably reduces the statistical error contribution of the tool matching performance. For grid matched tools the final cross tool registration error is shown to be below 1nm.

Beyer, D.; Bläsing, C.; Boehm, K.; Heisig, S.; Seidel, D.

2013-09-01

228

Mixed fleet assessment for on-orbit consumables resupply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant increases in the cost effectiveness and operational flexibility of in-space systems can be realized when the capability to replenish consumable fluids and propellants is incorporated into the designs of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and laboratories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellants to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the Space Station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks have been depleted. This paper documents the impacts of a mixed fleet approach to consumables logistics to orbit. Both storable fluids and propellants, and superfluid helium, are considered. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants and water for Space Station propulsion are discussed. Trade-offs in superfluid helium tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6 months) space-basing, are addressed.

Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.

1988-01-01

229

Electric vehicle fleet operations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively supporting the development and commercialization of advanced electric vehicles, batteries, and propulsion systems. As part of this effort, the DOE Field Operations Program is performing commercial validation testing of electric vehicles and supporting the development of an electric vehicle infrastructure. These efforts include the evaluation of electric vehicles in baseline performance, accelerated reliability, and fleet operations testing. The baseline performance testing focuses on parameters such as range, acceleration, and battery charging. This testing, performed in conjunction with EV America, has included the baseline performance testing of 16 electric vehicle models from 1994 through 1997. During 1997, the Chevrolet S10 and Ford Ranger electric vehicles were tested. During 1998, several additional electric vehicles from original equipment manufacturers will also be baseline performance tested. This and additional information is made available to the public via the Program`s web page (http://ev.inel.gov/sop). In conjunction with industry and other groups, the Program also supports the Infrastructure Working Council in its development of electric vehicle communications, charging, health and safety, and power quality standards. The Field Operations Program continues to support the development of electric vehicles and infrastructure in conjunction with its qualified vehicle test partners: Electric Transportation Applications, and Southern California Edison. The Field Operations Program is managed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; O`Hara, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-03-01

230

Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

2006-06-01

231

Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock  

E-print Network

Kyanite Lead Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Graphite Peat Sulfur Beryllium Gypsum Perlite Talc Bismuth Hafnium Phosphate Rock Tantalum Boron Helium

Torgersen, Christian

232

21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium...

2014-04-01

233

A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South Brazil Bight, for ecosystem modeling policy optimization routines, and for a pragmatic ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

2010-10-01

234

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

235

Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

1975-01-01

236

Quality control in production of suspensions from solid ammonium phosphates (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate). [Monoammonium phosphate; diammonium phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Suspensions of good quality can be produced from MAP and DAP. Suspension quality depends on the amount of impurities in the ammonium phosphate solids used. Tests have shown that adding ammonium fluoride helps lower viscosity of suspensions containing a considerable amount of impurities. Also, adding polyphosphates (such as 10-34-0, 9-32-0, and 11-37-0) as a source of part of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (6 to 15% polyphosphate in the product) helps to produce a suspension that has excellent storage characteristics. When the polyphosphate content of the product (11-33-0 suspension) is between 10 and 15% it usually will not solidify during cold weather storage. Freight and production costs of granular ammonium phosphates are relatively low compared to other sources of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for the fluid fertilizer market; therefore, using MAP and DAP to produce suspensions is expected to continue to grow in popularity. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Achorn, F.P.; Balay, H.L.

1982-01-01

237

Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate  

E-print Network

zirconium phosphate as for n zirconium phosphate, The unit cell dimensions were determined by electron diffraction to be a = 5. 376 + 0. 002 A, b 6 . 636 + 0 . 004 A, c = 24 . 56 + 0 . 01 X, and 0 8 = 93. 94 + 0. 05' [9] . The interlayer spacing is 12. 3... of ethylene oxide on the fact that it esterifies phosphoric acid. He placed 0. 3 g samples of Y-zirconium phosphate into glass tubes with 40 ml of ethylene oxide solutions ranging in concentration from 0. 5 M to 5 M. These mixtures were shaken for varying...

Fine, Steven Beryl

2012-06-07

238

Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

2013-09-30

239

Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 5: Mission, capture and operations analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current baseline mission model consists of the DOD Option B prepared for space transportation system mission analysis and a NASA model prepared for the integrated operations /payloads/ fleet analysis. Changes from the previous mission model are discussed, and additional benefits of the reusable space shuttle system are identified. The methodology and assumptions used in the capture analysis are described, and satellite and launch vehicle traffic models for the current and low cost expendable launch vehicle systems and the reusable space shuttle system are presented. The areas of fleet sizing, limitations and abort modes, system ground support requirements, and ground support systems assessment are covered. Current and extended launch azimuth limitations used for both ETR and WTR are presented for the current and low cost expendable vehicles and also the reusable space shuttle system. The results of a survey of launch support capability for the launch vehicle fleets are reported.

1971-01-01

240

Selection and implementation of a flagship fleet in a locally undervalued region of high endemicity.  

PubMed

Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two birds, the turca (Pteroptochos megapoidius) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the Chilean iguana (Calopistes palluma), the tarantula (Grammostola mollicoma), and two trees, the litre (Lithrea caustica) and the espino (Acacia caven). We then describe how these flagships can be deployed most effectively, describing their audience, effective narrative frames, and modes of presentation. We conclude that general selection rules paired with social science background data allow for an efficient selection process. PMID:23479265

Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

2013-10-01

241

Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 2: part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study addresses both ground operational data and technical requirements that span the Tug planning phase and operations phase. A similar study covering mission operations (by others) provides the complimentary flight operations details. The two studies provide the planning data requirements, resource allocation, and control milestones for supporting the requirements of the STS program. This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study incorporates the basic ground operations requirements and concepts provided by previous studies with the interrelationships of the planning, IUS transition, and Tug fleet operations phases. The interrelationships of these phases were studied as a system to optimize overall program benefits and minimize operational risk factors.

1975-01-01

242

Energy use and taxation policy in the New Zealand car fleet  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the composition of the New Zealand car fleet and the relationship between design factors, fleet composition, vehicle useage and fuel consumption. The indirect energy content of the vehicle and roadway are discussed. Existing and potential Government policy instruments for promoting fuel economy in the car fleet are discussed and evaluated. The report conclusions favor flat rate sales tax on vehicles regardless of engine size together with an appropriate level of petrol tax in preference to taxation that varies with vehicle size or engine capacity. A review of hire purchase regulations is proposed. Prior to publication of this report the Industries Development Commission Plan for the motor vehicle industry was released which proposes changes to the tariff, taxation and credit purchase regime applying to motor vehicles. These changes are summarized.

Not Available

1984-02-01

243

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, and other important data. In general, FNMOC strives to treat the air-ocean environment as a fully integrated system, from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, placing special emphasis on the air-ocean interface. FNMOC also hosts the USGODAE Server (see http://www.usgodae.org). Ongoing development of this system is being done through a partnership of FNMOC and NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Lab (PMEL), with oversight from the U.S. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Steering Committee and funding from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The USGODAE Server hosts in-situ oceanographic data, atmospheric forcing fields suitable for driving ocean models and unique GODAE data sets, including demonstration ocean model products. The USGODAE Server contains fixed and drifting buoy data, bathythermograph data, PALACE float data, ship data and CMAN data. It also includes TOPEX, GFO, and ERS altimeter data, AVHRR SST retrievals, DMSP sea ice concentration retrievals and meteorological observations. The USGODAE Server also functions as one of two global repositories or Global Data Assembly Centers (GDACs) for data from the Argo global array of temperature/salinity profiling floats. Included in these online data sets are those from Canada (MEDS) with 67 floats and 1900 station files from April 2001 to present, Japan (JMA) with 97 floats and 2700 station files from April 2000 to present, and the U.S. (AOML) with 304 floats and 9800 station files from August 1997 to present, and France (CORIOLIS) with 121 floats and 5396 station files from early 2001 to present. On the USGODAE Server the Argo GDAC Web Interface allows users to easily select data based on time, region, Data Assembly Center (DAC), or float ID. Users can download float profile files, trajectory files, or technical data files. The atmospheric forcing fields hosted on the USGODAE Server are from both FNMOC and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The FNMOC fields include o

Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

2003-04-01

244

Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited diseases of renal phosphate handling lead to urinary phosphate wasting and depletion of total body phosphorus stores. Clinical sequelae of inherited disorders that are associated with increased urinary phosphate excretion are deleterious and can lead to abnormal skeletal growth and deformities. This Review describes hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting taking into account developments in our understanding of renal

Robert F. Reilly; Amir S. Alizadeh Naderi

2010-01-01

245

Navy nurse anesthetists at Fleet Hospital Five: the Desert Shield/Storm experience.  

PubMed

In 1990, the United States Navy deployed its first operational fleet hospital: "Fleet Hospital Five" in support of Operation Desert Shield/Storm. Within 2 weeks of notification, the 900 medical providers assigned to this medical facility, which was capable of providing major trauma surgery and critical care, were on their way to Al Jabayl, Saudi Arabia. This article discusses the unique characteristics of this facility and introduces the crucial role that nurse anesthetists play. The article also introduces several innovative ideas that were developed and tested to expand the capabilities of the hospital. PMID:12755187

Hrezo, Richard J

2003-06-01

246

Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

2009-05-01

247

Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

Butler, Roy E.

1991-01-01

248

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

249

Conventional vs Electric Commercial Vehicle Fleets 1 Paper published in the Proceedings of "The Seventh International Conference on City Logistics"  

E-print Network

Conventional vs Electric Commercial Vehicle Fleets 1 Paper published in the Proceedings of "The ­ 9th June 2011 CONVENTIONAL VS ELECTRIC COMMERCIAL VEHICLE FLEETS A CASE STUDY OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ELECTRIC COMMERCIAL VEHICLES IN THE USA Wei Feng, Ph

Bertini, Robert L.

250

A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

251

33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting...Coast Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting...The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The Turning Basin west of...

2014-07-01

252

WORK RELATED MORTALITY AMONG MERCHANT SEAFARERS EMPLOYED IN UK ROYAL FLEET AUXILLARY SHIPPING FROM 1976 TO 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Over 2300 merchant seafarers are currently employed on board UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ships. However, little is known about work related mortality among these seafarers, and whether it is lower than among seafarers in merchant fleets. Objectives : To establish the causes and circumstances of all work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in RFA ships

STEPHEN E. ROBERTS; PETER B. MARLOW

253

Statistics of the French purse seine fishing fleet targeting tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean (1981-2011)  

E-print Network

Statistics of the French purse seine fishing fleet targeting tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean 171, 34 203 S`ete Cedex, FRANCE b Institut de Recherche pour le D´eveloppement, Seychelles Fishing Authority, BP 570, Victoria, SEYCHELLES Abstract In 2011, the French purse seine fishing fleet of the Indian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2011-07-01

255

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2013-07-01

256

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2012-07-01

257

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

...2013-07-01 true Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2014-07-01

258

Car survival in a national car fleet : non-parametric and parametric approaches applied to French data. KOLLI, Zhir; DUPONT, Ariane ; HIVERT, Laurent.  

E-print Network

Car survival in a national car fleet : non-parametric and parametric approaches applied to French CAR SURVIVAL IN A NATIONAL CAR FLEET: NON-PARAMETRIC AND PARAMETRIC APPROACHES APPLIED TO FRENCH DATA demographic conditions and variables that affect light cars survival in the national fleet. The essential aim

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

GREAT II Fleeting Survey for the Commercial Transportation Work Group of the Great River Environmental Action Team (GREAT II) Rock Island District Corps of Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey objectives were: to identify areas used for fleeting within the Rock Island District, Corps of Engineers; to document and evaluate the physical condition of fleeting areas; and to identify the impact of fleeting and assess shoreline damage in f...

W. Hines

1979-01-01

260

Visual Mining and Statistics for a Turbofan Engine Fleet Jrme Lacaille  

E-print Network

1 Visual Mining and Statistics for a Turbofan Engine Fleet Jérôme Lacaille Snecma Etablissement de of engines. Every day, data from aircraft engines are broadcasted to the ground. Some airlines companies rely on their engine manufacturer to control the engines' behavior and help prepare for maintenance scheduling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Fleet survey team: Providing operational hydrography to the U.S. Navy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established in 2005, the U.S. Navy Fleet Survey Team (FST) is an organization that enables Theater combatant commanders worldwide with access in the littoral regions through operational hydrography. When forces are armed with detailed descriptions of the environmental conditions they could face, operations have a greater chance of being safely and efficiently executed. FST gathers the needed information via timely,

R. R. Delgado

2009-01-01

262

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

NONE

1997-06-01

263

Evidence for Ph Insensitivity in Some Insects Inhabiting Peat Pools in the Loch Fleet Catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of liming on the insects associated with peat pools was studied in the Loch Fleet catchment in 1991 and 1992. Fifty-six taxa were identified from 121 timed samples. Despite the raised pH associated with liming in 1986, the population densities of Odonata, Hemiptera and Coleoptera appeared to be unaffected when compared with those of untreated peat pools in

G. N. Foster

1995-01-01

264

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2010-07-01

265

Online Role Play as a Complementary Learning Design for the First Fleet Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedagogically, databases of primary source data provide students with a learning experience based on the inquiry learning model however, observations of students and teachers in the past 20 years have indicated that database searching is shallow and investigation perfunctory. Before, we could have blamed unwieldy search engines. The online version of the First Fleet Database has removed this obstacle, but

Sandra Wills; A. Ip

2002-01-01

266

Utilizing fleet-driven metrics to identify and forecast system degrader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) is responsible for cradle-to-grave development and support of Aircraft Launch and Recovery Equipment (ALRE). As this equipment and its associated development, maintenance, and support become increasingly complex, and the budgetary pressures facing the Navy become increasingly strong, there arises a need for an Integrated Support Environment (ISE) for ALRE. For the Fleet, the ISE streamlines

Crystal Wagner; Mike Burger; Gail Edwards

2010-01-01

267

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

268

A chance constrained programming model for short-term liner ship fleet planning problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with a short-term Liner Ship Fleet Planning (LSFP) problem with cargo shipment demand uncertainty for a single liner container shipping company. The cargo shipment demand uncertainty enables us to propose a chance constraint for each liner service route, which guarantees that the liner service route can satisfy the customers’ demand at least with a predetermined probability. Assuming

Qiang Meng; Tingsong Wang

2010-01-01

269

Airline Fleet Maintenance: Trade-off Analysis of Alternate Aircraft Maintenance Approaches  

E-print Network

Airline Fleet Maintenance: Trade-off Analysis of Alternate Aircraft Maintenance Approaches Mike; for airlines to be profitable, companies must maximize passenger and cargo traffic flow, minimize expenses the profitability of airlines, including direct and indirect maintenance costs, increasing complexity of aircraft

270

1 THE LIGHT-DUTY-VEHICLE FLEET'S EVOLUTION: 2 ANTICIPATING PHEV ADOPTION AND GREENHOUSE GAS  

E-print Network

patterns ­ and associated petroleum use 33 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ­ can change under different EMISSIONS ACROSS THE U.S. FLEET 4 5 Binny M. Paul 6 Graduate Research Assistant 7 The University of Texas, Architectural and Environmental Engineering 15 The University of Texas at Austin ­ 6.9 E. Cockrell Jr. Hall 16

Kockelman, Kara M.

