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Sample records for flexible armored blanket

  1. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  2. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  3. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  4. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  5. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  6. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Mirkhalaf, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Crocodiles, armadillo, turtles, fish and many other animal species have evolved flexible armored skins in the form of hard scales or osteoderms, which can be described as hard plates of finite size embedded in softer tissues. The individual hard segments provide protection from predators, while the relative motion of these segments provides the flexibility required for efficient locomotion. In this work, we duplicated these broad concepts in a bio-inspired segmented armor. Hexagonal segments of well-defined size and shape were carved within a thin glass plate using laser engraving. The engraved plate was then placed on a soft substrate which simulated soft tissues, and then punctured with a sharp needle mounted on a miniature loading stage. The resistance of our segmented armor was significantly higher when smaller hexagons were used, and our bio-inspired segmented glass displayed an increase in puncture resistance of up to 70% compared to a continuous plate of glass of the same thickness. Detailed structural analyses aided by finite elements revealed that this extraordinary improvement is due to the reduced span of individual segments, which decreases flexural stresses and delays fracture. This effect can however only be achieved if the plates are at least 1000 stiffer than the underlying substrate, which is the case for natural armor systems. Our bio-inspired system also displayed many of the attributes of natural armors: flexible, robust with 'multi-hit' capabilities. This new segmented glass therefore suggests interesting bio-inspired strategies and mechanisms which could be systematically exploited in high-performance flexible armors. This study also provides new insights and a better understanding of the mechanics of natural armors such as scales and osteoderms. PMID:24613857

  7. Calculation of stresses and slips in flexible armor layers with layers interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Feret, J.; Leroy, J.M.; Estrier, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with stress and displacement calculation in dynamically bent unbonded flexible pipes. The presented method is original in that movements and stresses of both armor layers are coupled. Good correlations between strain measurements and the theory have been found, as shown in the paper.

  8. Flexible, Thin-Film Solar-Cell Blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    Much of available area used to absorb solar energy. Proposed blanket of solar photovoltaic cells mounted on exterior surface of equipment it powers. Readily conforms to irregular shapes. Does not require separate supporting structure and saves space. Not added on to equipment but constitutes an integral part of it. Interconnection wiring deposited on sheet photolithographically or by other suitable masking/fabrication methods. Complete blanket, including cells and interconnections, fabricated as rigid unit directly on, and supported by, nonplanar surface to be covered.

  9. Development of a Meso-Scale Material Model for Ballistic Fabric and Its Use in Flexible-Armor Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Arakere, G.; He, T.; Xie, X.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2010-02-01

    A meso-scale ballistic material model for a prototypical plain-woven single-ply flexible armor is developed and implemented in a material user subroutine for the use in commercial explicit finite element programs. The main intent of the model is to attain computational efficiency when calculating the mechanical response of the multi-ply fabric-based flexible-armor material during its impact with various projectiles without significantly sacrificing the key physical aspects of the fabric microstructure, architecture, and behavior. To validate the new model, a comparative finite element method analysis is carried out in which: (a) the plain-woven single-ply fabric is modeled using conventional shell elements and weaving is done in an explicit manner by snaking the yarns through the fabric and (b) the fabric is treated as a planar continuum surface composed of conventional shell elements to which the new meso-scale unit-cell based material model is assigned. The results obtained show that the material model provides a reasonably good description for the fabric deformation and fracture behavior under different combinations of fixed and free boundary conditions. Finally, the model is used in an investigation of the ability of a multi-ply soft-body armor vest to protect the wearer from impact by a 9-mm round nose projectile. The effects of inter-ply friction, projectile/yarn friction, and the far-field boundary conditions are revealed and the results explained using simple wave mechanics principles, high-deformation rate material behavior, and the role of various energy-absorbing mechanisms in the fabric-based armor systems.

  10. Performance testing of the 5 kW EOS AM-1 flexible solar array blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Schurig, H.H.; Kruer, M.A.; Levesque, M.N.; Gaddy, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    A GaAs/Ge flexible solar array blanket has been developed for use on the NASA/GSFC remote sensing EOS AM-1 spacecraft. This single wing array has been designed to provide a 5 kW of power after five years in a low earth polar orbit. The blanket configuration includes design features such as thin GaAs/Ge cell stacks mounted on a large flexible, hinged substrate, parallel connected solar cell strings providing high voltage output, a printed circuit harness, and a multi-layer jumper bus providing electrical continuity between the cell strings and the printed circuit harness. This work was contracted to TRW Space and Electronics Group in 1993 by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS). This paper presents the essential design of the EOS AM-1 solar array blanket, and summarizes the results of a qualification test program designed to demonstrate adequate design margins and to assess the performance of the mechanical and electrical components after exposure to a simulated mission space environment. It also reviews the complexities of performing electrical output on a 8.9 m x 5.0 m deployed solar array blanket under AM0 conditions.

  11. EOS AM-1 GaAs/Ge flexible blanket solar array

    SciTech Connect

    Herriage, M.J.; Kurland, R.M.; Faust, C.D.; Gaddy, E.M.; Keys, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 solar array will be the first operational flexible blanket array to use gallium arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells. It will be one of the first arrays of any kind to use thin GaAs/Ge solar cells and to produce power at high voltage. The array thereby represents a significant advance in spacecraft array technology. This paper describes the progress made and the problems encountered since Kimber et al (1993) reported on the tradeoffs that led to the array`s configuration. The EOS AM-1 spacecraft, due to launch in 1998, is the first in a series of Goddard Space Flight Center remote sensing spacecraft. It requires a single wing solar array with an end of life (EOL) power requirement of 5 kW at 127 volts after a five year mission in a low earth polar orbit. Spacecraft system level design issues dealing with packaging volume, attitude control, weight and array size dictated that a low aspect ratio (2:1) flexible blanket solar array with 0.14 mm thick GaAs/Ge cells be used. Design of the array was contracted to TRW Space and Electronics Group in 1992 by Lockheed Martin Corporation. The flexible blanket array configuration proposed was based on the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) flat-pack foldout concept demonstrated by TRW under an earlier Jet Propulsion Laboratory exploratory development contract, (Stella and Kurland, 1992). The EOS AM-1 solar array assembly (SAA) program is in its post critical design review phase, with design details completed, flight hardware in production, and the flight hardware verification test program about to begin. The protoflight solar array wing is scheduled for delivery in 1997.

  12. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  13. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  14. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  15. EOS AM-1 GaAs/Ge flexible blanket solar array verification test program results

    SciTech Connect

    Herriage, M.J.; Kurland, R.M.; Faust, C.D.; Gaddy, E.M.; Keys, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Under subcontract to Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS), TRW Space and Electronics Group is developing the first operational flexible blanket solar array to use thin gallium arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells and to produce power at high voltage. This single wing array will be integrated to the EOS AM-1 spacecraft which is the first in a series of Goddard Space Flight Center remote sensing spacecraft. Spacecraft system level design issues dealing with package volume, attitude control, weight and array size dictated that a low aspect ratio (2:1), flexible blanket wing with GaAs/Ge cells be used. The array program is in its last phase of protoflight verification testing with delivery of the wing to LMMS in mid-1997 for launch into orbit in mid-1998. This paper continues the status reporting of the solar array development that was first presented at the 31st IECEC in Washington, DC. In the first paper (Herriage, et al, 1996) the focus was on the design requirements and evolving design details. This paper provides a brief review of the wing configuration and design as a point of reference for the ensuing principal discussion of the protoflight verification test program and key results.

  16. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  17. Armor structures

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  18. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  19. Imaging body armor.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor. PMID:11977874

  20. M113: Armored Rescuer

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space shuttle required a unique rescue vehicle, one strong enough to bull its way into a launch pad and carry a flight crew and firefighters to safety. The answer is a group of M113 armored per...

  1. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  2. Laminate armor and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  3. Embedded-monolith armor

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  4. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  5. Magnetic non-destructive evaluation of ruptures of tensile armor in oil risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Benitez, J. A.; Padovese, L. R.

    2012-04-01

    Risers are flexible multilayered pipes formed by an inner flexible metal structure surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also known as armor wires. Since these risers are used to link subsea pipelines to floating oil and gas production installations, and their failure could produce catastrophic consequences, some methods have been proposed to monitor the armor integrity. However, until now there is no practical method that allows the automatic non-destructive detection of individual armor wire rupture. In this work we show a method using magnetic Barkhausen noise that has shown high efficiency in the detection of armor wire rupture. The results are examined under the cyclic and static load conditions of the riser. This work also analyzes the theory behind the singular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise on the applied tension in riser armor wires.

  6. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  7. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  8. US solid breeder blanket design for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Lin, C.; Johnson, C.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D. ); Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Williamson, D.; Baker, C. ); Raffray, A.; Badawi, A.; Gorbis, Z.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. ); Sviatoslavsky, I.; Blanchard, J.; Mogahed, E.; Sawan, M.; Kulcinski, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The US blanket design activity has focused on the developments and the analyses of a solid breeder blanket concept for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and the test program. Safety, power reactor relevance, low tritium inventory, and design flexibility are the main reasons for the blanket selection. The blanket is designed to operate satisfactorily in the physics and the technology phases of ITER without the need for hardware changes. Mechanical simplicity, predictability, performance, minimum cost, and minimum R D requirements are the other criteria used to guide the design process. The design aspects of the blanket are summarized in this paper. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  10. Armor and Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  11. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. PMID:23470547

  12. BASELINE UT MEASUREMENTS FOR ARMOR INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nate; Barnard, Dan; Hsu, David; Gray, Tim; Brasche, Lisa; Bruce Thompson, R.

    2010-02-22

    Some prototype armor panels are fabricated from several layers of dissimilar material bonded together. These may include ceramics, graphite composites, fiberglass composites and rubber. The ultrasonic properties of these layers influence inspections for armor defects. In this paper we describe measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation, sound beam distortion and signal fluctuations for the individual layers comprising one armor prototype. We then discuss how knowledge of these properties can be used when choosing an optimum frequency for an ultrasonic pitch/catch immersion inspection. In our case an effective inspection frequency near 1.5 MHz affords: (1) adequate strength of through-transmitted signals in unflawed armor; (2) adequate lateral resolution for detecting small disbonds at interfaces; and (3) low levels of UT signal fluctuations due to the natural inhomogeneity of certain armor layers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using armor panels containing artificial disbonds at selected interfaces.

  13. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-09-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate.

  14. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  15. Macrocomposite mechanical design, modeling, and behavior of physical models of bioinspired fish armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Ashley; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C.

