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1

Non-laxative CT colonography with barium-based faecal tagging: is additional phosphate enema beneficial and well tolerated?  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of an additional phosphate enema prior to non-laxative CT colonography (CTC). Methods 71 patients (mean age 80 years, 28 male, 43 female) underwent non-laxative CTC following 4 oral doses of diluted 2% w/w barium sulphate. Patients were invited to self-administer a phosphate enema 2 h before CTC. An experienced observer graded the volume of retained stool (1 (nil) to 4 (>75% bowel circumference coated)), retained fluid ((1 (nil) to 4 (>50% circumference obscured)), retained stool tagging quality (1 (untagged) to 5 (?75% to 100%) tagged) and confidence a polyp ?6 mm could be excluded (yes/no) for each of six colonic segments. Tolerance of the enema was assessed via questionnaire. Data were analysed between those using and not using the enema by Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact test. 18/71 patients declined the enema. Results There was no reduction in residual stool volume with enema use compared with non-use either overall (mean score 2.6 vs 2.7, p = 0.76) or in the left colon (mean 2.3 vs 2.4, p = 0.47). Overall tagging quality was no different (mean score 4.4 vs 4.3, p = 0.43). There was significantly more retained left colonic fluid post enema (mean score 1.9 vs 1.1, p<0.0001), and diagnostic confidence in excluding polyps was significantly reduced (exclusion not possible in 35% segments vs 21% without enema, p = 0.006). Of 53 patients, 30 (56%) found the enema straightforward to use, but 4 (8%) found it unpleasant. Conclusion Phosphate enema use prior to non-laxative CTC leads to greater retained fluid, reducing diagnostic confidence, and is not recommended. PMID:20959374

Davis, W; Nisbet, P; Hare, C; Cooke, P; Taylor, S A

2011-01-01

2

Paracellular phosphate absorption in rat colon: a mechanism for enema-induced hyperphosphatemia.  

PubMed

The mechanism of colonic phosphate absorption is not well defined. We measured unidirectional phosphate fluxes across rat distal colon epithelium in the absence of transepithelial electrochemical gradients. Steady-state mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms) was not different from the serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm), generating no net flux (Jnet = Jms - Jsm, was not different from "0'). Simultaneous fluxes of mannitol, a paracellular probe, exhibited an identical flux pattern, suggesting that phosphate flux across the colonic epithelium may be mediated through the paracellular pathway. Tight junction permeability was increased with mucosal addition of taurodeoxycholate (TDC, 2 mM) which caused a prompt increase in transepithelial conductance from 7.03 +/- 0.35 to 13.88 +/- 0.35 mS/cm2 (p < 0.001). This was associated with an increase in Jsm, but no change in Jms, for mannitol, resulting in a net flux in the secretary direction. Identical TDC-induced changes were observed in phosphate fluxes, again suggesting phosphate permeation through the intercellular, mannitol pathway. A significant correlation was observed between the permeability of phosphate and the permeability of mannitol, measured both in the mucosal-to-serosal and the serosal-to-mucosal directions and under both control and experimental (mucosal TDC) conditions. Thus, colonic phosphate transport is mediated through the paracellular pathway and enema with high phosphate concentrations (1,760 times blood concentration), can trigger rapid and massive phosphate absorption through this diffusive pathway. PMID:9058363

Hu, M S; Kayne, L H; Jamgotchian, N; Ward, H J; Lee, D B

1997-01-01

3

Forensic application of ESEM and XRF-EDS techniques to a fatal case of sodium phosphate enema intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium phosphate enemas and laxatives are widely used for the treatment of constipation, even if a number of cases of significant toxicity due to alterations of the fluid and electrolyte equilibria (hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia) have been reported. We present the case of an 83-year-old man who died of fecal and chemical peritonitis secondary to an iatrogenic colon perforation (produced

G.a Viel; G. a Cecchetto; L. D. a Fabbri; C. b Furlan; S. D. a Ferrara; M. a Montisci

2009-01-01

4

Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates  

SciTech Connect

Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G. [CEA, DEN/DANS/I-tese, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2013-07-01

5

Barium Enema Examination  

MedlinePLUS

Barium Enema Examination What you need to know about… A barium enema examination dem- onstrates your large bowel (colon). ... a diagnostically useful image. Prior to performing your barium enema examination, the radiographer will give you a ...

6

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

7

A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner

2004-01-01

8

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

9

Antegrade continence enemas in the management of intractable faecal incontinence.  

PubMed Central

The introduction of the Malone procedure has improved the outlook for children with severe faecal incontinence. Phosphate and saline enemas are administered through the exteriorized appendix in antegrade fashion to achieve evacuation and ensure cleanliness. The appendix functions as a non-refluxing catheterizable channel: If it is not available for use, a tubularized caecal flap is a safe alternative. We have constructed Malone stomas using the appendix in 20 patients and another seven patients have undergone the caecal flap modification. The mean age was 8.6 years. Eleven of the patients were boys and 16 (59%) were girls. Six children required dilatation or revision of their stomas for stenosis. One developed small bowel obstruction and another has stopped using the stoma. The results of the continence enemas were considered to be very good by the vast majority of patients and their carers. Our recent experience suggests that bisacodyl may be a valuable adjunct to the antegrade enemas of phosphate and saline. We believe that this procedure may be extended with benefit to adults with serious faecal incontinence in whom standard measures have failed. PMID:7769583

Kiely, E M; Ade-Ajayi, N; Wheeler, R

1995-01-01

10

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the\\u000a recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between\\u000a January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation\\u000a in 31%, spina bifida

Chandrasen Kumar Sinha; Alka Grewal; Harry C. Ward

2008-01-01

11

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retained and tolerated than others because of their physical properties. Aim: To compare patient preference and retention of four therapeutic enemas, including a nicotine enema, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Twenty four patients with active UC received the four trial enemas—corticosteroid, 5-amino salicylate (5-ASA), and nicotine liquid enemas and a corticosteroid foam, in a randomised order, taking one enema on each of four successive nights. Patients scored them 1 to 4 for ease of administration and retention, degree of abdominal bloating, and for their overall preference. Results: Fifteen patients rated nicotine their overall favourite or second favourite, compared with 14 for corticosteroid foam and 11 for 5-ASA and corticosteroid liquids, but this was not significant (p = 0.302). Overall, there was no significant difference in overnight retention. However, the nicotine enema tended to be less well retained in patients with milder urgency but a higher proportion retained it overnight with more severe urgency (p = 0.031 compared with 5-ASA enema). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in patient preference or overall duration of retention for the four enemas. PMID:16143691

Ingram, J; Rhodes, J; Evans, B; Newcombe, R; Thomas, G

2005-01-01

12

Double contrast enema and colonoscopy in polyp detection.  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic accuracy of double contrast enema was assessed by colonoscopy of 250 consecutive patients with polypoid lesions that were observed at double contrast enema. The enema method detected 90% of all existing polypoid lesions, and gave false positive results in less than 3.5% Colonoscopy revealed 91% of the lesions. Double contrast enema is suitable as a screening procedure and, when used in combination with colonoscopy, only very few polyps will escape detection. The large number of neoplastic polyps detected in this retrospective series emphasises the necessity for a careful radiographic technique combined with colonoscopy to disclose and treat these potentially malignant lesions of the colon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7308852

Fork, F T

1981-01-01

13

Routine colonic lavage is unnecessary for double-contrast barium enema in outpatients  

PubMed Central

Four different cleansing regimens were assessed in a prospective survey of 435 patients referred for barium enema. A regimen using simple dietary instructions and laxatives is as effective as a preliminary cleansing enema. It is suggested that routine cleansing enemas in outpatients represent an unnecessary and uncomfortable ritual that might usefully be abandoned. PMID:6802391

De Lacey, Gerald; Benson, Mark; Wilkins, Robert; Spencer, John; Cramer, Benvon

1982-01-01

14

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2013-04-01

15

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2012-04-01

16

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2014-04-01

17

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2010-04-01

18

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2011-04-01

19

Use of A Monti Channel For Administration of Antegrade Continence Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSuccess with Malone antegrade continence enemas (MACE) requires reliable access to the colon and a customized enema regimen. Use of the appendix in situ provides a natural and well-vascularized conduit. When the appendix is absent or inadequate, alternative techniques are required. We report our experience using Monti channels to administer antegrade continence enemas.

Elizabeth B. Yerkes; Richard C. Rink; Mark P. Cain; Anthony J. Casale

2002-01-01

20

Fleet DNA (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

2014-06-01

21

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

22

Adequacy of preparation for barium enema among elderly outpatients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether outpatients 75 years of age or older have a higher rate of inadequate bowel preparation for barium enema and of complications associated with the preparation and the test than patients aged 55 to 74 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Radiology department in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 55 years or older referred for a barium enema from March to August 1988. OUTCOME MEASURES: All films were reviewed independently by a study radiologist blind to the staff radiologist's report. Patients were interviewed by telephone within several days after the test to assess the occurrence of problems during the preparation or the test. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 213 patients assessed 72 were excluded: 43 refused to participate or could not be contacted, 16 had previously undergone colonic surgery, and 13 were excluded for other reasons. The remaining 141 patients were separated into three age groups: those 55 to 64 years (46 patients), those 65 to 74 (47) and those 75 or older (48). In 104 cases (74%) the bowel had been prepared adequately; there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the adequacy of preparation. The incidence of problems reported by the patients did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients aged 75 years or more are no more likely than those aged 55 to 74 to have problems with bowel preparation or the barium enema itself. Age should not be a criterion for exclusion from barium enema. To try to lower the rate of poor bowel preparation clinicians and radiologists should consider counselling patients more carefully about the importance of proper preparation. Also, the current method of preparation could be examined to determine whether simple changes would significantly improve colon cleanliness. PMID:2025821

Grad, R M; Clarfield, A M; Rosenbloom, M; Perrone, M

1991-01-01

23

[Severe allergic reaction due to a rectal enema].  

PubMed

Allergic drug reactions must always be considered when prescribing treatment, even in frequent pediatric problems such as acute abdominal pain due to constipation. We describe an original case of anaphylactic shock due to the administration of hypertonic rectal enema in a child. A 9-year-old child admitted to the emergency department for an acute complaint of abdominal pain related to constipation received an administration of a hypertonic rectal enema to allow the passage of stools. Afterwards, the child presented a life-threatening episode, requiring emergency treatment with transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, suggesting an anaphylactic shock. The absence of any other drug or food intake, the chronology of events, and favorable outcome after treatment led to the diagnosis of a probable allergy to methylparaben, sodium parahydroxybenzoate, present as the excipient in the rectal enema. Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction, setting in rapidly, which may lead to fatal outcome. Most reactions to parabens reported concern, almost exclusively, the cutaneous application of paraben-containing topical preparations. The present observation underscores the original and undescribed risk of an allergic general reaction following the rectal administration of parabens. The indications of any prescription must be carefully observed and potential drug contraindications, considering the patient's history of allergy, should be sought. PMID:24183833

Raulin-Gaignard, H; Berlengi, N; Gatin, A; Loeb, O; Borsa-Dorion, A; Monin, P

2013-12-01

24

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

25

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

26

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

27

Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-01-01

28

Optimum dosage of 5-aminosalicylic acid as rectal enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), the active moiety of sulphasalazine (SASP), was given as a rectal enema to patients with mild to moderate distal ulcerative colitis to determine the minimum effective dosage. A double blind study was carried out using enemas containing 1, 2, or 4 g or 5-ASA or placebo for a one month treatment period. One hundred and thirteen patients with ulcerative colitis attending our outpatient clinic volunteered to participate. Clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological assessments were carried out at the beginning of the study and after 15 and 30 days of treatment. All patients who received 5-ASA enemas showed significantly better results than those who received a placebo enema (p less than 0.001) but no difference was detected among the patients receiving differing concentrations of 5-ASA. This study suggests that 1 g 5-ASA (in a 100 ml enema) is a sufficient dosage for patients with a mild to moderate attack of ulcerative colitis. PMID:1885075

Campieri, M; Gionchetti, P; Belluzzi, A; Brignola, C; Tampieri, M; Iannone, P; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L

1991-01-01

29

Cell fleet planning : an industry case study  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the practical use of the Cell Fleet Planning Model in planning the fleet for the U.S. airline industry. The Cell Model is a cell theory, linear programming approach to fleet ...

Silva, Armando C.

1984-01-01

30

Cask fleet operations study  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

Not Available

1988-01-01

31

Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

Not Available

2012-10-01

32

The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses  

SciTech Connect

The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

1983-03-01

33

Phosphate salts  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphate salts refers to many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy ... much phosphate in the blood. People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

34

The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

Zbar, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

35

Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5' green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10(6.95) tissue culture infective dose(50) (TCID(50))/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3 dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14 dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Nuckols, John T; Ziegler, Sarah A; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Klowden, Marc J; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A; Higgs, Stephen

2013-02-01

36

Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

2013-01-01

37

Relationship Between the pH of Enema Solutions and Intestinal Damage in Rabbits.  

PubMed

Mechanical enemas can lead to intestinal mucosal injuries and bowel barrier damage, presenting as electrolyte disturbances and functional intestinal disorders. Most researchers believe that the mechanism of injury is related to osmolality, volume and temperature of the solution, infusion pressure, and the composition of the enema tube. We hypothesized that the pH of the enema solution may also contribute to intestinal damage. We administered enema solutions-normal saline, soapsuds, or vinegar (neutral, alkaline, or acidic solutions, respectively)-to three groups of rabbits (n = 20 per group). The solutions were standardized for volume and temperature and the soapsuds and vinegar solutions were adjusted to be isotonic with normal saline or deionized water. We also included a control group (n = 20) in which the enema tubes were inserted but no solution was administered. We biopsied 3 sites (rectum and distal and proximal colon). Damage to intestinal mucosa was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to explore the detection of damage using noninvasive methods, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was measured in the exfoliated cells gathered from postenema defecation. Epithelial loss, inflammatory reaction, and cellular microstructure damage was increased in the vinegar and soapsuds groups. Also, exfoliated cells in these groups had higher COX-2 expression than the normal saline group. The acidic and alkaline enema solutions thus caused more severe damage to the intestinal mucosa compared to the neutral liquid, supporting our hypothesis. Further, the detection of COX-2 expression shows promise as a noninvasive method for estimating enema-induced damage. PMID:25504953

Zhang, Feng; Li, Xia; Xu, Xujuan; Cai, Duanying; Zhang, Jianguo

2015-01-01

38

A randomised trial comparing mesalazine and prednisolone foam enemas in patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

Distal ulcerative colitis can be treated with oral or rectal mesalazine, or both. A foam enema preparation has been developed and its efficacy investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mesalazine foam enemas compared with prednisolone foam enemas in the treatment of patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis. Patients aged over 18 years presenting with a relapse of distal ulcerative colitis were randomly allocated treatment with mesalazine foam enema (n = 149 evaluable patients) and prednisolone foam enema (n = 146 evaluable patients) for four weeks. A randomised multicentre investigator blind parallel group trial was conducted. It was found that after four weeks of treatment, clinical remission was achieved by 52% of mesalazine treated patients and 31% of patients treated with prednisolone (p < 0.001). There was a trend in favour of more patients in the mesalazine group achieving sigmoidoscopic remission (40% v 31%, p = 0.10). Histological remission was achieved by 27% and 21% of patients receiving mesalazine and prednisolone respectively. Symptoms improved in both treatment groups. Significantly more mesalazine patients had no blood in their stools after four weeks of treatment (67% v 40%, p < 0.001). Prednisolone treated patients had significantly fewer days with liquid stools than mesalazine patients, with a median of 0 and 1 days respectively by week 4 (p = 0.001). In this study mesalazine foam enema was superior to prednisolone foam enema with regards to clinical remission, this was supported by favourable trends in sigmoidoscopic and histological remission rates. Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:8801202

Lee, F I; Jewell, D P; Mani, V; Keighley, M R; Kingston, R D; Record, C O; Grace, R H; Daniels, S; Patterson, J; Smith, K

1996-01-01

39

Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

2004-01-01

40

Vehicle Fleet Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Finance & Administration  

E-print Network

Vehicle Fleet Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Finance & Administration Policy Contact, and established campus vehicle fleet service under Facilities Management operations. The purpose of the fleet vehicles. This policy is applicable to the entire Mines fleet, which includes department vehicles. 2

41

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

Not Available

2014-01-01

42

Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (< 70 or ? 70 years), sex, and colon location. The number of diverticula was counted, and the detection ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Colonic diverticula were observed in 46 patients with barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon. PMID:23613630

Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

2013-01-01

43

University of California Santa Cruz Fleet Services  

E-print Network

University of California Santa Cruz Fleet Services Lease To Purchase/or Own Agreement depreciation. Fleet Services will work to find another department to purchase the vehicle, upon written request. If the vehicle is not fully depreciated at such time, the division/department will have to pay Fleet Services

California at Santa Cruz, University of

44

Therapeutic barium enema for bleeding colonic diverticula: four case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diverticular diseases of the colon, including severe and persistent bleeding in Eastern countries, has increased in the last decades. The bleeding from colonic diverticula is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Herein, we report four cases of severe and persistent bleeding of colonic diverticular disease that could be treated with a high concentration barium enema. These four cases showed a similar pattern of bleeding whose source could not be identified. Colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the entire colon and many diverticula were noted throughout the colon. No active bleeding source was identified, but large adherent clots in some diverticula were noted. After endoscopic and angiographic therapies failed, therapeutic barium enema stopped the severe bleeding. These patients remained free of re-bleeding in the follow-up period (range 17-35 mo) after the therapy. We report the four case series of therapeutic barium enema and reviewed the literature pertinent to this procedure. PMID:19009662

Iwamoto, Jun-ichi; Mizokami, Yuji; Shimokobe, Koichi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2008-11-01

45

Therapeutic barium enema for bleeding colonic diverticula: Four case series and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diverticular diseases of the colon, including severe and persistent bleeding in Eastern countries, has increased in the last decades. The bleeding from colonic diverticula is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Herein, we report four cases of severe and persistent bleeding of colonic diverticular disease that could be treated with a high concentration barium enema. These four cases showed a similar pattern of bleeding whose source could not be identified. Colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the entire colon and many diverticula were noted throughout the colon. No active bleeding source was identified, but large adherent clots in some diverticula were noted. After endoscopic and angiographic therapies failed, therapeutic barium enema stopped the severe bleeding. These patients remained free of re-bleeding in the follow-up period (range 17-35 mo) after the therapy. We report the four case series of therapeutic barium enema and reviewed the literature pertinent to this procedure. PMID:19009662

Iwamoto, Jun-ichi; Mizokami, Yuji; Shimokobe, Koichi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2008-01-01

46

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

47

National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

Not Available

2012-01-01

48

IN SITU MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA IN 127 PATIENTS: A 6YEAR EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:The initial description of the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) relied on a reversed, tunneled and reimplanted appendix. In 1999 we reported our in situ technique that uses windows developed in the appendiceal mesentery for imbrication. We present our long-term results.

C. D. ANTHONY HERNDON; RICHARD C. RINK; MARK P. CAIN; MICHELLE LERNER; MARTIN KAEFER; ELIZABETH YERKES; ANTHONY J. CASALE

2004-01-01

49

Perception errors with double-contrast enema after a positive guaiac test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 3 and 6 of 12 colorectal neoplasms larger than 1 cm in diameter were overlooked by each of 4 radiologists in 117 individuals investigated with double-contrast enema (DCE) after a positive guaiac test. Even when the individual results of 2, 3, or 4 experienced radiologists were combined, 2 small carcinomas were overlooked due to perception errors. One of these

Jan Kewenter; Jörn Jensen; Marianne Boijsen; Gerhard Lycke; Ulf Tylén

1987-01-01

50

Federal Fleet Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet overview of FEMP services and assistance available to Federal fleet managers to implement alternative fuel and advanced vehicle strategies in compliance with Federal goals and requirements.

Not Available

2010-06-01

51

Bus Fleet Type and Age Replacement Optimization: A case study utilizing King County Metro fleet data  

E-print Network

1 Bus Fleet Type and Age Replacement Optimization: A case study utilizing King County Metro fleet and a hybrid bus. Employing real-world bus fleet data from King County Metro (Washington State, USA) multiple Metro (Washington State, USA) operates about 1,300 vehicles with multiple bus technologies (electric

Bertini, Robert L.

52

Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

Not Available

2009-08-01

53

Worldwide EHV fleet demonstrations—Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fleet demonstrations of battery-powered electric and hybrid vehicles outside the United States do not involve basic technologies not being employed in the USA. The major difference between USA and foreign fleets is that several of the overseas demonstration programs are older than those in the United States, and therefore have developed greater reliability of the EV's. In general, the foreign

E. A. Campbell; V. Wouk

1980-01-01

54

Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention.  

PubMed

Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-05-01

55

Assessment of water enema computed tomography: an effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (WECT) for the diagnosis of colon cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 191 patients referred for clinically suspected colon cancer were prospectively evaluated by WECT in a multicenter\\u000a trial. Examination was contrast enhanced helical CT after colon filling through a rectal tube. For all the cases, final

Catherine Ridereau-Zins; Christophe Aubé; Dominique Luet; Bruno Vielle; Franck Pilleul; Jérôme Dumortier; Yves Gandon; Denis Heresbach; Christophe Beziat; François Bailly; Marjolaine DeBilly; Franck Carbonnel; Marie Ange Pierredon-Foulongne; Mickaël Bismuth; Jean-Marie Chretien; Jérôme Lebigot; Patrick Pessaux; Pierre-Jean Valette

2010-01-01

56

Comparison of results of laparoscopic and open antegrade continence enema procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications of the Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure have now been reported. In this study we have\\u000a compared the results of our experience with the laparoscopic appendicostomy (LACE procedure) with the published results of\\u000a previously described open ACE procedures. Children who had the LACE procedure at our institutions were reviewed. Intra- and\\u000a postoperative problems were identified by review

A. C. Lynch; S. W. Beasley; R. W. Robertson; P. N. Morreau

1999-01-01

57

Sensitivity of double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Double contrast barium enema (DCBE) is the examination carried out most frequently for investigation of patients\\u000a with large bowel symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of DCBE and colonoscopy for the detection\\u000a of colorectal cancer and neoplastic polyps ?1 cm. Methods: All patients undergoing DCBE (1389) or colonoscopy (1081) as the\\u000a primary investigation for

G. A. Smith; P. J. O'Dwyer

2001-01-01

58

Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

1996-04-01

59

Reuben H. Fleet Science Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center focuses mainly on astronomy, there are also exhibits and educational programming on science and technology, human physiology, and physics. A new photographic exhibition looks at the scientific accomplishments and technological spin-offs that have resulted from NASA missions. Comet Impact is a 23-passenger simulator ride that simulates what might happen when comet Kirsch-Kennedy appears to be on a collision path with Earth. The Nierman Challenger Learning Center programs use a realistic mock-up of a Mission Control center and a futuristic Space Station to transport participants in simulated space voyages. A Teacher Resource Guide is available online, as well as information on Inquiry Learning Partnership professional development, field trips, family science nights, workshops, and alignment with California Teaching Standards. The Center is also a partner with TryScience, providing the experience of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide. There are several TryScience exhibits at the facility, and a link to the TryScience website where there are science activities, Live Cams, and downloads.