271

Applying online fleet driver assessment to help identify, target and reduce occupational road safety risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown that driver attitude and behaviour are important determinants of the likelihood of collision involvement. Knowledge of the Rules of the Road and the perception of hazards are also associated with collision involvement. The aim of this paper is to review the practical application of an online fleet driver assessment program to help identify, target and reduce

Phil Darby; Will Murray; Robert Raeside

2009-01-01

272

33 CFR 165.1333 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA.  

...District § 165.1333 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet...following areas are security zones: all navigable waters within...Captain of the Port (COTP) zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-10, during a time specified in paragraph...

2014-07-01

273

Optimizing Multibeam Data Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam sonars are fundamental mapping tools for a wide range of oceanographic studies throughout the global oceans. Initially installed on only a few academic research vessels, they have become standard sensors across global- and ocean-class ships in the U.S. academic research fleet. While ongoing efforts including the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R, http://rvdata.us) and the Global Multi-Resolution Topography Synthesis (GMRT, http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt) are focused on data documentation, preservation, synthesis and dissemination, the Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC, http://mac.unols.org) was recently established with the primary goal of optimizing multibeam data quality during acquisition. Our strategy is to engage operators, technical specialists and users to develop common protocols, guidelines and tools for use across the fleet. Technical teams are focused on specific aspects of multibeam sonar operation and maintenance, including Sea Acceptance, Acoustic Noise, and Quality Assurance. Key to our effort is working with the community of stakeholders to ensure that protocols and tools suit the needs of the community and can be easily implemented across the fleet. Although MAC efforts are initially focused on deep water systems in the US Academic Research Fleet, we recognize that our community of stakeholders is much broader and also includes operators and users of shallow water. All MAC-generated reports, guidelines and software tools, as well as links to related online resources are being made publicly available through the MAC website (http://mac.unols.org).

Ferrini, V.; Beaudoin, J.; Johnson, P. D.

2012-12-01

274

Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

2009-01-01

275

TDRS-L JoinS The FLeeT National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

TDRS-L JoinS The FLeeT National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 9 Issue 18 at the start of a three-month checkout by its manufacturer, Boe- ing Space and Intelligence Systems of El Segundo, Calif. NASA will conduct additional tests before putting TDRS-L into service. "TDRS

Christian, Eric

276

Systematic Improvement of Fleet Operations by Integrating Enterprise Health and Maintenance Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The punch line of the paper is the use of the theory of constraints by Goldratt to iteratively improve the process of maintaining a fleet of aircraft. The idea is to treat support as a process rather than doing the typical analysis and focus on improving the individual elements of the process without considering the effects on the process as

J. Cortez; K. Keller; J. Poblete

2008-01-01

277

Reliability-Growth Analysis of Wind Turbines from Fleet Field Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of failure data for complex and commercially relevant systems, like wind turbines, is often restricted to a few publicly accessible databases, which collect failures in grouped form for entire fleets of units. Despite the deficiencies of this data, reliability-growth analysis methods do allow the extraction of reliability trends over an observed period. The analysis can also differentiate between

Fabio Spinato; Peter Tavner

278

Network Topology and Time Criticality Effects in the Modularised Fleet Mix Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the interplay between network topology and time criticality in a military logistics system. A general goal of this work (and previous work) is to evaluate land transportation requirements or, more specifically, how to design appropriate fleets of military general service vehicles that are tasked with the supply and re-supply of military units dispersed in an

James M. Whitacre; Axel Bender; Stephen Baker; Qi Fan; Ruhul A. Sarker; Hussein A. Abbass

2009-01-01

279

New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.  

PubMed

Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

2014-01-01

280

IV 2005 paper #213 1 Abstract--We describe two prototype Remote Fleet  

E-print Network

location, in-car device integration, on-board diagnostic, remote fleet management I. INTRODUCTION he the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Department of Safety (NHDS). The CAT program has developed local and remote data in support of typical public-safety applications such as license and registration

New Hampshire, University of

281

49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fleet under the plan (i.e...description of the model type, including engine type and displacement...Canada for the model type: (b...covered by the plan, a list of...from imported engine to domestically...provide the model year in...

2012-10-01

282

49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fleet under the plan (i.e...description of the model type, including engine type and displacement...Canada for the model type: (b...covered by the plan, a list of...from imported engine to domestically...provide the model year in...

2011-10-01

283

49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fleet under the plan (i.e...description of the model type, including engine type and displacement...Canada for the model type: (b...covered by the plan, a list of...from imported engine to domestically...provide the model year in...

2013-10-01

284

Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.  

SciTech Connect

The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

Engi, Dennis

2006-10-01

285

The conversion of pyridoxine phosphate into pyridoxal phosphate in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

1. Evidence is presented for the presence of pyridoxine phosphate oxidase in aqueous extracts of Escherichia coli. Some comparison is made with pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. 2. Isoniazid and iproniazid were found to combine with pyridoxal phosphate, but isoniazid did not combine with either pyridoxamine phosphate or pyridoxine phosphate. Both oxidase activities were somewhat inhibited by benzylamine and putrescine, but not by phenethylamine or cadaverine. 3. The significance of pyridoxine phosphate oxidase in cell metabolism is discussed. PMID:14342514

Henderson, H. M.

1965-01-01

286

Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication  

SciTech Connect

The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

1986-04-01

287

Enzyme-catalysed synthesis of calcium phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biomimetic method is described for the precipitation of nanosized calcium phosphates using the alkaline phosphatase (EC\\u000a 3.1.3.1), which is responsible for hydrolysis of organic and inorganic phosphates in vivo. Buffered solutions containing glycerol-2-phosphate\\u000a and CaCl2 in addition to MgCl2 and the respective enzyme were prepared for calcium phosphate precipitation. The phosphate group of glycerol-2-phosphate\\u000a was cleaved through enzymatic hydrolysis. The

Christiane Hoffmann; Cordt Zollfrank; Günter Ziegler

2008-01-01

288

The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933  

E-print Network

X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

Sjöholm, B

2003-01-01

289

Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila  

E-print Network

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular ...

Schnall-Levin, Michael

290

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2010-04-01

291

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2012-04-01

292

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2011-04-01

293

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2013-04-01

294

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2014-04-01

295

Metal contents of phosphate rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of phosphate rocks (PRs) are mined around the world annually. The rocks are either applied directly to soils or manufactured to produce water?soluble phosphorus (P) fertilizers. In this study, we analyzed 12 PRs obtained from various deposits in Africa, United States, and Peru for total P, ten trace metals [cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lithium

M. A. Tabatabai

1994-01-01

296

An Octacalcium Phosphate Forming Cement  

PubMed Central

The osteoconductive and possibly osteoinductive characteristics of OCP increased the interest in preparation of bone graft materials that contain OCP in its composition. Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using a mixture of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with ?-TCP / DCPA molar ratio of 1/1 and distilled water or 0.5 mol / L phosphate aqueous solution (pH = 6.1 ± 0.1) as the cement liquid. Hardening time was (30 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with water and (5 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with phosphate solution. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity (P), and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the hardened specimens had been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d. In CPC specimens prepared with water, calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed and DTS and P were (9.03 ± 0.48) MPa and (37.05 ± 0.20) vol % after 1 d, respectively, and (9.15 ± 0.45) MPa and (37.24 ± 0.63) vol % after 3 d, respectively. In CPC specimens prepared with phosphate solution OCP and HA were formed and DTS and P were (4.38 ± 0.49) MPa and (41.44 ± 1.25) vol % after 1 d, respectively,(4.38 ± 0.29) MPa and (42.52 ± 2.15) vol % after 3 d, respectively, and (4.30 ± 0.60) MPa and (41.38 ± 1.65) vol % after 7 d, respectively. For each group DTS and P did not change with PLS immersion time. DTS was significantly higher and P was significantly lower for CPCs prepared with water. HA formation slightly increased with immersion time from 40 mass % after 1 d to 50 mass % after 3 d in CPCs prepared with water. OCP + HA formation increased with immersion time from 30 mass % after 1 d to 35 mass % after 3 d and to 45 mass % after 7 d in CPCs prepared with 0.5 mol / L phosphate solution. PMID:20976025

Markovic, M.; Chow, L. C.

2010-01-01

297

Thermochemical studies on amorphous calcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have indicated that synthetically-precipitated amorphous calcium phosphate, even though not a periodically regular structure, possesses a chemically definable local unit of structure. The present paper is a report of thermochemical studies performed to more clearly define this local chemical unit. Upon ignition in the absence of water, freezedried amorphous calcium phosphate preparations converted into crystalline ?-and\\/or ?-tricalcium phosphates.

E. D. EAglES

1970-01-01

298

Oral phosphate binders: History and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract,

Junichiro James Kazama

2009-01-01

299

Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce ...

Bandivadekar, Anup P

2008-01-01

300

Assessing deployment strategies for ethanol and flex fuel vehicles in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

Within the next 3-7 years the US light duty fleet and fuel supply will encounter what is commonly referred to as the "blend wall". This phenomenon describes the situation when more ethanol production has been mandated than ...

McAulay, Jeffrey L. (Jeffrey Lewis)

2009-01-01

301

Profile of motor-vehicle fleets in Atlanta 1994. Assessing the market for alternative-fuel vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the EIA survey of motorvehicle fleets, both private and municipal, in Atlanta. These data should be useful to those whose goal is to assist or participate in the early development of alternative-fuel vehicle markets. The data also should be useful to persons implementing motor-vehicle-related clean air programs or analyzing transportation energy use. Persons in the petroleum industry will find useful information regarding conventional fuels and the fuel-purchasing behavior of fleets.

NONE

1995-11-06

302

Patient satisfaction and quality of care at four diagnostic imaging procedures: mammography, double-contrast barium enema, abdominal ultrasonography and vaginal ultrasonography.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure patient satisfaction and to investigate the practical implications of monitoring the quality of care at four radiology procedures. A survey was conducted immediately after the examinations in eight radiology departments: 550 patients attending for mammography, 110 for double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), 97 for abdominal ultrasonography and 90 for vaginal ultrasonography. Outcome measures were seven questionnaire scales: pain, emotional distress, information received, staff's punctuality and technical ability, facilities, and general satisfaction. Response rate was 87 %. Multivariate regression analysis showed significant differences between procedures on all scales (p < 0.001). Differences considered to be of practical importance, i. e. >/= 7 scale points, were detected on five of the scales. Mammography and DCBE caused the most pain, and vaginal US and DCBE caused the most distress. The US procedures entailed dissatisfaction with information about the procedures. The DCBE patients recorded dissatisfaction with the staff's lack of punctuality, and these and the mammography patients recorded dissatisfaction with the facilities. The findings indicate a potential for improving patients' experiences. Several aspects of care, i. e. pain management, attention to the patient's emotional concerns, explanation of procedures, punctuality and quality of the facilities, can be improved. PMID:10460397

Loken, K; Steine, S; Laerum, E

1999-01-01

303

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments  

SciTech Connect

The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

Not Available

1982-02-01

304

Tower Crane Effective Life Assessment Based on Tower Crane Fleet Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a How to obtain and make full use of reliable working information of tower crane fleet effectively is still a problem. Here,\\u000a a monitoring system was built to help acquire tower crane working parameters and assess effective life. Firstly, based on\\u000a Visual Basic and SQL Server technology, parameters were collected through wireless transmission, and then classified, saved\\u000a and processed to get

Zeguang Han; Min Hu; Xinfang Song; Ruiqing Hao; Xijian Zheng

2010-01-01

305

INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2010-01-01

306

Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS\\/TR-01\\/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from

E. C. Hudson; Gordon Johnson; Delbert C. Summey; Helmut H. Portmann Jr.

2004-01-01

307

CAMERA-BASED LOCAL POSITIONING SYSTEM FOR MINIWORLD: A FLEET OF 25 SMALL AGV'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A fleet of scaled-down Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV's) is supervised and tracked as to position, heading and trajectory by a camera-based Local Positioning System® (LPS). LPS consists of one or more xyCatchers which together view the scene, where each xyCatcher® is a high-definition camera assembled with an embedded real-time image processor. This application is discussed after introducing some control

E. H. Furnée; J. F. van Baarlen; J. J. M. Evers; D. G. Lindeijer

2000-01-01

308

INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

309

United States navy fleet problems and the development of carrier aviation, 1929-1933  

E-print Network

, technically and administratively, a firm foundation developed for American carrier aviation during the interwar period, and that the United States viewed carriers as a means to protect the fleet against air attack during a hypothetical Pacific campaign... delayed their combat debut so that it was not until the last few months of the war that these aviation units finally saw service. Attacks against various land targets, conducted primarily by Marine 6...