    2012-02-01

    The macrocomposite design of flexible biological exoskeletons, consisting of overlapping mineralized armor units embedded in a compliant tissue, is a key determinant of their mechanical function (e.g penetration resistance and biomechanical flexibility). Here, we investigate the role of macrocomposite structure, composition, geometric orientation, and spatial distribution in a flexible model natural armor system present in the majority of teleost fish species. Physical multi-material composite models are fabricated using a combination of 3-D printing and molding methods. Mechanical experiments using digital image correlation enable measurement of both the macroscopic response and underlying deformation mechanisms during various loading scenarios. Finite element-based mechanical models yield detailed insights into the roles and the tradeoffs of the composite structure providing constraint, shear, and bending mechanisms to impart protection and flexibility.

  16. Enhanced stab resistance of armor composites with functionalized silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Clements, Floria; Rangari, Vijaya; Dhanak, Vinod; Beamson, Graham

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally shear thickening fluid (STF) reinforced with Kevlar has been used to develop flexible armor. At the core of the STF-Kevlar composites is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silica particles. This mixture is often known as STF and is consisted of approximately 45 wt % PEG and 55 wt % silica. During rheological tests, STF shows instantaneous spike in viscosity above a critical shear rate. Fabrication of STF-Kevlar composites requires preparation of STF, dilution with ethanol, and then impregnation with Kevlar. In the current approach, nanoscale silica particles were dispersed directly into a mixture of PEG and ethanol through a sonic cavitation process. Two types of silica nanoparticles were used in the investigation: 30 nm crystalline silica and 7 nm amorphous silica. The admixture was then reinforced with Kevlar fabric to produce flexible armor composites. In the next step, silica particles are functionalized with a silane coupling agent to enhance bonding between silica and PEG. The performance of the resulting armor composites improved significantly. As evidenced by National Institute of Justice spike tests, the energy required for zero-layer penetration (i.e., no penetration) jumped twofold: from 12 to 25 J cm2/g. The source of this improvement has been traced to the formation of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds between silica and PEG and superior coating of Kevlar filaments with particles. Fourier transform infrared, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies were performed to examine chemical bonds, elemental composition, and particle dispersion responsible for such improvement. In summary, our experiments have demonstrated that functionalization of silica particles followed by direct dispersion into PEG resulted in superior Kevlar composites having much higher spike resistance.

  17. Insulation Blankets for High-Temperature Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H.; Leiser, D.; Sawko, P. M.; Larson, H. K.; Estrella, C.; Smith, M.; Pitoniak, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Insulating blanket resists temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C). Useful where high-temperature resistance, flexibility, and ease of installation are important - for example, insulation for odd-shaped furnaces and high-temperature ducts, curtains for furnace openings and fire control, and conveyor belts in hot processes. Blanket is quilted composite consisting of two face sheets: outer one of silica, inner one of silica or other glass cloth with center filling of pure silica glass felt sewn together with silica glass threads.

  18. Nanotechnology for armor: hype, facts, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Mick

    2012-06-01

    Over the past two decades, nanotechnology has offered the promise of revolutionary performance improvements over existing armor materials. During that time there was substantial effort and resources put into developing the material technology and supporting theories, with only limited emphasis placed on understanding the ballistic event, mechanisms that drive armor performance, and the dependent nature of the threat. As a result, this large investment in nanotechnology for armor has not produced improved performance on the ballistics testing range, and armor nanotechnologies have never been fielded. No matter what the platform, armor systems have several functions that they have to perform in order to function properly. In order to defeat a threat, armor systems are designed to: deform/deflect the threat; dissipate energy; and prevent residual debris penetration. To date there is no definitive answer as to what material properties drive the system behavior of these functions at high rates in response to a specific threat, making the adaptation of nanotechnology that much harder. However, these functions are now being considered with respect to the material system and armor mechanism being utilized, and nanotechnology is beginning to be shown as an effective means of improving performance. When looking at the materials being used today, there are examples of nanotechnology making inroads into today's latest systems. Nano-particles are being used to manipulate grain boundaries in both metals and ceramics to tailor performance. Composite materials are utilizing nanotechnology to enhance basic material properties and enhance the system level behaviors to high rate events. While the anticipated revolution never occurred, nanotechnology is beginning to be utilized as an enabler in the latest armor performance improvements.

  19. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  20. Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Peter M.; Soika, Rainer H.

    2002-01-01

    An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

  1. 77 FR 39259 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Body Armor in Correctional...: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor Individual-level Correctional Officer Survey. (3) Agency...

  2. Blanket technology workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The solar array blanket, defined as a substrate covered with interconnected and glassed solar cells, but excluding the necessary support structure, deployment, and orientation devices is considered. The interactions between the blanket and the structure that is used to package, deploy, support and, if necessary restow it, are addressed along with systems constraints such as spacecraft configuration, size, and payload requirements. The influence on blanket design is emphasized. The three main mission classes considered are low Earth orbital (LEO), intermediate, or LEO to GEO transfer, and geosynchronous (GEO). Although interplanetary missions could be considered to be a separate class, their requirements, primarily power per unit mass, are generally close enough to geosynchronous missions to allow this mission class to be included within the third type. Examination of the critical elements of each class coupled with considerations of the shuttle capabilities is used to define the type of blanket technology most likely required to support missions that will be flown starting in 1990.

  3. Roughness of stable, armored gravel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Basil

    1993-11-01

    The grain roughness of stable armored beds that formed in a laboratory flume under a range of steady flow conditions on rounded, flat and angular gravel is analyzed. Gravel roughness geometry is determined from bed surface profiles and vertical photographs. These techniques have been employed in field situations. Thus the methodology is potentially applicable to the analysis of grain roughness in natural gravel bed channels. The description of representative roughness geometry is also analogous to that used to characterize artificial roughness arrays. Armor roughness increases with increasing flow. Armored surfaces composed of angular gravel are roughest, and surfaces formed of flat gravel offer least resistance to the flow. Stable armored beds may exhibit a tendency to maximize the ratio of the shear due to drag on representative roughness elements to total shear. Roughness concentration is strongly correlated with the energy slope, and there is a linear increase in equivalent roughness height with increasing roughness concentration. The friction factor for an armored surface varies in a linear manner with representative roughness geometry. The equation defining this relation is probably similar to that used to characterize variations in the friction factor with artificial roughness geometry at low roughness concentrations. However, to reconcile the relations for artificial and natural roughness completely, it may be necessary to explicitly consider the contribution to flow resistance made by roughness shape, background roughness, and blocking in shallow flows.

  4. Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

    1981-01-01

    Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electrical insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.

  5. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting AGENCY...-day High Strength Fiber and Body Armor Research Needs Meeting. The Meeting will provide a forum to... Body Armor Research Needs Meeting will be held June 15, 2010. The workshop will be held from 9 a.m....

  6. Resonance and streaming of armored microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spelman, Tamsin; Bertin, Nicolas; Stephen, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    A new experimental technique involves building a hollow capsule which partially encompasses a microbubble, creating an ``armored microbubble'' with long lifespan. Under acoustic actuation, such bubble produces net streaming flows. In order to theoretically model the induced flow, we first extend classical models of free bubbles to describe the streaming flow around a spherical body for any known axisymmetric shape oscillation. A potential flow model is then employed to determine the resonance modes of the armored microbubble. We finally use a more detailed viscous model to calculate the surface shape oscillations at the experimental driving frequency, and from this we predict the generated streaming flows.

  7. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  8. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E.

    1995-12-31

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  9. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  10. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  11. EMBEDDED FIBER OPTIC SENSORS FOR INTEGRAL ARMOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the work performed with Production Products Manufacturing & Sales (PPMS), Inc., under the "Liquid Molded Composite Armor Smart Structures Using Embedded Sensors" Small Business Innovative Research (SBlR) Program sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory...

  12. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  13. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-04-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  14. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, D.J.; Calkins, N.C.; Gac, F.D.

    1990-11-13

    An armor system is disclosed in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix. 5 figs.

  15. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, Donald J.; Calkins, Noel C.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    An armor system in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix.

  16. Preliminary design of Viking Armored Gun System

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolewski, R.P.; Cunningham, B.J.

    1990-10-24

    We have completed the preliminary design of our third lightweight armored fighting vehicle -- the Viking Armored Gun System (AGS). The AGS vehicle features a two-man crew, the Ares 75mm Universal Turret System, and the John Deere 4026R Rotary Engine. In the spirit of our earlier AFV designs, our primary concern is to provide the AGS with sufficient firepower and survivability while utilizing off-the-shelf'' sub-systems and components in order to reduce developmental time and acquisition cost. We still envision that prototypic vehicles could be built within a thirty (30) month developmental/demonstration program. We still believe that vehicles of this class should be built and tested soon to assess their full tactical, operational, and strategic utilities.

  17. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R.; Frame, Barbara J.

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  18. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  19. Blanket integrated blocking diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebele, P.; Kasper, C.; Rasch, K.-D.

    1986-11-01

    Two types of large area protection diodes for integration in solar arrays were developed in planar technology. For application in a bus voltage concept of V sub bus = 80 V a p-doped blanket integrated blocking diode (p-IBD) was developed with V sub rev = 120 V, whereas for the high voltage concept of V sub bus = 160 V a n-IBD with V sub rev = 250 V was developed. Application as blanket integrated shunt diodes is recommended. The optimized rearside diffusion provides a low forward voltage drop in the temperature range of minus 100 to plus 150 C. As a consequence of planar technology metallized coverglasses have to be used to minimize the photocurrent.

  20. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.

    2016-06-01

    Armor breakup and reformation was studied in a laboratory experiment using a trimodal mixture composed of a 1 mm sand fraction and two gravel fractions (6 and 10 mm). The initial bed was characterized by a stepwise downstream fining pattern (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal reach. The formation of the armor under partial transport conditions led to an abrupt spatial transition in the bed slope and in the mean grain size of the bed surface, as such showing similar results to a previous laboratory experiment conducted with a bimodal mixture. The focus of the current analysis is to study the mechanisms of armor breakup. After an increase in flow rate the armor broke up and a new coarser armor quickly formed. The breakup initially induced a bed surface fining due to the exposure of the finer substrate, which was accompanied by a sudden increase in the sediment transport rate, followed by the formation of an armor that was coarser than the initial one. The reformation of the armor was enabled by the supply of coarse material from the upstream degrading reach and the presence of gravel in the original substrate sediment. Here armor breakup and reformation enabled slope adjustment such that the new steady state was closer to normal flow conditions.