60

Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

Not Available

2014-09-01

61

A therapeutic barium enema is a practical option to control bleeding from the appendix  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating from the appendix is rare and often intractable, because it is almost impossible to approach the bleeding point by endoscopy. We herein describe the first case of bleeding from the appendix, which was successively controlled by a therapeutic barium enema administered into the appendix. Case presentation A 71-year-old male visited our hospital because of melena. He has been receiving an anti-coagulation drug, ticlopidine hydrochloride, for 10 years. By an emergency colonoscopy, a hemorrhage was detected in the appendix, and the lesion responsible for the bleeding was regarded to exist in the appendix. Two hundred milliliters of 50 W/V% barium was sprayed into the orifice of the appendix using a spraying tube. The bleeding could thus be immediately stopped, and a radiological examination revealed the accumulation of barium at the cecum and the orifice of the appendix. The barium accumulation disappeared by the next day, and no obvious anal bleeding was observed. Two weeks after stopping the bleeding from the appendix, an appendectomy was performed to prevent any further refractory hemorrhaging. The patient has had no complaints of any abdominal symptoms or anal bleeding for 10 months. Conclusions A therapeutic barium enema is a useful procedure to control bleeding from the appendix and to avoid emergency surgery, such as partial cecectomy and hemicolectomy. PMID:24156777

2013-01-01

62

Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

1999-05-03

63

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

... be done in a doctor's office or hospital radiology department. It is done after your colon is ... Grainger RG, et al., eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

64

Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

Not Available

2011-04-01

65

Fleet DNA Project Data Summary Report (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation includes graphical data summaries that highlight statistical trends for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating in a variety of vocations. It offers insight for the development of vehicle technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emission.

Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Burton, E.

2014-04-01

66

Dynamic Control of Multicommodity Fleet Management Problems  

E-print Network

Dynamic Control of Multicommodity Fleet Management Problems Warren B. Powell Tassio A. Carvalho problems with multiple equipment types and limited sub- stitution can be modeled as dynamic, multicommodity as multicommodity network ow problems Shan 21 , Chih 3 , Magnanti and Simpson 16 , Hane et al. 12 but can also

Powell, Warren B.

67

Uranium Phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of preparation, stability in solution and in the solid state, and composition of the crystalline hydrates of uranyl and uranium(IV) orthophosphates and condensed phosphates have been reviewed. The structures of these compounds have been discussed; they are three-dimensional polymers with a uranyl-phosphate framework. The polymerisation of the phosphate anion on thermal decomposition has been discussed. Condensed uranyl polyphosphates are unstable when kept, and are capable of undergoing dehydration, the extent of which increases with increase in the length of the phosphate chain and increase in the uranium concentration. The bibliography contains 199 references.

Kobets, L. V.; Umreiko, D. S.

1983-06-01

68

The double contrast barium enema: improvements to lateral decubitus views including the use of a wedge filter.  

PubMed

The prognostic importance of early detection of colonic carcinoma is emphasised and the contribution of an accurate barium enema technique is stressed. Horizontal beam lateral decubitus films are routine in double contrast barium enemas, and it is still common practice in many departments to support the cassette for these views either in the bucky tray or with sandbags. The lateral decubitus views of 100 patients using these methods of cassette support were reviewed. A large number of the films (67%) were technically so unsatisfactory due to unilateral under- or over-penetration that they did not provide acceptable visualisation of the colon. The cause of these technical faults, and the methods by which they may be overcome, are described. In addition, a wedge filter was designed to reduce the absorption by dependent soft tissues in obese patients. PMID:639459

De Lacey, G; Wignall, B; Ambrose, J; Baylis, K; Bridges, C

1978-03-01

69

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip  

PubMed Central

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

70

75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department...Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. The three meetings will be identical...Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study will examine the current and...

2010-12-29

71

33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets...Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets...Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department...United States Government, shall cruise or anchor between...

2010-07-01

72

76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility...the requirements to allow a distant water tuna fleet vessel to engage foreign...

2011-05-31

73

76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility...Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels. DATES: Comments and...

2011-01-20

74

77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...will enforce Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels Security Zones from 12...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships. The Designated...

2012-07-30

75

Massive hyperphosphatemia in a patient with neuronal intestinal dysplasia after bowel preparation with oral sodium phosphate.  

PubMed

Oral sodium phosphate-based laxatives are frequently used for bowel preparation or relief of constipation in some countries. However, these agents are not without risk. Small and clinical insignificant increments on serum phosphorus levels are observed in almost all individuals after use of oral sodium phosphate. Some patients are prone to severe hyperphosphatemia such as elders, those with chronic or acute renal disease and those with poor bowel motility. Severe hyperphosphatemia accompanied with hypocalcemia may be life-threatening in these patients. We present an 18-year-old woman with neuronal intestinal dysplasia who developed symptomatic and severe hyperphosphatemia after bowel preparation with oral sodium phosphate enema. Urgent hemodialysis was performed two times for severe hyperphosphatemia. PMID:23713794

Arikan, Hakki; Guler, Derya; Birdal, Gurdal; Nalcaci, Serdar; Aykut, Emre; Ozcan, Ceren; Irmak, Rahmi; Banzragch, Munkhtsetseg; Arzu, Velioglu

2013-07-01

76

Using Collective Intentionality to Model Fleets of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

Research into collaborative autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) behavior at the University of Idaho (UI) has led to advanced planning strategies involving the distributed gathering and sharing of information in fleets of AUVs [1]. Information sharing by the fleet enables vehicles to improve cooperative activity

Idaho, University of

77

Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

2003-01-01

78

Biofuels, Climate Policy, and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

Biofuels, Climate Policy, and the European Vehicle Fleet Xavier Gitiaux, Sebastian Rausch, Sergey on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Abstract We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate incorporates current generation biofuels, accounts for stock turnover of the vehicle fleets, disaggregates

79

Holonic fleet scheduling with TeleTruck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the TeleTruck approach for multi-agent fleet scheduling. In close collaboration with a forwarding company we developed a multiagent system with holonic agents that will support dispatch officers in transport scheduling. The system is capable of handling real-world requirements like dynamics and uncertainty. Holonic agents are agents which are composed of sub-agents acting in a corporate way. We give a brief overview of the current state of the TeleTruck application prototype. We discuss requirements of communication, coordination, and resource control that distinguish holonic from common multiagent systems and we show, how we integrated these concepts with the three-layered agent architecture INTERRAP, in order to result in a smooth implementation of a dispatch support system.

Bürckert, Hans-Jürgen; Fischer, Klaus; Vierke, Gero

1999-03-01

80

Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

2014-01-01

81

Analysis of the NAFA fleet data base: passenger cars only  

SciTech Connect

To assess the potential market penetration of new vehicular concepts, it is first necessary to determine the current level of demand in terms of physical capabilities and economic constraints. The survey described in this report attempts to measure these characteristics for the fleet market sector in the U.S. The data analyzed come from a survey taken in March 1979 of members of the National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Each respondent was asked to specify a set of characteristics for electric cars that would meet his specific fleet demands and assign the maximum price he would be willing to pay for each option. From the 139 responses, it is possible to relate the physical specifications of fleet vehicles to economic utility. Two other reports (BNL-51286; BNL-51312) deal with the simulator (CPEN) which was designed by BNL to estimate market penetration rates of new technologies in the fleet market, using the data base described within this report: Joseph R. Wagner, A Method for Estimating TeA methodhnological Penetration Rates in Commercial Automobile Fleets, BNL 51312, May 1980, and Richard Weil, Fleet Car Market Penetration Simulator (CPEN): A User's Guide, BNL 51286, August 1980.

Shonka, D.

1980-09-01

82

Maintaining the safety of an aging fleet of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the Douglas Aging Fleet is examined in light of increasing concern for the possibility of the onset of widespread cracking and recent industry activity to minimize the concern. A fleet monitoring program together with an augmented maintenance program is proposed as a possible means to reduce the concern. Six candidate options for maintenance program augmentation are examined which have been shown to be effective in detection of widespread fatigue damage. A brief example of how this system might be applied to the DC-9 Fleet is presented.

Hoggard, Amos W.

1992-01-01

83

Perspectives on AFVs: State and city government fleet manager survey  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of state and city government fleet managers.

Whalen, P.

1999-02-01

84

Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

1994-12-31

85

Abstract--Complex, collaborative maneuvers by a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) requires the dynamic  

E-print Network

Abstract--Complex, collaborative maneuvers by a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs, called the "UI mini-subs". MCM behaviors include lost vehicle replacement, fleet position regulation decisions being made by the leader of the fleet using information provided to it from the other fleet

Idaho, University of

86

How fleet commonality influences low-cost airline operating performance: Empirical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of fleet commonality on operating performance of low-cost airlines. It examines the role fleet size and route length variations on this relationship. Results of an analysis of 28 airlines show that fleet commonality is positively associated with operating performance. Further, fleet size positively affects this relationship, whereas route length variations do not.

Alexander Brüggen; Levin Klose

2010-01-01

87

IFA/1 : an interactive airline fleet assignment model  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the Airline Fleet Assignment models which have been designed during the past 10 years within MIT's Flight Transportation Laboratory. Emphasis is placed on developing an interactive computer system, ...

Duchesne de Lamotte, Herve

1981-01-01

88

Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

Rausch, Sebastian

89

2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet - Duration: 0:57.  

NASA Video Gallery

Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, ...

90

Network design and fleet allocation model for vessel operation  

E-print Network

Containership operators in the U.S. are confronted with a number of problems in the way they make critical fleet allocation decisions to meet the increase of shippers' demands. Instead of the empirical approach, this ...

Li, Xiaojing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

91

Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important

Jasna Tomi?; Willett Kempton

2007-01-01

92

A guide to surveys of motor vehicle fleets  

SciTech Connect

In response to directives in Section 407 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) developed a data collection program designed to provide information useful to persons interested in the alternative fuels market. The target audience includes those seeking to manufacture, convert, sell, own, or operate alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) or alternative fueling facilities. Among the various projects EIA conducted as part of this data collection program were two fleet surveys conducted in Department of Energy-designated Clean Cities. The Clean Cities program is a locally-based government/industry partnership coordinated by the Department of Energy to expand the use of alternative transportation fuels. These surveys were designed to collect a broad range of information regarding the fleets and fleet vehicles in operation in the Atlanta, Georgia and Denver, Colorado areas. One of the objectives of these surveys was to attempt to identify and describe the market for AFVs. Due to inherent limitations associated with AFVs and limited alternative-fuel infrastructure, it`s believed that the first practical applications for AFVs will be within private and government fleets. Another objective in conducting the Clean Cities Fleet surveys was to develop a useful methodology for accessing and surveying private and municipal fleets that would aid other interested parties in conducting similar surveys. This report is intended to provide a description of how EIA gathered information on private and municipal fleets, but the basic survey design could be used to design surveys of other difficult-to-access populations. There are 3 basic steps to any survey: define the target population, constructing the survey frame, and implementing the survey. The procedures outlined in this report are, for the most part, the procedures used for the fleet survey conducted in Denver. The major changes between the two surveys are described in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-11-01

93

Dynamic Optimal Model of Vehicle Fleet Size and Exact Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating single-periodic and static vehicle routing problem, the article analyzes multi-periodic vehicle fleet size and routing problem, and model dynamic vehicle fleet size. Furthermore, the authors decompose the model with Dantzig-Wolf decomposition method, and derive an exact algorithm for the model based on simplex method, dynamic programming method and branch and bound method. Finally, the authors use numerical example to

Yuan-yuan ZHANG; Jian-bin LI

2007-01-01

94

National Federal Fleet Loaner Program, Interim Status Report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loaner Program is to increase the awareness, deployment, and use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Federal fleets. The Loaner Program accomplishes this by providing free EVs to Federal fleets on a loaner basis, generally for 1 or 2 months. The Program partners DOE with six electric utilities, with DOE providing financial support and some leads on Federal fleets interested in obtaining EVs. The utilities obtain the vehicles, identify candidate loaner fleets, loan the vehicles, provide temporary charging infrastructure, provide overall support to participating Federal fleets, and support fleets with their leasing decisions. While the utilities have not had the success initially envisioned by themselves, DOE, the Edison Electric Institute, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, the utilities can not be faulted for their efforts, as they are not the entity that makes the ultimate lease or no-lease decision. Some external groups have suggested to DOE that they direct other federal agencies to change their processes to make loaning vehicles easier; this is simply not within the power of DOE. By law, a certain percentage of all new vehicle acquisitions are supposed to be alternative fuel vehicles (AFV); however, with no enforcement, the federal agencies are not compelled to lease AFVs such as electric vehicles.

Francfort, James Edward

2000-10-01

95

The Art of the First Fleet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural History Museum of London website features an online collection of some of the artworks that were created by the members of the First Fleet, the group of nine ships that set sail from Portsmouth to establish a colony in New South Wales, Australia. The artworks are considered to be "outstanding drawings of aboriginal people, the environment and wildlife found on arrival as well as of the early foundation of the colony." Bird lovers out there will find this collection quite a treat, as there are a slew of drawings of birds. Mammal lovers will get to see drawings that are some of the only know record of species that have become extinct since 1788. The drawings are divided up into four different topics, "Natural History", "Ethnography", "Topography", and "History", and can be accessed by their links on the homepage. Each topic can be viewed as a "list" or "gallery", with the gallery view providing thumbnails and the title, and the list providing the title and the name of the artist. Once visitors have chosen a drawing to view, they can click on it to see the dimensions and date of the drawings, as well as an enlarged image of the drawing. Those with interest in more details, such as the donor of the drawing or where it's held at the Museum, should click on "show notes". The "interactive enlargement" link below the image allows visitors to zoom and pan within the image.

96

Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon.  

PubMed

To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.8 +/- 13 years) requiring investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (greater than 5mm). The neoplastic yield from rigid sigmoidoscopy was 12 per cent, flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy 90 per cent, and double-contrast barium enema only 76 per cent. Barium enema failed to identify eight carcinomas and 13 adenomatous polyps; seven of the eight carcinomas were polypoid Dukes' Stage A lesions, and associated diverticular disease was present in 62.5 per cent of cases. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy failed to identify seven carcinomas and one adenomatous polyp. Five of the carcinomas were beyond range of the instrument; in one patient, a stricture was seen that was caused by the carcinoma; and in the seventh patient, the examination was terminated because of angulation spasm. Double-contrast barium enema is inaccurate in detecting lesions in the sigmoid colon, with flexible sigmoidoscopy being superior. PMID:6628146

Farrands, P A; Vellacott, K D; Amar, S S; Balfour, T W; Hardcastle, J D

1983-11-01

97

Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate for the OASIS ASV system and allows for independent development and testing of higher-level software components. The Platform Communicator acts as a proxy for both actual and simulated platforms. It translates platform-independent messages from the higher control systems to the device-dependent communication protocols. This enables the higher-level control systems to interact identically with heterogeneous actual or simulated platforms.

Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

2009-01-01

98

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2012-07-01

99

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2013-07-01

100

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2010-07-01

101

40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...prior to the Administrator's selection of the test fleet...

2011-07-01

102

Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

2010-01-01

103

41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (3) Furnish two copies of the transfer document to the fleet management system receiving the vehicles; and (4) Forward an additonal copy of the transfer document to the fleet management system, when a signed receipt is...

2010-07-01

104

Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

Not Available

2009-06-01

105

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2014-01-01

106

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2010-07-01

107

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2013-07-01

108

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2011-01-01

109

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes...executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of...

2012-01-01

110

77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0787] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port...23'27'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191,...

2012-09-18

111

76 FR 47996 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction...participating the 2011 Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week. This document corrects the list of visiting...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored...

2011-08-08

112

77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay...The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone...will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR...

2012-06-15

113

75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week and will do so by prohibiting any person...vessels in the 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week event. Basis and Purpose Seattle's...

2010-08-02

114

75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY...during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010...and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in...

2010-04-21

115

77 FR 40521 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

2012-07-10

116

75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into, transit...events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone...

2010-02-25

117

76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington...vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored following...other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and will do so by...

2011-07-11

118

75 FR 71638 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This supplemental notice of proposed...NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot...

2010-11-24

119

77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0146] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast...Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during 2012 Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012...

2012-04-10

120

77 FR 5747 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY...Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those vessels are in the Sector...subversive acts during Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored in...

2012-02-06

121

Patient satisfaction and quality of care at four diagnostic imaging procedures: mammography, double-contrast barium enema, abdominal ultrasonography and vaginal ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to measure patient satisfaction and to investigate the practical implications of monitoring\\u000a the quality of care at four radiology procedures. A survey was conducted immediately after the examinations in eight radiology\\u000a departments: 550 patients attending for mammography, 110 for double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), 97 for abdominal ultrasonography\\u000a and 90 for vaginal ultrasonography. Outcome

K. Løken; S. Steine; E. Lærum

1999-01-01

122

JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

Hummel, Kirck

2009-01-01

123

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

124

Electric vehicles in fleet operation at Detroit Edison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detroit Edison operates a fleet of 24 electric cars in a cost-sharing demonstration program with the United States Department of Energy. The program features a unique lease program in which electric passenger cars are used by Detroit Edison employees for their personal driving needs, such as commuting to work, shopping, etc. Over 50,000 miles have been logged on the 24

G. O. Murray; G. J. Ostrowski

1982-01-01

125

Optimal Fueling Strategies for Locomotive Fleets in Railroad Networks  

E-print Network

Optimal Fueling Strategies for Locomotive Fleets in Railroad Networks Seyed Mohammad Nourbakhsh;Locomotive Routes in a Network 6 Candidate fuel station Contracted fuel station #12;Motivation · Usage and purchase fuel where fuel prices are relatively low (without significantly interrupting locomotive

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

126

SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET  

E-print Network

and depth 10 Fleet concentrations 16 Shrimp discarding 16 Summary 22 Literature cited 23 Appendix 24 FIGURES 1. Map of south Florida showing the Tortugas fishing grounds 2 2. Important features of Tortugas 10 7. Relationship of depth of water and average size of female shrimp 10 8. Relationship of depth

127

Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing for Fleets Functionalities  

E-print Network

Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing for Fleets Functionalities §Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing + Calculate route based on historical traffic pattern + Find the best start time of delivery §Time-Dependent Window Vehicle Routing + Decision making and economical routing + Decide the appropriate time

Shahabi, Cyrus

128

Hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken only fleetingly  

E-print Network

Hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken only fleetingly J. D. Eaves* , J. J. Loparo* , C. J that the local structure of liquid water has tetrahedral arrangements of molecules ordered by hydrogen bonds, the mechanism by which water molecules switch hydrogen-bonded partners remains unclear. In this mechanism

Geissler, Phillip

129

A Parallelizable Dynamic Fleet Management Model with Random Travel Times  

E-print Network

A Parallelizable Dynamic Fleet Management Model with Random Travel Times Huseyin Topaloglu June 24 with random travel times. Our approach decomposes the problem into time-staged subproblems by formulating it as a dynamic program and uses approximations of the value function. In order to deal with random travel times

Topaloglu, Huseyin

130

Intestinal Phosphate Transport  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter Npt2b is highly regulated by a diverse set of hormones and dietary conditions. Furthermore, conditional knockout of Npt2b suggests that it plays an important role in maintenance of phosphate homeostasis by coordinating intestinal phosphate absorption with renal phosphate reabsorption. The knockout mouse also suggests that Npt2b is responsible for the majority of sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, Pit1 and Pit2 contribute a minor role in total phosphate uptake. Despite co-expression along the apical membrane, differential responses of Pit1 and Npt2b regulation to chronic versus dietary changes illustrates another layer of phosphate transport control. Finally, a major problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is management of hyperphosphatemia. The present evidence suggests that targeting key regulatory transporters of intestinal phosphate transport may provide novel therapeutic approaches for CKD patients. PMID:21406292

Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

2011-01-01

131

Topical administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis. Studies on rectal absorption and excretion.  

PubMed Central

5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a new treatment for patients suffering from ulcerative colitis but only limited information is available about its rectal absorption. We therefore studied seven patients with ulcerative colitis in remission, and five with active disease to determine acetylated and free 5-ASA plasma concentrations and urinary acetyl 5-ASA after the administration of three different types of enemas: (2 g 5-ASA/100 ml, 4 g/100 ml, and 200 ml). In patients in remission urinary acetyl 5-ASA excretion was dose and volume dependent (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.05) but this correlation was absent in active disease. Because aminosalicylates are usually eliminated through the kidney, these low values (10% in active disease and 19% in those in remission) suggest that the beneficial action may be local. Urinary recovery was significantly lower in patients with active disease (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.02). No accumulation of 5-ASA was found in plasma after repeated daily administration. PMID:3979912

Campieri, M; Lanfranchi, G A; Boschi, S; Brignola, C; Bazzocchi, G; Gionchetti, P; Minguzzi, M R; Belluzzi, A; Labò, G

1985-01-01

132

Fleet vehicles in the Unites States: composition, operating characteristics, and fueling practices  

SciTech Connect

As fleets become a larger proportion of the new vehicle population on the road, they have more influence on the characteristics of the total US motor vehicle population. One of the characteristics which fleets are expected to have the most influence on is the overall vehicle fuel economy. In addition, because of the relatively large market share and the high turnover rate of fleet vehicles, fleets have been considered as a useful initial market for alternative fuel vehicles. In order to analyze fleet market potential and likely market penetration of alternative fuel vehicles and to infrastructure requirements for successful operations of these vehicles in the future, information on fleet sizes and composition, fleet vehicle operating characteristics (such as daily/annual miles of travel), fuel efficiency, and refueling practices, is essential. The purpose of this report is to gather and summarize information from the latest data sources available pertaining to fleet vehicles in the US This report presents fleet vehicle data on composition, operating characteristics, and fueling practices. The questions these data are intended to address include: (1) How are fleet vehicles operated (2) Where are they located and (3) What are their usual fueling practices Since a limited number of alternative fuel fleet vehicles are already in use, data on these vehicles are also included in this report. 17 refs.