Wadle, Ryan David

2005-11-01

310

How do demersal fishing fleets interact with aggregate extraction in a congested sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the aggregate extraction intensity and the distance to extraction sites on the distribution of fishing effort were investigated for a broad selection of French and English demersal fleets operating in the Eastern English Channel. The most prominent result was that most fleets fishing near to aggregate extraction sites were not deterred by extraction activities. The fishing effort of dredgers and potters could be greater adjacent to marine aggregates sites than elsewhere, and also positively correlated to extraction intensity with a lag of 0-9 months. The distribution of fishing effort of French netters remained consistent over the study period. However, it is of note that the fishing effort of netters has increased substantially in the impacted area of the Dieppe site (where it is correlated to extraction intensity with a lag of 6 months), while slightly decreasing in the intermediate and reference areas. The attraction of fishing fleets is likely due to a local temporary concentration of their main target species. However, knowledge of their life-history characteristics and habitat preferences suggests that some of these species could be particularly vulnerable to aggregate extractions in the longer term.

Marchal, Paul; Desprez, Michel; Vermard, Youen; Tidd, Alex

2014-08-01

311

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability  

SciTech Connect

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

NONE

1995-12-01

312

Impact of flywheel-energy-storage technology upon taxicab fleet operation in a large metropolitan city  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) into automotive vehicles has been under consideration for some time. Previous studies have suggested that FESS can yield substantial benefits in automotive vehicle operation, particularly for urban driving. An assessment of the impacts resulting from incorporation of FESS into automotive fleets in a large metropolitan city is described. Specifically, the case of taxicab fleet operation within New York City is examined. Unique features of taxicab fleets are noted and taxicab operational characteristics within New York City are detailed. Based upon available New York City operational data, a levelized life-cycle cost comparison between a standard internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) in present use as a taxicab and a projected FESS/ICEV taxicab is generated. Energy-savings and environmental benefits are discussed, and potential institutional barriers to FESS implementation are identified. The results obtained from this study generally emphasize the value of incorporating flywheel energy storage systems into future vehicles designed for taxicab use.

Krupka, M.C.; Jackson, S.V.

1981-01-01

313

Removal of phosphate by aluminum oxide hydroxide.  

PubMed

The development and manufacture of an adsorbent to remove phosphate ion for the prevention of eutrophication in lakes are very important. The characteristics of phosphate adsorption onto aluminum oxide hydroxide were investigated to estimate the adsorption isotherms, the rate of adsorption, and the selectivity of adsorption. Phosphate was easily adsorbed onto aluminum oxide hydroxide, because of the hydroxyl groups. The adsorption of phosphate onto aluminum oxide hydroxide was influenced by pH in solution: the amount adsorbed was greatest at pH 4, ranging with pH from 2 to 9. The optimum pH for phosphate removal by aluminum oxide hydroxide is 4. The selectivity of phosphate adsorption onto aluminum oxide hydroxide was evaluated based on the amount of phosphate ion adsorbed onto aluminum oxide hydroxide from several anion complex solutions. It is phosphate that aluminum oxide hydroxide can selectively adsorb. The selectivity of phosphate onto aluminum oxide hydroxide was about 7000 times that of chloride. This result indicated that the hydroxyl groups on aluminum oxide hydroxide have selective adsorptivity for phosphate and could be used for the removal of phosphate from seawater. PMID:16256465

Tanada, Seiki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Kawasaki, Naohito; Sakiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Takeo; Araki, Mamiko; Tamura, Takamichi

2003-01-01

314

Phosphate coatings on magnesium alloy AM60 part 1: study of the formation and the growth of zinc phosphate films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion protection by zinc phosphate conversion coating on magnesium alloy AM60 is studied. Three phosphatation solutions containing phosphoric acid, phosphate ions, nitrates and nitrites added with zinc and fluorides were used. Therefore, the present investigation aims to study the role of the phosphating bath components on the phosphating process and to enhance the possibility of obtaining phosphate layers on

L. Kouisni; M. Azzi; M. Zertoubi; F. Dalard; S. Maximovitch

2004-01-01

315

Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.  

PubMed

Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. PMID:24984987

McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

2014-01-01

316

Phosphate transport in the kidney.  

PubMed

In kidneys of mammals, filtered phosphate ions (Pi) are reabsorbed along the proximal tubules. Transcellular transport of phosphate is initiated by several apically localized sodium-dependent Pi cotransporters (Na/Pi-cotransporters) that belong to the SLC 20 (SLC20A2) and 34 (SLC34A1, SLC34A3) families. Apical abundance of these Na/Pi-cotransporters is adjusted by numerous hormones/phosphatonins and metabolic factors in order to adjust the extent of renal Pi reabsorption according to body needs. Acute hormonal regulation of Pi reabsorption occurs mainly by a change of the abundance of SLC34A1 (NaPi-IIa) via modulation of the interaction of NaPi-IIa with the PDZ-protein NHERF1. PMID:21170872

Murer, Heini; Biber, Jürg

2010-01-01

317

Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.  

PubMed

In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios. PMID:17412692

Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

2007-06-01

318

Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in cancer. S1P regulates processes such as inflammation, which can drive tumorigenesis; neovascularization, which provides cancer cells with nutrients and oxygen; and cell growth and survival. This occurs at multiple levels and involves S1P receptors, sphingosine kinases, S1P phosphatases and S1P lyase. This Review summarizes current research findings and examines

Nigel J. Pyne; Susan Pyne

2010-01-01

319

Tungstate-modified aluminium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tungstate-impregnated aluminium phosphate samples are prepared by varying the tungstate weight percent from 3 to 20 and characterised by XRD and N2-adsorption–desorption method. Surface areas are found to decrease with increase in tungstate loading. However, tungstate-loaded samples exhibit an increasing trend in acidity and catalytic activity. The sample with 10 wt.% tungstate loading shows highest dehydration and

K. M Parida; M Acharya; T Mishra

2000-01-01

320

Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

None

1980-01-01

321

Oral phosphate binders: history and prospects.  

PubMed

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract, or 3) if partially absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, it must be eliminated from circulation through a pathway other than urinary excretion, and 4) even if it accumulates in the body, it should not cause organ dysfunctions. Metal salt type oral phosphate binder is the most classical type of oral phosphate binders that includes aluminum hydroxide gel and lanthanum carbonate. These oral phosphate binders effectively adsorb phosphate ions, however, have a potential risk for accumulation and intoxication. Calcium salt type oral phosphate binder was the most widely prescribed oral phosphate binder in the last decade but is now believed to exert potential harm, favoring progression of vascular calcification through excessive intestinal calcium load. However, recent studies failed to detect an inferiority of calcium salt type oral phosphate binders as compared to non-calcium salt type oral phosphate binders in terms of mortality and/or morbidity of hemodialysis patients. Polymerized resin type is a safe and relatively effective oral phosphate binder, which is supported by many clinical evidences. However, it sometimes causes severe constipation, especially in Japanese patients. Among metal compound type oral phosphate binder, other promising compounds include boehmite-type aluminum and hydrotalcite-like compounds but they are not yet available in the clinical setting. PMID:19442621

Kazama, Junichiro James

2009-07-01

322

Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives  

E-print Network

]. Diethyl (2-(4-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl) phosphate (1,4-MNA DEP, 14b) was obtained, as shown in Scheme 1B, beginning with Friedel–Crafts acylation of 1-methoxynaphtha- lene (11) yielding 1-acetyl-4-methoxynaphthalene (12, 73%). ?... was characterized by the signals at ? 4.02 and 3.68 ppm and confirmed by FAB–MS (m/z 230) and comparison with an inde- pendently synthesized sample obtained from Friedel–Crafts alkylation of 1-methoxynaphthalene (11) with methyl bromo- acetate and ferric oxide [27...

Senadheera, Sanjeewa N.; Yousef, Abraham L.; Givens, Richard S.

2014-08-29

323

Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

Robles-Porras, H.

1985-01-01

324

Solubilization of rock phosphate by rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rape and sunflower were compared with respect to their rock phosphate mobilizing capacities, cationanion balance and uptake of Ca and NO3 at P-starvation. Rape was able to mobilize P from rock phosphate, whereas sunflower was not.When grown on a complete nutrient solution with NO3 as the only nitrogen source, both species took up more nutrient anions than cations. Withholding phosphate

Ellis Hoffland; Günter R. Findenegg; Jacob A. Nelemans

1989-01-01

325

Molecular Structure of Fructose-6-phosphate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fructose-6-Phosphate is a phosphorylated form of fructose which is commonly found in plant cells and animal tissues. In plant cells, it serves as an intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Calvin cycle. It is also present in animal tissues in an equilibrium mixture with glucose-6-phosphate. In human genetics, its gene symbol is GFPT1, and its locus is 2p13.

2003-05-08

326

The Nature of PO Bonds in the Precipitated Amorphous Calcium Phosphates and Calcium Magnesium Phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the P-O bonds in amorphous calcium phosphates and calcium magnesium phosphates precipitated from aqueous solutions of monophosphate in the presence of crystallization inhibitors (diphosphate and the magnesium salt) is studied by Raman spectroscopy.

V. A. Sinyayev; E. S. Shustikova; D. Griggs; D. V. Dorofeev

2005-01-01

327

Phosphate concentration in ophthalmic corticoid preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Topical preparations, high in phosphate, may cause calcification when used on a damaged corneal surface. The knowledge of\\u000a the phosphate concentration in medications helps to prevent corneal calcifications. Our study gives an overview of the amount\\u000a of phosphate contained in ophthalmic corticoid preparations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Samples of 38 commercially available corticoid preparations were tested. The quantification of phosphate was performed using\\u000a the

W. Bernauer; M. A. Thiel; K. M. Rentsch

2008-01-01

328

Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials  

PubMed Central

It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials. PMID:19280963

LC, Chow

2009-01-01

329

Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

1995-01-01

330

Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic-inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented.

Zhou, Weijia; He, Wen; Wang, Meiting; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Peng; Yan, Shunpu; Tian, Xiuying; Sun, Xianan; Han, Xiuxiu

2008-12-01

331

Spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses containing TiO2: Effect of gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pristine lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses and glasses of the same compositions containing TiO2 (0.25 ? 2.5%) were prepared. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of the prepared samples were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Optical spectra of these prepared glasses reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in lithium and zinc phosphate glasses while the broad UV bands in lead phosphate glasses were related to absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The TiO2-containing glasses reveal an extra two visible bands at about 550-580 and 680-740 nm due to the transitions 2B2g ? 2B1g and 2B2g ? 2A1g of distorted octahedral Ti3+ ions. The effects of gamma irradiation reveal variations, extended in the UV-visible region in the lithium phosphate while with lead phosphate and zinc phosphate samples the variations are restricted to UV spectra. The response to gamma irradiation on optical absorption has been analyzed for both the sharing of all glass constituents including trace iron impurities. Lead and zinc phosphate glasses reveal only induced UV bands from photochemical effect of trace iron impurities while lithium phosphate shows extra induced visible band due to positive holes. The effects of gamma irradiation on the IR spectra are limited to a slight decrease of the intensities for some IR bands. The IR spectra are observed to be slightly affected by the increase of TiO2 indicating the stability of the main phosphate network units and the shielding behavior of titanium ions.

Ghoneim, N. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Abo-Naf, S. M.; Moustafa, F. A.; ElBadry, Kh. M.

2013-03-01

332

On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.  

PubMed

Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions. PMID:21937087

Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

2011-11-15

333

An analysis of the costs of running a station car fleet  

SciTech Connect

Station cars are electric vehicles available at transit stations which may be used for transportation between the transit station and home, work, and/or for errands. This transportation service would be provided by the local transit agency. This report discusses an economic model of the costs of running a station car fleet. While some of these costs are highly uncertain, this analysis is a first look at the required user fees for full cost recovery. The model considers the capital costs of the vehicles and the required infrastructure; the annual fixed vehicle costs for insurance, registration, etc.; the mileage-based costs; and the annual non-vehicle costs for administration, infrastructure maintenance, etc. The model also includes various factors such as the fleet size, the annual mileage, the number of transit stations that would have facilities for station cars, and the number of users. The model specifically examines the cost of using of electric vehicles; however, for comparison, the cost of using a fleet of gasoline-powered vehicles also is calculated. This report examines the sensitivity of the model to the various factors. A principal conclusion from the analysis is that the largest cost contributor is the initial vehicle purchase price. For a given initial purchase price, the factor driving the user fee required for full cost recovery is the number of different daily users of a vehicle. The model also compares the annual cost of transportation using station cars and mass transit to the annual cost of solo commuting. If a station car is used by more than one person a day, and this use replaces the ownership of a conventional vehicle, the annual cost of transportation may be similar. However, for the base case assumptions, the station car user fee required for full cost recovery is higher than the cost of solo commuting.

Zurn, R.M.

1995-02-01

334

Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (?70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (?45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements for all vehicle types and a better understanding of vehicle utilization and superemitter fraction.

Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

2014-12-01

335

Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

2005-01-01

336

SAPIR collision alert system as part of IR MWS suite for helicopter fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAPIR system provides a suite of IR based situation awareness functions offered as add on system for ELISRA PAWS family of missile warning solutions. A major operational need for airborne platforms flying in formation is automatic collision alert capability. By using covert IR-MWS technology SAPIR passively tracks and monitors wingman position thereby enabling aircrew to focus on mission goals without compromising their safety. The paper presents results of operational problem study, system design and field testing demonstration of performance for SAPIR collision alert function targeting helicopter fleets.