  1. Fusion Blanket Development in FDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Smith, J. P.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2008-11-01

    To satisfy the electricity and tritium self-sufficiency missions of a Fusion Development Facility (FDF), suitable blanket designs will need to be evaluated, selected and developed. To demonstrate closure of the fusion fuel cycle, 2-3 main tritium breeding blankets will be used to cover most of the available chamber surface area in order to reach the project goal of achieving a tritium breeding ratio, TBR > 1. To demonstrate the feasibility of electricity and tritium production for subsequent devices such as the fusion demonstration power reactor (DEMO), several advanced test blankets will need to be selected and tested on the FDF to demonstrate high coolant outlet temperature necessary for efficient electricity production. Since the design goals for the main and test blankets are different, the design criteria of these blankets will also be different. The considerations in performing the evaluation of blanket and structural material options in concert with the maintenance approach for the FDF will be reported in this paper.

  2. High temperature - low mass solar blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Interconnect materials and designs for use with ultrathin silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as the results of an investigation of the applicability of parallel-gap resistance welding for interconnecting these cells. Data relating contact pull strength and cell electrical degradation to variations in welding parameters such as time, voltage and pressure are presented. Methods for bonding ultrathin cells to flexible substances and for bonding thin (75 micrometers) covers to these cells are described. Also, factors influencing fabrication yield and approaches for increasing yield are discussed. The results of vacuum thermal cycling and thermal soak tests on prototype ultrathin cell test coupons and one solar module blanket are presented.

  3. Morphometric structural diversity of a natural armor assembly investigated by 2D continuum strain analysis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Swati; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning; Boyce, Mary C; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Many armored fish scale assemblies use geometric heterogeneity of subunits as a design parameter to provide tailored biomechanical flexibility while maintaining protection from external penetrative threats. This study analyzes the spatially varying shape of individual ganoid scales as a structural element in a biological system, the exoskeleton of the armored fish Polypterus senegalus (bichir). X-ray microcomputed tomography is used to generate digital 3D reconstructions of the mineralized scales. Landmark-based geometric morphometrics is used to measure the geometric variation among scales and to define a set of geometric parameters to describe shape variation. A formalism using continuum mechanical strain analysis is developed to quantify the spatial geometry change of the scales and illustrate the mechanisms of shape morphing between scales. Five scale geometry variants are defined (average, anterior, tail, ventral, and pectoral fin) and their functional implications are discussed in terms of the interscale mobility mechanisms that enable flexibility within the exoskeleton. The results suggest that shape variation in materials design, inspired by structural biological materials, can allow for tunable behavior in flexible composites made of segmented scale assemblies to achieve enhanced user mobility, custom fit, and flexibility around joints for a variety of protective applications. PMID:26481418

  4. A light blanket for intraoperative photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yida; Wang, Ken; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2009-06-01

    A novel light source - light blanket composed of a series of parallel cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) is designed to substitute the hand-held point source in the PDT treatment of the malignant pleural or intraperitoneal diseases. It achieves more uniform light delivery and less operation time in operating room. The preliminary experiment was performed for a 9cmx9cm light blanket composed of 8 9-cm CDFs. The linear diffusers were placed in parallel fingerlike pockets. The blanket is filled with 0.2 % intralipid scattering medium to improve the uniformity of light distribution. 0.3-mm aluminum foil is used to shield and reflect the light transmission. The full width of the profile of light distribution at half maximum along the perpendicular direction is 7.9cm and 8.1cm with no intralipid and with intralipid. The peak value of the light fluence rate profiles per input power is 11.7mW/cm2/W and 8.6mW/cm2/W respectively. The distribution of light field is scanned using the isotropic detector and the motorized platform. The average fluence rate per input power is 8.6 mW/cm2/W and the standard deviation is 1.6 mW/cm2/W for the scan in air, 7.4 mW/cm2/W and 1.1 mW/cm2/W for the scan with the intralipid layer. The average fluence rate per input power and the standard deviation are 20.0 mW/cm2/W and 2.6 mW/cm2/W respectively in the tissue mimic phantom test. The light blanket design produces a reasonably uniform field for effective light coverage and is flexible to confirm to anatomic structures in intraoperative PDT. It also has great potential value for superficial PDT treatment in clinical application.

  5. Armor Procedural Skills: Learning and Retention. Technical Report 621.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knerr, C. Mazie; And Others

    Research investigated learning and retention of eight armor tasks selected to represent tasks varying in length, complexity, and extent of practice in operational units. Performance data were collected from soldiers in operational units and from soldiers attending One Station Unit Training (OSUT) in Armor Military Occupational Specialty (19E).…

  6. COST-EFFECTIVE MANUFACTURING OF DAMAGE-TOLERANT INTEGRAL ARMOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the University of Delaware (UD) have developed an enabling technology to produce a polymer matrix composite-based integral armor with improved multihit ballistic capability. Current applications for integral armor composites include the...

  7. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  8. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  9. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Department of the Army Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR...: Notice of Availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces a ROD for conversion of the... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to...

  10. Progress in developing high performance solar blankets and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of high efficiency, ultrathin silicon solar cells offers both opportunity and challenge. It is possible to consider 400 W/kg blanket designs by using this cell in conjuction with flexible substrates, ultrathin covers and welded interconnects. By designing array structure which is mechanically and dynamically compatible with very low mass blankets, solar arrays with a specific power approaching 200 W/kg are achievable. Further improvements in blanket performance (higher power and lower mass per unit area), which could come from the implementation of higher efficiency cells operating at lower temperatures (silicon or GaAs), and the use of encapsulants, would result in the development of 300 W/kg solar arrays.

  11. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in Correctional... approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor...

  12. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs) wearing personal body armor (PBA) in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing. PMID:21801453

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  14. Quantifying Ballistic Armor Performance: A Minimally Invasive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Gale; Kim, Jaehyun; Blair, William; McDonough, Walter; Snyder, Chad

    2006-03-01

    Theoretical and non-dimensional analyses suggest a critical link between the performance of ballistic resistant armor and the fundamental mechanical properties of the polymeric materials that comprise them. Therefore, a test methodology that quantifies these properties without compromising an armored vest that is exposed to the industry standard V-50 ballistic performance test is needed. Currently, there is considerable speculation about the impact that competing degradation mechanisms (e.g., mechanical, humidity, ultraviolet) may have on ballistic resistant armor. We report on the use of a new test methodology that quantifies the mechanical properties of ballistic fibers and how each proposed degradation mechanism may impact a vest's ballistic performance.

  15. Armor systems including coated core materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  16. Armor systems including coated core materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  17. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  18. OPTIMIZING TRANSPARENT ARMOR DESIGN SUBJECT TO PROJECTILE IMPACT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Lai, Canhai; Gorsich, Tara; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2009-03-01

    Design and manufacturing of transparent armor have been historically carried out using experimental approaches. In this study, we use advanced computational modeling tools to perform virtual design evaluations of transparent armor systems under different projectile impact conditions. AHPCRC developed modeling software EPIC’06 [1] is used in predicting the penetration resistance of transparent armor systems. LaGrangian-based finite element analyses combined with particle dynamics are used to simulate the damage initiation and propagation process for the armor system under impact conditions. It is found that a 1-parameter single state model can be used to predict the impact penetration depth with relatively good accuracy, suggesting that the finely comminuted glass particles follow the behavior similar to a viscous fluid. Even though the intact strength of borosilicate and soda lime glass are different, the same fractured strength can be used for both glasses to capture the penetration depth.

  19. Design of armor for protection against blast and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimzadeh, Tanaz; Arruda, Ellen M.; Thouless, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The features of blast and impact that can damage a delicate target supported by a structure include both the peak pressure and the impulse delivered to the structure. This study examines how layers of elastic and visco-elastic materials may be assembled to mitigate these features. The impedance mismatch between two elastic layers is known to reduce the pressure, but dissipation is required to mitigate the transmitted impulse in light-weight armor. A novel design concept called impact or blast tuning is introduced in which a multi-layered armor is used to tune the stress waves resulting from an impact or blast to specific frequencies that match the damping frequencies of visco-elastic layers. The material and geometrical parameters controlling the viscous dissipation of the energy within the armor are identified for a simplified one-dimensional system, to provide insight into how the optimal design of multi-use armor might be based on this concept.

  20. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  1. Lightweight Solar Photovoltaic Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceragioli, R.; Himmler, R.; Nath, P.; Vogeli, C.; Guha, S.

    1995-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible sheets containing arrays of stacked solar photovoltaic cells developed to supply electric power aboard spacecraft. Solar batteries satisfying stringent requirements for operation in outer space also adaptable to terrestrial environment. Attractive for use as long-lived, portable photovoltaic power sources. Cells based on amorphous silicon which offers potential for order-of-magnitude increases in power per unit weight, power per unit volume, and endurance in presence of ionizing radiation.

  2. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-17

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  3. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-02-04

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  4. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand, Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-01-01

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  5. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales. PMID:26703230

  6. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  7. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai

    2003-02-01

    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed. PMID:12636148

  8. Contemporary body armor: technical data, injuries, and limits.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Rongieras, F; Sarron, J-C; Miras, A; Voiglio, E

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of firearms in the fifteenth century led to the continuous development of bulletproof personal protection. Due to recent industrial progress and the emergence of a new generation of ballistic fibers in the 1960s, the ability of individual ballistic protections to stop projectiles greatly increased. While protective equipment is able to stop increasingly powerful missiles, deformation during the impact can cause potentially lethal nonpenetrating injuries that are grouped under the generic term of behind armor blunt trauma, and the scope and consequences of these are still unclear. This review first summarizes current technical data for modern bulletproof vests, the materials used in them, and the stopping mechanisms they employ. Then it describes recent research into the specific ballistic injury patterns of soldiers wearing body armor, focusing on behind-armor blunt trauma. PMID:26815825

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  14. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the installation requirements of Section 25 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7...

  15. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the installation requirements of Section 25 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7...

  16. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the installation requirements of Section 25 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7...

  17. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-23

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  18. Methods of producing armor systems, and armor systems produced using such methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-02-19

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  19. Armor of cermet with metal therein increasing with depth

    DOEpatents

    Wilkins, M.L.; Holt, A.C.; Cline, C.F.; Foreschner, K.E.

    1973-07-01

    The system described consists of a ceramic matrix having a gradient of fine ductile metallic particles dispersed therein in an amount of from 0.0%, commencing at the front or impact surface of the armor, to about 2 to 15% by volume along the interface to the back of the system. (auth)

  20. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant; Speiser, Daniel; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape of the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.

  1. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant; Speiser, Daniel; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape ofmore » the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.« less

  2. 76 FR 69764 - Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting a workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-resistant Body Armor Standard, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. This workshop is being held specifically to discuss with interested parties recent progress made toward the......