Miaou, S.P.; Hu, P.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Young, J.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-05-01

133

Fleet vehicles in the Unites States: composition, operating characteristics, and fueling practices  

SciTech Connect

As fleets become a larger proportion of the new vehicle population on the road, they have more influence on the characteristics of the total US motor vehicle population. One of the characteristics which fleets are expected to have the most influence on is the overall vehicle fuel economy. In addition, because of the relatively large market share and the high turnover rate of fleet vehicles, fleets have been considered as a useful initial market for alternative fuel vehicles. In order to analyze fleet market potential and likely market penetration of alternative fuel vehicles and to infrastructure requirements for successful operations of these vehicles in the future, information on fleet sizes and composition, fleet vehicle operating characteristics (such as daily/annual miles of travel), fuel efficiency, and refueling practices, is essential. The purpose of this report is to gather and summarize information from the latest data sources available pertaining to fleet vehicles in the US This report presents fleet vehicle data on composition, operating characteristics, and fueling practices. The questions these data are intended to address include: (1) How are fleet vehicles operated? (2) Where are they located? and (3) What are their usual fueling practices? Since a limited number of alternative fuel fleet vehicles are already in use, data on these vehicles are also included in this report. 17 refs.

Miaou, S.P.; Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-05-01

134

Potential for compressed natural gas vehicles in centrally-fueled automobile, truck, and bus-fleet applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two prospective alternative fuel implementation scenarios were created to quantify the potential range of compressed natural gas use in fleet vehicles including fleet automobiles; light-, medium-, and heavy-duty fleet trucks; public transit buses; and school buses. The scenarios are based principally on the clean-fuel fleet vehicle provisions contained in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the California Low Emission

Samsa

1991-01-01

135

Storied Era of Journalism Passes on Fleet Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world characterized by impersonal and sometimes distant interactions over the phone or email, Fleet Street in central London remained a place where journalists (amateur and professional) gathered to ruminate about the news and just about any topic that came to mind. For more than 300 years, the area was the nerve center of British journalism, as it served as the home of many of the country's leading newspapers. The death-knell for this era effectively ended this past Wednesday as the last major news office on the street closed its doors for good. A variety of technological improvements in the past several decades allowed newspapers to move their primary publishing plants outside of the area, and this part of central London is primarily a legal and banking center. As the former editor of the Daily Mirror commented, "You can practice journalism anywhere. It's become an electronic industry now, not so much with people going out into the towns and streets and telephoning their copy back to the office." There were several special events planned this week to mark this event, including a service held at St. Bride's, which is known as a journalists' church in the area.The first link leads to a story from Newsday which talks about the recent demise of Fleet Street as a hub for journalists and news agencies. The second link leads to a story from the BBC regarding the church service held to mark the departure of Reuters from Fleet Street this past week. The third story is from the Guardian, and offers some first-hand recollections of Fleet Street from Mark Oliver, along with a few helpful hypertext links. The fourth link allows visitors the ability to listen to a feature from NPR's Morning Edition about Fleet Street. The fifth link takes visitors to the homepage of St. Brides, popularly known as the "journalists' church" in the Fleet Street area. The sixth and final link will take users to a page that provides a bit of information about the Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese pub, a gathering place for salty journalists and other such curmudgeons.

136

Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

2012-01-01

137

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment  

SciTech Connect

The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

NONE

1995-12-01

138

The Electric Vehicle Fleet Experience at Southern California-Edison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern California-Edison (SCE) currently operates the largest fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) in North America. SCE's EV experiences began in 1987 with prototype and electric conversions, such as the Conceptor G-Van, the Pentastar TEVan, and U.S.E. Sedan. Between 1994 and 1997, after the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, SCE began using early OEM EVs, such as the

Darcy Skaggs; Jordan Smith; Robert P. Hill

139

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http:\\/\\/www.fnmoc.navy.mil\\/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the

D. Dimitriou; P. Sharfstein; M. Ignaszewski; M. Clancy

2003-01-01

140

The Federal Methanol Fleet: Summary of technical data  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated in 1985 with an appropriation from the US Congress, is now in its final stages of operation. A great deal has been learned while vehicles have accumulated approximately 1.4 million miles (2.2 million kilometers) in routine government fleet service. This paper summarizes those results that are technical in nature and that reveal the status of methanol engine technology. Specifically, results from emissions test, special lubricant tests, and cold-starting experiments are reported herein. Emissions control systems in methanol vehicles were found generally to decline somewhat in performance over time as compared to their gasoline counterpart vehicles, although this was not universally true. The severe effects on methanol engine lubricant performance resulting from cold-engine, short-trip service was demonstrated in a series of special tests of two cars, methanol and gasoline, in side-by-side service. Methanol fleet vehicles incorporated a variety of approaches to the cold-start problem -- ranging from no special engineering or systems to sophisticated systems designed to overcome the problem entirely. Cold-start systems specially designed for these vehicles did not perform as well as had been expected, probably because they were early prototype versions and were subject to some early, unforeseen problems.

McGill, R.N.; Graves, R.L.; West, B.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1991-04-01

141

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

142

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

143

Documentation for propane fleet conversion cost-effectiveness model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas instituted an alternative fuels program for public fleet operations beginning in the 1991-92 fiscal year. Life-cycle cost/benefit models for evaluating the economic implications of the action have been developed at the University of Texas at Austin Center for Transportation Research for both compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane. The report documents the various input data, calculations, and assumptions of the Propane Net Present Value (NPV) model. A similar report (number 983-1) documents the same for the CNG model. Input data with constant values across different fleets and locations are discussed first and include basic parameters for on-board storage capacity, vehicle conversion costs, equipment salvage values, etc. Variable input data, reflecting a given fleet size, composition, and location, include the number and types of vehicles, fuel consumption, etc. The next section presents the formulas for the internal model calculations. The final section discusses the basic assumptions underlying the model.

Taylor, D.; Euritt, M.; Mahmassani, H.

1992-10-01

144

Myths regarding alternative fuel vehicle demand by light-duty vehicle fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public and private vehicle fleets have long been targeted as an ideal initial market for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). We examine seven widely accepted hypotheses regarding the potential fleet market for AFVs. The hypotheses are tested using data and information collected from focus group sessions, one-on-one interviews with fleet operators, and a large two-part survey administered to over 2700 California

Kevin Nesbitt; Daniel Sperling

1998-01-01

145

Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.  

PubMed

Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

2012-07-01

146

Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

Not Available

2012-03-01

147

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18

148

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

149

Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.

2014-01-01

150

PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

Hay, M.; King, W.

2011-04-04

151

Green Fleet of Fuel Cell Powered Light Utility Vehicles: An Energy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insights into the feasibility of clean energy sources for light utility vehicles (LUVs). First, energy analysis for the fleet of LUVs for a small college are presented. Secondly, the energy implications for a larger (>100) fleet of LUVs, and finally for the whole of the United States are presented. The technologies discussed include producing pure hydrogen, leaving

William A. Hornfeck; Shailesh Shrestha

2008-01-01

152

Coordination and Control of UAV Fleets using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis considers two important topics in the coordination and control of fleets of UAVs; the allocation and trajectory design problems The first allocates waypoints to individual vehicles in the fleet, and includes constraints on vehicle capability, waypoint visitation, and visit timing Formulations of the allocation problem are presented to find minimum mission completion time and maximum stochastic expectation

John Saunders Bellingham

2002-01-01

153

33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. (a) The following...transits the Port of New York and New Jersey from the Verrazano Narrows...

2011-07-01

154

33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.  

...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. (a) The following...transits the Port of New York and New Jersey from the Verrazano Narrows...

2014-07-01

155

33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. (a) The following...transits the Port of New York and New Jersey from the Verrazano Narrows...

2012-07-01

156

33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. (a) The following...transits the Port of New York and New Jersey from the Verrazano Narrows...

2013-07-01

157

33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section...Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. (a) The following...transits the Port of New York and New Jersey from the Verrazano Narrows...

2010-07-01

158

Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government

1979-01-01

159

76 FR 30014 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0062] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay...ships and aerial demonstration for Fleet Week. This safety zone is necessary to promote...typically occurs on a Wednesday during the last week of July or the first week in August...

2011-05-24

160

Fleet management: Assessment of the best practices Hamzi Rachida, Bourmada Noureddine  

E-print Network

" is an upcoming ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety control, training, and safety issues. A company fleet management process is evaluated using two methods- scene and post-crash systems-based framework for fleet safety. The network influence method which

Boyer, Edmond

161

33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation...165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security...

2010-07-01

162

Modelling the Spatial Behaviour of a Tropical Tuna Purse Seine Fleet  

PubMed Central

Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures). PMID:25462165

Davies, Tim K.; Mees, Chris C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

2014-01-01

163

40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject...Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled...application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

2011-07-01

164

40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle. 88.306-94 Section 88.306-94... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program §...

2013-07-01

165

40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle. 88.306-94 Section 88.306-94... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program §...

2012-07-01

166

40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.  

...2013-07-01 true Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle. 88.306-94 Section 88.306-94... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program §...

2014-07-01

167

A double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of oral long-acting muscle relaxant (Mebeverine MR), and insufflation with CO(2) on pain associated with barium enema.  

PubMed

Previous investigators have shown significant benefit using CO(2) for bowel insufflation. Others have suggested that the long-acting smooth muscle relaxant, Mebeverine, may be of benefit. We subjected this to a randomised double-blind trial. A total of 181 outpatients were randomised to receive either Mebeverine or placebo as pre-medication, and either air or CO(2) for bowel insufflation, thus creating four treatment groups. Visual-analogue lines were used to record pain scores before, during, and up to 8 h following the enema. All groups showed increased pain scores during the enema, with peak pain scores at the end of the examination, falling to baseline scores by 8 h. Patients receiving the combination of C0(2) and placebo had significantly lower pain scores at 1 and 4 h ( P=0.00 and P=0.014, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test) compared with all other groups. Having Mebeverine as a pre-medication did not significantly lower pain scores compared with placebo, and decreased the amount of benefit received from the CO(2). We confirm that CO(2) is of benefit in decreasing pain during barium enema, and we recommend its routine use to improve the comfort of patients. Mebeverine is not of benefit, and its use as a pre-medication for enemas is not recommended. PMID:12835983

Lowe, A S; Chapman, A H; Wilson, D; Culpan, A G

2003-07-01

168

75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA AGENCY: Coast...Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict vessel...spectators and participants attending Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Delaying the...

2010-06-21

169

77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration...and City of San Francisco sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight...the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels...

2012-10-01

170

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOEpatents

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12

171

Chloroquine Phosphate Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... ankles, or if you drink large amounts of alcohol.tell your doctor if you have ever had vision changes while taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

172

[Health status of female soldiers serving in the Northern Fleet].  

PubMed

Authors analyzed the health status and morbidity among female soldiers serving under the contract in the Northern Fleet, age peculiarities, results of medical in-patient examination and expert assessment, put in medical records in accordance with prophylactic medical examination service and medical examination. Annual data about military troops, morbidity and medical examination among female soldiers in the period 2002-2010 (n-14,5 thousand of people) are included into analysis. 502 medical records of female soldiers approved by military physician board were analyzed. Authors presented statistic data about primary diseases and chronic pathology and considered causes of changing of the category of fitness for military service and its gender peculiarities. Authors suggest changing the recruiting concept for female soldiers and the system of medical in-patient examination. PMID:24341205

Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Ustimenko, L I; Miloshevich, Iu R; Volkova, L V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A

2013-09-01

173

Ideas for a three-aircraft planetary observing fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of research aircraft, based on modern mid-sized business jets, will provide access to upper regions of the atmosphere and remote regions of the planet not reachable by the current research aircraft. Equipped with extensive research modifications, modern instruments, and advanced air-to-ground communication systems, these new aircraft will allow investigators to attack key questions in global atmospheric dynamics, global cycles of water and carbon, global energy budgets, and regional and global air quality and chemical transport. A three-aircraft fleet of these aircraft could provide unprecedented coordinated intercalibrated coverage of the planetary atmosphere and surfaces in a manner that greatly enhances the total ground, ocean, and satellite observing system.

Carlson, David J.; Schumann, Ulrich

2003-04-01

174

Phosphate control in dialysis  

PubMed Central

Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

2013-01-01

175

Phosphate control in dialysis.  

PubMed

Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

2013-01-01

176

An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

2014-01-01

177

Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D  

PubMed Central

Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate reabsorption and/or bone metabolism. In addition, dietary phosphate rapidly enhances renal phosphate excretion, although detailed mechanisms of this adaptation remain to be clarified. Physiologically, extracellular concentrations of phosphate and these hormones are maintained by several negative feedback loops. For example, 1,25(OH)2D enhances FGF23 production and FGF23 reduces 1,25(OH)2D level. In addition, phosphate affects 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23 levels. Dysfunction of these negative feedback loops results in several diseases with abnormal phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Especially, excess actions of FGF23 cause several hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia with relatively low level of 1,25(OH)2D that had been classified as vitamin D-resistant rickets/osteomalacia. In contrast, deficient actions of FGF23 cause hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. However, there still remain several unanswered questions regarding phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. PMID:24605214

Fukumoto, Seiji

2014-01-01

178

NC Smart Fleet Initiative is supported in part through the Clean Fuels Advanced Technology project with funding from the NC Department of Transportation.  

E-print Network

with funding from the NC Department of Transportation. NC Smart Fleet Benefits & Background Become an NC SmartNC Smart Fleet Initiative is supported in part through the Clean Fuels Advanced Technology project Fleet to increase efficiency and reduce emissions. Be recognized for your efforts! NC Smart Fleet

179

Effects of hyperosmolar agents--lactulose, lactitol, sodium phosphate and polyethylene glycol--on cecal coliform bacteria during traditional bowel cleansing: an experimental study in rats.  

PubMed

Mechanical bowel cleansing is considered to be necessary prior to colorectal surgery, some radiological or endoscopic procedures, and for fecal disimpaction. Traditional bowel cleansing (TBC) with cathartics and enemas is a method of mechanical bowel cleansing for patients who have restrictive factors for whole-bowel irrigation (WBI), such as excessive fecal impaction, cardiac, hepatic or renal disorders. In this experimental study, TBC with hyperosmolar agents was evaluated in terms of their effects on colonic flora and bacterial translocation (BT). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. The animals, except controls, were not fed for 72 h but received tap water ad libitum. During this period, lactulose, lactitol, sodium phosphate (NaP), polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG3350) and physiological saline gavages were administered to the rats in groups 1-5, respectively, once a day. All animals except controls (group 6) received enemas with 15 ml of warm saline twice a day. The cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and portal vein blood were sampled for microbiological and histopathological analysis. The highest level of coliform bacterial overgrowth and BT to MLNs were observed in the lactulose group, although the others, except the saline and control groups, also caused some degree of BT. Portal vein cultures were negative for all groups. Histopathological damage was not associated with cecal bacterial count and BT. As a result of this study, PEG3350 seems to be safer and more effective than lactulose, lactitol and NaP during TBC. PMID:15178905

Demirogullari, B; Poyraz, A; Cirak, M Y; Sonmez, K; Ozen, I O; Kulah, C; Karabulut, B; Basaklar, A C; Kale, N

2004-01-01

180

Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements  

SciTech Connect

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1995-01-01

181

United States navy fleet problems and the development of carrier aviation, 1929-1933  

E-print Network

years of exercises. During this time, the carriers gained their independence from the battle line, which the smaller and slower Langley had been unable to do. Reflecting the advanced capabilities of the new carriers, the fleet problems conducted during...

Wadle, Ryan David

2005-11-01

182

Optimization of crude and product tanker fleets: a dynamic profit maximization model  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum tanker market crashed in the mid-seventies and has remained weak ever since. The cyclical pattern in tanker trade has yet to rebound from famine to feast. This research develops an original multi-stage optimization to improve the management of specific fleet operating and composition decisions. The model maximizes profits over the long term via a relaxation of the demand constraint, and a compact heuristic solving for the general integer problem within a quadratic formulations. Alternative formulations are tested and the original model is compared to an actual fleet history. In all cases, the Dynamic Fleet Optimization Model (DFOM) consistently generates the largest profits. The performance of DFOM in the historical validation supports the hypothesis that improved fleet management has the potential to improve tanker market efficiency. The analysis identifies a trading syndrome in tanker management leading to the chronic oversupply of tankers, and prescribes management guidelines along with model applications to avoid the mistakes of past tanker operators,

Selman, M.L.

1987-01-01

183

Interactive dynamic aircraft scheduling and fleet routing with the out-of-kilter algorithm  

E-print Network

A decision support system is introduced that automates dynamic aircraft scheduling and fleet routing. Interactive graphics-based schedule construction and modification tools automate the dynamic scheduling of aircraft of ...

Van Cotthem, Jan

1986-01-01

184

Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post-landing operations. These unique requirements combined with a success-oriented schedule of four flights within a ten-month period have provided numerous opportunities for understanding and improving operations processes. Furthermore, it has increased the knowledge base of future Payload Carrier and Launch Vehicle hardware and requirement developments. Discussion of the process flows and target areas for process improvement are provided in the subject paper. Special emphasis is also placed on supplying guidelines for hardware development. The combination of process knowledge and hardware development knowledge will provide a comprehensive overview for future vehicle developments as related to integration and transportation of payloads.

Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

185

Phosphate Mines, Jordan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

186

Microborings in Early Cambrian phosphatic and phosphatized fossils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small proportion of phosphatic and phosphatized fossils, mostly microfossils, extracted from Lower Cambrian (Qiongzhusian) lime mudstones of deeper water aspect, belonging to the Yu'anshan and Shuijingtuo formations of South China, is perforated by microborings. These microborings are present in bradoriid and phosphatocopine arthropod carapaces, lingulid brachiopod valves, Microdictyon plates and tommotiid sclerites. Their absence in co-occurring phosphatized eodiscid trilobite

Xi-guang Zhang; Brian R. Pratt

2008-01-01

187

Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

2006-06-01

188

Liquefied natural gas experience of a large transit fleet  

SciTech Connect

The Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority (METRO) is the mass transit authority for an area of 1,275 square miles and a population of 3.5 million. METRO is organized as an independent authority responsible to an appointed board of directors. METRO operates over 1,160 buses which use approximately 2,000 miles of bus routes. Each year METRO provides over 60 million passenger trips. The low cost to the customer can only be achieved through aggressive cost control and efficient operation with effective equipment maintenance and availability. METRO utilizes approximately nine million gallons of diesel fuel per year. Fuel costs are approximately 4.5% of operating costs equivalent to approximately $.18 cents per mile. METRO has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of LNG fuel usage for a centrally refueled fleet. This pioneering effort used the free market and intense cooperation with suppliers to create an LNG supply where there was none, convert theoretical concepts to on the road hardware and mobilize a large organization to accommodate a drastic change in operations. Experience leads them to recommend others considering this approach to fully commit their own resources to the tasks, cooperate and exchange information openly with all concerned and only accept project participants which have the competence and resources to persevere through developments.

Pentz, R. [Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

189

Electric vehicle fleet operations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively supporting the development and commercialization of advanced electric vehicles, batteries, and propulsion systems. As part of this effort, the DOE Field Operations Program is performing commercial validation testing of electric vehicles and supporting the development of an electric vehicle infrastructure. These efforts include the evaluation of electric vehicles in baseline performance, accelerated reliability, and fleet operations testing. The baseline performance testing focuses on parameters such as range, acceleration, and battery charging. This testing, performed in conjunction with EV America, has included the baseline performance testing of 16 electric vehicle models from 1994 through 1997. During 1997, the Chevrolet S10 and Ford Ranger electric vehicles were tested. During 1998, several additional electric vehicles from original equipment manufacturers will also be baseline performance tested. This and additional information is made available to the public via the Program`s web page (http://ev.inel.gov/sop). In conjunction with industry and other groups, the Program also supports the Infrastructure Working Council in its development of electric vehicle communications, charging, health and safety, and power quality standards. The Field Operations Program continues to support the development of electric vehicles and infrastructure in conjunction with its qualified vehicle test partners: Electric Transportation Applications, and Southern California Edison. The Field Operations Program is managed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; O`Hara, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-03-01

190

Fleet matching performance for multiple registration measurement tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimisation and inverse lithography. These requirements trend to full in-die measurement capability of photomask metrology for registration. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which is already well established in the market. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. A key component for registration tool users is the cross site manufacturing flexibility given by the matching capability of all its metrology tools. Therefore all PROVE tools offer a tool matching procedure based on 2D Golden Grid references. In this paper we first review the optimal length standard and golden grid matching procedures of modern registration metrology tools. Systematic errors in fleet matching based on illumination differences, thermal expansionbased issues or line width roughness are addressed. The tool matching performance of PROVE tools is demonstrated by comparing up to 7 different tools. All tools are well within accuracy and long-term repeatability specification which considerably reduces the statistical error contribution of the tool matching performance. For grid matched tools the final cross tool registration error is shown to be below 1nm.

Beyer, D.; Bläsing, C.; Boehm, K.; Heisig, S.; Seidel, D.

2013-09-01

191

Fleet study evaluation of an advance brake warning system.  

PubMed

The advance brake warning system (ABWS) is a mechanism that activates the brake lights in response to a rapid disengagement of the gas pedal, before the driver's foot reaches the brake pedal. Two previous studies showed that (a) such rapid releases of the gas pedal are typically followed by brake activation, and (b) the ABWS can prevent a high percentage of rear-end collisions in which an attentive following driver maintains a headway of 1.0 s or less from the vehicle ahead. In the present study the crash involvement of 764 government cars and light trucks was tracked over an average period of 35 months. The vehicles were matched in pairs--one of each pair with the ABWS and one without it. Data analyses focused on collisions in which the government vehicles were rear-ended. Overall, ABWS-equipped vehicles were not significantly less involved in rear-end collisions. However, an examination of the struck vehicles only showed that the ABWS-equipped vehicles were involved in fewer rear-end collisions per kilometer driven than were the vehicles without the ABWS. In conclusion, despite the theoretical appeal and the results of earlier studies, the fleet study failed to demonstrate that such a system is a cost-effective safety device for the prevention of rear-end crashes. Actual or potential applications include the evaluation of new in-vehicle technologies by a hierarchy of multiple validation studies prior to consideration. PMID:11132809

Shinar, D

2000-01-01

192

Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer  

DOEpatents

A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

Goldstein, Alan H. (Beverly Hills, CA); Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

193

Anilinium dihydrogen phosphate.  