Nadav, Shavit; Varsano, Louisa; Oz, Saar; Schlisselberg, Raanan

2009-05-01

337

Measurement of Serum Electrolytes and Phosphate After Sodium Phosphate Colonoscopy Bowel Preparation: An Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose was to observe the effects of sodium phosphate (NaP) colonoscopy preparation on serum electrolytes, phosphate, and calcium and to identify factors associated with any adverse effects. In an unselected group of 100 consecutive patients attending for out patient colonoscopy, 45% of patients had raised serum phosphate, which was positively correlated with creatinine and age. There was a negative

E. J. Ainley; P. J. Winwood; J. P. Begley

2005-01-01

338

The SLC37 Family of Sugar-Phosphate/Phosphate Exchangers  

PubMed Central

The SLC37 family members are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated sugar-phosphate/phosphate (Pi) exchangers. Three of the four members, SLC37A1, SLC37A2, and SLC37A4, function as Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters catalyzing G6P:Pi and Pi:Pi exchanges. The activity of SLC37A3 is unknown. SLC37A4, better known as the G6P transporter (G6PT), has been extensively characterized, functionally and structurally, and is the best characterized family member. G6PT contains 10 transmembrane helices with both N and C termini facing the cytoplasm. The primary in vivo function of the G6PT protein is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen where it couples with either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-? (G6Pase-? or G6PC) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-? (or G6PC3) to hydrolyze G6P to glucose and Pi. The G6PT/G6Pase-? complex maintains interprandial glucose homeostasis, and the G6PT/G6Pase-? complex maintains neutro-phil energy homeostasis and functionality. G6PT is highly selective for G6P and is competitively inhibited by cholorogenic acid and its derivatives. Neither SLC37A1 nor SLC37A2 can couple functionally with G6Pase-? or G6Pase-?, and the antiporter activities of SLC37A1 or SLC37A2 are not inhibited by cholorogenic acid. Deficiencies in G6PT cause glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), a metabolic and immune disorder. To date, 91 separate SLC37A4 mutations, including 39 missense mutations, have been identified in GSD-Ib patients. Characterization of missense mutations has yielded valuable information on functionally important residues in the G6PT protein. The biological roles of the other SLC37 proteins remain to be determined and deficiencies have not yet been correlated to diseases. PMID:24745989

Chou, Janice Y.; Mansfield, Brian C.

2014-01-01

339

Fleeting Smile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

Davidson, Sally

2006-01-01

340

Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein Inhibits Phosphate Transport  

PubMed Central

The role of putative humoral factors, known as phosphatonins, in phosphate homeostasis and the relationship between phosphate handling by the kidney and gastrointestinal tract are incompletely understood. Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), one of several candidate phosphatonins, promotes phosphaturia, but whether it also affects intestinal phosphate absorption is unknown. Here, using the in situ intestinal loop technique, we demonstrated that short-term infusion of MEPE inhibits phosphate absorption in the jejunum but not the duodenum. Simultaneous measurement of urinary phosphate excretion suggests that the phosphaturic action of MEPE correlates with a significant reduction in the protein levels of the renal sodium-phosphate co-transporter NaPi-IIa in the proximal convoluted tubules of the outer renal cortex, assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. This short-term inhibitory effect of MEPE on renal and intestinal phosphate handling occurred without any changes in circulating levels of parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or fibroblast growth factor 23. Taken together, these findings suggest that MEPE is a candidate phosphatonin involved in phosphate homeostasis, acting in both the kidney and the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19005008

Marks, Joanne; Churchill, Linda J.; Debnam, Edward S.; Unwin, Robert J.

2008-01-01

341

Was There Really an Archean Phosphate Crisis?  

E-print Network

Was There Really an Archean Phosphate Crisis? Kurt O. Konhauser,1 * Stefan V. Lalonde,1 Larry may have stripped dis- solved phosphate from the ocean's photic zone during the Archean (1), when coefficient (KD) value of about 0.06 mM-1 (2). However, compared with the modern ocean, the Archean ocean had

Konhauser, Kurt

342

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2011-04-01

343

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2012-04-01

344

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2013-04-01

345

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2014-04-01

346

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721...alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance...alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2012-07-01

347

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

349

40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). ...substance identified generically as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN...

2011-07-01

350

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

351

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

352

40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317 Section...Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject...

2012-07-01

353

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2013-07-01

354

Genetics Home Reference: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... June 2008 What is pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy? Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition ...

355

[Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].  

PubMed

The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency. PMID:24000629

Gavrilov, V V; Maza?kin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

2013-05-01

356

Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS/TR-01/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from a Joint perspective in USJFCOM Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) Report #03-10 (Unmanned Effects (UFX): Taking the Human Out of the Loop). Here, the authors build on this foundation by reviewing the major findings and laying out the roadmap for achieving the vision and truly transforming how we fight wars. The focus is on broad impact across the Fleet - but the implications reach across all Joint forces. The term "Unmanned System" means different things to different people. Most think of vehicles that are remotely teleoperated that perform tasks under remote human control. Actually, unmanned systems are stand-alone systems that can execute missions and tasks without direct physical manned presence under varying levels of human control - from teleoperation to full autonomy. It is important to note that an unmanned system comprises a lot more than just a vehicle - it includes payloads, command and control, and communications and information processing.

Hudson, E. C.; Johnson, Gordon; Summey, Delbert C.; Portmann, Helmut H., Jr.

2004-09-01

357

Alternative fuel vehicles for the state fleets: Results of the 5-year planning process  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the first attempt by the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with states to prepare five-year Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) acquisition plans to identify alternative fuels and vehicles that they are planning on or would like to acquire. The DOE Regional Support Offices (RSOs) met with representatives from the states in their regions and assisted in the preparation of the plans. These plans will be used in conjunction with previously gathered Federal five-year plans to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. By identifying the needs and requirements of state fleets, DOE can begin to describe the specific nature of the future state fleets, and establish a defined market for OEMs and fuel suppliers. DOE initiated the development and collection of the state five-year plans before the signing of the Energy Policy Act, to raise the awareness of states that they will be required by law to acquire AFVs. As a result, several states that had no AFV acquisition plan when queried have developed or are in the process of developing plans. The DOE and its RSOs are still working with the states to develop and refine acquisition plans, and this report should be treated as documentation of work in progress.

Not Available

1993-05-01

358

Phosphate rock resources of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern Coastal Plain phosphate province, principally in Florida and North Carolina and offshore in the shallow Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina to southern Florida. This resource is considered to be hypothetical because it is based on geologic inference combined with sparse drilling data. Total resources of phosphate rock in the United States are sufficient to supply domestic demands for the foreseeable future, provided that drilling is done to confirm hypothetical resources and the chemistry of the deposits is determined. Mining and beneficiation techniques will have to be modified or improved, and new techniques will have to be developed so that these deposits can be profitably exploited.

Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

1984-01-01

359

Phosphate starvation signaling in rice.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is one of the most essential and limiting macronutrients for plants. Phosphate (Pi) deficiency could affect crop productivity seriously in agriculture. How to cope with this problem? Unveiling the molecular mechanism behind the Pi starvation responses of plants will be helpful to solve this issue. Rice is one of the most important crops, which feeds over one-third of the people in the world. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on Pi starvation signaling in rice with the intention to provide a further insight into the molecular mechanism of Pi starvation responses in rice and to give a new research direction to design transgenic plants with high Pi efficiency. PMID:21617375

Hu, Bin; Chu, Chengcai

2011-07-01

360

Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

1998-01-01

361

Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

1995-01-01

362

Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds  

PubMed Central

Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

2013-01-01

363

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

Sugama, T.

1993-09-21

364

Green chemical synthesis of calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

A standard preparation technique of the graft relevant calcium phosphates (which includes the dissolution of watersoluble compounds containing calcium cations and phosphate anions, the slow addition of one solution into another under alkaline pH, followed by aging, suspension separation, washing off, drying and sintering at elevated temperatures) has been reconsidered from an environmental point of view. The entire process has been simplified to a single stage, and a number of intermediate stages have been excluded without influencing the quality of the final products. In this report, we launch a new environmentally friendly preparation technique of calcium phosphate bioceramics for potential use as bone grafts. PMID:20740453

Dorozhkin, S V

2008-01-01

365

Assessment criteria for the sustainable competitive advantage of the national merchant fleet from a resource-based view  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the competitive advantage of the national merchant fleet, based on the resource-based view, we collect competitive advantage assessment factors from literature, and use the analytic hierarchy process methodology to compare the importance of assessment dimensions and variables. The article's conclusions include a recommendation that the government review the current allocation of resources and implement measures to reinforce the

Yi-Chih Yang

2010-01-01

366

Study on structural effective life of tower crane and monitoring system for tower crane fleet based on systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly study structural effective life of tower crane and tower crane fleet monitoring system from the aspects of optimization design, control and management based on system engineering. Firstly, tower crane working parameters were collected dynamically through wireless data transmission technology, whose feasibility has been tested to be good in experiments. Secondly, with improved RBF optimization algorithm, tower crane

Zheng Xi-jian; Lv Zhuan-zhen; Xie Zheng-yi

2010-01-01

367

Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

Not Available

2003-07-01

368

University partners with China to help it develop electric vehicle fleet Anne C. Mulkern, E&E reporter  

E-print Network

also recently unveiled new incentives for electric car purchases, UC Davis said. China will also study technologies, especially as it relates to plug-in electric and hydrogen fuel-cell cars, Eggert said. The schoolUniversity partners with China to help it develop electric vehicle fleet Anne C. Mulkern, E

California at Davis, University of

369

Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city*  

PubMed Central

Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Hangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02%, while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72±1.16)×10?6 and (233.53±1.80)×10?6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action. PMID:16773726

Guo, Hui; Zhang, Qing-yu; Shi, Yao; Wang, Da-hui; Ding, Shu-ying; Yan, Sha-sha

2006-01-01

370

DYNAMIC RIDE-SHARING AND OPTIMAL FLEET SIZING FOR A SYSTEM OF1 SHARED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES2  

E-print Network

DYNAMIC RIDE-SHARING AND OPTIMAL FLEET SIZING FOR A SYSTEM OF1 SHARED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES2 3 4 and for publication in Transportation21 22 23 ABSTRACT24 25 Shared autonomous (fully-automated) vehicles (SAVs,16 to anticipate SAV system implications for various shares of travelers who had previously17

Kockelman, Kara M.

371

Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types of public transit service, and their usefulness in helping a transit agency to reduce its carbon footprint through informed vehicle and fuel procurement decisions. Available calculators fall into two categories: registry/inventory based calculators most suitable for standardized voluntary reporting, carbon trading, and regulatory compliance; and multi-modal life cycle analysis calculators that seek comprehensive coverage of all direct and indirect emissions. Despite significant progress in calculator development, no single calculator as yet contains all of the information needed by transit agencies to develop a truly comprehensive, life cycle analysis-based accounting of the emissions produced by its vehicle fleet operations, and for a wide range of vehicle/fuel technology options.

Weigel, Brent [Georgia Institute of Technology; Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Meyer, Michael D [Georgia Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

372

Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

373

Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

Not Available

2010-05-01

374

MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

Pedersen, Allister

1995-01-01

375

Factors influencing the successful expansion of Ecuadors tuna purse seine fleet  

E-print Network

F/lClOPS lNFLUENCli'IG TilE SUCCLSSFUL EXPANSlON OF ECI/AOOR' S I'JNA PURSE SF1NE FLEET A Thesis hy SUS/lN EL lZABETN OELLEY Sub'-iittad Lo +ho G! aduati! ColleOa r!f Tesas AMI Univensi '. y in partial fn1fi I lman of the Ye...--one of the most. bio'logica11y productive ar'eas in Lhe v!orld. 2. 1. 2 Te~m erature IJhi le a fish may have a wide temperatu! e tolerance, growth is usually optimal within a Iimi ted range. The effects of temperature on a fish depend un the condit...

Jelley, Susan Elizabeth

2012-06-07

376

Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

2012-12-01

377

CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants  

SciTech Connect

To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

NONE

2007-01-15

378

Analysis of serum phosphate control and phosphate binder utilization in incident hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of serum phosphate level variability in patients new to hemodialysis (HD) and to identify patient characteristics associated with this variability. The medical records of 47,742 incident HD patients attending US outpatient dialysis centers between January 1, 2006 and March 31, 2009 were analyzed. Monthly mean serum phosphate levels determined over a 6-month evaluation period (months 4–9 after HD initiation) were assigned to one of three strata: low (<1.13 mmol/L [<3.5 mg/dL]); target (1.13–1.78 mmol/L [3.5–5.5 mg/dL]); or high (>1.78 mmol/L [>5.5 mg/dL]). Patients were classified into one of six serum phosphate variability groups based on variability among monthly mean phosphate levels over the 6-month evaluation period: consistently target; consistently high; high-to-target; high-to-low; target-to-low; or consistently low. Only 15% of patients (consistently target group) maintained monthly mean serum phosphate levels within the target range throughout the 6-month evaluation period. Age, Charlson comorbidity index, serum phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels prior to HD initiation were strongly associated (P<0.001) with serum phosphate levels after HD initiation. Overall patient-reported phosphate binder usage increased from 35% at baseline to 52% at end of study. The low proportion of patients achieving target phosphate levels and low rates of phosphate binder usage observed during the study suggest that alternative strategies could be developed to control serum phosphate levels. Possible strategies that might be incorporated to help improve the management of hyperphosphatemia in incident HD patients include dietary modification, dialysis optimization, and earlier and sustained use of phosphate binders. PMID:25045277

Farrand, Kimberly F; Copley, J Brian; Heise, Jamie; Fridman, Moshe; Keith, Michael S; Poole, Lynne

2014-01-01

379

The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in Elkhorn Slough, California: A tracer for phosphate sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elkhorn Slough, a small seasonal estuary in central California, has been subjected to increased nutrient loading from agricultural and other non-point sources. However, because nutrients do not behave conservatively, tracing nutrient sources and cycling in ecosystems like Elkhorn Slough has been difficult to assess. This is particularly true of phosphorus (P), which has only one stable isotope and cannot be used as an isotopic tracer. However, isotopic fractionation of oxygen in phosphate at surface water temperatures only occurs as a result of enzyme-mediated, biochemical reactions. Thus, if phosphate demand is low relative to input and is not heavily cycled within the ecosystem, the ?18O of phosphate will reflect the isotopic composition of phosphate sources to the system. We utilized the ?18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) within the main channel of the slough and nearby Moss Landing Harbor and the ?18O of reactive phosphate from sediment and soil samples collected within the watershed to understand phosphate sources and cycling within Elkhorn Slough. Trends in the ?18O of DIP were seasonally consistent with high values near the mouth reflecting oceanic phosphate (19.1‰-20.3‰), dropping to a minimum value near Hummingbird Island in the central slough (point source, 14.1‰-14.4‰), and increasing again near the head of the slough, reflecting fertilizer input (18.9‰-19.3‰). Reactive phosphate ?18O values extracted from sediments and soils in the watershed range from 10.6‰ in a drainage ditch to 22.3‰ in creek sediments near agriculture fields. The wide range in phosphate ?18O values reflects the variations in land use and application of different fertilizers in this agriculturally dominated landscape. These data suggest that phosphate ?18O can be an effective tool for identifying P sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine ecosystems.