  3. Natural Curaua Fiber-Reinforced Composites in Multilayered Ballistic Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Trindade, Willian; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Eduardo; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Miguez Suarez, João Carlos; da Silva Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur; Pinheiro, Wagner Anacleto; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The performance of a novel multilayered armor in which the commonly used plies of aramid fabric layer were replaced by an equal thickness layer of distinct curaua fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy or polyester matrices was assessed. The investigated armor, in addition to its polymeric layer (aramid fabric or curaua composite), was also composed of a front Al2O3 ceramic tile and backed by an aluminum alloy sheet. Ballistic impact tests were performed with actual 7.62 caliber ammunitions. Indentation in a clay witness, simulating human body behind the back layer, attested the efficacy of the curaua-reinforced composite as an armor component. The conventional aramid fabric display a similar indentation as the curaua/polyester composite but was less efficient (deeper indentation) than the curaua/epoxy composite. This advantage is shown to be significant, especially in favor of the lighter and cheaper epoxy composite reinforced with 30 vol pct of curaua fiber, as possible substitute for aramid fabric in multilayered ballistic armor for individual protection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the mechanism associated with the curaua composite ballistic performance.

  4. 75 FR 25884 - NIJ Body Armor Compliance Testing Program Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is hosting a Body Armor Compliance Testing Program Workshop for manufacturers and test laboratories on Tuesday, May 18, 2010, from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. NIJ is hosting this workshop specifically to update manufacturers and test laboratories with regard to the Compliance Testing Program, status of testing, administrative clarifications, and the follow-up......

  5. Lightcurve Analsyis of 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Julian; Han, Xianming L.; Gipson, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Photometric studies of the asteroids 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell and were carried out by observers from Australia and USA. The data were combined and the following periods were obtained: 774 Amor, 25.107 ± 0.005 h; 3161 Beadell, 36.253 ± 0.004 h.

  6. Hardness and damage associated with pointed indentations in armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swab, Jeffrey J.

    It is empirically known that an armor ceramic should be as hard as or harder than the projectile it intends to defeat. Quasi-static indentation testing is one of the most widely utilized techniques for determining the hardness of armor ceramics. Hardness measurements can also be used to generate other property values (fracture toughness, elastic properties and even the yield strength) that may be relevant to ballistic performance. While the indentation methodologies are simple and straightforward the resultant hardness values for ceramic materials can be influenced by the indenter geometry, indentation load, loading rate, specimen surface finish and ceramic microstructure. This presentation will summarize the results of a study to determine the hardness of a variety of armor-grade ceramics (Al2O3, B 4C, SiC, and WC) with different indenter geometries (Vickers and Knoop) over a range of indentation loads (0.98N to 98N) and discuss the implications for armor ceramics. The resulting data strongly indicates that the best means of determining the hardness of armor ceramics is the use of 19.6N Knoop indentations. While the hardness data and the subsequent analysis clearly support the use of the Knoop methodology to determine the hardness, it does not take into account the response of the ceramic to the indentation process. One response that is continually overlooked is the role of damage and cracking. A detailed understanding of the damage and cracking that occurs during indentation may provide valuable insights to the ballistic performance of the armor ceramics during the earliest stages of impact. To explore this material response a detailed examination of the topography of the indents and the damage and cracking that develops underneath both Knoop and Vickers indentations in a WC and SiC armor ceramic was conducted. The analysis shows that while the same types of cracks are produced in both materials the magnitude of these cracks as well as the type of damage that is

  7. Line Blanketing in Przybylski's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Kupka, F.; Mathys, G.

    1999-12-01

    Przybylski's star (HD 101065) may be the most heavily blanketed star known. It therefore provides a test of our techniques for line blanketing. The current abstract draws on a paper in preparation by CRC, T. Ryabchikova, F. Kupka, G. Mathys, and D. J. Bord, based on ESO spectra obtained by GM. Unfortunately, the atomic species that provide the majority of the line blanketing in Przybylski's star does not have enough atomic data for realistic calculations of the blanketing. We therefore discuss three models in which iron-group elements were articifically elevated in abundance in the calculation of opacity used to construct the models. We thank Drs. R. L. Kurucz, and Bengt Edvardsson for calculating respectively Models 1 (dashed [Fe/H]=+3) and 2 (dot-dash, [Fe/H]=+2) at our request. Model 3 (line, [Fe/H]) was calculated by FK, using the Canuto-Mazzitelli formalism. Figure 1 (www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/usrs/cowley/models.gif), shows these 3 models in good agreement with one another, and clearly different from a standard solar-abundance Atlas9 model (dashed) with the same effective temperature. All three models are scaled to Te=6600K. The blanketed models have little or no convection, and show the lowered boundary temperature of classical picket-fence models. The true boundary temperature may be still lower than in these numerical models. Abundances from Pr I and Nd I are systematically higher than those from the corresponding second spectra, as are those from Pr III and Nd III. It was noted long ago by Przybylski and others that the Balmer profiles had cores indicative of temperatures of some 6000K; the wings could be fit with much higher temperatures--perhaps as high as 7500K. Molecular species have been sought but not identified. Calculations show CN and CH lines would be very weak, even if the temperature between log(tau5000)=-3.5 and -5.4 were allowed to drop to 3000K.

  8. Thermomechanical analysis of the ITER breeding blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Gruhn, H.; Gohar, Y.; Giegerich, M.

    1997-03-01

    Thermomechanical performance of the ITER breeding blanket is an important design issue because it requires first, that the thermal expansion mismatch between the blanket structure and the blankets internals (such as, beryllium multiplier and tritium breeders) can be accommodated without creating high stresses, and second, that the thermomechanical deformation of various interfaces within the blanket does not create high resistance to heat flow and consequent unacceptably high temperatures in the blanket materials. Thermomechanical analysis of a single beryllium block sandwiched between two stainless steel plates was carried out using the finite element code ABAQUS to illustrate the importance of elastic deformation on the temperature distributions. Such an analysis for the whole ITER blanket needs to be conducted in the future. Uncertainties in the thermomechanical contact analysis can be reduced by bonding the beryllium blocks to the stainless steel plates by a thin soft interfacial layer.

  9. Enhanced plasma current collection from weakly conducting solar array blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Among the solar cell technologies to be tested in space as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) will be the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). Several prototype twelve cell coupons were built for NASA using different blanket materials and mounting techniques. The first conforms to the baseline design for APSA which calls for the cells to be mounted on a carbon loaded Kapton blanket to control charging in GEO. When deployed, this design has a flexible blanket supported around the edges. A second coupon was built with the cells mounted on Kapton-H, which was in turn cemented to a solid aluminum substrate. A final coupon was identical to the latter but used germanium coated Kapton to control atomic oxygen attack in LEO. Ground testing of these coupons in a plasma chamber showed considerable differences in plasma current collection. The Kapton-H coupon demonstrated current collection consistent with exposed interconnects and some degree of cell snapover. The other two coupons experienced anomalously large collection currents. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of enhanced plasma sheaths supported by the weakly conducting carbon and germanium used in these coupons. The results reported here are the first experimental evidence that the use of such materials can result in power losses to high voltage space power systems.

  10. Enhanced plasma current collection from weakly conducting solar array blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1993-05-01

    Among the solar cell technologies to be tested in space as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) will be the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). Several prototype twelve cell coupons were built for NASA using different blanket materials and mounting techniques. The first conforms to the baseline design for APSA which calls for the cells to be mounted on a carbon loaded Kapton blanket to control charging in GEO. When deployed, this design has a flexible blanket supported around the edges. A second coupon was built with the cells mounted on Kapton-H, which was in turn cemented to a solid aluminum substrate. A final coupon was identical to the latter but used germanium coated Kapton to control atomic oxygen attack in LEO. Ground testing of these coupons in a plasma chamber showed considerable differences in plasma current collection. The Kapton-H coupon demonstrated current collection consistent with exposed interconnects and some degree of cell snapover. The other two coupons experienced anomalously large collection currents. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of enhanced plasma sheaths supported by the weakly conducting carbon and germanium used in these coupons. The results reported here are the first experimental evidence that the use of such materials can result in power losses to high voltage space power systems.

  11. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  12. Toughened Thermal Blanket for MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal blankets are used extensively on spacecraft to provide passive thermal control of spacecraft hardware from thermal extremes encountered in space. Toughened thermal blankets have been developed that greatly improve protection from hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. These blankets can be outfitted if so desired with a reliable means to determine the location, depth and extent of MMOD impact damage by incorporating an impact sensitive piezoelectric film. Improved MMOD protection of thermal blankets was obtained by adding selective materials at various locations within the thermal blanket. As given in Figure 1, three types of materials were added to the thermal blanket to enhance its MMOD performance: (1) disrupter layers, near the outside of the blanket to improve breakup of the projectile, (2) standoff layers, in the middle of the blanket to provide an area or gap that the broken-up projectile can expand, and (3) stopper layers, near the back of the blanket where the projectile debris is captured and stopped. The best suited materials for these different layers vary. Density and thickness is important for the disrupter layer (higher densities generally result in better projectile breakup), whereas a highstrength to weight ratio is useful for the stopper layer, to improve the slowing and capture of debris particles.

  13. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  14. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  15. Modeling of bullet penetration in explosively welded composite armor plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant; Carney, Theodore

    2005-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of multiple hits during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant micro-structural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combination had to be modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive multiple hits.

  16. Armoring a droplet: Soft jamming of a dense granular interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  17. Plastic deformation enabled energy dissipation in a bionanowire structured armor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Yue, Yonghai; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-05-14

    It has been challenging to simultaneously achieve high strength and toughness in engineered materials because of the trade-off relation between the two distinct properties. Nature, however, has elegantly solved this problem. Seashells, commonly referred to as nature's armors, exhibit an unusual resilience against predatory attacks. In this letter, we report an unexpected phenomenon in a bionanowire structured armor-conch shell where the shell's basic building blocks, i.e., the third-order lamellae, exhibit an exceptional plasticity with a maximum strain of 0.7% upon mechanical loading. We attribute such a plastic deformation behavior to the lamella's unique nanoparticle-biopolymer architecture, in which the biopolymer mediates the rotation of aragonite nanoparticles in response to external attacks. We also found that electron beam irradiation facilitates the lamella's plasticity. These findings advance our understanding of seashell's energy dissipating strategy and provide new design guidelines for developing high performance bioinspired materials and sensors. PMID:24745628

  18. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew J; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant T; Speiser, Daniel I; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials in which trade-offs are imposed by conflicting functional requirements. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lenses. We use optical experiments to demonstrate that these microscopic lenses are able to form images. Light scattering by the polycrystalline lenses is minimized by the use of relatively large, crystallographically aligned grains. Multiscale mechanical testing reveals that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increase, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. However, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multipurpose system with co-optimized optical and structural functions. PMID:26586760

  19. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, J.; Perez, T.; Lara, C.

    1997-12-01

    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  20. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-28

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  1. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1996 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossen, W.R.; Kam, S.I.