PubMed

The triclinic structure of the title compound, C(6)H(8)N(+)·H(2)PO(4)(-), with three symmetry-independent structural units (Z' = 3), is formed of separate organic and inorganic layers alternating along the b axis. The building blocks of the inorganic layer are deformed H(2)PO(4) tetrahedra assembled into infinite ladders by short and hence strong hydrogen bonds. The anilinium cations forming the organic layer are not hydrogen bonded to one another, but they are anchored by four N-H···O crosslinks between the dihydrogen phosphate chains of adjacent ladders. Two H atoms of each -NH(3) group then form one normal and one bifurcated N-H···O hydrogen bond to the P=O oxygens of two tetrahedra of one chain, while the third H atom is hydrogen bonded to the nearest O atom of an adjacent chain belonging to another dihydrogen phosphate ladder. PMID:22307254

Kaman, Ond?ej; Smr?ok, Lubomír; Gyepes, Róbert; Havlí?ek, David

2012-02-01

194

Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

1975-01-01

195

A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market information, evaluating the impact of external business environment, and considering cross-scale interactions between decision actions. Along with this process, system operation strategies, maintenance schedules, and capacity expansion plans that guide the operation of the power plant are optimally identified, and the total life cycle costs are estimated.

Chen, Hongmei

196

Selection and implementation of a flagship fleet in a locally undervalued region of high endemicity.  

PubMed

Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two birds, the turca (Pteroptochos megapoidius) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the Chilean iguana (Calopistes palluma), the tarantula (Grammostola mollicoma), and two trees, the litre (Lithrea caustica) and the espino (Acacia caven). We then describe how these flagships can be deployed most effectively, describing their audience, effective narrative frames, and modes of presentation. We conclude that general selection rules paired with social science background data allow for an efficient selection process. PMID:23479265

Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

2013-10-01

197

Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

2013-09-30

198

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.  

SciTech Connect

This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

2003-06-01

199

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, and other important data. In general, FNMOC strives to treat the air-ocean environment as a fully integrated system, from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, placing special emphasis on the air-ocean interface. FNMOC also hosts the USGODAE Server (see http://www.usgodae.org). Ongoing development of this system is being done through a partnership of FNMOC and NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Lab (PMEL), with oversight from the U.S. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Steering Committee and funding from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The USGODAE Server hosts in-situ oceanographic data, atmospheric forcing fields suitable for driving ocean models and unique GODAE data sets, including demonstration ocean model products. The USGODAE Server contains fixed and drifting buoy data, bathythermograph data, PALACE float data, ship data and CMAN data. It also includes TOPEX, GFO, and ERS altimeter data, AVHRR SST retrievals, DMSP sea ice concentration retrievals and meteorological observations. The USGODAE Server also functions as one of two global repositories or Global Data Assembly Centers (GDACs) for data from the Argo global array of temperature/salinity profiling floats. Included in these online data sets are those from Canada (MEDS) with 67 floats and 1900 station files from April 2001 to present, Japan (JMA) with 97 floats and 2700 station files from April 2000 to present, and the U.S. (AOML) with 304 floats and 9800 station files from August 1997 to present, and France (CORIOLIS) with 121 floats and 5396 station files from early 2001 to present. On the USGODAE Server the Argo GDAC Web Interface allows users to easily select data based on time, region, Data Assembly Center (DAC), or float ID. Users can download float profile files, trajectory files, or technical data files. The atmospheric forcing fields hosted on the USGODAE Server are from both FNMOC and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The FNMOC fields include o

Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

2003-04-01

200

Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.  

PubMed

Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications of fleet electrification and inform better decision making. PMID:23869607

Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

2013-08-20

201

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

2014-10-01

202

Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

2009-05-01

203

Conventional vs Electric Commercial Vehicle Fleets 1 Paper published in the Proceedings of "The Seventh International Conference on City Logistics"  

E-print Network

Conventional vs Electric Commercial Vehicle Fleets 1 Paper published in the Proceedings of "The ­ 9th June 2011 CONVENTIONAL VS ELECTRIC COMMERCIAL VEHICLE FLEETS A CASE STUDY OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ELECTRIC COMMERCIAL VEHICLES IN THE USA Wei Feng, Ph

Bertini, Robert L.

204

Foreign Fishery Developments Fleet Table 1.-The Ivory Coast catch of tuna and tunalike species, 1971-78'.  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments Fleet Catch (t) Table 1.-The Ivory Coast catch of tuna and tuna,83 7,420 10,026 10,138 The Ivory Coast tuna fleet, while small, is the most modem of any African. It is the sixth tuna vessel ordered by the Ivory Coast- French joint venture SIPAR (Societe Ivoirienne de Peche et

205

Effect of a change towards compressed natural gas vehicles on the emissions of the Milan waste collection fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the contribution of waste collection vehicles to atmospheric emissions in the metropolitan area of Milan, Italy. The emissions of the Milan Environmental Services Agency vehicle fleet are estimated for 2005–2010. The effects of the renewal of the fleet, as well as increasing compressed natural gas usage are analysed. We find that that between 2005 and 2010, that

Cinzia Pastorello; Panagiota Dilara; Giorgio Martini

2011-01-01

206

33 CFR 165.1330 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington...Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington...zone: All waters extending 100 yards from Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA within a box encompassed by the...

2011-07-01

207

21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium...

2014-04-01

208

NC Smart Fleet Initiative is supported in part through the Clean Fuels Advanced Technology project with funding from the NC Department of Transportation.  

E-print Network

with funding from the NC Department of Transportation. NC Smart Fleet Application Instructions DownloadNC Smart Fleet Initiative is supported in part through the Clean Fuels Advanced Technology project.com/wp-content/uploads/NC- Smart-Fleet-Application.xlsm Complete Organization and Application Information · Primary and Secondary

209

Inositol phosphates in the environment.  

PubMed

The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

2002-04-29

210

Inositol phosphates in the environment.  

PubMed Central

The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

2002-01-01

211

Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

2010-06-01

212

Experimental Evaluation of RF Modems for Use in Fleets of Multiple Cooperating Autonomous  

E-print Network

Experimental Evaluation of RF Modems for Use in Fleets of Multiple Cooperating Autonomous Undersea) modems for use as com- munication infrastructure among multiple surfaced cooperating autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs), gateway buoys, and land or ship based operators. RF modems are inherently more complex

213

An equipment health monitoring and fleet dispatching system for logging trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A research project directed at the development of an automatic fleet monitoring system is described. Log truck operating parameters are monitored remotely and automatically and transmitted to a base station for data-logging and near real time display and analysis. The system is being developed for the special needs of the forest industry. It is hoped that

G. G. Young; B. J. Sauder

1989-01-01

214

Visual Mining and Statistics for a Turbofan Engine Fleet Jrme Lacaille  

E-print Network

1 Visual Mining and Statistics for a Turbofan Engine Fleet Jérôme Lacaille Snecma Etablissement de of engines. Every day, data from aircraft engines are broadcasted to the ground. Some airlines companies rely on their engine manufacturer to control the engines' behavior and help prepare for maintenance scheduling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0423] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center...Guard is removing a security zone on the navigable waters of San...involves the removal of a security zone. An environmental analysis checklist and a categorical exclusion determination are...

2011-01-11

216

fishing fleets were allegedly hampering their mackerel-fishing operations. Pa-  

E-print Network

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)'. The Presidential mes- sages requested the amendment of Arti- cle 27 of a species exceeds the capacity of the national fishing fleet, the Mexican Gov- ernment will permit foreign Olicia/ de /a Fedemcion . At a joint press conference following the signing of the Presidential message

217

Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

2006-06-01

218

New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.  

PubMed

Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

2014-01-01

219

Operational Decisions in AGV-Served Flowshop Loops: Fleet Sizing and Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers design and operational issues that arise in repetitive manufacturing systems served by automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in loop layouts with unidirectional material flow. Such systems are in widespread industrial use, and play an important role in modern manufacturing environments. The objective considered is the minimization of AGV fleet size, given the minimum steady state cycle time required

Nicholas G. Hall; Chelliah Sriskandarajah; Tharmarajah Ganesharajah

2001-01-01

220

FleetManager: a microcomputer-based decision support system for vehicle routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a decision support system (DSS) that recommends solutions to a particular version of the vehicle routing problem occurring in the New Zealand dairy industry. FleetManager is a DSS developed for use by New Zealand milk tanker schedulers and is designed to aid them in creating or improving milk tanker routes using their experience and preferences. The DSS

Chuda Basnet; Les Foulds; Magid Igbaria

1996-01-01

221

A simulation model to design a supply vessel fleet for Petrobras offshore works  

SciTech Connect

This work presents an operational model to design offshore vessels fleet that are responsible for the delivery of supplies to ocean platforms. All stochastic factors of the real problem are considered and the ARENA software is used, including templates and animation features, which helps the understanding of system`s behavior.

Botter, R.C.; Souza, R.L. de; Borges, M.J.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Naval and Ocean Engineering Dept.

1998-12-31

222

Airline Fleet Maintenance: Trade-off Analysis of Alternate Aircraft Maintenance Approaches  

E-print Network

Airline Fleet Maintenance: Trade-off Analysis of Alternate Aircraft Maintenance Approaches Mike; for airlines to be profitable, companies must maximize passenger and cargo traffic flow, minimize expenses the profitability of airlines, including direct and indirect maintenance costs, increasing complexity of aircraft

223

Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations1 Performance in Urban Areas2  

E-print Network

Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations1 Performance in Urban Areas2 3 4 5 6 7Met is the transit4 provider in the Portland metropolitan region and its Bus Dispatch System (BDS) has been in this study can aid transit agency managers and operators to identify operational problems,12 better

Bertini, Robert L.

224

Intelligent Fleet Logistics IFL is developing technologies to helping freight, logistics  

E-print Network

. Looking Ahead · First product release is a Transportation Management System. · Future directions in logistics and supply chain management. · We are seeking customers and financial partners to scale a standIntelligent Fleet Logistics IFL is developing technologies to helping freight, logistics

Heiser, Gernot

225

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2011-07-01

226

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2012-07-01

227

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2010-07-01

228

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2013-07-01

229

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2014-07-01

230

Optimizing Multibeam Data Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam sonars are fundamental mapping tools for a wide range of oceanographic studies throughout the global oceans. Initially installed on only a few academic research vessels, they have become standard sensors across global- and ocean-class ships in the U.S. academic research fleet. While ongoing efforts including the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R, http://rvdata.us) and the Global Multi-Resolution Topography Synthesis (GMRT, http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt) are focused on data documentation, preservation, synthesis and dissemination, the Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC, http://mac.unols.org) was recently established with the primary goal of optimizing multibeam data quality during acquisition. Our strategy is to engage operators, technical specialists and users to develop common protocols, guidelines and tools for use across the fleet. Technical teams are focused on specific aspects of multibeam sonar operation and maintenance, including Sea Acceptance, Acoustic Noise, and Quality Assurance. Key to our effort is working with the community of stakeholders to ensure that protocols and tools suit the needs of the community and can be easily implemented across the fleet. Although MAC efforts are initially focused on deep water systems in the US Academic Research Fleet, we recognize that our community of stakeholders is much broader and also includes operators and users of shallow water. All MAC-generated reports, guidelines and software tools, as well as links to related online resources are being made publicly available through the MAC website (http://mac.unols.org).

Ferrini, V.; Beaudoin, J.; Johnson, P. D.

2012-12-01

231

Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on maximum CO2 emissions that the airline can cause, taxes on airlines for excess emissions, and the use of biofuels. The results obtained indicate that implementation of very strict policies that place a heavy penalty on airlines for environmental inefficiency would lead to a drastic decline in market demand served as well as airline profits. For example, to achieve a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions by 2050 from the 2005 levels, the airlines would need to leave as much as 45% of predicted market demand unmet, thereby significantly reducing their profits. Taxing airlines for excess emissions would lead them to use large aircraft for short distance operations to reduce CO2 produced per seat mile, decreasing the total number of flights. Since taxation provides an economic motive for airlines to seek low emissions operations procedures, it can be an effective means of achieving emissions reduction goals. Finally the use of biofuels, under some assumption of biofuel availability and cost, helps reduce emissions without compromising market demand or airline profits.

Moolchandani, Kushal A.

232

Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Levels of phosphate--the only form of phosphorus that can be assimilated by plants--are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants use only approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to low-phosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to allow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing more efficient crops. PMID:24579991

López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2014-01-01

233

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

234

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

235

Phosphate solubilization by Rhizobium strains.  

PubMed

Forty-six Rhizobium isolates from legume root and stem nodules were examined for their phosphate-solubilizing ability on Pikovskaya's agar medium. Rhizobium isolates from root nodules of Cassia absus, Vigna trilobata and three strains from Sesbania sesban showed zone of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization. The isolate from C. absus showed maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) after 12 d of incubation, while the Rhizobium sp. strain 26 (from S. sesban) showed the least amount (150 ?g/ml) of phosphate solubilization. Among the carbon sources tested for their ability to solubilize TCP, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in glucose by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. Phosphate solubilization increased with increase in glucose concentration steeply up to 2% and slowly above this concentration in four isolates. Among the nitrogen sources tested, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in ammonium sulphate by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. PMID:23100757

Sridevi, M; Mallaiah, K V

2009-03-01

236

Phosphonomethyl analogues of phosphate ester glycolytic intermediates  

PubMed Central

Analogues of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and of 3-phosphoglycerate were made in which the phosphate group, –O–PO3H2, is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, –CH2–PO3H2. The analogue of dihydroxyacetone phosphate is a substrate for aldolase and glycerol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase (Stribling, 1974), but not for triose phosphate isomerase. The analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate oxidizes NADH under the combined action of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase if ATP is added. Thus four out of the five glycolytic enzymes tested handle the phosphonomethyl compounds like the natural phosphates. PMID:4377103

Dixon, Henry B. F.; Sparkes, Michael J.

1974-01-01

237

Phosphate Dialytic Removal: Enhancement of Phosphate Cellular Clearance by Biofiltration (with Acetate-Free Buffer Dialysate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate dialytic removal (PDR) depends in part on the type (acetate or bicarbonate) and the concentration of the buffer dialysate. Plasma phosphate reduction or PDR during a dialysis treatment is the algebraic sum, of phosphate cellular flux (removal or captation) and of phosphate tissular precipitation. High bicarbonate levels induce an intracellular shift of phosphate, thus not available for dialytic removal.

M. Fischbach; G. Hamel; U. Simeoni; J. Geisert

1992-01-01

238

[Phosphate disorders: hyperphosphatemia or pseudohyperphosphatemia?].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 79 year old woman presenting with progressive confusion and drowsiness. Renal insufficiency with hyperkalemia as well as hypercalcemia and severe hyperphosphatemia were diagnosed. Renal insufficiency improved with treatment. However, hyperphosphatemia persisted without apparent explanation. We discuss possible causes of hyper- and pseudohyperphosphatemia. Specifically, phosphate analysis may be disturbed by the paraproteins in patients with multiple myeloma, resulting in pseudohyperphosphatemia. We review the standard laboratory phosphate measurement and the mechanisms of interference with paraproteins. PMID:25270750

Aeberhard, Nicole; Schild, Christof; Rodondi, Nicolas; Roten-Joss, Christine; Tänzler, Kristina

2014-10-01

239

Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate  

E-print Network

ORGANIC DERIVATIVES OF ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE A Thesis by STEVEN BERYL FINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Chemistry ORGANIC DERIVATIVES OF ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE A Thesis by STEVEN BERYL FINE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. A raham Clearfield (c irman) Dr. Kurt Irgolic (member) 4~~@4 Dr. Martha Scott (member) Dr. C. S. Giam (department head...

Fine, Steven Beryl

2012-06-07

240

Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce ...

Bandivadekar, Anup P

2008-01-01

241

Assessing deployment strategies for ethanol and flex fuel vehicles in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

Within the next 3-7 years the US light duty fleet and fuel supply will encounter what is commonly referred to as the "blend wall". This phenomenon describes the situation when more ethanol production has been mandated than ...

McAulay, Jeffrey L. (Jeffrey Lewis)

2009-01-01

242

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

2014-08-01

243

The economic utilization and value of time savings to trucking fleets of private firms resulting from improved highways  

E-print Network

THE ECONOMIC UTILIZATION AND VALUE OF TIME SAVINGS TO TRUCKING FLEETS OF PRIVATE FIRMS RESULTING FROM IMPROVED HIGHWAYS A Thesis By WILLIAM F~N McFARLAND Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1963 Major Sub)ect: Economics THE ECONOMIC UTILIZATION AND VALUE OF TIME SAVINGS TO TRUCKING FLEETS OF PRIVATE FIRMS RESULTING FROM IMPROVED HIGHWAYS A Thesis...

McFarland, William F

2012-06-07

244

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments  

SciTech Connect

The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

Not Available

1982-02-01

245

INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

246

Non-linear Total Energy Optimisation of a Fleet of Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to optimise the energy production in a fleet of power plants, it is necessary to solve a mixed integer optimisation\\u000a problem. Traditionally, the continuous parts of the problem are linearized and a Simplex scheme is applied. Alternatively,\\u000a heuristic “bionic” optimisation methods can be used without having to linearize the problem. Weare going to demonstrate this\\u000a approach by modelling

Lars Nolle; Friedrich Biegler-König; Peter Deeskow

2007-01-01

247

Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS\\/TR-01\\/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from

E. C. Hudson; Gordon Johnson; Delbert C. Summey; Helmut H. Portmann Jr.

2004-01-01

248

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... series by talking with a health care provider cleansing the bowel Talking with a health care provider. ... he or she may suggest a different procedure. Cleansing the bowel. The health care provider will give ...

249

Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet  

SciTech Connect

Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

2014-05-01

250

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability  

SciTech Connect

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

NONE

1995-12-01

251

Space Shuttle Orbiter Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine SN 002A injector replacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During testing of the Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) Serial Number (SN) 002A at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in 1983 the injector was inadvertently damaged. After testing was completed in 1985, there was a concern that the performance of the engine and its response to specific test conditions might not be sufficiently representative of flight engines to provide valid test results. To correct this damage, the engine was returned to the manufacturer to replace the injector. The task assigned was to evaluate the damage and generate a unique process to repair the Fleet Leader OME while providing minimum impact to the overall life condition of the engine. In addition to successfully performing the repair operation, the as received condition of the engine and its components were documented for Fleet Leader reference. The engine is currently at WSTF where it has accumulated 11,341 seconds of firing time to date, 2615 seconds of which have occurred since the engine repair.

Riccio, Joseph R.; Hoppe, David L.

1992-01-01

252

Isolation of Phosphate-Solubilizing Fungi from Phosphate Mines and Their Effect on Wheat Seedling Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three phosphate-solubilizing fungi, identified as Penicillium expansum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Candida krissii, were isolated from phosphate mines (Hubei, People’s Republic of China) and characterized. All the isolates demonstrated\\u000a diverse levels of phosphate-solubilizing capability in National Botanical Research Institute’s phosphate growth medium containing\\u000a rock phosphate as sole phosphate source. Acidification of culture medium seemed to be the main mechanism for rock

Chunqiao Xiao; Ruan Chi; Huan He; Guanzhou Qiu; Dianzuo Wang; Wenxue Zhang

2009-01-01

253

Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.  

PubMed

This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

2014-04-15

254

Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. Conversely, life span is reduced when adult flies are cultured on high phosphate medium or when hemolymph phosphate is increased in flies with impaired Malpighian tubules. In addition, RNAi-mediated inhibition of MAPK-signaling by knockdown of Ras85D, phl/D-Raf or Dsor1/MEK affects larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate, suggesting that some in vivo effects involve activation of this signaling pathway by phosphate. To identify novel genetic determinants of phosphate responses, we used Drosophila hemocyte-like cultured cells (S2R+) to perform a genome-wide RNAi screen using MAPK activation as the readout. We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels. PMID:23520455

Bergwitz, Clemens; Wee, Mark J.; Sinha, Sumi; Huang, Joanne; DeRobertis, Charles; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Cohen, Jonathan; Friedman, Adam; Kulkarni, Meghana; Hu, Yanhui; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Perrimon, Norbert

2013-01-01

255

Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives  

PubMed Central

Summary We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a) quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b), although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light. PMID:25246963

Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Yousef, Abraham L

2014-01-01

256

21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. One gram of erythromycin...

2013-04-01

257

Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila  

E-print Network

Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular ...

Schnall-Levin, Michael

258

Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

Weiner, E.R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

1984-01-01

259

21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

2011-04-01

260

21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2013-04-01

261

21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

2010-04-01

262

21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2011-04-01

263

21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2012-04-01

265

21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.  

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

266

21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

267

21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

269

21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2010-04-01

270

75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International...from China of certain potassium phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24...in solution (collectively ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate...

2010-04-01

271

75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis...from China of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate...1, 2010 (Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from China, 75 FR 16509). The...

2010-07-22

272

Glucose-6-phosphate as a probe for the glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase Michaelis complex  

E-print Network

Glucose-6-phosphate as a probe for the glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase Michaelis Available online 20 November 2007 Edited by Hans Eklund Abstract Glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1) catalyses the N-acetylation of DD-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN- 6P), using acetyl

van Aalten, Daan

273

An Octacalcium Phosphate Forming Cement  

PubMed Central

The osteoconductive and possibly osteoinductive characteristics of OCP increased the interest in preparation of bone graft materials that contain OCP in its composition. Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using a mixture of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with ?-TCP / DCPA molar ratio of 1/1 and distilled water or 0.5 mol / L phosphate aqueous solution (pH = 6.1 ± 0.1) as the cement liquid. Hardening time was (30 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with water and (5 ± 1) min for the CPC mixed with phosphate solution. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity (P), and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the hardened specimens had been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d. In CPC specimens prepared with water, calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed and DTS and P were (9.03 ± 0.48) MPa and (37.05 ± 0.20) vol % after 1 d, respectively, and (9.15 ± 0.45) MPa and (37.24 ± 0.63) vol % after 3 d, respectively. In CPC specimens prepared with phosphate solution OCP and HA were formed and DTS and P were (4.38 ± 0.49) MPa and (41.44 ± 1.25) vol % after 1 d, respectively,(4.38 ± 0.29) MPa and (42.52 ± 2.15) vol % after 3 d, respectively, and (4.30 ± 0.60) MPa and (41.38 ± 1.65) vol % after 7 d, respectively. For each group DTS and P did not change with PLS immersion time. DTS was significantly higher and P was significantly lower for CPCs prepared with water. HA formation slightly increased with immersion time from 40 mass % after 1 d to 50 mass % after 3 d in CPCs prepared with water. OCP + HA formation increased with immersion time from 30 mass % after 1 d to 35 mass % after 3 d and to 45 mass % after 7 d in CPCs prepared with 0.5 mol / L phosphate solution. PMID:20976025

Markovic, M.; Chow, L. C.