McLaughlin, Karen; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Paytan, Adina

2006-11-01

380

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... about 5 feet long in adults and absorbs water and any remaining nutrients from partially digested food passed from the small intestine. The large intestine then changes waste from liquid to a solid matter called stool. Stool passes from the colon to ...

381

Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

2011-12-01

382

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

... 2014-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2014-04-01

383

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2013-04-01

384

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2011-04-01

385

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2010-04-01

386

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2012-04-01

387

Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany); Schnier, C. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Scholten, L.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

388

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

Moxham, Robert M.

1954-01-01

389

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

Moxham, Robert M.

1953-01-01

390

Zinc phosphating of 6061Al alloy using REN as additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc phosphate coating formed on 6061-Al alloy was studied with the help of electrochemical measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), after dipping it in phosphating solutions containing different concentrations of Rare Earth Nitrate (REN). REN, which acted as an accelerator in the phosphating solution, could catalyze the surface reaction and accelerate the phosphating process. REN mainly

Shenglin ZHANG; Xiaolin ZHANG; Mingming ZHANG

2008-01-01

391

Pharmacology, efficacy and safety of oral phosphate binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal serum level of phosphate in patients on dialysis, and the benefits of controlling levels of phosphate in serum remain unclear despite observational studies that associate phosphate levels with mortality. In the absence of robust data from trials, current guidelines are necessarily based on opinion. Oral phosphate binders are required by the majority of patients on dialysis, and all

Craig P. Smith; Paul E. C. Brenchley; Alastair J. Hutchison

2011-01-01

392

The contribution of phosphate-phosphate repulsions to the free energy of DNA bending  

PubMed Central

DNA bending is important for the packaging of genetic material, regulation of gene expression and interaction of nucleic acids with proteins. Consequently, it is of considerable interest to quantify the energetic factors that must be overcome to induce bending of DNA, such as base stacking and phosphate–phosphate repulsions. In the present work, the electrostatic contribution of phosphate–phosphate repulsions to the free energy of bending DNA is examined for 71 bp linear and bent-form model structures. The bent DNA model was based on the crystallographic structure of a full turn of DNA in a nucleosome core particle. A Green's function approach based on a linear-scaling smooth conductor-like screening model was applied to ascertain the contribution of individual phosphate–phosphate repulsions and overall electrostatic stabilization in aqueous solution. The effect of charge neutralization by site-bound ions was considered using Monte Carlo simulation to characterize the distribution of ion occupations and contribution of phosphate repulsions to the free energy of bending as a function of counterion load. The calculations predict that the phosphate–phosphate repulsions account for ?30% of the total free energy required to bend DNA from canonical linear B-form into the conformation found in the nucleosome core particle. PMID:15741179

Range, Kevin; Mayaan, Evelyn; Maher, L. J.; York, Darrin M.

2005-01-01

393

Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.  

PubMed

Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24261118

Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

2012-12-01

394

Seed Total Phosphate and Phytic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the total amount and composition of seed phosphorus (P) are important to maize end-use quality. Seed total P represents\\u000a a major pool in the flux of P through the agricultural ecology. The phosphate stored in seeds of major crops represents a\\u000a sum equivalent to more than 50% of phosphate fertilizer applied annually worldwide (Lott et al. 2000). Clearly this

Victor Raboy

395

Phosphate functionalized graphene with tunable mechanical properties.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a covalently modified graphene oxide derivative with exceptional and tunable compressive strength is reported. Treatment of graphene oxide with triethyl phosphite in the presence of LiBr produces monolithic structures comprised of lithium phosphate oligomers tethered to graphene through covalent phosphonate linkages. Variation of the both phosphate content and associated cation produces materials of various compressive strengths and elasticity. PMID:24114948

Goods, John B; Sydlik, Stefanie A; Walish, Joseph J; Swager, Timothy M

2014-02-01

396

Phosphate Kinetics during Different Dialysis Modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An abnormal serum phosphate concentration is common in acute renal failure patients, with a reported incidence of 65–80%. Phosphate removal and kinetics during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) have been investigated, but there is no information on its kinetics during slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods: Eight IHD, 8 SLED, and 10 continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)

Ranistha Ratanarat; Alessandra Brendolan; Gopel Volker; Monica Bonello; Gabriella Salvatori; Emilio Andrikos; Asuman Yavuz; Carlo Crepaldi; Claudio Ronco

2005-01-01

397

Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

Bergwitz, Clemens; Juppner, Harald

2013-01-01

398

Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.  

PubMed

Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation. PMID:22482494

Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

2012-06-01

399

Hyperphosphatemia and phosphate binders: effectiveness and safety.  

PubMed

In patients with kidney dysfunction hyperphosphatemia is more evident as renal failure progresses. It is related to increased FGF-23 levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and accelerated progressive vascular calcification. In CKD patients advanced coronary artery calcification is strongly associated with future cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. Apart from the above, phosphate per se is suspected as a causal risk factor for CKD progression. Keeping serum phosphorus within the target values are linked to improvement in life expectancy. A low phosphate diet, an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate load, and the administration of phosphate binders are the main recommended steps to control hyperphosphatemia. Calcium-based phosphate binders can lead to a positive calcium balance, hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and coronary artery and aortic calcification. On the other hand Sevelamer hydrochloride and Lanthanum carbonate has been shown to be effective, safe and useful therapeutic tools for hyperphosphatemia. When prescribe pharmacological agents, one must take into account the large increase in health-care expenditure and the choice of phosphate binder should be individualized. PMID:24007207

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Elisaf, Moses S

2014-01-01

400

Characterization of phosphate films on aluminum surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A thin layer of phosphate conversion coating was formed on pure aluminum in a commercial zinc-manganese phosphating bath. A number of surface analytical techniques were used to characterize the phosphate thin films formed after immersion times ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The coating contained mainly a crystalline structure with dispersed micrometer-scale cavities. The major constituents of the phosphate film were zinc, phosphorus, and oxygen; a small amount of manganese was also detected. Based on these results, a three-stage mechanism was proposed for the formation and the growth of phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of phosphated and uncoated aluminum samples in 0.50 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.10 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. Both types of samples exhibited a passive state in the neutral solution and general corrosion behavior in the acid solution.

Cheng, B.; Ramamurthy, S.; McIntyre, N.S. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

1997-08-01

401

Recent Advances in Renal Phosphate Handling  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is critical for the maintenance of skeletal integrity, is a necessary component of important biomolecules, and is central to signal transduction and cell metabolism. It is becoming clear that endocrine communication occurs between the skeleton, kidney, and the intestine to maintain proper serum phosphate concentrations, with the kidney being the primary site for minute-to-minute regulation. Identification of genetic alterations in Mendelian disorders of hypo- and hyperphosphatemia has led to the isolation of novel genes and new roles for existing proteins in the control of renal phosphate handling, such as Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its processing systems, the co-receptor ?-Klotho (KL), and phosphate transporters. Recent findings also indicate that FGF23 has feedback mechanisms intertwined with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D that control phosphate homeostasis. This review will highlight genetic, and in vitro and in vivo findings, and discuss how these clinical and experimental discoveries have uncovered novel aspects of renal phosphate handling, as well as opened new research and therapeutic avenues. PMID:20177401

Farrow, Emily G.; White, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

402

Studies on the Chemistry of Uranium and Thorium Phosphates. Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate: A Matrix for Storage of Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on phosphates of tetravalent uranium and thorium published by the authors in the 1990s are briefly overviewed. Methods of synthesis, properties, and structures of new phosphates of these elements are described. The chemical formulas of a number of already known uranium, thorium, and neptunium phosphates are critically analyzed. Special attention is given to thorium phosphate diphospate and solid solutions

V. Brandel; N. Dacheux; M. Genet

2001-01-01

403

The growth of zinc phosphate coatings on 6061Al alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc phosphate coating was formed on 6061-Al alloy through a phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, NaF. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) was used as an accelerator of phosphatization to replace nitrite. The morphology, composition and the growth process of the zinc phosphate coating were investigated by SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR and electrochemical measurements. The phosphate coating formed is composed of hopeite

Sheng-lin Zhang; Hua-hui Chen; Xiao-lin Zhang; Ming-ming Zhang

2008-01-01

404

Magnesium stimulates renal phosphate reabsorption.  

PubMed

In the kidney, approximately 80% of the filtered phosphate (Pi) is reabsorbed along the proximal tubule. Changes in renal Pi reabsorption are associated with modulation of the sodium-dependent Pi cotransporter type IIa (NaPi-IIa) and type IIc (NaPi-IIc) protein abundance in the brush-border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubule cells. NaPi-IIa is mainly regulated by dietary Pi intake and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effect of alteration in dietary magnesium (Mg2+) intake on renal Pi handling. Urinary Pi excretion and renal expression of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc were analyzed in rats fed a normal (0.2%) or high-Mg2+ (2.5%) diet. A high-Mg2+ diet resulted in decreased renal Pi excretion and increased protein expression of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc. Serum FGF-23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) levels were unchanged under a high-Mg2+ diet. Serum PTH levels were slightly decreased under a high-Mg2+ diet. To examine whether the observed changes in renal Pi reabsorption are PTH dependent, expression of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc was also analyzed in parathyroidectomized (PTX) rats fed a normal or high-Mg2+ diet. In PTX rats, Mg2+ had no significant effect on renal Pi excretion or NaPi-IIa protein expression. Mg2+ increased NaPi-IIc protein expression in PTX rats. This experiment shows for the first time on the molecular level how Mg2+ stimulates renal Pi reabsorption. Under a high-Mg2+ diet, NaPi-IIa expression is dependent on PTH levels, whereas NaPi-IIc expression seems to be independent of PTH levels. PMID:18701629

Thumfart, Julia; Jung, Susanne; Amasheh, Salah; Krämer, Stephanie; Peters, Harm; Sommer, Kerstin; Biber, Jürg; Murer, Heini; Meij, Iwan; Querfeld, Uwe; Wagner, Carsten A; Müller, Dominik

2008-10-01

405

Phosphate separation and recovery from wastewater by novel electrodialysis.  

PubMed

Stimulated by the depletion of phosphate resources, phosphate recovery systems have been studied in recent years. The use of struvite reactors has proven to be an effective phosphate recovery process. However, the struvite reactor effluent still consists of an excessive amount of phosphate that cannot be recovered nor can be directly discharged. In this study, selectrodialysis (SED) was used to improve the efficiency of phosphate recovery from a struvite reactor: SED was implemented in such a way that phosphate from the effluent of an USAB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor was transferred to the recycled effluent of a struvite reactor. Prior to the experiments, synthetic water with chloride and phosphate was used to characterize the efficiency of SED for phosphate separation. Results indicate that SED was successful in concentrating phosphate from the feed stream. The initial current efficiency reached 72%, with a satisfying (9 mmol L(-1)) phosphate concentration. In the experiments with the anaerobic effluent as the phosphate source for enrichment of the effluent of the struvite reactor, the phosphate flux was 16 mmol m(-2) h(-1). A cost evaluation shows that 1 kWh electricity can produce 60 g of phosphate by using a full scale stack, with a desalination rate of 95% on the feed wastewater. Finally, a struvite precipitation experiment shows that 93% of phosphate can be recovered. Thus, an integrated SED-struvite reactor process can be used to improve phosphate recovery from wastewater. PMID:23651001

Zhang, Yang; Desmidt, Evelyn; Van Looveren, Arnaud; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

2013-06-01

406

Assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) adjusted non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions of a motor fleet - A long tunnel study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciated hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and CO were simultaneously measured by evenly distributed samples along the entire length (12.9 km) of the tunnel in different traffic conditions. Four passes (two round-trips) were made at four different fleet speeds (i.e., 45, 65, 75 and 85 km h-1). Individual NMHC and CO mixing ratios were observed to be sensitive to the fleet speed, which is compounded by driving conditions and traffic volumes. We propose using ratios of NMHCs to CO to cancel out the factor of traffic volumes to determine CO-normalized NMHC emissions, such that a less biased comparison can be made between different fleet speeds in this study and even between different studies. Moreover, to obtain robust CO-normalized NMHC emissions which are sufficiently representative of the fleet speeds, only samples collected deep inside the long-tunnels between 8 and 12 km were used. Of the 61 target NMHCs, isomers of butane, pentane, ethylene, acetylene and toluene were the most abundant species regardless of the driving conditions. We observed that different driving conditions not only affected the emission strengths but also altered the compositions of the NMHCs. To simplify the data analysis, the target NMHCs were classified into four chemical groups, i.e., alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and alkynes. For the slower and more congested driving condition (fleet speed = 45 km h-1), the CO-normalized NMHC emissions were the highest, with alkanes contributing to approximately 60% of the total NMHC levels, suggesting poorer fuel utilization at slower driving conditions. In terms of the CO-normalized ozone forming potentials (OFPs), the contribution of the alkanes diminished dramatically to approximately 9-22% despite their high weight percentage, whereas the contribution of the alkenes was enhanced significantly to 50-60% from their weight percent of only approximately 26%. Our total NMHC to CO ratios of 0.06-0.20 for the four fleet speeds generally fall within the range constrained by many other tunnel or chassis dynamometer studies; however, the sensitivity to the driving conditions and the robustness with the long-tunnel data are better demonstrated in this study.