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies examine how a coating, or {open_quotes}armor,{close_quotes} of partially wetted solid particles can stabilize tiny bubbles against diffusion of gas into the surrounding liquid, in spite of the high capillary pressures normally associated with such bubbles. Experiments with polymethylmethacrylate (PNMA) beads and carbonated water demonstrate that armored bubbles can persist for weeks in liquid unsaturated with respect to the gas in the bubbles. This question is of concern regarding gas discharges from waste tanks at the Hanford reservation. The stresses on the solid-solid contacts between particles in such cases is large and could drive sintering of the particles into a rigid framework. Stability analysis suggests that a slightly shrunken bubble would not expel a solid particle from its armor to relieve stress and allow the bubble to shrink further. Expulsion of particles from more stressed bubbles at zero capillary pressure is energetically favored in some cases. It is not clear, however, whether this expulsion would proceed spontaneously from a small perturbation or require a large initial disturbance of the bubble. In some cases, it appears that a bubble would expel some particles and shrink, but the bubble would approach a final, stable size rather than disappear completely. This simplified analysis leaves out several factors. For instance, only one perturbation toward expelling a solid from the armor is considered; perhaps other perturbations would be more energetically favored than that tested. Other considerations (particle deformation, surface roughness, contact-angle hysteresis, and adhesion or physical bonding between adjacent particles) would make expelling solids more difficult than indicated by this theoretical study.

  2. Lightweight armor system and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Bruck, H. Alan; Strempek, Gary C.; Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.

    2004-01-20

    A lightweight armor system may comprise a substrate having a graded metal matrix composite layer formed thereon by thermal spray deposition. The graded metal matrix composite layer comprises an increasing volume fraction of ceramic particles imbedded in a decreasing volume fraction of a metal matrix as a function of a thickness of the graded metal matrix composite layer. A ceramic impact layer is affixed to the graded metal matrix composite layer.

  3. High Frequency Ultrasound of Armor-Grade Alumina Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottiglieri, S.; Haber, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    Different lots of high density, commercial, armor-grade alumina (Al2O3) were tested using high frequency ultrasound in order to determine any correlation between measured properties and ballistic performance. C-scan images were taken using a 15 MHz ultrasonic transducer in order to form attenuation coefficient and elastic property maps. These samples were further characterized by using quantitative analysis. The results indicate that attenuation coefficient values appear to have the strongest correlation, of every property measured, to ballistic classifications.

  4. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.

    1985-05-31

    This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.

  5. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  6. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  7. Multivariable optimization of fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    The optimization problem consists of four key elements: a figure of merit for the reactor, a technique for estimating the neutronic performance of the blanket as a function of the design variables, constraints on the design variables and neutronic performance, and a method for optimizing the figure of merit subject to the constraints. The first reactor concept investigated uses a liquid lithium blanket for breeding tritium and a steel blanket to increase the fusion energy multiplication factor. The capital cost per unit of net electric power produced is minimized subject to constraints on the tritium breeding ratio and radiation damage rate. The optimal design has a 91-cm-thick lithium blanket denatured to 0.1% /sup 6/Li. The second reactor concept investigated uses a BeO neutron multiplier and a LiAlO/sub 2/ breeding blanket. The total blanket thickness is minimized subject to constraints on the tritium breeding ratio, the total neutron leakage, and the heat generation rate in aluminum support tendons. The optimal design consists of a 4.2-cm-thick BeO multiplier and 42-cm-thick LiAlO/sub 2/ breeding blanket enriched to 34% /sup 6/Li.

  8. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design.

  9. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  10. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  11. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  12. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  13. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  14. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    PubMed Central

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  15. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipa, Daniel; Morikawa, Sérgio; Pires, Gustavo; Camerini, Claudio; Santos, JoãoMárcio

    2010-12-01

    Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit) and SS (semisubmersible) platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs) adaptive filter.

  16. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  17. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  18. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  19. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  20. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  1. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Institute of Justice (NIJ) is in the process of revising its Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000... bodies and (2) test laboratories with experience in programs for similar types of personal...

  2. 76 FR 27355 - 2011 National Institute of Justice Body Armor Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...The National Institute of Justice invites manufacturers of ballistic-resistant body armor, ballistic laboratory testing facilities and other interested parties to the 2011 NIJ Body Armor Workshop. This year's workshop will have topics of interest for management and technical personnel from the manufacturing and laboratory communities. The workshop will be held at the Baltimore Convention......

  3. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  4. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All...

  5. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All...

  6. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  7. HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND OF ARMOR-GRADE ALUMINA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, S.; Haber, R. A.

    2009-03-03

    Different lots of high density, commercial, armor-grade alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were tested using high frequency ultrasound in order to determine any correlation between measured properties and ballistic performance. C-scan images were taken using a 15 MHz ultrasonic transducer in order to form attenuation coefficient and elastic property maps. These samples were further characterized by using quantitative analysis. The results indicate that attenuation coefficient values appear to have the strongest correlation, of every property measured, to ballistic classifications.

  8. Field Emissions from Organic Nanorods Armored with Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshiya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-12-01

    We report the fabrication of organic nanorods with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and a height of 106.8 nm (a high aspect ratio of 10.5) armored by Pt nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate that Pt particles deposited by metalorganic supercritical chemical fluid deposition (MOCFD) covering the entire deposition area play important roles in not only etch resistance, especially in protecting the sidewalls, but also the formation of electroconductive Pt/C composites, which were found to have field emission properties.

  9. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2015-05-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP ) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  10. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  11. ARMOR Dual-Polarimetric Radar Observations of Tornadic Debris Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. A,; Carey, L. D.; Knupp, K. R.; Schultz, C.; Johnson, E.

    2008-01-01

    During the Super-Tuesday tornado outbreak of 5-6 February 2008, two EF-4 tornadoes occurred in Northern Alabama within 75 km range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). This study will present an analysis of ARMOR radar-indicated dual-polarimetric tornadic debris signatures. The debris signatures were associated with spatially-confined large decreases in the copolar correlation coefficient (rho(hv)hv) that were embedded within broader mesocyclone "hook" signatures. These debris signatures were most obviously manifest during the F-3 to F-4 intensity stages of the tornado(s) and extended to altitudes of approximately 3 km. The rho(hv) signatures of the tornadic debris were the most easily distinguished relative to other polarimetric and radial velocity parameters (e.g., associated with large hail and/or the incipient mesocyclone). Based on our analysis, and consistent with the small number of studies found in the literature, we conclude that dual-polarimetric radar data offer at least the possibility for enhancing specificity and confidence in the process of issuing tornado warnings based only on radar detection of threatening circulation features.

  12. Superelement Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    Super-elements can greatly improve the computational efficiency of analyses of tile-reinforced structures such as the hull of the Composite Armored Vehicle. By taking advantage of the periodicity in this type of construction, super-elements can be used to simplify the task of modeling, to virtually eliminate the time required to assemble the stiffness matrices, and to reduce significantly the analysis solution time. Furthermore, super-elements are fully transferable between analyses and analysts, so that they provide a consistent method to share information and reduce duplication. This paper describes a methodology that was developed to model and analyze large upper hull components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The analyses are based on two types of superelement models. The first type is based on element-layering, which consists of modeling a laminate by using several layers of shell elements constrained together with compatibility equations. Element layering is used to ensure the proper transverse shear deformation in the laminate rubber layer. The second type of model uses three-dimensional elements. Since no graphical pre-processor currently supports super-elements, a special technique based on master-elements was developed. Master-elements are representations of super-elements that are used in conjunction with a custom translator to write the superelement connectivities as input decks for ABAQUS.

  13. Current Trends of Blanket Research and Deveopment in Japan 3.Blanket Designs in Fusion Power Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, Akio; Enoeda, Mikio; Nishio, Satoshi; Kozaki, Yasuji

    The main functions of the blanket in fusion power reactors are basically independent of the type of magnetic fusion reactor (tokamak, helical, etc.) and inertia fusion. However, from technical point of view, many candidate designs of blanket have been proposed depending on the particular reactor concepts. Their main features are characterized for the recent typical designs, and key issues are defined.

  14. Structure and fracture resistance of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) armored fish scales.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-04-01

    The alligator gar is a large fish with flexible armor consisting of ganoid scales. These scales contain a thin layer of ganoine (microhardness ~2.5 GPa) and a bony body (microhardness ~400 MPa), with jagged edges that provide effective protection against predators. We describe here the structure of both ganoine and bony foundation and characterize the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The bony foundation is characterized by two components: a mineralized matrix and parallel arrays of tubules, most of which contain collagen fibers. The spacing of the empty tubules is ~60 μm; the spacing of those filled with collagen fibers is ~7 μm. Using micromechanical testing of such scales in a variable-pressure scanning electron microscope, we identify interactions between propagating cracks and the microstructure, and show that the toughness of the scales increases with crack extension in a classical resistance-curve response from the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms. We demonstrate how mechanical damage evolves in these structures, and further identify that the reinforcement of the mineral by the network of collagen fibers is the principal toughening mechanism resisting such damage. Additionally, we define the anisotropy of the toughness of the scales and relate this to the collagen fiber orientation. PMID:23274521

  15. Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ∼50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (∼58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

  16. Pre-clinic study of uniformity of light blanket for intraoperative photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yida; Wang, Ken; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2010-02-01

    A large-size blanket composed of the parallel catheters and silica core side glowing fiber is designed to substitute the hand-held point source in the photodynamic therapy treatment (PDT) of the malignant pleural or intraperitoneal diseases. It produces a reasonably uniform field for effective light coverage and is flexible to conform to anatomic structures in intraoperative PDT. The size of the blanket is 30cm×20cm. The light blanket composed of several PVC layers and a series of parallel catheters attached on both sides of the intralipid layer of 0.2% concentration. On one side of the intralipid layer, the parallel fiber catheters were attached using thermal sealing technique. On the other side, the parallel detect catheters were attached along the perpendicular direction. 0.1mm aluminum foil was used to construct the reflection layer to enhance the efficiency of light delivery. The long single side-glowing fiber goes through the fiber catheters according to the specific fiber pattern design. Compared with the prototype of the first generation, the new design is more cost-efficient and more applicable for clinical applications. The light distribution of the blanket was characterized by scanning experiments which were performed in flatness and on the curved surface of tissue body phantom. The fluence rate generated by the blanket can meet requirements for the light delivery in pleural or intraperitoneal (IP) PDT. Taking the advantage of large coverage and flexible conformity, it has great value to increase the reliability and consistency of PDT.