2010-01-01

274

Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

2013-04-01

275

An analysis of the costs of running a station car fleet  

SciTech Connect

Station cars are electric vehicles available at transit stations which may be used for transportation between the transit station and home, work, and/or for errands. This transportation service would be provided by the local transit agency. This report discusses an economic model of the costs of running a station car fleet. While some of these costs are highly uncertain, this analysis is a first look at the required user fees for full cost recovery. The model considers the capital costs of the vehicles and the required infrastructure; the annual fixed vehicle costs for insurance, registration, etc.; the mileage-based costs; and the annual non-vehicle costs for administration, infrastructure maintenance, etc. The model also includes various factors such as the fleet size, the annual mileage, the number of transit stations that would have facilities for station cars, and the number of users. The model specifically examines the cost of using of electric vehicles; however, for comparison, the cost of using a fleet of gasoline-powered vehicles also is calculated. This report examines the sensitivity of the model to the various factors. A principal conclusion from the analysis is that the largest cost contributor is the initial vehicle purchase price. For a given initial purchase price, the factor driving the user fee required for full cost recovery is the number of different daily users of a vehicle. The model also compares the annual cost of transportation using station cars and mass transit to the annual cost of solo commuting. If a station car is used by more than one person a day, and this use replaces the ownership of a conventional vehicle, the annual cost of transportation may be similar. However, for the base case assumptions, the station car user fee required for full cost recovery is higher than the cost of solo commuting.

Zurn, R.M.

1995-02-01

276

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

277

Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

Champion, E

2013-04-01

278

Fracture mechanics research at NASA related to the aging commercial transport fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development and an extensive testing program is under way to study fatigue crack growth and fracture in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also being developed to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks under monotonic and cyclic loading at rivets in fuselage lap-splice joints are reviewed.

Newman, James C., Jr.; Harris, Charles E.

1992-07-01

279

Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

2005-01-01

280

SAPIR collision alert system as part of IR MWS suite for helicopter fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAPIR system provides a suite of IR based situation awareness functions offered as add on system for ELISRA PAWS family of missile warning solutions. A major operational need for airborne platforms flying in formation is automatic collision alert capability. By using covert IR-MWS technology SAPIR passively tracks and monitors wingman position thereby enabling aircrew to focus on mission goals without compromising their safety. The paper presents results of operational problem study, system design and field testing demonstration of performance for SAPIR collision alert function targeting helicopter fleets.

Nadav, Shavit; Varsano, Louisa; Oz, Saar; Schlisselberg, Raanan

2009-05-01

281

REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the TMC meeting. Twenty-one responses were received, spanning fleet sizes between 12 and 170,000 vehicles. Responses are summarized in a series of tables separated into responses from small (100 or fewer powered vehicles), medium (101-1000 vehicles), and large fleets (>1000 vehicles). The vast majority of fleets do their own brake maintenance, relying primarily on experience and lining manufactures to select aftermarket linings. At least half of the responders are familiar to some extent with TMC Recommended Practice 628 on brake linings, but most do not use this source of test data as the sole criterion to select linings. Significant shortfalls in the applicability of TMC RP 628 to certain types of brake systems were noted.

Blau, P.J.

2003-02-03

282

Fleeting Smile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

Davidson, Sally

2006-01-01

283

Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.  

PubMed

Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. PMID:24984987

McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

2014-01-01

284

[Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].  

PubMed

The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency. PMID:24000629

Gavrilov, V V; Maza?kin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

2013-05-01

285

[Gil Eannes--the hospital ship of the Portuguese fishing fleet].  

PubMed

The history of Portuguese hospital-ships dates back to the fleets in the era of the Great Discoveries. In 1916, during the First World War, the Allies appealed to Portugal to act as a neutral country. All the German ships on the river Tagus were impounded and adapted for tasks related to the war. The Hanseatic line vessel Lahneck had its name changed to Gil Eannes and was modified for troop transport and to give assistance to fishing boats. Many years later, when the old Gil Eanes came to the end of its life and needed to be replaced, a new ship was built in the Viana do Castelo shipyard, using up-to-date designs for a hospital-ship. The new ship was launched in 1955, mainly to assist the Portuguese cod fish fleet, working in the seas around Newfoundland. More recently, it has returned to Viana do Castelo docks and, after restoration, has been transformed into a nautical museum and a student residence, to keep alive the memories of this traditional Portuguese fishermen's activity. PMID:19579337

Ramos, Samuel; Doria, José Luís; Pina, Madalena Esperança

2008-06-01

286

Mobile source CO2 mitigation through smart growth development and vehicle fleet hybridization.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of smart growth development patterns and vehicle fleet hybridization in reducing mobile source emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) across 11 major metropolitan regions of the Midwestern U.S. over a 50-year period. Through the integration of a vehicle travel activity modeling framework developed by researchers atthe Oak Ridge National Laboratory with small area population projections, we model mobile source emissions of CO2 associated with alternative land development and technology change scenarios between 2000 and 2050. Our findings suggest that under an aggressive smart growth scenario, growth in emissions expected to occur under a business as usual scenario is reduced by 34%, while the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicles throughout the light vehicle fleet is found to offset the expected growth in emissions by 97%. Our results further suggest that high levels of urban densification could achieve reductions in 2050 CO2 emissions equivalent to those attainable through the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicle technologies. PMID:19368160

Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Holloway, Tracey; Spak, Scott N

2009-03-15

287

[Dysaptation in troops called up for military service to the Northern Fleet].  

PubMed

Analyzed the results of the survey and inspection of about 75 000 conscripts who came to the acquisition of forces and troops of the fleet in terms of the Kola Polar region in 2001-2010. Cases of identified mental disorders in the number of young recruits in the period of examination by military medical committee designated as the primary dysaptation, and later--as delayed. The authors concluded that at present time we can expect the total number of recruits 4.45% of persons with mental dysaptation, including 0.52% of the primary and 3.93% with delayed. Over the last 10 years, an average of 4.45% of conscripts who came to the acquisition of forces (troops) of the Northern Fleet, dismissed by reason of mental dysaptation. The main contribution to the structure of the causes of limited recognition of the young recruits fit and unfit for military service were neurotic disorders and personality pathology. The authors suggest a specific position on a number of documents that need proof in order to improve the quality of maintenance training and combat activities of troops and naval forces. PMID:22332396

Maznikov, I L; Sadchenko, S N; Skripal', V N; Minaev, A V

2011-10-01

288

Alternative fuel vehicles for the state fleets: Results of the 5-year planning process  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the first attempt by the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with states to prepare five-year Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) acquisition plans to identify alternative fuels and vehicles that they are planning on or would like to acquire. The DOE Regional Support Offices (RSOs) met with representatives from the states in their regions and assisted in the preparation of the plans. These plans will be used in conjunction with previously gathered Federal five-year plans to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. By identifying the needs and requirements of state fleets, DOE can begin to describe the specific nature of the future state fleets, and establish a defined market for OEMs and fuel suppliers. DOE initiated the development and collection of the state five-year plans before the signing of the Energy Policy Act, to raise the awareness of states that they will be required by law to acquire AFVs. As a result, several states that had no AFV acquisition plan when queried have developed or are in the process of developing plans. The DOE and its RSOs are still working with the states to develop and refine acquisition plans, and this report should be treated as documentation of work in progress.

Not Available

1993-05-01

289

Improving Multibeam Data Quality Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC) is an NSF funded project with the goal of improving the quality of multibeam across the U.S. academic research fleet. There are many facets to the Committee's plan to reach this goal, one of which is to have a team of multibeam specialists visiting vessels in the fleet. During their ship visits, the MAC's Quality Assurance Team (QAT) deploys software tools, disseminates "best practice" documentation, assesses the state of the system as a whole and does everything they can to help ship operators better understand and operate their multibeam systems. A big part of these ship visits is simply outreach: we want to let the operators know that they have access to help if they need it. In addition to developing working relationships with the operating institutions, the MAC seeks to reach out to the end user: the scientific community that uses these facilities to further their research. By presenting the MAC and QAT concepts to the community, we hope to raise awareness of our efforts, introduce the software tools and best-practice documentation that we are deploying and also solicit feedback on what future directions the MAC should focus.

Johnson, P. D.; Beaudoin, J.; Ferrini, V.

2012-12-01

290

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

2014-11-01

291

Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Not Available

2014-03-01

292

Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Not Available

2012-04-01

293

2006 Australasian Road Safety Research Policing and Education Conference Integration of work-related fleet safety within a Workplace Health and Safety Management System: A case study approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a research project initiated to assess work-related fleet safety issues in a state government organisation. In particular, special attention is given to identifying fleet safety factors for integration into a wider Workplace Health and Safety Management System (WHSMS). This exploratory case study was carried out across five regional areas, within the state of Queensland,

Bevan Rowland; Barry Watson; Darren Wishart

294

NC Smart Fleet Initiative is supported in part through the Clean Fuels Advanced Technology project with funding from the NC Department of Transportation.  

E-print Network

with funding from the NC Department of Transportation. Smart Fleet Qualification Levels NCSC (and partnersNC Smart Fleet Initiative is supported in part through the Clean Fuels Advanced Technology project additional Clean Transportation Activities in all three categories: o Education, Outreach, and Promotion o

295

Phosphate: the new cholesterol? The role of the phosphate axis in non-uremic vascular disease.  

PubMed

Higher serum phosphate levels within the normal range are associated with substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease events. Whether this reflects a causative relationship is unknown. Phosphate-responsive hormones (fibroblast growth factor-23, parathyroid hormone and calcitriol) are also predictors of cardiovascular mortality in populations without kidney disease or recognised disturbances of bone mineral metabolism. The high bioavailable phosphate content of Western diets may contribute to this apparent discrepancy between 'normal' and optimal phosphate axis parameters. Although uremic hyperphosphatemia is recognised to cause vascular medial calcification, this does not readily explain the association of higher-normal phosphate with common athero-occlusive phenomena. The phosphate axis may in fact play a role in atherogenesis; observational data link higher levels of phosphate and fibroblast growth factor-23 with coronary atheroma burden, whilst dietary phosphate supplementation accelerates atherosclerosis in a mouse model. In vitro studies show adverse effects of phosphate increases on both vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelium, though these observations have not yet been extended to phosphate increments within the normal range. Receptors for phosphate-responsive hormones are present throughout the cardiovascular system and may mediate atherogenic effects. Since interventions are already available to manipulate the phosphate axis, this is an important issue. If an atherogenic role for phosphate exposure is demonstrated then phosphate binders could become the new statins. PMID:21962238

Ellam, Timothy J; Chico, Timothy J A

2012-02-01

296

Phosphate-bonded refractory coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions A study of the adhesion and cohesion strength of refractory coatings based on oxides of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, silicon; nitrides of hafnium, boron, silicon; mullite, magnesia spinel, zirconates of calcium, barium, strontium; disulfide and disilicide of molybdenum, and calcium titanate, using phosphate bonds, established the optimum compositions for the coatings for the following alloys: 1Kh18N9T, Él-703, ÉP-99, VT-9, OT-4,

F. Yu. Abzgil'din; R. A. Amirov; A. Kh. Biglov; L. B. Khoroshavin

1973-01-01

297

Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.  

PubMed

In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios. PMID:17412692

Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

2007-06-01

298

Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in cancer. S1P regulates processes such as inflammation, which can drive tumorigenesis; neovascularization, which provides cancer cells with nutrients and oxygen; and cell growth and survival. This occurs at multiple levels and involves S1P receptors, sphingosine kinases, S1P phosphatases and S1P lyase. This Review summarizes current research findings and examines

Nigel J. Pyne; Susan Pyne

2010-01-01

299

Phosphate accumulation of Acetobacter xylinum.  

PubMed

The cells of Acetobacter xylinum decreased phosphate concentration in the medium from 5 to 2.5 or 0.3 mM during incubation in the presence of Mg(2+) and glucose, or Mg(2+) and casamino acids, respectively. The prevalence of orthophosphate or polyphosphate in the biomass of A. xylinum depends on the medium composition. Under phosphate uptake in the presence of glucose, the content of orthophosphate in the biomass changed little, while that of polyphosphate increased fourfold. At incubation with casamino acids, the content of orthophosphate increased 15 times, while that of polyphosphate increased only 2.5 times. Some part of orthophosphate in this case seems to be bound with the cell surface. The polyphosphate chain length in the cells of A. xylinim increases under phosphate uptake. This increase is more noticeable in the presence of glucose. Casamino acids can be replaced by alpha-ketoglutaric acid in combination with (NH(4))(2)SO(4), or arginine, or glutamine, the catabolism of which results in formation of NH(4) (+) and alpha-ketoglutarate. PMID:19308357

Ryazanova, Lubov P; Suzina, Natalia E; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana V; Kulaev, Igor S

2009-05-01

300

Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use. PMID:25230707

Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

2014-09-17

301

Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cements With Different Tetracalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous Molar Ratios  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with TTCP/DCPA molar ratios of 1/1, 1/2, or 1/3, with the powder and water as the liquid. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity, and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the set specimens have been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 5 d, and 10 d. Cement dissolution rates in an acidified PLS were measured using a dual constant composition method. Setting times ((30 ± 1) min) were the same for all cements. DTS decreased with decreasing TTCP/DCPA ratio and, in some cases, also decreased with PLS immersion time. Porosity and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation increased with PLS immersion time. Cements with TTCP/DCPA ratios of 1/2 and 1/3, which formed calcium-deficient HA, dissolved more rapidly than the cement with a ratio of 1/1. In conclusion, cements may be prepared with a range of TTCP/DCPA ratios, and those with lower ratio had lower strengths but dissolved more rapidly in acidified PLS. PMID:19779581

Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Markovic, Milenko; Chow, Laurence C.

2009-01-01

302

RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data sets. Recent accomplishments include deployment of a glider in Antarctica for LTER, control of a fleet of gliders during the ONR sponsored Shallow Water 06, RIMPAC, LATTE, ASAP, and the continuation of long-term observation at the LEO-15 New Jersey site Endurance Line. To date Rutgers has flown close to 100 glider missions, with over 27,000 km flown over 760 calendar days and 1,350 glider days in the water. Operations around the world are orchestrated remotely from COOL at Rutgers. Computer networking allows for command and control of the glider fleet from the COOL Lab or remotely via the internet. This system has enabled new oceanographic experiments at significantly reduced cost, with increased reliability, and with extended continuous operational deployments in the global oceans since 2003.

Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

2007-05-01

303

Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight architecture. Following this introduction, we focus specifically on the last topic, that being an analysis which leads to an optimal flight architecture dictated in part by science requirements but constrained by allowable orbital mechanics, instrument scan patterns, and antenna aperture properties. Because the optimal architecture involves an interplay between orbit mechanics and instrument specifications, it is important to recognize that in attempting to serve various scientific themes, the final optimal architecture will represent a compromise concerning dynamic range, spatial resolution, sampling interval, pointing, beam coincidence, and measurement uncertainty. Moreover, cost becomes a major factor in seeking the optimal architecture through the pathways of antenna and instrument scan designs, as well as propulsion requirements associated with the orbit heights of various "constellation" members. Although the results presented at the IGARSS-2001 meeting will likely not be the fully refined flight architecture specifications, they are expected to be nearly complete.

Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

304

Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

2013-01-01

305

Characterization of phosphate films on aluminum surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin layer of phosphate conversion coating was formed on pure aluminum in a commercial zinc-manganese phosphating bath. A number of surface analytical techniques were used to characterize the phosphate thin films formed after immersion times ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The coating contained mainly a crystalline structure with dispersed micrometer-scale cavities. The major constituents of the phosphate film were zinc, phosphorus, and oxygen; a small amount of manganese was also detected. Based on these results, a three-stage mechanism was proposed for the formation and the growth of phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of phosphated and uncoated aluminum samples in 0.50 M Na2SO4 and 0.10 M H2SO4 solutions. Both types of samples exhibited a passive state in the neutral solution and general corrosion behavior in the acid solution.

Cheng, B.; Ramamurthy, S.; McIntyre, N. S.

1997-08-01

306

Determination of fleet hourly emission and on-road vehicle emission factor using integrated monitoring and modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadside air quality and vehicle emission are important and challenging issues in urban air quality management which need to be adequately characterized. This study involves designing a monitoring program that produces suitable data to determine the on-road hourly fleet emission and emission factors of individual vehicles in a street canyon. Simultaneous hourly monitoring of roadside gaseous pollutants (both windward and

N. T. Kim Oanh; M. Martel; P. Pongkiatkul; R. Berkowicz

2008-01-01

307

Statistics of the French purse seine fleet targeting tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean (1991-2009)  

E-print Network

Statistics of the French purse seine fleet targeting tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean (1991 tropical tunas, i.e. Thunnus albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, and Thunnus obesus in the Indian Ocean during, catch rates, and mean weights for the major tropical tuna species. Two major fishing modes

Boyer, Edmond

308

Input Use and Incentives in the Caribbean Shrimp Fishery: The Case of the Trinidad and Tobago Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic factors that influence output in the Trinidad and Tobago shrimp fishery using a Generalized Leontief production function. Factors such as output prices and the use of inputs in the fishery are assessed. The artisanal and industrial fleets operate in a largely open-access fishery, which is seasonal. While shrimp is the main targeted species, various fish

Sharon D. Hutchinson

2008-01-01

309

A Framework for Modeling Appearance Change in Image Sequences Michael J. Black \\Lambda David J. Fleet y Yaser Yacoob z  

E-print Network

A Framework for Modeling Appearance Change in Image Sequences Michael J. Black \\Lambda David J Vision Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 black@parc.xerox.com fleet radical changes in structure (eg., exploding, tearing, rupturing, boiling). In this paper we formulate

Yacoob, Yaser

310

Better performance or lower fuel consumption: Technological development in the Swedish new car fleet 1975–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology development may play a role in fuel reductions in transport, especially regarding automobiles. But these developments may be off-set by diverting technology gains into non-fuel saving vehicle features – “service attributes”. This paper estimates to what extent technological development, in the Swedish new car fleet, has resulted in lower fuel consumption or has improved service attributes. Changes between 1975

Frances Sprei; Sten Karlsson; John Holmberg

2008-01-01

311

DNA translocation by human uracil DNA glycosylase: role of DNA phosphate charge.  

PubMed

Human DNA repair glycosylases must encounter and inspect each DNA base in the genome to discover damaged bases that may be present at a density of <1 in 10 million normal base pairs. This remarkable example of specific molecular recognition requires a reduced dimensionality search process (facilitated diffusion) that involves both hopping and sliding along the DNA chain. Despite the widely accepted importance of facilitated diffusion in protein-DNA interactions, the molecular features of DNA that influence hopping and sliding are poorly understood. Here we explore the role of the charged DNA phosphate backbone in sliding and hopping by human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG), which is an exemplar that efficiently locates rare uracil bases in both double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Substitution of neutral methylphosphonate groups for anionic DNA phosphate groups weakened nonspecific DNA binding affinity by 0.4-0.5 kcal/mol per substitution. In contrast, sliding of hUNG between uracil sites embedded in duplex and single-stranded DNA substrates persisted unabated when multiple methylphosphonate linkages were inserted between the sites. Thus, a continuous phosphodiester backbone negative charge is not essential for sliding over nonspecific DNA binding sites. We consider several alternative mechanisms for these results. A model consistent with previous structural and nuclear magnetic resonance dynamic results invokes the presence of open and closed conformational states of hUNG. The open state is short-lived and has weak or nonexistent interactions with the DNA backbone that are conducive for sliding, and the populated closed state has stronger interactions with the phosphate backbone. These data suggest that the fleeting sliding form of hUNG is a distinct weakly interacting state that facilitates rapid movement along the DNA chain and resembles the transition state for DNA dissociation. PMID:23506309

Schonhoft, Joseph D; Kosowicz, John G; Stivers, James T

2013-04-16

312

Solubilization of rock phosphate by rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rape and sunflower were compared with respect to their rock phosphate mobilizing capacities, cationanion balance and uptake of Ca and NO3 at P-starvation. Rape was able to mobilize P from rock phosphate, whereas sunflower was not.When grown on a complete nutrient solution with NO3 as the only nitrogen source, both species took up more nutrient anions than cations. Withholding phosphate

Ellis Hoffland; Günter R. Findenegg; Jacob A. Nelemans

1989-01-01

313

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area  

SciTech Connect

Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle home base, high-use work areas, or intermediately along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The San Francisco Bay Area is a leader in the adoption of PEVs in the United States. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the GGNRA facility would be a benefit for both GGNRA fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned PEVs benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the GGNRA site to identify the optimal placement of the electric vehicle supply equipment station. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and GGNRA for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and GGNRA personnel.

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

2014-03-01

314

Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

Not Available

2010-05-01

315

Quality assessment of marine geoscience data collected with the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine science data collected using the U.S. academic research fleet support a diverse array of investigations across the ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation, to the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Each vessel within the academic fleet is equipped with a suite of sensors (geophysical, water column, and meteorological) available for continuous operation during each expedition, that provide characterization of basic environmental conditions from sea surface to subseafloor. Given the vast expanse of the oceans, many expeditions collect data in previously unexplored regions and these data are of high value for later re-use to build global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. Understanding the quality of these "underway" data streams is essential for any of these science applications. However, documentation of data quality is rare and historically, routine quality assessment (QA) of these data streams has been lacking. In most cases, QA has been the domain of the science party for each expedition but limited to the data types of interest for the scientific goals of the specific program, with the quality of other underway data types remaining unassessed. Under the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, QA of sensor data collected across the academic fleet will be routinely conducted as part of the R2R data pipeline that begins with the submission of cruise data distributions by ship operators. R2R will assemble datasets and documentation, and perform QA for submission to the NOAA National Data Centers (NDCs) for long-term archiving. The goals of the QA are two fold: 1. To provide feedback to shipboard operators to ensure that high quality data are consistently acquired, and 2. To inform future science users of the status of a field data set with detailed information regarding the nature of any problems identified. A wide array of factors impact the quality of data collected at sea, including weather conditions (e.g. winds, sea state), instrument functioning, and operator controlled settings and calibrations. Some data quality issues are best identified visually, but with the volume and diversity of data collected across the research fleet, QA is focused on tests that can be fully scripted. QA tests fall into two general categories: 1. minimal tests of the validity of a submitted data set (existence and validity of the metadata, and verification that all expected data files exist and can be read) and 2. data file level tests (each file can be read, data values are within valid limits, and calculation of statistical quality). Output of the QA is provided as a quality report included within an ISO standard data set metadata record, which is submitted with the data set to the NDCs for long-term archiving.