Liu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Su, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Yue-Chuen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

2014-06-01

407

Phosphate closes the solution structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase catalyses the sixth step of the shikimate pathway that is responsible for synthesizing aromatic compounds and is absent in mammals, which makes it a potential target for drugs development against microbial diseases. Here, we report the phosphate binding effects at the structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This enzyme is formed by two similar domains that close on each other induced by ligand binding, showing the occurrence of a large conformation change. We have monitored the phosphate binding effects using analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle X-ray scattering and, circular dichroism techniques. The low resolution results showed that the enzyme in the presence of phosphate clearly presented a more compact structure. Thermal-induced unfolding experiments followed by circular dichroism suggested that phosphate rigidified the enzyme. Summarizing, these data suggested that the phosphate itself is able to induce conformational change resulting in the closure movement in the M. tuberculosis 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. PMID:16876105

Borges, Júlio C; Pereira, José H; Vasconcelos, Igor B; dos Santos, Giovanni C; Olivieri, Johnny R; Ramos, Carlos H I; Palma, Mário S; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S; de Azevedo, Walter F

2006-08-15

408

Intracellular Glucose 1-Phosphate and Glucose 6-Phosphate Levels Modulate Ca2  

E-print Network

Intracellular Glucose 1-Phosphate and Glucose 6-Phosphate Levels Modulate Ca2 Homeostasis and accumulation and sensitivity to high environmental Ca2 levels. In the present study, we overproduced the enzyme internalization and sequestration of Ca2 ions into a variety of intracellular compartments. The basic mechanisms

Bedwell, David M.

409

Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a few soil microorganisms to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in plant growth-promoting bacteria for increasing plant yields. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants increases the P uptake by plants. In this study, isolation, screening and characterization of 36 strains of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from Central

Y. P. Chen; P. D. Rekha; A. B. Arun; F. T. Shen; W.-A. Lai; C. C. Young

2006-01-01

410

COMPARATIVE KINETIC STUDIES OF PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH AND PHOSPHATE UPTAKE IN PHYTOPLANKTON IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparative kinetic study of phosphate-limited growth and phosphate uptake was carried out in chemostat cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae Lyng. Breb., Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs, Asterionella formosa Hass., Fragilaria crotonensis Kitt., and Microcystis sp. Lemm. For ea...

411

Reconstitution of intestinal Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter.  

PubMed

The rabbit intestinal brush-border membrane Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter was purified from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) protein (SDS-treated Ca(2+)-precipitated BBMV) by a three-column chromatography protocol. The purification included a preparative scale chromatofocusing chromatography column over the pH range from 7.4 to 4 after solubilization in 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-diamethylammonia]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), a chromatofocusing column over the pH range from 5.6 to 4 after solubilization in n-octyl glucoside, and gel filtration chromatography on a Sephacryl S-200 column. Verification of Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter purification involved substrate affinities, substrate stoichiometry, and inhibitor sensitivity after proteoliposome reconstitution and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). After gel filtration Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake was 3,300-fold enriched compared with the cell homogenate. A single 130-kDa polypeptide was visualized by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions using silver stain. The coenrichment of this 130-kDa polypeptide and proteoliposome reconstituted Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake suggest that the intestinal brush-border membrane Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter has been purified and proteoliposome reconstituted. PMID:8476048

Peerce, B E; Cedilote, M; Seifert, S; Levine, R; Kiesling, C; Clarke, R D

1993-04-01

412

[Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].  

PubMed

The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands. PMID:25345061

Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

2014-07-01

413

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

...use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What...

2014-01-01

414

Preprint: Final version published as: FLEET, L. & BLANDFORD, A. (2005) Requirements of Time Management Tools for Outpatient Physiotherapy Practice. Health Informatics  

E-print Network

Management Tools for Outpatient Physiotherapy Practice. Health Informatics Journal. 11: 179 - 199. Requirements of Time Management Tools for Outpatient Physiotherapy Practice Leanne Fleet MSc & Ann E. Blandford Management Tools for Outpatient Physiotherapy Practice Abstract The effects of electronic appointment booking

Blandford, Ann

415

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290...

2011-01-01

416

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290...

2012-01-01

417

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290...

2010-07-01

418

41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290...

2013-07-01

419

41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requires agency Fleet Managers and budget officers to submit annual agency motor vehicle budgeting information to OMB through FAST (see OMB Circular A-11, Preparation, Submission, and Execution of the...

2010-07-01

420

Building a business case for corporate fleets to adopt vehicle-to-grid technology (V2G) and participate in the regulation service market  

E-print Network

Electric (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehicles (PHEV) continue to gain attention and market share, not only as options for consumers but also for corporate fleets. EVs and PHEVs can contribute to lower operating costs ...

De los Ríos Vergara, Andrés

2011-01-01

421

Dissolution rates of amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates and their relevance to phosphate mobility on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphate is an essential element for life on Earth, and therefore if life exists or ever existed on Mars it may have required phosphate. Amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates rapidly precipitate from acidic solutions and amorphous Al-phosphates likely control phosphate concentrations in some natural waters on Earth. Amorphous phases may be even more important on Mars than on Earth, and amorphous phosphates are therefore likely important in the phosphate cycle on Mars. Despite this importance, however, few dissolution rates exist for amorphous Al- and Fe- phosphates. In this study, dissolution rates of amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates were measured in flow-through reactors from steady state concentrations of Al, Fe and P. A pH--dependent rate law was calculated from the dissolution rates log R = log k -- npH, where R is the dissolution rate, k is intrinsic rate constant and n is the rate dependence on pH. For amorphous Al-phosphate, log k = -6.539 +/- 1.529, and n = 2.391 +/- 0.493. For amorphous Fe-phosphate, log k = -13.031 +/- 0.558, and n = 1.376 +/- 0.221. Amorphous Al-phosphate dissolves stoichiometrically under all conditions, and amorphous Fe-phosphate dissolves non-stoichiometrically, approaching stoichiometric dissolution as pH decreases, due potentially to Fe-oxides precipitating and armoring grain surfaces. Perhaps due to these effects, amorphous Al-phosphate dissolution rates are approximately three orders of magnitude faster than amorphous Fe-phosphate dissolution rates. Amorphous Al-phosphate dissolution rates measured in this study are also faster than published variscite dissolution rates. Dissolution rates of amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates in this study therefore imply rapid phosphate release into acidic environments, suggesting phosphate mobility under Mars-relevant conditions.

Tu, Valerie M.

422

Power output variability of PV system fleets in three utility service territories in New Jersey and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growth of the number and cumulative size of PV installations in regions with solar-friendly programs has raised the profile of those systems' potential impact on the electric grid. As grid-tied PV systems are a variable resource, it is important to characterize the variability of their output when aggregated over fleets within a service territory. SunEdison operates more than

A. Golnas; S. Voss

2010-01-01

423

Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

Not Available

1986-06-11

424

Development of Molecular Marker Source Profiles for Emissions from On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Vehicle Fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Gasoline\\/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California’s South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe

Glynis C. Lough; Charles G. Christensen; James J. Schauer; James Tortorelli; Erin Mani; Douglas R. Lawson; Nigel N. Clark; Peter A. Gabele; Herbert McKee; David Mobley; Yasuko Yoshida; Azusa Ito; Masashi Murakami; Takayuki Murakami; Hideharu Fujimoto; Kikuo Takeda; Shigeru Suzuki; Masahiro Hori; Huan Liu; Kebin He; Qidong Wang; Hong Huo; James Lents; Nicole Davis; Nick Nikkila; Changhong Chen; Mauricio Osses; Chunyu He; Thomas Hilber; Michalis Agraniotis; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras; Thomas Glorius; Uwe Becker; Willy Derichs; Hans-Peter Schiffer; Martin Jong; Lucia Torri; Aki Virkkula; Timo; Risto Hillamo; Tarja Yli-Tuomi; Anne Hirsikko; Ismo Koponen; Nicholas Doll; John Reisel; Aro´n Jazcilevich; Alejandro Garcý´a-Fragoso; Agustý´n Reynoso; Michel Grutter; Ulises Diego-Ayala; Igor Burstyn; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan; Hyang-Mi Kim; Nicola Cherry; Elise Pietroniro; Cheryl Waldner; Delbert Eatough; Nolan Mangelson; Richard Anderson; Donald Martello; Natalie Pekney; Cliff Davidson; William Modey

2007-01-01

425

How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?  

PubMed Central

This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

Shears, Stephen B

2004-01-01

426

Erbium-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the development of phosphate glass fiber amplifier with a high gain per unit length is reviewed. The performance of compact multimode pumped erbium-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers is presented. A fiber amplifier with a small signal net gain of 41dB at 1535nm and 21dB over the full C-band was demonstrated using a newly developed 8-cm long erbium-doped phosphate fiber excited with a 1-W, 975-nm multimode laser diode. A theoretical model was developed for the multi-mode pumped amplifier based on modified rate equations and effective beam propagation method. Close agreement between experimental and modeling results is observed.

Jiang, Shibin

2003-08-01

427

High alumina refractories in a phosphate binder  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to investigate the technical transformations in alumina composites in phosphate binders; to determine their physiomechanical characteristics as functions of the quantitative concentration of components and the heating temperature, and also to obtain refractory material for pilot-plant testing in a glass-melting furnace. The properties of high-alumina composites with stabilizing oxides, in particular, in aluminum chrome phosphate (ACP) and aluminoborophosphate (ABP) binders have been studied less than some other composites. The authors have studied the ACP (or ABP)-chamotte-alumina-kaolin composites in this article. The properties of the phosphate binders are given. The physicochemical processes occurring in the system during heating and the phase composition were studied using differential-thermal and x-ray phase analyses.

Narkevicha, I.A.; Baumanis, O.F.; Eiduk, Yu. Ya.; Gurevich, A.E.; Roze, K.V.

1985-07-01

428

Platinum solubility in phosphate laser glass  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic platinum inclusions ({approximately} 10--20 {mu}m), that originate from the melt containers, have been a major cause of optical damage in phosphate laser glasses. One way to eliminate such inclusions is to dissolve them in the glass matrix. The relative solubility of platinum in three commercial phosphate laser glasses is reported. The results show that the lowest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing phosphate glass has the highest Pt solubility. Moreover, the Pt solubility decreases linearly with increasing, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Activation energies for Pt dissolution are found to be nearly equivalent for the three glasses. Laser-excited fluorescence of the Pt-ion is reported. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hayden, Y.T. (Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., Duryea, PA (USA)); Campbell, J.H.; Payne, S.A.; Wilke, G.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1991-06-12

429

The sodium phosphate cotransporter family SLC34.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the characteristics of the solute carrier family SLC34 that is represented by the type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters NaPi-lla (SLC34A1), NaPi-llb (SLC34A2) and NaPi-llc (SLC34A3). Other Na/P(i)-cotransporters are described within the SLC17 and SLC20 families. Type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters are expressed in several tissues and play a major role in the homeostasis of inorganic phosphate. In kidney and small intestine, type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters are located at the apical sites of epithelial cells and represent the rate limiting steps for transepithelial movement of phosphate. Physiological and pathophysiological regulation of renal and small intestinal epithelial transport of phosphate occurs through alterations in the abundance of type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters. PMID:12750889

Murer, Heini; Forster, Ian; Biber, Jürg

2004-02-01

430

Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

2009-06-01

431

Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

ALAM,TODD M.

1999-12-21

432

Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

ALAM,TODD M.