  17. The effects of exercise and body armor on cognitive function in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C

    2013-05-01

    Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions. PMID:23756004

  18. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  19. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10-20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed), preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal) upland deposits and the (proximal) Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations) still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation. Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages) and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor). The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major revision of the current stratigraphic column of the M

  20. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  1. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  2. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington is at the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (left) Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  3. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee practices driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  4. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria is ready to begin a test drive behind the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  5. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  6. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew pause for a photo after test drives in the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. From left are Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington. Driving the M-113 is part of emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  7. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (far left) Mission Specialist John Herrington and Commander James Wetherbee. Behind Lopez-Alegria is Pilot Paul Lockhart. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  8. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew pauses for a photo after emergency egress training at the pad, which included driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  9. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee gets ready to drive an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  10. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier that he is about to drive as part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  11. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  12. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  13. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During emergency egress training at the pad, Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier before his practice drive. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  14. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  15. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart test drives an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He is accompanied by several other crew members, seen at left, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  16. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier he is about to drive, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  17. Polythioether Particles Armored with Modifiable Graphene Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Bradley J; Mosher, Eric P; Burton, Spencer T; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Facile and scalable fabrication methods are attractive to prepare materials for diverse applications. Herein, a method is presented to prepare cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets covalently attached to the surface. Alkene-modified GO serves as a surfactant in a miniemulsion polymerization, and the alkene functionalities of GO exposed to the oil-phase are incorporated into the polymer particle through thiol-ene reactions, leaving the unreacted alkene functional groups of the other face of GO available for further functionalization. The surface of GO-armored polymer particles is then modified with a small molecule fluorophore or carboxylic acid functional groups that bind to Fe2 O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. This methodology provides a facile route to preparing complex hybrid composite materials. PMID:27076068

  18. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  19. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  20. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  1. Thermal contact conductance measurements on Doublet III armor tile graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, D.W.; Reis, E.

    1983-12-01

    Several tests were performed on the Doublet III wall armor tiles to determine the cool-down rate and to evaluate improvements made by changing the conditions at the interface between the graphite tile and the stainless steel backing plate. Thermal diffusivity tests were performed in vacuum on both TiC coated and bare graphite tiles with and without 0.13 mm (.005'') thick silver foil at the interface. The results of the armor tile cool-down tests showed improvement when a 0.13 mm (0.005'') silver foil is used at the interface. At 2.1 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (30 psi) contact pressure, the e-folding cool-down times for a TiC coated tile, bare graphite and bare graphite with a 0.06 mm (0.0035'') silver shim were 10 min., 5.0 min., and 4.1 min., respectively. Tests using high contact pressures showed that the cool-down rates converged to approx. 4.0 min. At this limit, the conduction path along the backing plate to the two cooling tubes controls the heat flow, and no further improvement could be expected. Thermal diffusivity measurements confirmed the results of the cool-down test showing that by introducing a silver foil at the interface, the contact conductance between Poco AXF-5Q graphite and 316 stainless steel could be improved by a factor of three to eight. The tests showed an increasing improvement over a range of temperatures from 25/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C. The data provides a technical basis for further applications of graphite tiles to cooled backing plates.

  2. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blanket routine uses. 318.14 Section 318.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE THREAT REDUCTION AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 318.14 Blanket routine uses. (a) Blanket...

  3. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value < 0.001 for the null hypothesis that the regression line had zero slope). Related experiments on plumber's putty showed that highspeed baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value < 0.001). A bullet's momentum similarly correlated with its armor-impact in putty (R2 = 0.97 and p-value < 0.001). A Gujarati-Chow test showed that the two putty-impact regression lines had statistically indistinguishable slopes for p-value = 0.396. Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball. PMID:16366262

  4. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory he may, in lieu of filing... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories. The total amount of any blanket bond given under this section shall be available for the satisfaction of any liability incurred at any factory...

  5. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory he may, in lieu of filing... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories. The total amount of any blanket bond given under this section shall be available for the satisfaction of any liability incurred at any factory...

  6. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory in the same region he may, in... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories in the same region. The total amount of any blanket... factory covered by the bond. (72 Stat. 1421; 26 U.S.C. 5711)...

  7. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory he may, in lieu of filing... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories. The total amount of any blanket bond given under this section shall be available for the satisfaction of any liability incurred at any factory...

  8. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory he may, in lieu of filing... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories. The total amount of any blanket bond given under this section shall be available for the satisfaction of any liability incurred at any factory...

  9. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  10. Advanced Polymer For Multilayer Insulating Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haghighat, R. Ross; Shepp, Allan

    1996-01-01

    Polymer resisting degradation by monatomic oxygen undergoing commercial development under trade name "Aorimide" ("atomic-oxygen-resistant imidazole"). Intended for use in thermal blankets for spacecraft in low orbit, useful on Earth in outdoor applications in which sunlight and ozone degrades other plastics. Also used, for example, to make threads and to make films coated with metals for reflectivity.

  11. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD. PMID:27250073

  12. Thermal insulation blanket material. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pusch, R.H.

    1982-06-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  13. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blanket certification. 157.203 Section 157.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS...

  14. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A computational analysis of the ballistic performance of light-weight hybrid composite armors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Pandurangan, B.; Koudela, K. L.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2006-11-01

    The ability of hybrid light-weight fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composite laminate armor to withstand the impact of a fragment simulating projectile (FSP) is investigated using a non-linear dynamics transient computational analysis. The hybrid armor is constructed using various combinations and stacking sequences of a high-strength/high-stiffness carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (CFRE) and a high-ductility/high-toughness Kevlar fiber-reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composite laminates of different thicknesses. The results obtained indicate that at a fixed thickness of the armor both the stacking sequence and the number of CFRE/KFRE laminates substantially affect the ballistic performance of the armor. Specifically, it is found that the armor consisting of one layer of KFRE and one layer of CFRE, with KFRE laminate constituting the outer surface of the armor, possesses the maximum resistance towards the projectile-induced damage and failure. The results obtained are rationalized using an analysis of the elastic wave reflection and transmission behavior at the inter-laminate and laminate/air interfaces.

  16. Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

  17. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of armor grade silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portune, Andrew Richard

    Ceramic materials have traditionally been chosen for armor applications for their superior mechanical properties and low densities. At high strain rates seen during ballistic events, the behavior of these materials relies upon the total volumetric flaw concentration more so than any single anomalous flaw. In this context flaws can be defined as any microstructural feature which detriments the performance of the material, potentially including secondary phases, pores, or unreacted sintering additives. Predicting the performance of armor grade ceramic materials depends on knowledge of the absolute and relative concentration and size distribution of bulk heterogeneities. Ultrasound was chosen as a nondestructive technique for characterizing the microstructure of dense silicon carbide ceramics. Acoustic waves interact elastically with grains and inclusions in large sample volumes, and were well suited to determine concentration and size distribution variations for solid inclusions. Methodology was developed for rapid acquisition and analysis of attenuation coefficient spectra. Measurements were conducted at individual points and over large sample areas using a novel technique entitled scanning acoustic spectroscopy. Loss spectra were split into absorption and scattering dominant frequency regimes to simplify analysis. The primary absorption mechanism in polycrystalline silicon carbide was identified as thermoelastic in nature. Correlations between microstructural conditions and parameters within the absorption equation were established through study of commercial and custom engineered SiC materials. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the size distributions of boron carbide and carbon inclusions within commercial SiC materials. This technique was shown to additionally be capable of approximating grain size distributions in engineered SiC materials which did not contain solid inclusions. Comparisons to results from electron microscopy

  18. Unlocking Function of Aramid Fibers in Multilayered Ballistic Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio N.; Lima, Édio P.; Louro, Luis Henrique L.; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

    2015-01-01

    Aramid fabric plies were ballistic tested using high impact 7.62 × 51 mm ammunition in two distinct conditions: (1) as a common multilayered armor system (MAS) component backing a front Al2O3-based tile, and (2) with the same plies thickness, as a single target. Single targets of the ceramic tile and the aluminum sheet (MAS third layer) were also tested. In the MAS, the aramid dissipated more than 36 pct of the impact energy during the test compared with only ~2 pct when separated from the MAS. Microscopic examination of aramid fabric revealed many ceramic fragments with a size of a few micrometers that coated surfaces of fibers. It is shown for the first time that, in addition to already reported fabric rupture, debonding, and stretching, a massive incrustation of ceramic fragments onto the fabric fibers might be responsible for the comparatively high aramid ballistic performance as the MAS component. Besides the mechanical incrustation and van der Waals forces on the harder ceramic fragments, it is proposed that short-living surface static charges generated on the aramid fibers could contribute to the capturing process.

  19. Defensive aids suite prototype for light armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Andre; Fortin, Jean; Venter, Johan; Philip, Brian G.; Hagen, Russell; Krieger, Dietmar; Greenley, Mike

    2001-09-01

    The Defence Research Establishment Valcartier has initiated in 1998 R&D work to investigate and to demonstrate key technologies required for future Defensive Aid Suite to protect Light Armoured Vehicles. A basic Defensive Aid Suite demonstrator (Phase I) was built and integrated into the LAV vetronics by Litton Systems Canada and his consortium. The Defensive Aid Suite consisted of a 2-band HARLIDTM-based laser detection head, a processor capable to control and deploy countermeasures and a DAS touch-screen display all integrated in a Light Armored Vehicle. The crew was able to select the operation mode for direct fire or smoke deployment by pushing one of the pair of buttons available at the bottom of the display. This system was successfully demonstrated in October 1999 during an international trial. This article gives an overview of the results obtained in the field as well as some of the lessons learnt. It also describes laboratory and field measurements made on the Laser Warning Receiver unit itself. The results of the DAS tactical use and of Human factor evaluation will illustrate its performance within typical laser threat scenarios. This work will serve as the basis for the recommendation of a future DAS demonstrator (Phase II) integrating more sensors and countermeasures.

  20. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A. D.; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period. PMID:26610151

  1. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period. PMID:26610151

  2. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel method for sludge blanket measurements.

    PubMed

    Schewerda, J; Förster, G; Heinrichmeier, J

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used methods for sludge blanket measurements are based on acoustic or optic principles. In operation, both methods are expensive and often maintenance-intensive. Therefore a novel, reliable and simple method for sludge blanket measurement is proposed. It is based on the differential pressure measurement in the sludge zone compared with the differential pressure in the clear water zone, so that it is possible to measure the upper and the lower sludge level in a tank. Full-scale tests of this method were done in the secondary clarifier at the waste water treatment plant in Hecklingen, Germany. The result shows a good approximation of the manually measured sludge level. PMID:24569276

  4. Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket Deposits From Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Chicxulub impact into a thick sequence of carbonates and sulfates released over a trillion tons of volatiles. The importance of the explosive release of such a large mass of volatiles has been greatly underestimated in studies of ejecta depositional processes. Proximal Chicxulub ejecta blanket deposits recent discovered on Albion Island in Belize provide a key to understanding the role of volatile-rich target material during large impact events.