Carbotte, S. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Morton, J. J.; Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

2011-12-01

316

Factors influencing the successful expansion of Ecuadors tuna purse seine fleet  

E-print Network

F/lClOPS lNFLUENCli'IG TilE SUCCLSSFUL EXPANSlON OF ECI/AOOR' S I'JNA PURSE SF1NE FLEET A Thesis hy SUS/lN EL lZABETN OELLEY Sub'-iittad Lo +ho G! aduati! ColleOa r!f Tesas AMI Univensi '. y in partial fn1fi I lman of the Ye...--one of the most. bio'logica11y productive ar'eas in Lhe v!orld. 2. 1. 2 Te~m erature IJhi le a fish may have a wide temperatu! e tolerance, growth is usually optimal within a Iimi ted range. The effects of temperature on a fish depend un the condit...

Jelley, Susan Elizabeth

2012-06-07

317

Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types of public transit service, and their usefulness in helping a transit agency to reduce its carbon footprint through informed vehicle and fuel procurement decisions. Available calculators fall into two categories: registry/inventory based calculators most suitable for standardized voluntary reporting, carbon trading, and regulatory compliance; and multi-modal life cycle analysis calculators that seek comprehensive coverage of all direct and indirect emissions. Despite significant progress in calculator development, no single calculator as yet contains all of the information needed by transit agencies to develop a truly comprehensive, life cycle analysis-based accounting of the emissions produced by its vehicle fleet operations, and for a wide range of vehicle/fuel technology options.

Weigel, Brent [Georgia Institute of Technology; Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Meyer, Michael D [Georgia Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

318

Was There Really an Archean Phosphate Crisis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Archean, massive amounts of iron were deposited in the form of banded iron formations. It has been suggested that sedimenting particles of ferric oxyhydroxide may have stripped dissolved phosphate from the oceans, causing a reduction in phytoplankton productivity. However, that model does not take into account the high concentration of dissolved silica that was present in seawater at that time. We show experimentally that silica effectively competes with phosphate for sorption sites on ferrihydrite particles. Furthermore, coprecipitation of silica with ferrihydrite reduces particle reactivity toward phosphate. Hence, Archean oceans probably contained considerably more phosphate than previously predicted.

Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Amskold, Larry; Holland, Heinrich D.

2007-03-01

319

Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates  

SciTech Connect

Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2009-08-05

320

Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic-inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented.

Zhou, Weijia; He, Wen; Wang, Meiting; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Peng; Yan, Shunpu; Tian, Xiuying; Sun, Xianan; Han, Xiuxiu

2008-12-01

321

Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials  

PubMed Central

It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials. PMID:19280963

LC, Chow

2009-01-01

322

Hydrothermal Modification of Granular Steel Slag for Phosphate Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of phosphate removal using hydrothermal modified granular steel slag was evaluated. The effects of steel slag dosage, reaction time, solution pH and initial phosphate concentration of synthesized wastewater on phosphate removal were also investigated. The results show that the modified steel slag is more efficient than raw granular steel slag in phosphate removal. The residual phosphate concentration decreased

Guangwei Wang; Liping Qiu; Shoubin Zhang; Xuedong Zhai; Jun Ma

2011-01-01

323

XPS analyses of lanthanides phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XPS measurements were performed on lanthanide orthophosphates LnPO 4 (Ln: La, Ce, Nd, Gd), and correlated with XRD and some EDS analyses. Single lanthanide phosphates LnPO 4 and mixed lanthanide phosphates LnLn1-xPO, all crystallized in a monoclinic structure similar to the monazite mineral. Results were examined qualitatively and quantitatively, by considering the Ln 3d lines, P 2p line and O 1s line. Ionic sputtering does not induce significant broadening nor an additional shift of the lanthanide peaks and does not have an effect on their chemical environments, except in the case of cerium. However, sputtering seems to significantly reduce the intensity of the O 1s and P 2p peaks, while Auger peaks of carbon and oxygen atoms interfere, respectively, with the 3d line of gadolinium and neodymium. Those phenomena are all the more important when the Nd and Gd content is weak and must be taken into account for a quantitative analysis of the spectra. The quantitative analyses reveal the expected results for single monazites. On mixed phosphates, the measured phosphorous and oxygen amounts are generally more valid for non-sputtered sample surfaces than for sputtered surfaces, while the calculated relative amount of lanthanides [Ln]/[Ln'] are correct in all the cases. One of the important goals of this work was to have a satisfactory value for the atomic ratio La/Gd, and particularly in the case of (La,Ce)PO 4 and (La,Gd)PO 4, to obtain good agreement between the calculated lanthanides ratio Nd/Gd and ratios estimated from XRD and EDS measurements.

Glorieux, B.; Berjoan, R.; Matecki, M.; Kammouni, A.; Perarnau, D.

2007-01-01

324

Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

2013-03-01

325

Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

2012-12-01

326

Fleet and backup tank sizing under regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study involves logistics issues surrounding the industrial gas business. The industrial gas business is a major industry (approximately $30 billion/year) and has been experiencing substantial growth in recent years. The industrial gas business supports two types of customers. The first type is the traditional merchant customers who rely entirely on the logistics system for product. Their demand is of a stochastic nature. The second type of customers is referred to as customers. These customers have air separation plants on their own sites and they must rely on the logistics system when their separation plant fails. To assist in providing a continuous flow of product, all onsite plants also have a backup tank which can provide sufficient product for relatively short durations of time, 24 to 96 hours of supply. The onsite separation plants are approximately 98% reliable, but when they fail, the customer generally requires a significant amount of product. This type of demand pattern will be defined as impulse stochastic. This study focuses on two areas of the logistics support system. The first part deals with the economic sizing of onsite backup tanks. For a given onsite, we determine the most economical choice for a backup system considering numerous characteristics of the onsite customer as well as the logistics system. In the second part, we develop methods for determining the optimal fleet size under both regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns. The methods provide support for long range forecasting, short-term vehicle reallocation and private verses contract carrier vehicle mix determination. The methods further provide a means to describe the effect future onsite growth will have on distribution as it is related to vehicle fleet size.

Dupuis, Ronald Gerard

327

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

329

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

330

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

331

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

332

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

333

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

334

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

335

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

336

40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

2014-07-01

337

40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

2012-07-01

338

40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes...1) The chemical substance identified as iron, citrate phosphate potassium...

2013-07-01

339

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

340

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2012-07-01

341

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2014-07-01

342

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2010-07-01

343

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2013-07-01

344

40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection...Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to...

2011-07-01

345

40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 ...Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to...

2011-07-01

346

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2012-07-01

347

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

348

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2014-07-01

349

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

350

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

351

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

352

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

353

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

354

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

355

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

356

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

357

46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

2012-10-01

358

46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

2011-10-01

359

46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.  

...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

2014-10-01

360

46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

2013-10-01

361

40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). ...substance identified generically as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN...

2011-07-01

362

40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. 721.5980 Section 721.5980... Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649)...

2011-07-01

363

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2013-04-01

364

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2012-04-01

365

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2010-04-01

366

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2011-04-01

367

21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.  

...intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes...cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis (the energy-yielding...congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme deficiency, which causes a type of...

2014-04-01

368

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site  

SciTech Connect

Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The Vancouver, Washington area and neighboring Portland, Oregon are leaders in adoption of PEVs in the United States1. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the FVNHS facility would be a benefit for both FVNHS fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned plug-in electric vehicles benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the FVNHS site to identify the optimal station placement for electric vehicle supply equipment. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and FVNHS for participation in this study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and FVNHS personnel

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

2014-03-01

369

Comparison of Phosphate Levels in Stream Sediments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus is an important nutrient to all life. Unfortunately, when phosphate reaches the soil it is not all used up by the plants. If excess phosphate enters the waterways in the watershed, it can cause increased plant growth in lakes and streams and le

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

370

Experimental cranioplasty and skeletal augmentation using an ?-tricalcium phosphate\\/dicalcium phosphate dibasic\\/tetracalcium phosphate monoxide cement: a preliminary short-term experiment in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cement consisting of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), dicalcium phosphate dibasic (DCPD) and tetracalcium phosphate monoxide (TeCP) was implanted into surgically created full-thickness defects in the cranial bone (bone defect experiment) and directly onto the cranial bone under the periosteum (augmentation experiment). Three months after the implantation, the implants were retrieved with the surrounding tissues and studied histologically and micrographically

K. Kurashina; H. Kurita; A. Kotani; S. Kobayashi; K. Kyoshima; M. Hirano

1998-01-01

371

Phosphate Translocator of Isolated Guard-Cell Chloroplasts from Pisum sativum L. Transports Glucose-6-Phosphate.  

PubMed

Chloroplasts were isolated from ruptured guard-cell protoplasts of the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum L. and purified by centrifugation through a Percoll layer. The combined volume of the intact plastids and the uptake of phosphate were determined by silicone oil-filtering centrifugation, using tritiated water and [14C]sorbitol as membrane-permeating and nonpermeating markers and [32P]phosphate as tracer for phosphate. The affinities of the phosphate translocator for organic phosphates were assessed by competition with inorganic phosphate. The affinities for dihydroxyacetone phosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA), and phosphoenolpyruvate were in the same order as those reported for mesophyll chloroplasts of several species. However, the guard-cell phosphate translocator had an affinity for glucose-6-phosphate that was as high as that for PGA. Guard-cell chloroplasts share this property with amyloplasts from the root of pea (H.W. Heldt, U.I. Flugge, S. Borchert [1991] Plant Physiol 95: 341-343). An ability to import glucose-6-phosphate enables guard-cell chloroplasts to synthesize starch despite the reported absence of a fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity in the plastids, which would be required if only C3 phosphates could enter through the translocator. PMID:12231774

Overlach, S.; Diekmann, W.; Raschke, K.

1993-04-01

372

Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal  

PubMed Central

Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water.

Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

2014-01-01

373

Assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) adjusted non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions of a motor fleet - A long tunnel study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciated hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and CO were simultaneously measured by evenly distributed samples along the entire length (12.9 km) of the tunnel in different traffic conditions. Four passes (two round-trips) were made at four different fleet speeds (i.e., 45, 65, 75 and 85 km h-1). Individual NMHC and CO mixing ratios were observed to be sensitive to the fleet speed, which is compounded by driving conditions and traffic volumes. We propose using ratios of NMHCs to CO to cancel out the factor of traffic volumes to determine CO-normalized NMHC emissions, such that a less biased comparison can be made between different fleet speeds in this study and even between different studies. Moreover, to obtain robust CO-normalized NMHC emissions which are sufficiently representative of the fleet speeds, only samples collected deep inside the long-tunnels between 8 and 12 km were used. Of the 61 target NMHCs, isomers of butane, pentane, ethylene, acetylene and toluene were the most abundant species regardless of the driving conditions. We observed that different driving conditions not only affected the emission strengths but also altered the compositions of the NMHCs. To simplify the data analysis, the target NMHCs were classified into four chemical groups, i.e., alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and alkynes. For the slower and more congested driving condition (fleet speed = 45 km h-1), the CO-normalized NMHC emissions were the highest, with alkanes contributing to approximately 60% of the total NMHC levels, suggesting poorer fuel utilization at slower driving conditions. In terms of the CO-normalized ozone forming potentials (OFPs), the contribution of the alkanes diminished dramatically to approximately 9-22% despite their high weight percentage, whereas the contribution of the alkenes was enhanced significantly to 50-60% from their weight percent of only approximately 26%. Our total NMHC to CO ratios of 0.06-0.20 for the four fleet speeds generally fall within the range constrained by many other tunnel or chassis dynamometer studies; however, the sensitivity to the driving conditions and the robustness with the long-tunnel data are better demonstrated in this study.

Liu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Su, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Yue-Chuen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

2014-06-01

374

Drug-pyridoxal phosphate interactions.  

PubMed

In this review it has been pointed out that vitamin B6 and its vitamers can be involved in many interactions with a number of drugs, as well as with the actions of various endocrines and neurotransmitters. Nutritional deficiencies, especially of vitamins and proteins, can affect the manner in which drugs undergo biotransformation, and thereby may also modify the therapeutic efficacy of certain drugs. The differences between nutritional vitamin B6 deficiency and the hereditary disorder producing pyridoxine dependency are discussed. In addition to a pyridoxine deficiency being able to adversely affect drug actions, the improper supplementation with vitamin B6 can in some instances also adversely affect drug efficacy. A decrease by pyridoxine in the efficacy of levodopa used in the treatment of Parkinsonism is an example. The interrelationships and enzymatic interconversions among pyridoxine vitamers, both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated, are briefly discussed, particularly regarding their pharmacokinetic properties. The ways in which the normal biochemical functions of vitamin B6 may be interfered with by various drugs are reviewed. (1) The chronic administration of isoniazid for the prevention or treatment of tuberculosis can produce peripheral neuropathy which can be prevented by the concurrent administration of pyridoxine. An acute toxic overdose of isoniazid causes generalized convulsions, and the intravenous administration of pyridoxine hydrochloride will prevent or stop these seizures. (2) The acute ingestion of excessive monosodium glutamate will, in some individuals, cause a group of symptoms including among others headache, weakness, stiffness, and heartburn, collectively known as the 'Chinese Restaurant Syndrome.' These symptoms can be prevented by prior supplementation with vitamin B6. The beneficial effect is ascribed to the correction of a deficiency in the activity of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, an enzyme that is dependent on pyridoxal phosphate. Some interesting relationships are pointed out between vitamin B6, picolinic acid, and zinc. It is postulated that the intestinal absorption of zinc is facilitated by picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan. The derivation of picolinic acid from tryptophan depends on the action of the enzyme kynureninase, which is dependent on pyridoxal phosphate; therefore, the adequate absorption of zinc is indirectly dependent on an adequate supply of vitamin B6. The formation of pyridoxal phosphate, on the other hand, appears to be indirectly dependent on Zn2++ which activates pyridoxal kinase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6087425

Ebadi, M; Gessert, C F; Al-Sayegh, A

1982-01-01

375

Novel oral phosphate binder with nanocrystalline maghemite-phosphate binding capacity and pH effect.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphatemia is one of the main risk factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease. The demand for a new phosphate binder is continuously increasing since the number of patients suffering under hyperphosphatemia is growing. However, side effects and high pill burden of currently available phosphate binders are the main reasons for low compliance and uncontrolled serum phosphate levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a novel phosphate binder with a high phosphate binding capacity over the entire gastrointestinal (GI) pH range. This novel phosphate binder C-PAM-10 is based on d-mannose coated nanocrystalline maghemite and belongs to the new class of phosphate binders, called the "iron based agents". It was possible to obtain a phosphate binding product that showed very high phosphate binding capacities with the characteristic of being pH independent at relevant pH ranges. The simulation of a GI passage ranging from pH 1.2 to pH 7.5 showed a 2.5 times higher phosphate binding capacity compared to the commonly used phosphate binder sevelamer carbonate. The simulation of a pH sensitive coating that releases the iron based phosphate binder at pH values ?4.5 still showed a very high phosphate binding capacity combined with very low iron release which might decrease iron related side effects in vivo. Therefore, C-PAM-10 and its variations may be very promising candidates as a superior phosphate binder. PMID:25448551

Nguyen, T M-H; Müller, R H; Taupitz, M; Schnorr, J; Hamm, B; Wagner, S

2014-11-01

376

40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 30...false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic...Section 721.10046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate...

2010-07-01

377

Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

1998-01-01

378

Building a business case for corporate fleets to adopt vehicle-to-grid technology (V2G) and participate in the regulation service market  

E-print Network

Electric (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehicles (PHEV) continue to gain attention and market share, not only as options for consumers but also for corporate fleets. EVs and PHEVs can contribute to lower operating costs ...

De los Ríos Vergara, Andrés

2011-01-01

379

Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

NONE

1997-04-30

380

Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates as cholinesterases inhibitors.  

PubMed

Based on the presence of dialkyl phosphate moiety, we evaluated twenty-seven salicylanilide diethyl phosphates (diethyl [2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phosphates) for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus L.) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from equine serum. Ellman's spectrophotometric method was used. The inhibitory activity (expressed as IC50 values) was compared with that of the established drugs galantamine and rivastigmine. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates showed significant activity against both cholinesterases with IC50 values from 0.903 to 86.3?M. IC50s for BChE were comparatively lower than those obtained for AChE. All of the investigated compounds showed higher inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, and six of them inhibited BChE more effectively than both rivastigmine and galantamine. In general, derivatives of 4-chlorosalicylic acid showed enhanced activity when compared to derivatives of 5-halogenated salicylic acids, especially against BChE. The most effective inhibitor of AChE was O-{5-chloro-2-[(3-bromophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphate with IC50 of 35.4?M, which is also one of the most potent inhibitors of BChE. O-{5-Chloro-2-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphate exhibited in vitro the strongest inhibition of BChE (0.90?M). Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates act as pseudo-irreversible cholinesterases inhibitors. PMID:25462625

Krátký, Martin; St?pánková, Sárka; Vor?áková, Katarína; Vinšová, Jarmila

2014-11-13

381

Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela  

PubMed Central

The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 ?c per ?mole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 ?c per ?mole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 m?moles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 m?moles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 m?moles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 m?moles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

Bieleski, R. L.

1968-01-01

382

Low-emission vehicle adoption in a UK local authority fleet: economic barriers and air quality benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local air quality was one of the main stimulants for low carbon vehicle development during the 1990s. Issues of national fuel security and global air quality (climate change) have added pressure for their development, stimulating schemes to facilitate their deployment in the UK. In this case study, Coventry City Council aimed to adopt an in-house fleet of electric and hybrid-electric

Samantha Cruickshank; Michaela Kendall

2011-01-01

383

Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

Not Available

1986-06-11

384

System of systems design: Evaluating aircraft in a fleet context using reliability and non-deterministic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work develops and implements a solution framework that allows for an integrated solution to a resource allocation system-of-systems problem associated with designing vehicles for integration into an existing fleet to extend that fleet's capability while improving efficiency. Typically, aircraft design focuses on using a specific design mission while a fleet perspective would provide a broader capability. Aspects of design for both the vehicles and missions may be, for simplicity, deterministic in nature or, in a model that reflects actual conditions, uncertain. Toward this end, the set of tasks or goals for the to-be-planned system-of-systems will be modeled more accurately with non-deterministic values, and the designed platforms will be evaluated using reliability analysis. The reliability, defined as the probability of a platform or set of platforms to complete possible missions, will contribute to the fitness of the overall system. The framework includes building surrogate models for metrics such as capability and cost, and includes the ideas of reliability in the overall system-level design space. The concurrent design and allocation system-of-systems problem is a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. This study considered two system-of-systems problems that seek to simultaneously design new aircraft and allocate these aircraft into a fleet to provide a desired capability. The Coast Guard's Integrated Deepwater System program inspired the first problem, which consists of a suite of search-and-find missions for aircraft based on descriptions from the National Search and Rescue Manual. The second represents suppression of enemy air defense operations similar to those carried out by the U.S. Air Force, proposed as part of the Department of Defense Network Centric Warfare structure, and depicted in MILSTD-3013. The two problems seem similar, with long surveillance segments, but because of the complex nature of aircraft design, the analysis of the vehicle for high-speed attack combined with a long loiter period is considerably different from that for quick cruise to an area combined with a low speed search. However, the framework developed to solve this class of system-of-systems problem handles both scenarios and leads to a solution type for this kind of problem. On the vehicle-level of the problem, different technology can have an impact on the fleet-level. One such technology is Morphing, the ability to change shape, which is an ideal candidate technology for missions with dissimilar segments, such as the aforementioned two. A framework, using surrogate models based on optimally-sized aircraft, and using probabilistic parameters to define a concept of operations, is investigated; this has provided insight into the setup of the optimization problem, the use of the reliability metric, and the measurement of fleet level impacts of morphing aircraft. The research consisted of four phases. The two initial phases built and defined the framework to solve system-of-systems problem; these investigations used the search-and-find scenario as the example application. The first phase included the design of fixed-geometry and morphing aircraft for a range of missions and evaluated the aircraft capability using non-deterministic mission parameters. The second phase introduced the idea of multiple aircraft in a fleet, but only considered a fleet consisting of one aircraft type. The third phase incorporated the simultaneous design of a new vehicle and allocation into a fleet for the search-and-find scenario; in this phase, multiple types of aircraft are considered. The fourth phase repeated the simultaneous new aircraft design and fleet allocation for the SEAD scenario to show that the approach is not specific to the search-and-find scenario. The framework presented in this work appears to be a viable approach for concurrently designing and allocating constituents in a system, specifically aircraft in a fleet. The research also shows that new technology impact can be assessed at the fleet level usin

Frommer, Joshua B.

385

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

Sugama, T.

1993-09-21

386

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1993-01-01

387

Exploring phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase function  

E-print Network

correlation between low PI5P4K? expression in human breast tumors and reduced patient survival. The mechanism is not yet fully revealed and is clearly complex, involving among other things the regulation of E-cadherin. In the other study, Jude et al (Jude et... of Type II phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase) by its ?-helix 7. Biochem J. 2000;364:587-91. Clarke JH, Emson PC, Irvine RF. Localization of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase IIgamma in kidney to a membrane...

Bulley, Simon J.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Droubi, Alaa; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Robin F., Irvine

2014-10-02

388

The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

2008-01-01

389

Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

1983-08-01

390

Cost Estimation of the NAL Spaceplane (Modeling of a Vehicle Fleet Life-Cycle)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) are seen as one step toward inexpensive space transportation. The Japanese Government considers a Two-Stage-To-Orbit Vehicle, called NAL Spaceplane, as a potential future RLV. The system has a total launch mass of 193 Mg and the orbiter's payload capability is 8 Mg for LEO (300km) launched from Christmas Island. This study examining the economical performance of the NAL Spaceplane concept. To obtain relevant information, a multi-vehicle space carrier fleet cost model, called TRASIM, is used. For comparison and verification of the results, the Space Shuttle, which is the only existing partially reusable launch vehicle in operation, is simulated in parallel.For the scenario it is assumed that development phase is 12 years while operation phase is 50 years. As one result, the Total Cost per Flight (CpF) for the NAL Spaceplane is estimated to 40 million (2001), while the Total CpF for the Space Shuttle is about 480 million (2001). KEYWORDS: Cost Engineering, Life-Cycle Cost, NAL Spaceplane, Space Shuttle, TRASIM GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION (draft): Vehicle Introduction: Simulation: Results: Fazit:

Goehlich, R. A.; Koelle, H. H.