2000-01-01

433

Effects of humic material on the precipitation of calcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic acids such as humic and fulvic acids can play an important role in influencing inorganic phosphate availability in P-fertilized soils by inhibiting formation of thermodynamically stable calcium phosphates. Calcium phosphate phases which are important in these systems may include amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca9(PO4)6·nH2O; ACP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O; DCPD, also known as brushite), octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O; OCP) and

Rebeca Alvarez; Louise A. Evans; Paul J. Milham; Michael A. Wilson

2004-01-01

434

System of systems design: Evaluating aircraft in a fleet context using reliability and non-deterministic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work develops and implements a solution framework that allows for an integrated solution to a resource allocation system-of-systems problem associated with designing vehicles for integration into an existing fleet to extend that fleet's capability while improving efficiency. Typically, aircraft design focuses on using a specific design mission while a fleet perspective would provide a broader capability. Aspects of design for both the vehicles and missions may be, for simplicity, deterministic in nature or, in a model that reflects actual conditions, uncertain. Toward this end, the set of tasks or goals for the to-be-planned system-of-systems will be modeled more accurately with non-deterministic values, and the designed platforms will be evaluated using reliability analysis. The reliability, defined as the probability of a platform or set of platforms to complete possible missions, will contribute to the fitness of the overall system. The framework includes building surrogate models for metrics such as capability and cost, and includes the ideas of reliability in the overall system-level design space. The concurrent design and allocation system-of-systems problem is a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. This study considered two system-of-systems problems that seek to simultaneously design new aircraft and allocate these aircraft into a fleet to provide a desired capability. The Coast Guard's Integrated Deepwater System program inspired the first problem, which consists of a suite of search-and-find missions for aircraft based on descriptions from the National Search and Rescue Manual. The second represents suppression of enemy air defense operations similar to those carried out by the U.S. Air Force, proposed as part of the Department of Defense Network Centric Warfare structure, and depicted in MILSTD-3013. The two problems seem similar, with long surveillance segments, but because of the complex nature of aircraft design, the analysis of the vehicle for high-speed attack combined with a long loiter period is considerably different from that for quick cruise to an area combined with a low speed search. However, the framework developed to solve this class of system-of-systems problem handles both scenarios and leads to a solution type for this kind of problem. On the vehicle-level of the problem, different technology can have an impact on the fleet-level. One such technology is Morphing, the ability to change shape, which is an ideal candidate technology for missions with dissimilar segments, such as the aforementioned two. A framework, using surrogate models based on optimally-sized aircraft, and using probabilistic parameters to define a concept of operations, is investigated; this has provided insight into the setup of the optimization problem, the use of the reliability metric, and the measurement of fleet level impacts of morphing aircraft. The research consisted of four phases. The two initial phases built and defined the framework to solve system-of-systems problem; these investigations used the search-and-find scenario as the example application. The first phase included the design of fixed-geometry and morphing aircraft for a range of missions and evaluated the aircraft capability using non-deterministic mission parameters. The second phase introduced the idea of multiple aircraft in a fleet, but only considered a fleet consisting of one aircraft type. The third phase incorporated the simultaneous design of a new vehicle and allocation into a fleet for the search-and-find scenario; in this phase, multiple types of aircraft are considered. The fourth phase repeated the simultaneous new aircraft design and fleet allocation for the SEAD scenario to show that the approach is not specific to the search-and-find scenario. The framework presented in this work appears to be a viable approach for concurrently designing and allocating constituents in a system, specifically aircraft in a fleet. The research also shows that new technology impact can be assessed at the fleet level usin

Frommer, Joshua B.

435

Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

1995-06-01

436

Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

1983-08-01

437

A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

1995-04-01

438

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-01

439

A fleet leader experience with dry low emissions aeroderivative gas turbines (LM6000PB and PD)  

SciTech Connect

In January 1995, the world's first LM6000 dry low emissions (DLE) aeroderivative gas turbine supplied by GE M and I was successfully started up at Gent power plant. In November 1997, the world's first uprated LM6000, also equipped with the DLE combustion system, began commercial operation at Geel cogeneration facility. TEE handled the engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning of these projects as well as for several other repowering and cogeneration facilities based on high efficiency DLE aeroderivative gas turbines. By mid 1998, seven LM6000 DLE and one LM2500 DLE will be in commercial operation at several cogeneration and power plants in Belgium. The results of three years of experience with the LM engines are presented: the reasons why the LM engines were selected, the history of the different units, the maintenance organization, the fleet fired hours and availability, and the main technical issues like DLE combustor, LPT5 failures. The conclusion is that after having experienced several serious problems, the LM6000 and the DLE combustion system have matured and now seem sufficiently reliable. The actual performance data of the uprated engine are significantly better than initially expected.

Vandesteene, J.L.; De Witte, M.

1998-07-01

440

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

441

Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; Allen, David T.

2011-04-01

442

Fatigue reliability of wind turbine fleets: The effect of uncertainty of projected costs  

SciTech Connect

The cost of repairing or replacing failed components depends on the number and timing of failures. Although the total probability of individual component failure is sometimes interpreted as the percentage of components likely to fail, this perception is often far from correct. Different amounts of common versus independent uncertainty can cause different numbers of components to be at risk of failure. The FAROW tool for fatigue and reliability analysis of wind turbines makes it possible for the first time to conduct a detailed economic analysis of the effects of uncertainty on fleet costs. By dividing the uncertainty into common and independent parts, the percentage of components expected to fail in each year of operation is estimated. Costs are assigned to the failures and the yearly costs and present values are computed. If replacement cost is simply a constant multiple of the number of failures, the average, or expected cost is the same as would be calculated by multiplying by the probability of individual component failure. However, more complicated cost models require a break down of how many components are likely to fail. This break down enables the calculation of costs associated with various probability of occurrence levels, illustrating the variability in projected costs. Estimating how the numbers of components expected to fail evolves over time is also useful in calculating the present value of projected costs and in understanding the nature of the financial risk.

Veers, P.S.

1995-12-31

443

Operational logistics of the world oil tanker fleet: a simulation modeling approach for emergency energy management  

SciTech Connect

The stimulus for this research is the belief that the International Energy Agency (IEA) would be better able to plant for and implement its Emergency Oil Sharing Plan (EOSP) if it modeled important aspects of the world oil economy from an operational point of view. A tanker simulation (TANKSIM) model is offered as a prototype to produce performance measures that may be used in investigating the adequacy and responsiveness of the world's ports and tankers to various patterns of trade. TANKSIM is a SLAM-based, discrete-event simulation model that tracks the movements of tankers worldwide and compiles information on the fleet disposition and status and port and vessel operating characteristics associated with an input trade pattern. Any pattern of crude oil trade whether historical, prescribed, or predicted, may be used to drive the model. A flexible model structure enables a user to investigate the behavior of any configuration of nations, ports, and tanker types. Model use is demonstrated with a pair of hypothetical runs, a Base Case and Scenario. The Base Case considers a portion of the world's crude-hauling tankers operating among IEA nations and members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for one year. The Scenario alters the Base Case trade pattern by representing a hypothetical cessation of Iranian exports due to the Iran/Iraq war and an IEA-EOSP sponsored increase in Saudi Arabian exports in response.

Kirtland, D.A.

1986-01-01

444

Availability of Some Nitrogenous and Phosphatic Materials.  

E-print Network

acid in acid phosphate or as total phosphoric acid in cottonseed meal. to 5000 grams soil. together with 1 gram each potas- sium sulphate and nitrate of soda . Pots to which no phosphoric acid was added were also used . 'The percentage of phosphoric... acid in acid phosphate or as total phosphoric acid in cottonseed meal. to 5000 grams soil. together with 1 gram each potas- sium sulphate and nitrate of soda . Pots to which no phosphoric acid was added were also used . 'The percentage of phosphoric...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

445

Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

1996-01-01

446

Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics  

DOEpatents

A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Perry, Lamar (Fontana, CA); Jeong, Seung-Young (Justice, IL)

2001-01-01

447

Nonaqueous atomic layer deposition of aluminum phosphate.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphate was deposited onto bundles of carbon fibers and flat glassy carbon substrates using atomic layer deposition by exposing them to alternating pulses of trimethylaluminum and triethylphosphate vapors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) spectra confirmed that the coating comprises aluminum phosphate (orthophosphate as well as other stoichiometries). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images revealed that the coatings are uniform and conformal. After coating, the fibers are still separated from each other like the uncoated fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates an improvement of oxidation resistance of the coated fibers compared to uncoated fibers. PMID:23755858

Knohl, Stefan; Roy, Amit K; Lungwitz, Ralf; Spange, Stefan; Mäder, Thomas; Nestler, Daisy J; Wielage, Bernhard; Schulze, Steffen; Hietschold, Michael; Wulff, Harm; Helm, Christiane A; Seidel, Falko; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Goedel, Werner A

2013-07-10

448

Exploring phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase function  

E-print Network

in cells (see, e.g. (Roberts et al., 2005). Moreover, many of the investigative trails towards cytoplasmic PI5P functions involve either: (a) knockout mice (Carricaburu et al., 2003, Emerling et al., 2013, Lamia et al., 2004), with the inevitable compromise... Ubiquitin Ligase Cul3-SPOP by the Generation of Phosphatidylinositol 5-Phosphate. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8678-86. Cabezas A, Pattni K, Stenmark H. Cloning and subcellular localization of a human phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase, PIKfyve/Fab1. Gene...

Bulley, Simon J.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Droubi, Alaa; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Robin F., Irvine

2014-10-02

449

Thermal expansion behaviour of sodium zirconium phosphate structure type phosphates containing tin  

SciTech Connect

Thermal expansion behaviour of sodium zirconium phosphate structure type phosphates of the formula AM{sup 3+}SnP{sub 3}O{sub 12} (A=Ca, Sr and Ba; M{sup 3+}=Cr and Fe) was studied by high temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry in the temperature range 298-1073 K. The variation in the hexagonal lattice parameters of the Ca-containing compounds is in line with the 'sodium zirconium phosphate behaviour'. However, the strontium- and barium-containing compounds display an altogether different behaviour of axial expansion. The results are explained based on the crystal chemistry of these compounds.

Buvaneswari, G.; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Varadaraju, U.V

2004-03-01

450

Phosphate-mineral interactions and potential consequences for nutrient cycling  

E-print Network

Biogeochemical cycling of phosphate is a key component in the overall production rate of coastal ecosystems. Mineral phases in the near-shore sediments play a significant role in the return of phosphate remineralized in ...

Oates, Richard Hunter

2008-01-01

451

Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that\\u000a aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

M. P. S. Chandrawat; R. N. Yadav

2000-01-01

452

PHOSPHATE METABOLISM OF CORAL REEF FLATS  

E-print Network

PHOSPHATE METABOLISM OF CORAL REEF FLATS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION. Chave Edward A. Laws David M. Karl Robert L. Fox #12;iv ABSTRACT Ihe present dogma on coral reef overlying that community. The reef's nutritional requirements supposedly are met by cycling or retention

Luther, Douglas S.

453

Insights from Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

Christov, Marta; Juppner, Harald

2013-01-01

454

Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained from the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.

Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van [Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen (Netherlands)] [Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen (Netherlands)

1997-08-01

455

Calcium phosphate, bile acids and colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

The biochemical and nutritional studies discussed here are consistent with the model presented in Figure 1. As shown in vitro, bile acids are precipitated by insoluble calcium phosphate. This calcium phosphate dependent precipitation drastically inhibits their cytotoxicity. A diet-induced increase in luminal surfactant concentration stimulates lytic activity of faecal water and intestinal cell damage resulting in an increased proliferation. The increase in luminal surfactant concentration and lytic activity of faecal water can be counteracted by supplemental dietary calcium phosphate. Supplemental calcium in humans increases the formation of insoluble calcium-phosphate-bile acid complexes in faeces, decreases the soluble fatty acid concentration and decreases lytic activity of faecal water. This sequence of effects offers a molecular explanation of the protective effects of supplemental calcium on proliferation as frequently observed (see studies cited above). It should be realised that this chain of evidence still lacks final proof of a preventive effect of dietary calcium on colorectal cancer. Until now, only protective effects on the first stage of development of colorectal cancer (hyperproliferation) have been observed. More well-designed studies in patients and healthy volunteers are needed using a combined biochemical, nutritional and clinical approach to elucidate the complex mechanism of the protective effect of calcium on colon cancer. PMID:1842734

Van der Meer, R; Kleibeuker, J H; Lapré, J A

1991-10-01

456

Calcium phosphate deposition from balanced salt solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal levels of calcium and phosphate ions necessary to induce mineral deposition within 24 hours at 37° from balanced salt solutions buffered in the physiological pH range are described. It is concluded that most physiological fluids apparently have the potential to form calcium phosphatede novo in the absence of any nucleating catalyst or inhibitory agent. The possible effects that external

J. D. Termine; E. D. Eanes

1974-01-01

457

IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES  

SciTech Connect

Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

2004-12-17

458

Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of electrokinetic dewatering are: (1) electrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a direct current electric field; (2) dielectrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a non-uniform electric field; and (3) electro-osmosis, the water flow in porous media in a direct current electric field. Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay was investigated in an experimental program. The results

J. Q. Shang; K. Y. Lo

1997-01-01

459

Glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of 2520 male subjects in Spain by the Dye Reduction Test revealed five cases of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, all originating from the east coast of Spain and the Balearic Islands. In these areas the enzyme deficiency seems to occur focally at low frequencies near 1%.

G. Flatz; Ria Düren

1967-01-01

460

Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Methanococcus maripaludis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequence of the non-sugar-assimilating mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis contains three genes encoding enzymes: a nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydroge- nase (GAPN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferre- doxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR); all these enzymes are potentially capable of catalyzing glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate (G3P) metabolism. GAPOR, whose homologs have been found mainly in archaea, catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin coupled with oxidation of

Myong-Ok Park; Taeko Mizutani; Patrik R. Jones

2007-01-01

461

Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe3+/Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass.

Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

2014-09-01

462

Evaluation of Phosphatic Clay Disposal and Reclamation Methods. Volume 7. Engineering Properties of Flocculated Phosphatic Clays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The index properties, settling and consolidation behavior, and shear strength characteristics of three phosphatic clays flocced with a commercially available flocculant are presented and compared with properties of unflocced clays. The specific Agrico-Sad...

A. E. Z. Wissa, N. F. Fuleihan, T. S. Ingra

1986-01-01

463

Interaction between hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and biphasic calcium phosphate after steam sterilisation  

E-print Network

phosphate w/w). After separation of the organic and mineral phases, capillary gas chromatography (GC were then derived from monosaccharides and phosphates by trimethylsilylation, which separates similar molecules and transforms mineral phosphate into organic phosphate detectable by flame ionisation

Boyer, Edmond

464

Agronomy, modelling and economics of reactive phosphate rocks as slow-release phosphate fertilizers for grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive phosphate rocks (RPRs) from Sechura, Peru (SPR) and North Carolina, USA (NCPR) were compared with triple superphosphate (TSP) as phosphate (P) fertilizers for permanent grass\\/clover pastures in four field trials in New Zealand. Trial sites ranged in initial pH (in water) from 5.7 to 6.3 and in rainfall from 712 to 1338 mm yr-1. SPR and NCPR were used

A. G. Sinclair; P. D. Johnstone; L. C. Smith; M. B. O'Connor; L. Nguyen

1993-01-01

465

Effects of phosphate binders in moderate CKD.  