  5. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  6. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  7. ALON optical ceramic transparencies for window, dome, and transparent armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Rich; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2011-06-01

    Surmet continues to invest in and expand its manufacturing capability for ALON® Optical Ceramic, as the market demand for this material increases. The biggest demand and opportunity continues to be in the area of transparent armor, however, the market for sensor domes and windows, made from ALON, continues to grow at an impressive rate as well. ALON® Transparent Armor's unsurpassed ballistic performance, combined with the robustness of ALON's manufacturing process and reproducibly high material quality make ALON the leading candidate for many future armor systems. Recent results for ALON armor windows will be presented. Advances being made in Surmet's production capability to support the very large quantities of material required by the transparent armor market also benefit the sensor market. Improvements in quality, quantity and manufacturability of ALON material, combined with improvements being made in optical quality, ensure a robust supply of high quality material for high volume window and dome applications. Recent advancement in ALON® window and dome blanks, as well as in optical fabrication will be presented.

  8. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Pandurangan, B.; Arakere, A.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    A critical assessment is carried out of the microstructural changes in respect of the associated reductions in material mechanical properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high-performance aluminum alloys (including solution-strengthened and age-hardenable aluminum alloy grades). It is argued that due to the large width of FSW joints found in thick aluminum-armor weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor is controlled by the ballistic limits of its weld zones (e.g., heat-affected zone, the thermomechanically affected zone, the nugget, etc.). Thus, in order to assess the overall ballistic survivability of an armor weldment, one must predict/identify welding-induced changes in the material microstructure and properties, and the operative failure mechanisms in different regions of the weld. Toward this end, a procedure is proposed in the present study which combines the results of the FSW process modeling, basic physical-metallurgy principles concerning microstructure/property relations, and the fracture mechanics concepts related to the key blast/ballistic-impact failure modes. The utility of this procedure is demonstrated using the case of a solid-solution strengthened and cold-worked aluminum alloy armor FSW-weld test structure.

  9. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Adam W.; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Karis, Anthony J.; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA) is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance. Objective The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance. Methods Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo) and vapor permeability indexes (im) were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert), hot/humid (jungle), and temperate environmental conditions. Results In nearly still air (0.4 m/s), IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA). Conclusion Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance. PMID:26200906

  10. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for... of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body...

  11. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  12. Thin Thermal-Insulation Blankets for Very High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets of a proposed type would be exceptionally thin and would endure temperatures up to 2,100 C. These blankets were originally intended to protect components of the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft against radiant heating at its planned closest approach to the Sun (a distance of 4 solar radii). These blankets could also be used on Earth to provide thermal protection in special applications (especially in vacuum chambers) for which conventional thermal-insulation blankets would be too thick or would not perform adequately.

  13. Neutronics analysis of deuterium-tritium-driven experimental hybrid blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, S.; Kumar, A.

    1984-07-01

    At the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, an experimental fusion and fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor facility is near completion. Experiments are scheduled to begin in February 1984. The experimental cavity leads one to plan experiments mostly with blankets in plane geometry. Five different hybrid blanket modules in plane geometry are analyzed with two different left boundary conditions representing varying experimental situations. Numbers I and II represent energy and fissile fuel producing blankets, whereas number III is mainly a fissile fuel producing blanket. Numbers IV and V are actinide burning blankets. It is shown that the overall neutronic performance, such as k /sub eff/ , energy multiplication factor M, fusile and fissile breeding, of a hybrid blanket with transplutonium actinide fuel is already better than that of a UO/sub 2/ or ThO/sub 2/ hybrid blanket. Furthermore, the transplutonium actinide waste is partly converted into precious nuclear fuel of a new type, such as /sup 242m/ Am and /sup 245/Cm. An experimental blanket with a vacuum left boundary has a harder neutron spectrum, and also excessive neutron leakage from the front surface and the lateral surfaces, as compared to that in the blanket in confinement geometry. It leads to the poorer neutronic performance of the former.

  14. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-01

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  15. Porosity detection in ceramic armor tiles via ultrasonic time-of-flight

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-23

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  16. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  17. From surface to subsurface and back again: the contribution of subsurface particle motion to surface armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.

    2015-12-01

    Armoring is the development of a coarse surface layer of sediments on a river bed, which overlies a smaller and typically more heterogeneous substrate. All existing models for this phenomenon are predicated on the idea that armoring develops due to size-selective transport and kinetic sieving at the surface of the granular bed. Here examine the development of armoring in the absence of size-selective surface transport, and demonstrate that subsurface particle movement can create an armored surface layer. We first conduct experiments in a laminar and annular flume, over a range of Shields stresses, with bimodal and refractive index-matched spherical sediments; this allows us to image the internal motion of the granular bed that is sheared from above by a viscous oil. Fluid-driven particle motion of the surface layer results in granular shear, that drives motion deep into the bed. This subsurface motion causes an upward migration of coarser particles, at a rate that is proportional to the granular shear rate. Comparison of experimental results to an existing continuum-granular flow model suggest that armoring in our bed-load exeriments is entirely consistent with shear-induced segregation in dry avalanches - but is slower. There is no size-selective transport at the surface in the experiments, as the annular flume is mass conserving and all particles move as bed load; this was confirmed by observation. To probe the granular physics of armor development further, we perform numerical simulations using a discrete element model (DEM) of granular flow, with and without damping. Simulations reproduce salient features of the experiments, and indicate that armoring is robust but that the rate of segregation is related to the degree of viscous damping. We posit that subsurface granular flow is an important and perhaps dominant contributor to surface armoring in rivers. More generally, this work shows how information is transferred from the surface to the subsurface and back

  18. Investigation on Ballistic Performance of Armor Ceramics against Long-Rod Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lian-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    A series of depth-of-penetration (DOF) tests are carried out to investigate the ballistic performance of armor ceramics. Based on the experimental results, an improved differential efficiency factor (DEF) is presented, which demonstrates that the general ballistic efficiency index is independent of the ceramic thickness. It is also shown that the density, internal friction, and compression strength of ceramics are crucial factors that affect the ballistic performance of ceramics significantly through the interaction between the long-rod projectiles and thick-tile armor.

  19. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  20. Development of advanced blanket materials for a solid breeder blanket of a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Ishitsuka, E.; Tsuchiya, K.; Nakamichi, M.; Uchida, M.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ito, H.; Nakazawa, T.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshida, N.; Kato, S.; Ito, Y.

    2003-08-01

    The design of an advanced solid breeding blanket in a DEMO reactor requires a tritium breeder and a neutron multiplier that can withstand high temperatures and high neutron fluences, and the development of such advanced blanket materials has been carried out by collaboration between JAERI, universities and industries in Japan. The Li2TiO3 pebble fabricated by a wet process is a reference material as a tritium breeder, but its stability at high temperatures has to be improved for its application in a DEMO blanket. One of these improved materials, TiO2-doped Li2TiO3 pebbles, was successfully fabricated and studied. For the advanced neutron multiplier, beryllides that have a high melting point and good chemical stability have been studied. Some characterization of Be12Ti was conducted, and it became clear that it had lower swelling and tritium inventory than beryllium metal. Pebble fabrication study for Be12Ti was also performed and Be12Ti pebbles were successfully fabricated. These activities have shown that there is a bright prospect in realizing a DEMO blanket by the application of TiO2-doped Li2TiO3 and beryllides.

  1. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared.

  2. Specific welds for test blanket modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, Michael; Rey, Jörg

    2009-04-01

    Fabrication and assembling test blanket modules needs a variety of different welding techniques. Therefore, an evaluation of plate joining for breeder units by tungsten-inert-gas, laser, and electron beam welding was performed by qualification of relevant mechanical properties like hardness, charpy, and creep strength. The focus was laid on the study of post-weld heat treatments at lowest possible temperatures and for maximum recovery of the joints. The most important result is that thin EUROFER plates may be welded by EB or laser techniques without the necessity of post-welding heat treatments that include an austenitization step.

  3. Microstructure-property relationship in silicon carbide armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbas, Memduh Volkan

    Defects are one of the factors that show a negative effect on the ballistic performance. Uniform microstructures with a low percentage of well distributed porosity could possibly demonstrate high ballistic strength; therefore, it is of interest to estimate the parameters that define the spatial arrangement of defects. This aspect of microstructures was investigated in a variety of silicon carbide ceramics ranging from off-density sintered samples to high density hot-pressed armor grade samples. The spatial distribution of defects was examined by various techniques including nearest neighbor distance distributions, tessellation analysis, and pair correlation functions. Random distributions were observed for most of the samples with some degree of clustering. Hardness was selected as a mechanical property to correlate with microstructural findings. Hardness contour maps were constructed by indenting samples with a statistically significant number of indents per load to see the variation in terms of location. The large number of indents allowed for Weibull analysis to be used to examine the spread in the data and to test spatial variability. A high degree of correlation was obtained between microstructural parameters and hardness/Weibull modulus values. Smaller defect sizes and homogenous distribution of defects were shown to provide higher hardness values. A sintered SiC tile was examined using ultrasound to determine high and low amplitude regions in C-scan image maps. Serial sectioning was performed on diced samples from these two regions. Although no significant difference was observed in terms of density and average defect size, statistical tests showed that the difference in the largest defect size detected in low amplitude and high amplitude regions was significant. Clusters of defects were also identified in the samples from the low amplitude regions. The signal loss that was observed in C-scans maps could partially be attributed to these results. A

  4. Analysis of inclusion distributions in silicon carbide armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Michael Paul

    It was determined that intrinsic microstructural defects (i.e. inclusions) are the preferential fragmentation path (initiation or propagation) for ballistically impacted SiC, and may contribute to variation in ballistic performance. Quasi-static and ballistic samples of SiC were studied and inclusions caused by common SiC sintering aids and/or impurities were identified. Ballistic rubble surfaces showed large inclusions of 10-400 micron size, while examination of polished cross-sections of the fragments showed only inclusions under 5 microns in size. The fact that large inclusions were found preferentially on rubble surfaces demonstrates a link between severe microstructural defects and the fragmentation of SiC armor. Rubble of both a "good" and "bad" performing SiC target were examined. Inclusion size data was gathered and fit to a distribution function. A difference was observed between the targets. The "good" target had twice the density of inclusions on its rubble in the size range less than 30 microns. No significant difference between distributions was observed for inclusion sizes greater than 40 microns. The "good" target fractured into an overall smaller fragment size distribution than the "bad" target, consistent with fragmentation at higher stresses. Literature suggests that the distribution of defects activated under dynamic conditions will be determined by the maximum stress reached locally in the target. On the basis of the defect distributions on its rubble, the "good" target appears to have withstood higher stresses. The fragment size distribution and inclusion size distribution on fragment surfaces both indicate higher stresses in the "good" target. Why the "good" target withstood a greater stress than the "bad" target remains a subject for conjecture. It is speculated that the position of severe "anomalous" defects may be influencing the target's performance, but this currently cannot be demonstrated conclusively. Certainly, this research shows

  5. Water-assisted self-healing and property recovery in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    Self-healing capacity, of which the inspiration comes from biological systems, is significant for restoring the mechanical properties of materials by autonomically repairing damages. Clarifying the naturally occurring self-healing behaviors and mechanisms may provide valuable inspiration for designing synthetic self-healing materials. In this study, water-assisted self-healing behavior was revealed in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales. The indentation damages which imitate the injury caused by predatory attack can be continuously mitigated through hydration. The healing kinetics was characterized according to the variations of indentation crater dimension and quantitatively described in terms of the viscoelastic behavior of biopolymer. The mechanical properties of original, damaged, and recovered scales in both dry and wet states were systematically evaluated by three-point bending and compared through statistical analysis. The hydration effects and mechanisms were explored by examining the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal behaviors. The promoted self-healing process can be attributed to the improved flexibility of macromolecules in the biopolymer. This study may stimulate useful self-healing strategies in bio-inspired design and aid in developing high-performance synthetic self-healing materials. PMID:26651064

  6. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  7. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  8. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11557). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets,...