2002-01-01

391

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

392

Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

2015-01-01

393

DFRC F-16 fleet 1995 - F-16A, F-16XL, AFTI F-16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographed outside their hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, part of Dryden's F-16 fleet is, left to right; an F-16A, the F-16XL no. 1, and the F-16 AFTI. The F-16A (NASA 516), the only civil registered F-16 in existence, was transferred to Dryden from Langley, and is primarily used in engine tests and for parts. Although it is flight-worthy, it is not currently flown at Dryden. The single-seat F-16XL no. 1 (NASA 849) was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it had been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program will be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 and record their shape and intensity. The Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 was used to develop and demonstrate technologies to improve navigation and a pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. Earlier research in the joint NASA-Air Force AFTI F-16 program demonstrated voice actuated controls, helmet-mounted sighting and integration of forward-mounted canards with the standard flight control system to achieve uncoupled flight.

1995-01-01

394

Analysis of serum phosphate control and phosphate binder utilization in incident hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of serum phosphate level variability in patients new to hemodialysis (HD) and to identify patient characteristics associated with this variability. The medical records of 47,742 incident HD patients attending US outpatient dialysis centers between January 1, 2006 and March 31, 2009 were analyzed. Monthly mean serum phosphate levels determined over a 6-month evaluation period (months 4–9 after HD initiation) were assigned to one of three strata: low (<1.13 mmol/L [<3.5 mg/dL]); target (1.13–1.78 mmol/L [3.5–5.5 mg/dL]); or high (>1.78 mmol/L [>5.5 mg/dL]). Patients were classified into one of six serum phosphate variability groups based on variability among monthly mean phosphate levels over the 6-month evaluation period: consistently target; consistently high; high-to-target; high-to-low; target-to-low; or consistently low. Only 15% of patients (consistently target group) maintained monthly mean serum phosphate levels within the target range throughout the 6-month evaluation period. Age, Charlson comorbidity index, serum phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels prior to HD initiation were strongly associated (P<0.001) with serum phosphate levels after HD initiation. Overall patient-reported phosphate binder usage increased from 35% at baseline to 52% at end of study. The low proportion of patients achieving target phosphate levels and low rates of phosphate binder usage observed during the study suggest that alternative strategies could be developed to control serum phosphate levels. Possible strategies that might be incorporated to help improve the management of hyperphosphatemia in incident HD patients include dietary modification, dialysis optimization, and earlier and sustained use of phosphate binders. PMID:25045277

Farrand, Kimberly F; Copley, J Brian; Heise, Jamie; Fridman, Moshe; Keith, Michael S; Poole, Lynne

2014-01-01

395

Stress induced phosphate solubilization in bacteria isolated from alkaline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate solubilizing bacteria NBRI0603, NBRI2601, NBRI3246 and NBRI4003 were isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea and alkaline soils. All four strains demonstrated diverse levels of phosphate solubilization activity under in vitro conditions in the presence of various carbon and nitrogen sources. Acid production may have contributed to phosphate solubilization, but was not the only reason for phosphate release into the

C. Shekhar Nautiyal; Shipra Bhadauria; Pradeep Kumar; Hind Lal; Rajesh Mondal; Dinesh Verma

2000-01-01

396

Fibroblast growth factor 23 and its role in phosphate homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate homeostasis is complex and incompletely understood. The identification of different factors involved in the regulation of phosphate balance, also called phosphatonins, has largely changed our view on the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. The active role of bone has been demonstrated clearly. Currently, maintaining phosphate homeostasis is considered the result of a complex network of endocrine feedback loops between parathyroid

Isolde Ramon; Pierre Kleynen; Jean-Jacques Body; Rafik Karmali

2010-01-01

397

FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM  

PubMed Central

Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614–618. 1964.—A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 × 10?4m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 × 10?5m for NADH. The Q10, reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

Zancan, Glaci T.; Bacila, Metry

1964-01-01

398

21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175...

2010-04-01

399

Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

2011-12-01

400

ANALYSIS OF ALKYL PHOSPHATES BY EXTRACTIVE ALKYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of suitable methods for analysis of the alkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in urine has been a rather difficult and persistent problem. Currently available methodology suffers from several shortcomings. The extraction of the compounds from ...

401

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

Moxham, Robert M.

1953-01-01

402

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

Moxham, Robert M.

1954-01-01

403

Phosphate sensing in higher plants.  

PubMed

Phosphate (Pi) plays a central role as reactant and effector molecule in plant cell metabolism. However, Pi is the least accessible macronutrient in many ecosystems and its low availability often limits plant growth. Plants have evolved an array of molecular and morphological adaptations to cope with Pi limitation, which include dramatic changes in gene expression and root development to facilitate Pi acquisition and recycling. Although physiological responses to Pi starvation have been increasingly studied and understood, the initial molecular events that monitor and transmit information on external and internal Pi status remain to be elucidated in plants. This review summarizes molecular and developmental Pi starvation responses of higher plants and the evidence for coordinated regulation of gene expression, followed by a discussion of the potential involvement of plant hormones in Pi sensing and of molecular genetic approaches to elucidate plant signalling of low Pi availability. Complementary genetic strategies in Arabidopsis thaliana have been developed that are expected to identify components of plant signal transduction pathways involved in Pi sensing. Innovative screening methods utilize reporter gene constructs, conditional growth on organophosphates and the inhibitory properties of the Pi analogue phosphite, which hold the promise for significant advances in our understanding of the complex mechanisms by which plants regulate Pi-starvation responses. PMID:12010462

Abel, Steffen; Ticconi, Carla A; Delatorre, Carla A

2002-05-01

404

Phosphate Kinetics during Different Dialysis Modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An abnormal serum phosphate concentration is common in acute renal failure patients, with a reported incidence of 65–80%. Phosphate removal and kinetics during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) have been investigated, but there is no information on its kinetics during slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods: Eight IHD, 8 SLED, and 10 continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)

Ranistha Ratanarat; Alessandra Brendolan; Gopel Volker; Monica Bonello; Gabriella Salvatori; Emilio Andrikos; Asuman Yavuz; Carlo Crepaldi; Claudio Ronco

2005-01-01

405

Nonenzymatic phosphorylation of acetate by carbamyl phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found that carbamyl phosphate is an efficient condensing agent for acetate and hydroxylamine in the presence of Be2+ and Al3+. The reaction has an optimum at pH 4 and is completed within 30 min. The yield of hydroxamate formation reaches 30% (based on initial carbamyl phosphate). Acetylphosphate as the intermediary product of this reaction was identified by P-NMR spectroscopy.

Saygin, Ömer

1983-03-01

406

The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ?750 to ?635?Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life. PMID:20981096

Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

2010-10-28

407

Recent Advances in Renal Phosphate Handling  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is critical for the maintenance of skeletal integrity, is a necessary component of important biomolecules, and is central to signal transduction and cell metabolism. It is becoming clear that endocrine communication occurs between the skeleton, kidney, and the intestine to maintain proper serum phosphate concentrations, with the kidney being the primary site for minute-to-minute regulation. Identification of genetic alterations in Mendelian disorders of hypo- and hyperphosphatemia has led to the isolation of novel genes and new roles for existing proteins in the control of renal phosphate handling, such as Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its processing systems, the co-receptor ?-Klotho (KL), and phosphate transporters. Recent findings also indicate that FGF23 has feedback mechanisms intertwined with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D that control phosphate homeostasis. This review will highlight genetic, and in vitro and in vivo findings, and discuss how these clinical and experimental discoveries have uncovered novel aspects of renal phosphate handling, as well as opened new research and therapeutic avenues. PMID:20177401

Farrow, Emily G.; White, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

408

Conceptual design of a fleet of autonomous regolith throwing devices for radiation shielding of lunar habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in conjunction with Universities Space Research Association (USRA) has requested that the feasibility of a fleet of regolith tossing devices designed to cover a lunar habitat for radiation protection be demonstrated. The regolith, or lunar soil, protects the lunar habitat and its inhabitants from radiation. Ideally, the device will operate autonomously in the lunar environment. To prove the feasibility of throwing regolith on the Moon, throwing solutions were compared to traditional, Earth-based methods for moving soil. Various throwing configurations were investigated. A linear throwing motion combined with a spring and motor energizing system proved a superior solution. Three different overall configurations for the lunar device are presented. A single configuration is chosen and critical parameters such as operating procedure, system volume, mass, and power are developed. The report is divided into seven main sections. First, the Introduction section gives background information, defines the project requirements and the design criteria, and presents the methodology used for the completion of this design. Next, the Preliminary Analysis section presents background information on characteristics of lunar habitats and the lunar environment. Then, the Alternate Designs section presents alternate solutions to each of the critical functions of the device. Fourth, a detailed analysis of throwing the regolith is done to demonstrate its feasibility. Then, the three overall design configurations are presented. Next, a configuration is selected and the conceptual design is expanded to include system performance characteristics, size, and mass. Finally, the Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work section evaluates the design, outlines the next step to be taken in the design process, and suggests possible goals for future design work.

Armstrong, Karem; Mcadams, Daniel A.; Norrell, Jeffery L.

1992-01-01

409

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

NONE

1997-03-01

410

Unacidulated and Partially acidulated phosphate rock: Agronomic effectiveness and the rates of dissolution of phosphate rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic effectiveness of unground North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPR) prepared by acidulation of the PR with 30%, 40% and 50% of the phosphoric acid needed for complete acidulation, was determined in a 4 year field experiment on permanent pastures. The soil developed from volcanic ash, and was highly P retentive. The rate of

S. S. S. Rajan; J. H. Watkinson

1992-01-01

411

Intracellular Glucose 1-Phosphate and Glucose 6-Phosphate Levels Modulate Ca2  

E-print Network

suggests that glucose metabolites also play a role in sequestering mammalian ER Ca2 stores. Several studiesIntracellular Glucose 1-Phosphate and Glucose 6-Phosphate Levels Modulate Ca2 Homeostasis have shown that both the rate and yield of ATP-dependent Ca2 transport in microsomes isolated from

Bedwell, David M.

412

In vivo behaviour of three calcium phosphate cements and a magnesium phosphate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of calcium phosphate cements and one magnesium phosphate cement were implanted subcutaneously in rats under exclusion of direct cellular contact. Retrieval times were either 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Before and after retrieval the compressive strength, the diametral tensile strength, the quantitative chemical composition, the qualitative phase composition, the FTIR spectrum and the microstructure were determined. The

F. C. M. Driessens; M. G. Boltong; M. I. Zapatero; R. M. H. Verbeeck; W. Bonfield; O. Bérmúdez; E. Fernández; M. P. Ginebra; J. A. Planell

1995-01-01

413

COMPARATIVE KINETIC STUDIES OF PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH AND PHOSPHATE UPTAKE IN PHYTOPLANKTON IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparative kinetic study of phosphate-limited growth and phosphate uptake was carried out in chemostat cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae Lyng. Breb., Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs, Asterionella formosa Hass., Fragilaria crotonensis Kitt., and Microcystis sp. Lemm. For ea...

414

Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011  

SciTech Connect

On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

Not Available

2011-03-01

415

40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to...

2010-07-01

416

40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to...

2011-07-01

417

Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.  

SciTech Connect

The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

Plotkin, S.

1999-01-01

418

Sodium ascorbyl phosphate in topical microemulsions.  

PubMed

Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is a hydrophilic derivative of ascorbic acid, which has improved stability arising from its chemical structure. It is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations since it has many favorable effects in the skin, the most important being antioxidant action. In order to achieve this, it has to be converted into free ascorbic acid by enzymatic degradation in the skin. In the present work, o/w and w/o microemulsions composed of the same ingredients, were selected as carrier systems for topical delivery of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. We showed that sodium ascorbyl phosphate was stable in both types of microemulsion with no significant influence of its location in the carrier system. To obtain liquid microemulsions appropriate for topical application, their viscosity was increased by adding thickening agents. On the basis of rheological characterization, 4.00% (m/m) colloidal silica was chosen as a suitable thickening agent for w/o microemulsions and 0.50% (m/m) xanthan gum for the o/w type. The presence of thickening agent and the location of sodium ascorbyl phosphate in the microemulsion influenced the in vitro drug release profiles. When incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, sustained release profiles were observed. This study confirmed microemulsions as suitable carrier systems for topical application of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. PMID:12695012

Spiclin, Polona; Homar, Miha; Zupancic-Valant, Andreja; Gasperlin, Mirjana

2003-04-30

419

Insights from genetic disorders of phosphate homeostasis.  

PubMed

The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 GALNT3, the endopeptidase phosphate-regulating protein with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and the matrix protein dentin matrix protein 1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only a few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald

2013-03-01

420

Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid.  

PubMed

Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ergogenic purposes, sodium phosphate is supplemented orally in capsule form, at a dose of 3-5 g/day for a period of between 3 and 6 days. A number of exercise performance-enhancing alterations have been reported to occur with sodium phosphate supplementation, which include an increased aerobic capacity, increased peak power output, increased anaerobic threshold and improved myocardial and cardiovascular responses to exercise. A range of mechanisms have been posited to account for these ergogenic effects. These include enhancements in 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations, myocardial efficiency, buffering capacity and adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine synthesis. Whilst there is evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of sodium phosphate, many studies researching this substance differ in terms of the administered dose and dosing protocol, the washout period employed and the fitness level of the participants recruited. Additionally, the effect of gender has received very little attention in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the use of sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid, with a focus on identifying relevant further research. PMID:23568374

Buck, Christopher L; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian; Guelfi, Kym J

2013-06-01

421

Formation and structure of titanium alkyl phosphates.  

PubMed

Titanium alkyl phosphates (TiAP) synthesized by the reactions of Ti(SO(4))(2) with monohexyl, monooctyl, and monodecyl phosphates in aqueous media were characterized by various means. The XRD patterns of TiAP showed a strong diffraction peak and two weak ones below 2theta=15 degrees. The TiAP particle prepared using octyl phosphate gave rise to the lattice patterns having uniform alternating spacings of ca. 0.7 and ca. 2.0 nm. When treated at 900 degrees C, TiAP crystallized as TiP(2)O(7). The chemical formula could be shown as (ROPO(3))(2)Ti.0.44H(2)O. These facts suggest that the TiAP is composed of a multilayer alternating bimolecular layer of alkyl phosphates and hydrated titanium phosphate phase. Alkyl groups in the layers were removed by outgassing above 300 degrees C to give the materials having mesopores with a diameter of ca. 2 nm. PMID:12702405

Tanaka, Hidekazu; Masuda, Kanji; Hino, Ryozi

2002-10-15

422

Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

2006-05-01

423

Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

2009-06-01

424

Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse gas emitting domestic electricity production. Extending the operating lifetimes of current plants beyond 60 years and, where possible, making further improvements in their productivity will generate early benefits from research, development, and demonstration investments in nuclear power. DOE’s role in Objective 1 is to partner with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in appropriate ways to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The DOE research, development, and demonstration role will focus on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and are generic to reactor type. Cost-shared demonstration activities will be conducted when appropriate.

Robert Youngblood

2011-01-01

425

Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse gas emitting domestic electricity production. Extending the operating lifetimes of current plants beyond 60 years and, where possible, making further improvements in their productivity will generate early benefits from research, development, and demonstration investments in nuclear power. DOE’s role in Objective 1 is to partner with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in appropriate ways to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The DOE research, development, and demonstration role will focus on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and are generic to reactor type. Cost-shared demonstration activities will be conducted when appropriate.

Robert Youngblood

2011-02-01

426

Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves as a promising technique for future detailed analyses. Results from the profit maximization studies favor a smaller aircraft in terms of passenger capacity due to its higher yield generation capability on shorter routes while results from the cost minimization studies favor a larger aircraft due to its lower direct operating cost per seat mile.

Govindaraju, Parithi

427

Characterization of thermophilic archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinases.  

PubMed

Archaea synthesize isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the essential building blocks of isoprenoid compounds, from mevalonate (MVA). However, an analysis of the genomes of several members of the Archaea failed to identify genes for the enzymes required to convert phosphomevalonate (PM) to IPP in eukaryotes. The recent discovery of an isopentenyl kinase (IPK) in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MJ) suggests a new variation of the MVA pathway where PM is decarboxylated to give isopentenyl phosphate (IP), which is phosphorylated to produce IPP. A blast search using the MJ protein as a probe revealed a subfamily of amino acid kinases that include the fosfomycin resistance protein fomA, which deactivates the antibiotic by phosphorylation of its phosphonate residue in a reaction similar to the conversion of IP to IPP. IPK genes were cloned from two organisms identified in the search, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MTH) and Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA), and the His-tagged recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The enzymes catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of IP by ATP, K(eq) = 6.3 +/- 1. The catalytic efficiencies (V/K) of the proteins were approximately 2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). In the reverse direction, ADP was a substrate inhibitor for THA IPK, K(i)(ADP) = 58 +/- 6 microM, but not for MTH IPK. Both enzymes were active over a broad range of pH and temperature. Five compounds, dimethylallyl phosphate, isopentenyl thiolophosphate, 1-butyl phosphate, 3-buten-1-yl phosphate, and geranyl phosphate, were evaluated as alternative substrates for the MTH and THA IP kinases. All of the compounds were phosphorylated, although the catalytic efficiency was low for geranyl phosphate. PMID:19928876

Chen, Mo; Poulter, C Dale

2010-01-12

428

Preparation of oriented titanium phosphate and tin phosphate/polyaniline hybrid films by electrochemical deposition.  

PubMed

The preparation of hybrid films of metal (Ti and Sn) phosphate nanosheets and polyaniline by simultaneous electrophoretic and electrolytic deposition was performed in an acetonitrile solvent. Emeraldine polyaniline was intercalated between the phosphate nanosheets with a monolayer arrangement. The obtained hybrid films were several tens of micrometers in thickness. The ratio of incorporated polyaniline to metal phosphate in the hybrid films reaches to around 0.45 and 0.30 at suitable concentrations of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH). These amounts correspond with occupancy of polyaniline in the interlayer gallery of several tens percent. Fractions of voids in a horizontal direction were around 22 and 1% in titanium phosphate/polyaniline and tin phosphate/polyaniline hybrid films, respectively. Thus, anodic electrodeposition makes it possible to form thick films of intercalation compounds of alpha-titanium and tin phosphates with polyaniline. These hybrid films were examined for redox activity. The cyclic voltammetry results of these films confirmed that the hybrid films have redox activity by polyaniline. For these voltammograms, the maximum current was observed in the tin phosphate/polyaniline hybrid deposited for 15 min. The redox activity of these hybrids possibly depends on the mesoscopic texture of the film, especially on the amount of voids in a horizontal direction. PMID:18627186

Takei, Takahiro; Yonesaki, Yoshinori; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Kinomura, Nobukazu

2008-08-19

429

Oral phosphate binders for the management of serum phosphate levels in dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphataemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Hyperphosphataemia is statistically associated with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis modalities are not sufficiently effective to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. However, benefits of achieving the recommended range have yet to be demonstrated prospectively. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well-established and proven toxicity. Calcium-based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcaemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride and lanthanum carbonate are non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binders. They are effective and reasonably well tolerated, but still do not control phosphate levels in all patients. Patient education programmes have been shown to be a useful and effective method of improving achievement of serum phosphate targets. PMID:19222734

Mohammed, Ismail; Hutchison, Alastair J

2009-03-01

430

Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2011-04-01

431

Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics  

DOEpatents

A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Perry, Lamar (Fontana, CA); Jeong, Seung-Young (Justice, IL)

2001-01-01

432

Nonaqueous atomic layer deposition of aluminum phosphate.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphate was deposited onto bundles of carbon fibers and flat glassy carbon substrates using atomic layer deposition by exposing them to alternating pulses of trimethylaluminum and triethylphosphate vapors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) spectra confirmed that the coating comprises aluminum phosphate (orthophosphate as well as other stoichiometries). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images revealed that the coatings are uniform and conformal. After coating, the fibers are still separated from each other like the uncoated fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates an improvement of oxidation resistance of the coated fibers compared to uncoated fibers. PMID:23755858

Knohl, Stefan; Roy, Amit K; Lungwitz, Ralf; Spange, Stefan; Mäder, Thomas; Nestler, Daisy J; Wielage, Bernhard; Schulze, Steffen; Hietschold, Michael; Wulff, Harm; Helm, Christiane A; Seidel, Falko; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Goedel, Werner A

2013-07-10

433

New fluorescent cytidine 5'-phosphate derivatives.  

PubMed Central

Interaction of cytidine 5'-phosphate with chloroacetone or p-tosyloxyacetone leads to 2-methyl-5,6-dihydro-5-oxo-6-(5-0-phospho-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-imidazo/1,2-c/pyrimidine (2-methylethenocytidine 5'-phosphate) whereas analogous reaction with phenacyl bromide produces similar 2-phenyl-derivative. The bicyclic nucleotides obtained showed significant UV absorption at long wavelength where common nucleotides and proteins exhibited no absorption. These derivatives are highly fluorescent when heterocyclic ring is protonated. The absorption and fluorescent properties of the substituted ethenocytidine 5'-phosphoate derivatives seem to be suitable for their use as fluorescent probes or labels in biochemical studies. PMID:7772

Kochetkov, N K; Shibaev, V N; Kost, A A; Razjivin, A P; Borisov AYu

1976-01-01

434

Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

2007-08-01

435

Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil.

NONE

1997-12-01

436

Integration of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and probabilistic dynamic programming in formulating an optimal fleet management model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with two major aspects of airlines, i.e. supply and demand management. The aspect of supply focuses on the mathematical formulation of an optimal fleet management model to maximize operational profit of the airlines while the aspect of demand focuses on the incorporation of mode choice modeling as parts of the developed model. The proposed methodology is outlined in two-stage, i.e. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is first adopted to capture mode choice modeling in order to quantify the probability of probable phenomena (for aircraft acquisition/leasing decision). Then, an optimization model is developed as a probabilistic dynamic programming model to determine the optimal number and types of aircraft to be acquired and/or leased in order to meet stochastic demand during the planning horizon. The findings of an illustrative case study show that the proposed methodology is viable. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of mode choice modeling could affect the operational profit and fleet management decision of the airlines at varying degrees.

Teoh, Lay Eng; Khoo, Hooi Ling

2013-09-01

437

Phosphate-mineral interactions and potential consequences for nutrient cycling  

E-print Network

Biogeochemical cycling of phosphate is a key component in the overall production rate of coastal ecosystems. Mineral phases in the near-shore sediments play a significant role in the return of phosphate remineralized in ...

Oates, Richard Hunter

2008-01-01

438

[Study on phosphate removal and recovery by activated alumina].  