PubMed

Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain. PMID:22822075

Block, Geoffrey A; Wheeler, David C; Persky, Martha S; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ketteler, Markus; Spiegel, David M; Allison, Matthew A; Asplin, John; Smits, Gerard; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Kooienga, Laura; Thadhani, Ravi; Mannstadt, Michael; Wolf, Myles; Chertow, Glenn M

2012-08-01

466

Effects of Phosphate Binders in Moderate CKD  

PubMed Central

Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20–45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain. PMID:22822075

Wheeler, David C.; Persky, Martha S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ketteler, Markus; Spiegel, David M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Asplin, John; Smits, Gerard; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kooienga, Laura; Thadhani, Ravi; Mannstadt, Michael; Wolf, Myles; Chertow, Glenn M.

2012-01-01

467

Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Clemens Bergwitz1  

E-print Network

, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found-energy phosphate esters, and intracellular signaling. Cells and organisms have developed elaborate mechanismsGenetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila Clemens Bergwitz1 *, Mark J. Wee1 , Sumi

Higgins, Darren

468

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

469

Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

Shaver, Lee Alan

2008-01-01

470

High phosphate uptake requirements of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.  

PubMed

Several untested aspects of the regulation of inorganic nutrient uptake were examined using nutrient depletion experiments with the symbiotic coral Stylophora pistillata. The total inhibition of phosphate uptake in artificial seawater lacking sodium indicates the involvement of a sodium/phosphate symporter for the uptake of phosphate across host membranes. Addition of ammonium or nitrate (up to 6.0 ?mol l(-1)) did not enhance saturated phosphate uptake rates, thus indicating that corals, or their symbiotic algae, were not, or not sufficiently, nitrogen limited to modify their phosphate needs. Conversely, the saturated uptake rate of ammonium increased by 2.5-fold in the presence of 3.0 ?mol l(-1) of phosphate, thus indicating that the corals or their symbionts were lacking intracellular phosphate to take advantage of the inorganic nitrogen compounds dissolved in their surrounding medium. Overall, these results highlight some greater limitation in phosphate rather than in nitrogen. Finally, the rate of phosphate uptake decreased with particulate feeding of the host (organic phosphate source). Indeed, corals that were fed 1 and 3 days before the uptake experiment took up phosphate 42 and 19% slower, respectively, than corals that were fed 21 days before. This result provides additional evidence of phosphate limitation in S. pistillata. This study therefore brings new insights into the relationships between nutrients and symbiotic corals, and may provide a rapid and effective tool to investigate which nutrient is the most limiting for coral metabolism. PMID:21795572

Godinot, Claire; Grover, Renaud; Allemand, Denis; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

2011-08-15

471

Removal of fluoride from moroccan phosphate and synthetic fluoroapatites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural phosphate is of importance to the Moroccan economy because it is a raw material for the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. However, toxic elements such as fluorine are present in the ore and cause problems in the industrial processes. In the present work, we have studied the extraction of fluoride from various phosphates using a steam atmosphere

A Laghzizil; N Elhrech; O Britel; A Bouhaouss; M Ferhat

2000-01-01

472

Soluble phosphate accumulation by Aspergillus niger from fluorapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine conditions that may provide greater solubilization of insouluble phosphate, the fungus Aspergillus niger was grown in a stationary culture containing modified citrate medium supplemented with 800 mg fluorapatite per litre. Solubilization of insouluble phosphate increased with fungal growth, reaching a maximum after 11 days of culture. Soluble phosphate levels were correlated with pH of the culture

Paulo Cesar Cerezine; Ely Nahas; David Ariovaldo Banzatto

1988-01-01

473

Tetrathiafulvalene diindolylquinoxaline: a dual signaling anion receptor with phosphate selectivity†  

PubMed Central

Incorporation of tetrathiafulvalene into the backbone of a known neutral phosphate receptor, diindolylquinoxaline, yields a dual optical-electrochemical chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate that functions in dichloromethane. This system shows selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate over other small anions and can be used to detect the presence of this analyte via fluorescence quenching or cyclic voltammetry. PMID:20856940

Bejger, Christopher; Park, Jung Su; Silver, Eric S.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

2011-01-01

474

Determination of the sedimentary microbial biomass by extractible lipid phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of lipid phosphate is proposed as an indicator of microbial biomass in marine and estuarine sediments. This relatively simple assay can be performed on fresh, frozen or frozen-lyophilized sediment samples with chloroform methanol extraction and subsequent phosphate determination. The sedimentary lipid phosphate recovery correlates with the extractible ATP and the rate of DNA synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments show active

D. C. White; W. M. Davis; J. S. Nickels; J. D. King; R. J. Bobbie

1979-01-01

475

[Management of phosphate in chronic kidney disease--Chemistry and history of phosphate binder].  

PubMed

In 1960s and 1970s when hemodialysis therapy was started in Japan, calcium carbonate was used as a phosphate binder and as the purpose of calcium supplement. Aluminum preparations were widely used in Japan, Europe and United states since the end of 1970s, when these drugs were reported as a strong phosphate binder. After that, some adverse effects such as encephalopathy and bone lesions attributed to Aluminum administration have become serious problems in dialysis patients. As a result, Aluminum administration was prohibited in 1992 in Japan. Oral vitamin D pulse therapy was developed in 1990s as a treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japan, hypercalcemia have been occurred easily by combination use of vitamin D preparations and calcium carbonate. Since the 2000s, various complications, such as ectopic calcifications, cardiovascular diseases, and reduced life expectancy, which are associated with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia have been clarified. Therefore, sevelamer hydrochrolide, that is non calcium phosphate binder, became available from 2003. Moreover, Lanthanum carbonate, that is another type of non calcium phosphate binder, was effective in Europe and United States, and also developing in Japan. However, there are not any phosphate binders which solved all clinical problems such as phosphate adsorptive power, digestive symptoms, and organ accumulation. PMID:19182359

Koiwa, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshinori

2009-02-01

476

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

NONE

1997-03-01

477

Bacterial Community Structures of Phosphate-Removing and Non-Phosphate-Removing Activated Sludges from Sequencing Batch Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial community structures of phosphate- and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges were compared. Sludge samples were obtained from two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), and 16S rDNA clone libraries of the bacterial sludge populations were established. Community structures were determined by phylogeneticanalysesof97and92partialclonesequencesfromSBR1(phosphate-removingsludge)andSBR2 (non-phosphate-removing sludge), respectively. For both sludges, the predominant bacterial group with which clones were affiliated was the beta subclass of

PHILIP L. BOND; PHILIP HUGENHOLTZ; JURG KELLER; ANDLINDA L. BLACKALL

1995-01-01

478

Phosphate or phosphite addition promotes the proteolytic turnover of phosphate-starvation inducible tomato purple acid phosphatase isozymes  

E-print Network

Phosphate or phosphite addition promotes the proteolytic turnover of phosphate-starvation inducible 2004 Edited by Ulf-Ingo Flugge Abstract Within 48 h of the addition of 2.5 mM phosphate (HPO2Ã? 4 , Pi and intracellular purple acid phosphatase (PAP) activities decreased by about 12- and 6-fold, respectively and (ii

Plaxton, William

479

Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California  

E-print Network

is low relative to input and phosphate is not heavily cycled in the ecosystem, the oxygen isotopicPhosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San. Such is the case for the North San Francisco Bay, an anthropogenically impacted estuary with high surface water

Paytan, Adina

480

Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011  

SciTech Connect

On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

Not Available

2011-03-01

481

Mesoporous nanotubes of iron phosphate: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic property.  

PubMed

Iron phosphate nanotubes with mesoporous walls are solvothermally synthesized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a template. With different template concentrations, various shapes of nanosized iron phosphates can be obtained. When the concentration of SDS is set at the transition regions between the lamellar and the hexagonal mesophases, according to its phase diagram, the coassembly of iron phosphate precursor and SDS forms a flake-type mesoporous iron phosphate. Otherwise, nanoparticles or bulky sheets of iron phosphates are obtained. The followed solvothermal treatments on the mesoporous iron phosphate flakes produce iron phosphate nanotubes with mesoporous walls. The removal of the surfactant by acetate exchange and heat treatment results in the clean mesoporous nanotubes of iron phosphate with diameters of 50-400 nm and lengths of several microns. The nanotubular and mesoporous iron phosphate possesses a specific surface area of 232 m2/g and a bimodal distribution of pore sizes, corresponding to the size of mesopores in the walls and the diameter of the nanotubes, respectively. The novel nanotubular iron phosphate with composite meso-macroporous structure, in favor of the diffusion of reactive molecules, has been tested for direct hydroxylation of benzene with hydrogen peroxide and has shown better catalytic performance compared with the conventional particulate mesoporous iron phosphate. PMID:17209581

Yu, Dinghua; Qian, Jieshu; Xue, Nianhua; Zhang, Danyu; Wang, Chunyan; Guo, Xuefeng; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Yi

2007-01-16

482

Interaction of acetyl phosphate and carbamyl phosphate with plant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.  

PubMed Central

Acetyl phosphate produced an increase in the maximum velocity (Vmax. for the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate catalysed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The limiting Vmax. was 22.2 mumol X min-1 X mg-1 (185% of the value without acetyl phosphate). This compound also decreased the Km for phosphoenolpyruvate to 0.18 mM. The apparent activation constants for acetyl phosphate were 1.6 mM and 0.62 mM in the presence of 0.5 and 4 mM-phosphoenolpyruvate respectively. Carbamyl phosphate produced an increase in Vmax. and Km for phosphoenolpyruvate. The variation of Vmax./Km with carbamyl phosphate concentration could be described by a model in which this compound interacts with the carboxylase at two different types of sites: an allosteric activator site(s) and the substrate-binding site(s). Carbamyl phosphate was hydrolysed by the action of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The hydrolysis produced Pi and NH4+ in a 1:1 relationship. Values of Vmax. and Km were 0.11 +/- 0.01 mumol of Pi X min-1 X mg-1 and 1.4 +/- 0.1 mM, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM-NaHCO3. If HCO3- was not added, these values were 0.075 +/- 0.014 mumol of Pi X min-1 X mg-1 and 0.76 +/- 0.06 mM. Vmax./Km showed no variation between pH 6.5 and 8.5. The reaction required Mg2+; the activation constants were 0.77 and 0.31 mM at pH 6.5 and 8.5 respectively. Presumably, carbamyl phosphate is hydrolysed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a reaction the mechanism of which is related to that of the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. PMID:3036067

Gonzalez, D H; Iglesias, A A; Andreo, C S

1987-01-01

483

Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.  

SciTech Connect

The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

Plotkin, S.

1999-01-01

484

Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

2006-05-01

485

Targeting Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid with diverse biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, chemotaxis, and migration. Many of the activities of S1P are mediated through five closely related G-protein-coupled receptors of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor family (S1PR) which play a crucial role in sphingolipid metabolism. Each of these receptors appears to be tissue specific and to have demonstrated roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival in various cancer types. Further analysis of the function that S1PRs serve in hematological malignancies offers a great potential for the discovery of novel and selective therapeutic agents targeting these receptors. This review focuses on the characterization of S1PRs and their roles in cancer development in various signaling pathways mediated through specific G coupled protein. In particular, pharmacological agents targeting these S1PRs will be discussed and their potential will be examined. PMID:21707490

Watters, Rebecca J.; Wang, Hong-Gang; Sung, Shen-Shu; Loughran, Thomas P.; Liu, Xin

2013-01-01

486

Phosphate and phosphonate receptors in silicate materials  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imprinted silicate materials for phosphates and phosphonates have been prepared via the sol-gel method. Guanidine functionality, with its unique combination of electrostatic and hydrogen bonding ability, were used as selective binding points in imprinted receptor cavities. We prepared the monomer 1-trimethoxysilylpropyl-3-guanidinium chloride and incorporated it into TEOS xerogels with a phosphonate template molecule. Spectroscopic analyses, including solid state {sup 29}Si NMR, found that the guanidine monomer was quantitatively incorporated into the gel. Binding affinities of various phosphate and phosphonate substrates were determined for templated and non-templated materials using HPLC analysis and a modified Bartlett assay. Molecular memory was observed and these results of imprinted xerogels functionalized with amine and trimethylammonium groups.

Daitch, C.E.; Sasaki, D.Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rush, D.J.; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

487

Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes  

SciTech Connect

The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

1999-12-03

488

High-Power -Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of novel high-power light sources utilizing a Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber as the gain element. This host presents several key benefits over silica, particularly much higher Yb2 O3 concentrations (up to 26 wt%), a 50% weaker stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain cross section, and the absence of observable photodarkening even at high population inversion. These properties

Yin-Wen Lee; Michel J. F. Digonnet; Supriyo Sinha; Karel E. Urbanek; Robert L. Byer; Shibin Jiang

2009-01-01

489

Direct complexometric titration of calcium phosphates.  

PubMed

Calcium was determined in calcium phosphate samples by dissolving the sample in hydrochloric acid, adding hydroxynaphthol blue indicator and triethanolamine, adjusting the pH to 12.3--12.5 with potassium hydroxide solution, and titrating with standard disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate solution. Time can be saved and the formation of a precipitate (which dissolves readily during the titration) can be avoided by adding at least 85% of the amount of complexing agent required for titration before adjusting the pH. PMID:903881

Tuckerman, M M; Sanchez de Ramos, M E

1977-09-01

490

DNA structures from phosphate chemical shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For B-DNA, the strong linear correlation observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) between the 31P chemical shifts (dP) and three recurrent internucleotide distances demonstrates the tight coupling between phosphate motions and helicoidal parameters. It allows to translate dP into distance restraints directly exploitable in structural refine- ment. It even provides a new method for refining DNA oligomers with restraints exclusively

Josephine Abi-Ghanem; Brahim Heddi; Nicolas Foloppe; Brigitte Hartmann

2010-01-01

491

Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

Burns, Peter C.

2005-06-01