PubMed

Activated alumina was studied for removing phosphate from water, and the recovery of adsorbed phosphate on activated aluminum oxide was also tested. Phosphate solution was prepared using distilled water, tap water and Luoshijiang River water, respectively. All the phosphate adsorption tests using activated alumina were proved to be well fitted with Langmuir isotherm and the respective maximum adsorption amount were 20.88, 32.15 and 29.85 mg x g(-1), respectively. The presence of electrolyte in water could be a positive factor for phosphate removal. As the pH value of phosphate solution became lower the Zeta potential of activated alumina increased, which could enhance the phosphate removal efficiency of activated alumina. The recovery tests indicated that NaOH (0.1 mol x L(-1)) solution could almost completely extract the phosphate adsorbed by activated alumina. PMID:23487944

Meng, Wen-Na; Xie, Jie; Wu, De-Yi; Zhang, Zhen-Jia; Kong, Hai-Nan

2013-01-01

439

Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P\\/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 °C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could

Fan Wu; Jiacan Su; Jie Wei; Han Guo; Changsheng Liu

2008-01-01

440

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...via tubing. This device does not include the colonic irrigation system (§ 876.5220). (b) Classification. Class...good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the...

2010-04-01

441

Microstructure of magnesium potassium phosphate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever growing concerns over global warming and other detrimental ecological changes have spurred the research and development of new types of cementitious materials. Along this line, magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MKPC) appears as one of the most promising candidates, especially in the field of rapid repair. A systematic study of the microstructure of MKPC is conducted, starting from paste

C. K. Chau; Fei Qiao; Zongjin Li

2011-01-01

442

Inositol pyrophosphates: Why so many phosphates?  

PubMed

The inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are a specialized group of "energetic" signaling molecules found in yeasts, plants and animals. PP-InsPs boast the most crowded three dimensional phosphate arrays found in Nature; multiple phosphates and diphosphates are crammed around the six-carbon, inositol ring. Yet, phosphate esters are also a major energy currency in cells. So the synthesis of PP-InsPs, and the maintenance of their levels in the face of a high rate of ongoing turnover, all requires significant bioenergetic input. What are the particular properties of PP-InsPs that repay this investment of cellular energy? Potential answers to that question are discussed here, against the backdrop of a recent hypothesis that signaling by PP-InsPs is evolutionarily ancient. The latter idea is extended herein, with the proposal that the primordial origins of PP-InsPs is reflected in the apparent lack of isomeric specificity of certain of their actions. Nevertheless, there are other aspects of signaling by these polyphosphates that are more selective for a particular PP-InsP isomer. Consideration of the nature of both specific and non-specific effects of PP-InsPs can help rationalize why such molecules possess so many phosphates. PMID:25453220

Shears, Stephen B

2015-01-01

443

21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4 ·xH2 O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to buff-colored powder and contains from one to four molecules of water of hydration. It is prepared by reaction of sodium...

2010-04-01

444

Luminescence of phosphate glasses activated with silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is the study of the structure of the luminescent centers in phosphate glasses activated with silver and melted under strongly oxidizing conditions, and the interpretation of the luminescence properties on this basis. Sodium--potassium-aluminum glass synthesized at a temperature of 1470  20~ from a water solution of the nitrates of the basic components of

E. G. Bondarenko; V. O. Kabanov; G. O. Karapetyan; O. V. Yanush

1981-01-01

445

Insights from Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald

2013-01-01

446

Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, whereupon the animals were killed. Length, weight, and specific weight of the left femur were measured. After 28 days on the respective diet the remaining animals were killed and one proximal tibia from each animal was processed for light microscopy and subjected to stereological analysis. Both experimental groups developed progressive growth retardation, more so the phosphate-depleted group. The calciopenic animals developed severe hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, whereas the phosphate-depleted animals, in spite of marked secondary hypercalcaemia, had unaltered levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. By 28 days both experimental groups displayed rachitic changes, more pronounced in the phosphate-depleted animals. This paper provides quantitative data demonstrating that calciopenia per se may cause rickets in young rats, but that the rachitic changes in this condition are less severe, and the growth pattern different from those in phosphate depletion. PMID:2206984

Abugassa, S; Svensson, O

1990-10-01

447

Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, whereupon the animals were killed. Length, weight, and specific weight of the left femur were measured. After 28 days on the respective diet the remaining animals were killed and one proximal tibia from each animal was processed for light microscopy and subjected to stereological analysis. Both experimental groups developed progressive growth retardation, more so the phosphate-depleted group. The calciopenic animals developed severe hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, whereas the phosphate-depleted animals, in spite of marked secondary hypercalcaemia, had unaltered levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. By 28 days both experimental groups displayed rachitic changes, more pronounced in the phosphate-depleted animals. This paper provides quantitative data demonstrating that calciopenia per se may cause rickets in young rats, but that the rachitic changes in this condition are less severe, and the growth pattern different from those in phosphate depletion. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2206984

Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

1990-01-01

448

Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of electrokinetic dewatering are: (1) electrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a direct current electric field; (2) dielectrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a non-uniform electric field; and (3) electro-osmosis, the water flow in porous media in a direct current electric field. Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay was investigated in an experimental program. The results

J. Q. Shang; K. Y. Lo

1997-01-01

449

Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained from the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.

Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van [Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen (Netherlands)] [Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen (Netherlands)

1997-08-01

450

Phosphate Starvation Promotes Swarming Motility and Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity. PMID:22773629

Bains, Manjeet; Fernández, Lucía

2012-01-01

451

Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces  

E-print Network

noninterface cement from the same specimen Crystal Growth Conclusion This magnesium phosphate CBPC has CBPC Magnesium Phosphate Ceramic Test Method Microindentation using Vickers Diamond Tip (.490-19.62NMaterial Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces M.J. Benjamin, K

Collins, Gary S.

452

Two caesium vanadium hydrogen-phosphates with tunnelled structures  

E-print Network

Two caesium vanadium hydrogen- phosphates with tunnelled structures: Cs2V2O3(PO4)(HPO4) and Cs2[(VO are connected to V2O10 dimers by phosphate and hydrogenphosphate groups, while in (II) three vanadium octahedra three-dimensional frameworks with tunnels in which Cs+ cations are located. Comment Vanadium phosphates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

An Overview of Phosphate Mining and Reclamation in  

E-print Network

An Overview of Phosphate Mining and Reclamation in Florida Casey Beavers Graduate Committee: Dr. This document is meant to provide an overview of phosphate mining and reclamation in Florida to address of mining in Florida, the regulations involved in mining, the process of phosphate mining, the reclamation

Ma, Lena

454

Aquacultural Engineering 19 (1999) 163178 Phosphate binding polymeric hydrogels for  

E-print Network

Aquacultural Engineering 19 (1999) 163­178 Phosphate binding polymeric hydrogels for aquaculture in the aquaculture industry. In this study, novel phosphate binding crosslinked poly(allylamine), PAA · HCl, polymeric hydrogel materials were developed, which efficiently bind phosphate anions in aquaculture

Rubloff, Gary W.

455

1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST, WITH THE SHIPPING AND STORAGE WAREHOUSE, AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID PLANT APPEARING IN SUCCESSION DOWN GOVERNMENT GULCH. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

456

Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

Shaver, Lee Alan

2008-01-01

457

ASPECTS OF PHOSPHATE UTILIZATION BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of various external phosphate concentrations on physiological and cytological aspects of Plectonema boryanum have been studied. P. boryanum was found to tolerate a wide range of phosphate concentrations, from 1 to 1000 mg of phosphate per liter. Growth of the alga in ...

458

Agronomy, modelling and economics of reactive phosphate rocks as slow-release phosphate fertilizers for grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive phosphate rocks (RPRs) from Sechura, Peru (SPR) and North Carolina, USA (NCPR) were compared with triple superphosphate (TSP) as phosphate (P) fertilizers for permanent grass\\/clover pastures in four field trials in New Zealand. Trial sites ranged in initial pH (in water) from 5.7 to 6.3 and in rainfall from 712 to 1338 mm yr-1. SPR and NCPR were used

A. G. Sinclair; P. D. Johnstone; L. C. Smith; M. B. O'Connor; L. Nguyen

1993-01-01

459

Direct demonstration of carbamoyl phosphate formation on the C-terminal domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase  

PubMed Central

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase synchronizes the utilization of two ATP molecules at duplicated ATP-grasp folds to catalyze carbamoyl phosphate formation. To define the dedicated functional role played by each of the two ATP sites, we have carried out pulse/labeling studies using the synthetases from Aquifex aeolicus and Methanococcus jannaschii, hyperthermophilic organisms that encode the two ATP-grasp folds on separate subunits. These studies allowed us to differentially label each active site with [?-32P]ATP and determine the fate of the labeled ?-phosphate in the synthetase reaction. Our results provide the first direct demonstration that enzyme-catalyzed transfer of phosphate from ATP to carbamate occurs on the more C-terminal of the two ATP-grasp folds. These findings rule out one mechanism proposed for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, where one ATP acts as a molecular switch, and provide additional support for a sequential reaction mechanism where the ?-phosphate groups of both ATP molecules are transferred to reactants. CP synthesis by subunit C in our single turnover pulse/chase assays did not require subunit N, but subunit N was required for detectable CP synthesis in the traditional continuous assay. These findings suggest that cross-talk between domain N and C is required for product release from subunit C. PMID:15576558

Kothe, Michael; Purcarea, Cristina; Guy, Hedeel I.; Evans, David R.; Powers-Lee, Susan G.

2005-01-01

460

Direct demonstration of carbamoyl phosphate formation on the C-terminal domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.  

PubMed

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase synchronizes the utilization of two ATP molecules at duplicated ATP-grasp folds to catalyze carbamoyl phosphate formation. To define the dedicated functional role played by each of the two ATP sites, we have carried out pulse/labeling studies using the synthetases from Aquifex aeolicus and Methanococcus jannaschii, hyperthermophilic organisms that encode the two ATP-grasp folds on separate subunits. These studies allowed us to differentially label each active site with [gamma-(32)P]ATP and determine the fate of the labeled gamma-phosphate in the synthetase reaction. Our results provide the first direct demonstration that enzyme-catalyzed transfer of phosphate from ATP to carbamate occurs on the more C-terminal of the two ATP-grasp folds. These findings rule out one mechanism proposed for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, where one ATP acts as a molecular switch, and provide additional support for a sequential reaction mechanism where the gamma-phosphate groups of both ATP molecules are transferred to reactants. CP synthesis by subunit C in our single turnover pulse/chase assays did not require subunit N, but subunit N was required for detectable CP synthesis in the traditional continuous assay. These findings suggest that cross-talk between domain N and C is required for product release from subunit C. PMID:15576558

Kothe, Michael; Purcarea, Cristina; Guy, Hedeel I; Evans, David R; Powers-Lee, Susan G

2005-01-01

461

Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ?13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs. PMID:25407335

Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

2015-01-23

462

Parametric Analyses of Potential Effects on Upper Tropospheric/Lower Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry by a Future Fleet of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Type Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report analyzed the potential impact of projected fleets of HSCT aircraft (currently not under development) through a series of parametric analyses that examine the envelope of potential effects on ozone over a range of total fuel burns, emission indices of nitrogen oxides, and cruise altitudes.

Dutta, Mayurakshi; Patten, Kenneth O.; Wuebbles,Donald J.

2005-01-01

463

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest  

SciTech Connect

Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

2014-06-01

464

MOTOR VEHICLE RECORD AUTHORIZATION This form authorizes Parking and Transportation (PTS) Fleet Services to conduct a motor vehicle record check to  

E-print Network

MOTOR VEHICLE RECORD AUTHORIZATION This form authorizes Parking and Transportation (PTS) ­ Fleet Services to conduct a motor vehicle record check to verify eligibility to operate University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles. Form Instructions: · Complete each section of the form · Print and fax

Kirschner, Denise

465

ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on unleaded, E85 (85% ethanol, 15% unleaded) or a mixture with ethanol's chemical properties. FFV's qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under the Energy Policy Act

Kirschner, Denise

466

Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations Performance in Urban Wei Feng, Miguel Figliozzi, Scott Price, Wu-chi Feng and Kristina Hostetler  

E-print Network

1 Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations Performance in Urban Areas Wei Feng of schedule adherence and headway regularity. TriMet is the transit provider in the Portland metropolitan on a Google Maps platform. Visualizations proposed in this study can aid transit agency managers and operators

Bertini, Robert L.

467

Follow Water Quality Robots on Twitter On May 9, 2012, UC Berkeley researchers launched a fleet of 100 water quality sensors into  

E-print Network

into an observable table to help agencies track pollution, manage water resources, and plan conservation programs05/22/2012 Follow Water Quality Robots on Twitter On May 9, 2012, UC Berkeley researchers launched a fleet of 100 water quality sensors into Northern California's Sacramento River. Designed to track water

468

Determining the Origin of Phosphates in Lherzolitic Shergottites Through Phosphate Saturation Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous has been correlated with sulfur and chlorine in martian soils with some soils containing several wt % P2O5 and high-P2O5 layer covers many rocks. However, using the RAT to remove the top few mm of some rocks revealed zones of low-P2O5 in the outer mm relative to the interior composition. This suggests that some igneous rocks of Mars are high in P2O5 and that over time phosphorous has been mobilized into the martian soils. In martian meteorites, phosphorous has been detected in high concentrations relative to terrestrial basalts and cumulates. High intensity x-ray maps of lherzolitic shergottite ALH 77005 reveal phosphates in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and P2O5 zoning in the host-olivine. Analyses of rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions reveal high-P2O5 glasses (>5 wt %). As phosphates are the major reservoir of REE in martian meteorites, determining if the phosphates are primary igneous or secondary sedimentary minerals may have significant consequences for use of REE as oxybarometers and radiogenic-isotopic dating systems in these meteorites. Therefore, an experimental investigation was initiated to determine whether the phosphates are primary igneous minerals or secondary weathering products. The phosphate saturation curve in SNC magmatic compositions has been studied experimentally by synthesizing the parental melt composition of lherzolitic shergottite ALH 77005 and performing anhydrous crystallization experiments in TZM pressure vessels. The parental melt composition was then doped with 5 wt % P2O5 in the form of CaHPO4 and the crystallization experiments were repeated. ALH 77005's parental melt saturated phosphate near 7 wt % at 1165°C and 5 wt % at 1150°C. These saturation values illustrate how high-P2O5 would have to build up before phosphates would nucleate and are consistent with high-2O5 content found in rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions. These saturation values are higher than the reported saturation for lunar and typical terrestrial basalts, which may reflect differences in the composition, volatile content, and/or the oxidation state of shergottite magmas. The presence of phosphate-saturated melts in rehomogenized, olivine-hosted melt inclusions suggests that olivine contains previously unaccounted for high levels of phosphate. If the phosphates are magmatic in origin, the evidence suggests that phosphates saturated earlier in the crystallization of lherzolitic shergottite ALH 77005 than previous authors have indicated and therefore phosphates contained in olivines have a larger impact on REE evolution of the magma than if olivine had been crystallizing alone. If the included phosphates are secondary in origin, the presence of enough P2O5 to saturate a melt inclusion with phosphate during rehomogenization suggests that mineral separates of olivine would still carry enough REE to have a significant effect on studies that attempt to use REE for oxybarometers and radiogenic-isotopic dating.

Calvin, C.; Rutherford, M.

2007-12-01

469

Phosphate elimination in modalities of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphatemia is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Elimination of inorganic phosphate by dialysis is a cornerstone of the management of hyperphosphatemia. Phosphate clearance during HD is affected by various factors of dialysis prescription, such as blood and dialysate flow rate, dialyzer membrane surface area and ultrafiltration volume. Phosphate mass removal can be improved by hemodiafiltration, increased dialysis frequencies and extended treatment times. Short daily or extended daily or 3 times weekly nocturnal HD allow higher phosphate mass removal and potentially complete discontinuation of phosphate binder medication. In PD, phosphate mass removal appears to be correlated with peritoneal creatinine but not urea clearance. In hyperphosphatemic PD patients, the decision on the optimal PD modality should be based on peritoneal creatinine and ideally also on peritoneal phosphate transport characteristics. PMID:20093819

Kuhlmann, Martin K

2010-01-01

470

Phosphate incorporation during glycogen synthesis and Lafora disease.  

PubMed

Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that serves as an energy store. Phosphate, a trace constituent of glycogen, has profound effects on glycogen structure, and phosphate hyperaccumulation is linked to Lafora disease, a fatal progressive myoclonus epilepsy that can be caused by mutations of laforin, a glycogen phosphatase. However, little is known about the metabolism of glycogen phosphate. We demonstrate here that the biosynthetic enzyme glycogen synthase, which normally adds glucose residues to glycogen, is capable of incorporating the ?-phosphate of its substrate UDP-glucose at a rate of one phosphate per approximately 10,000 glucoses, in what may be considered a catalytic error. We show that the phosphate in glycogen is present as C2 and C3 phosphomonoesters. Since hyperphosphorylation of glycogen causes Lafora disease, phosphate removal by laforin may thus be considered a repair or damage control mechanism. PMID:21356517

Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Heiss, Christian; Karthik, Chandra; Contreras, Christopher J; Glushka, John; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Hurley, Thomas D; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

2011-03-01

471

PHOSPHATE INCORPORATION DURING GLYCOGEN SYNTHESIS AND LAFORA DISEASE  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that serves as an energy store. Phosphate, a trace constituent of glycogen, has profound effects on glycogen structure and phosphate hyperaccumulation is linked to Lafora disease, a fatal progressive myoclonus epilepsy that can be caused by mutations of laforin, a glycogen phosphatase. However, little is known about the metabolism of glycogen phosphate. We demonstrate here that the biosynthetic enzyme glycogen synthase, which normally adds glucose residues to glycogen, is capable of incorporating the ?-phosphate of its substrate UDP-glucose at a rate of one phosphate per approximately 10,000 glucoses, in what may be considered a catalytic error. We show that the phosphate in glycogen is present as C2 and C3 phosphomonoesters. Since hyperphosphorylation of glycogen causes Lafora disease, phosphate removal by laforin may thus be considered a repair or damage control mechanism. PMID:21356517

Tagliabracci, Vincent S.; Heiss, Christian; Karthik, Chandra; Contreras, Christopher J.; Glushka, John; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Hurley, Thomas D.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Roach, Peter J.

2011-01-01

472

Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30?mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20?mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39?mg kg?1), plant P uptake (0.78?P pot?1), and plant biomass (33.26?mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10?cfu g?1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

2013-01-01

473

Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

West, B.H.; McGill (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hillis, S.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-09-01

474

An assessment of the benefits of the use of NASA developed fuel conservative technology in the US commercial aircraft fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost and benefits of a fuel conservative aircraft technology program proposed by NASA are estimated. NASA defined six separate technology elements for the proposed program: (a) engine component improvement (b) composite structures (c) turboprops (d) laminar flow control (e) fuel conservative engine and (f) fuel conservative transport. There were two levels postulated: The baseline program was estimated to cost $490 million over 10 years with peak funding in 1980. The level two program was estimated to cost an additional $180 million also over 10 years. Discussions with NASA and with representatives of the major commercial airframe manufacturers were held to estimate the combinations of the technology elements most likely to be implemented, the potential fuel savings from each combination, and reasonable dates for incorporation of these new aircraft into the fleet.

1975-01-01

475

Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized.

NONE

1997-05-01

476

Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

2014-06-03

477

Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

2012-11-01

478

Mechanisms of phosphate transport in sheep intestine and parotid gland: response to variation in dietary phosphate supply.  

PubMed

The transport of phosphate in intestinal brush-border membrane and parotid basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from sheep maintained on high and low phosphate diets have been studied. The mechanism of the transport of phosphate in the intestine is via a proton symporter whilst in the parotid gland it is effected by a Na+ coupled transporter. In sheep fed a low-P diet there is no change in the capacity of the parotid basolateral membrane to transport phosphate into the parotid end piece cells. This is in marked contrast to the response of the enterocyte brush-border membrane, where there is a significant enhancement of the capacity of the membrane to transport phosphate. We conclude that in sheep the gut appears to play a major role in response to phosphate deprivation, by increasing the capacity to transport phosphate. This enhancement is not achieved by increases in the levels of circulating 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. PMID:2059427

Shirazi-Beechey, S P; Beechey, R B; Penny, J; Vayro, S; Buchan, W; Scott, D

1991-03-01

479

Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: PâOâ, 50--75; AlâOâ, <0--10; KâO, <0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; LiâO,

Y. T. Hayden; S. A. Payne; J. S. Hayden; J. H. Campbell; M. K. Aston; M. L. Elder

1996-01-01

480

DNA structures from phosphate chemical shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For B-DNA, the strong linear correlation observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) between the 31P chemical shifts (dP) and three recurrent internucleotide distances demonstrates the tight coupling between phosphate motions and helicoidal parameters. It allows to translate dP into distance restraints directly exploitable in structural refine- ment. It even provides a new method for refining DNA oligomers with restraints exclusively

Josephine Abi-Ghanem; Brahim Heddi; Nicolas Foloppe; Brigitte Hartmann

2010-01-01

481

Availability of Some Nitrogenous and Phosphatic Materials.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. President BULLETIN NO. 287 JANUARY, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY VAILABILITY OF SOME Nl.TROGENOUS AND PHOSPHATIC MATERIALS B. YOUNGBLOOD.... E. HAFNER, B. S., Superintendent No. 4. Beaumont. Jefferson County A. H. PRINCE, B. S., Superintendent No. 5. Temple, Bell County D. T. KILLOUGH, B. S.. Superintendent No. 6. Denton, Denton County C. H. MCDOWELL, B. S., Superintendenf No. 7...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

482

Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes  

SciTech Connect

The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

1999-12-03

483

Electrophoretic Variation of Galactose1Phosphate Uridyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific method for starch-gel electrophoresis of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase has been developed. Electrophoresis of red-cell hemolyzate from normal subjects and subjects homozygous for the Duarte variant has shown that the Duarte variant has a slightly faster electrophoretic mobility than the normal enzyme under the various conditions used. Molecular-weight estimation on Sephadex G-200 indicates that this observed difference in electrophoretic mobility

Claramma K. Mathai; Ernest Beutler

1966-01-01

484

The therapeutic potential of novel phosphate binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperphosphatemia and an increased serum calcium-phosphate (Ca×P) product are associated with cardiovascular mortality in adult dialysis patients. Target levels for the treatment of elevations in serum phosphorus (P) and the Ca×P product have recently been redefined, but are difficult to achieve in clinical practice. This problem may be especially prevalent in children and adolescents who have a higher recommended P

Uwe Querfeld

2005-01-01

485

Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

Burns, Peter C.

2005-06-01

486

Gain saturation in phosphate laser glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturation of gain at 1053 nm was studied in seven Nd-doped