  9. Security Blankets and Children's Security of Attachment to Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn L.; Passman, Richard H.

    This study investigated the relations between toddlers' degree of attachment to their mothers and their development of an attachment to a security blanket. Seventy-four 18-month-olds were separated from their mothers three times; the third time the toddlers were left for 5 minutes in an unfamiliar playroom with their blanket and with a stranger.…

  10. Overview of the TFTB lithium blanket module program

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an approx. 80-cm/sup 3/ module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. This paper summarizes the design, development, and construction of the LBM, and indicates the present status of the LBM program.

  11. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  12. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  13. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  14. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  15. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  16. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density ρb ˜ 108 - 1010 g cm-3) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses ΔM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts-Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on ΔM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modelling the evolution of neutron stars.

  17. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  18. The TFTR lithium blanket module program

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Bertone, P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; File, J.; Graumann, D.W.

    1985-02-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an approximately 80X80X80 cm cubic module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module, that will be installed on the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) in late 1986. The principal objective of the LBM Program is to perform a series of neutron transport and tritium-breeding measurements throughout the LBM when it is exposed to the TFTR toroidal fusion neutron source, and to compare these data with the predictions of Monte Carlo (MCNP) neutronics codes. The LBM consists of 920 2.5-cm diameter breeder rods constructed of lithium oxide (Li/sub 2/O) pellets housed in thin-walled stainless steel tubes. Procedures for mass-producing 25,000 Li/sub 2/O pellets with satisfactory reproducibility were developed using purified Li/sub 2/O powder, and fabrication of all the breeder rods was completed in early 1985. Tritium assay methods were investigated experimentally using both small lithium metal samples and LBM-type pellets. This work demonstrated that the thermal extraction method will be satisfactory for accurate evaluation of the minute concentrations of tritium expected in the LBM pellets (0.1-1nCi/g).

  19. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  20. Neutron dosimetry for the Lithium-Blanket-Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Tsang, F.Y.; Caffrey, A.J.; Homeyer, W.G.; Engholm, B.A.; Schultz, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is a first-of-a-kind neutronics experiment involving a prototypical fusion reactor blanket module with a distributed neutron source from the plasma of the Tokamak fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The objectives of the LBM program are: (1) to test the capabilities of neutron transport codes when applied to prototypical fusion reactor blanket conditions, and (2) to obtain tritium breeding and power production performance data on a typical design concept of a fusion-reactor blanket. This paper addresses the issues relative to the measurement of neutron fields in the LBM, presents the results of preliminary design studies concerning neutron measurements and also presents the results of blanket mockup experiments performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  1. Neutron dosimetry for the TFTR Lithium-Blanket-Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Tsang, F.Y.; Caffrey, A.J.; Homeyer, W.G.; Engholm, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is a first-of-a-kind neutronics experiment involving a prototypical fusion reactor blanket module with a distributed neutron source from the plasma of the TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The objectives of the LBM program are: (1) to test the capabilities of neutron transport codes when applied to fusion test reactor blanket conditions, and (2) to obtain tritium breeding performance data on a typical design concept of a fusion-reactor blanket. This paper addresses the issues relative to the measurement of neutron fields in the LBM, presents the results of preliminary design studies concerning neutron measurements and also presents the results of blanket mockup experiments performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  2. Neutronic design for the TFTR lithium blanket module

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Engholm, B.A.; Su, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design of a lithium blanket module (LBM) to be installed and tested in the TFTR has been performed under subcontract to PPPL and EPRI. The objectives of the LBM program are calculation and measurement of neutron fluences and tritium production in a breeding blanket module using state of art techniques, comparison of calculations with measurements, and acquisition of operational experience with a fusion reactor blanket module. The neutronic design of the LBM is one of the key areas of this program in which the LBM composition and geometry are optimized and the boundary material effects on the tritium production in the blanket module are explored. The concept of employing sintered Li/sub 2/O pellets in tubes is proposed for the blanket design.

  3. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  4. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  5. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  6. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  7. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  8. Establishment of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis, a biological control agent of Arundo donax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The armored scale biological control agent, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi) (Hemiptera; Diaspididae) has established populations on the invasive weed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae; Arundinoideae) in Del Rio (Val Verde, Co.) and in field plots at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Moore Airbase, Edinburg (Hidalgo Co.)...

  9. 27 CFR 478.92 - How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 CFR part 134. (2) Firearm frames or receivers. A firearm frame or receiver that is not a component... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity...

  10. 27 CFR 478.92 - How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 CFR part 134. (2) Firearm frames or receivers. A firearm frame or receiver that is not a component... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity...

  11. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  12. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  13. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  14. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  15. 76 FR 35024 - National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard. It is anticipated that the discussion at the workshop will be directed primarily toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. NIJ and NIST are hosting this workshop specifically to discuss......

  16. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths,...

  17. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths,...

  18. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  19. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  20. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  1. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  2. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  3. US technical report for the ITER blanket/shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li2O) and lithium zirconate (Li2ZrO3) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  4. Skeletal histology of the dermal armor of Placodontia: the occurrence of 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' and its developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M

    2007-12-01

    Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) is a group of enigmatic armored marine reptiles restricted to the Triassic time period. Only a single row of osteoderms dorsal to the spine is present in the basal placodontoid Placodus gigas, whereas derived cyamodontoids superficially resemble turtles in enclosing their body in an armor shell. Despite the extensive occurrence of the dermal armor in the derived cyamodontoid group, little research has focused on its bone histology and development. Here, I present an overview of the bone microstructures that reveals the unique presence of cartilaginous tissue in the postcranial armor plates. Placodont armor plates stand in contrast to osteoderms of other tetrapods that develop intramembraneously or through metaplastic ossification without cartilaginous preformation. The different developmental pathways leading to this 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' tissue found in placodont plates compared to the dermal bone tissues of most other tetrapod osteoderms indicate the non-homology of these structures. A resulting morphogenetic model of histogenesis is given to exemplify how the derived armor morphologies (i.e. spiked, flat polygonal and hexagonal, and rhomboidal shapes) together with the peculiar bone histologies could have developed through differential growth. In accordance with the pachyostotic limb bones of placodonts, the presence of the compact 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' is interpreted as an osteosclerotic trend in the armor plates which aids in buoyancy control and affects maneuverability and swimming speed. PMID:17944862

  5. A Computational Investigation of the Multi-Hit Ballistic-Protection Performance of Laminated Transparent-armor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, Mica; Pandurangan, B.; Coutris, N.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of a prototypical laminated glass/polycarbonate transparent armor is investigated using a series of transient nonlinear dynamics analyses of armor impact with a sequence of four M2AP full metal jacket (FMJ) armor-piercing bullets. All calculations were carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit commercial finite element program (ABAQUS Version 6.7, User Documentation, Dessault Systems, 2007), and the computational results obtained were compared to their experimental counterparts obtained by Dolan (Ballistic Transparent-armor Testing Using a Multi-hit Rifle Pattern, Bachelors, Thesis, Kettering University, December 2007). The comparison revealed that (a) The proposed computational procedure can reasonably well account for the observed multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of the laminated transparent armor; (b) The role of prior bullet hits in reducing armor's ballistic-protection performance is clearly revealed; (c) The role of polycarbonate lamina in preventing glass fragments from entering the vehicle interior is clearly demonstrated; and (d) Experimentally observed inability of the transparent armor to defeat 0.50-caliber Fragment Simulating Projectiles (FSPs) is confirmed.

  6. Cryogenic flexible pipes for offshore LNG-LPG production

    SciTech Connect

    Dumay, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Available in long, flexible pieces (up to several miles), the high-performance Coflexip pipe comprises four basic layers: (1) an interlocked, spiraled-steel carcass to resist crushing and prevent deformation, (2) an inner thermoplastic sheath to render the line internally leakproof, (3) two cross-laid steel-wire armors to oppose the stresses induced by internal pressure, and (4) an external thermoplastic sheath to ensure water-tightness and resist corrosion. Coflexip pipe is particularly suitable for transporting cryogenic liquids such as LNG from, for example, an offshore liquefaction plant.

  7. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  8. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning: Vacuum bake of gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours, In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  9. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  10. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations.

  11. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  12. Flexible radiator thermal vacuum test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Hixon, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Two flexible, deployable/retraction radiators were designed and fabricated. The two radiator panels are distinguishable by their mission life design. One panel is designed with a 90 percent probability of withstanding the micrometeoroid environment of a low earth orbit for 30 days. This panel is designated the soft tube radiator after the PFA Teflon tubes which distribute the transport fluid over the panel. The second panel is designed with armored flow tubes to withstand the same micrometeoroid environment for 5 years. It is designated the hard tube radiator after its stainless steel flow tubes. The thermal performance of the radiators was tested under anticipated environmental conditions. The two deployment systems of the radiators were evaluated in a thermal vacuum environment.

  13. The excitation of plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. E.; Carlson, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    Enhanced plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E have been excited by a powerful HF radio wave illuminating the E region over the Arecibo Observatory. The plasma lines are observed by the incoherent scatter radar at the observatory. They originate in the sporadic E layer when the blanketing frequency exceeds the exciting frequency, a result which confirms that the plasma is overdense for the exciting frequency. Around the time when the blanketing frequency falls through the exciting frequency, large fluctuations in the plasma line intensities are observed, and thus the possibility of overdense patches drifting through the sampled volume is suggested.

  14. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. PMID:22112596

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Blanket Repair Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ousley, Wes; Skladany, Joseph; Dell, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Substantial damage to the outer layer of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal blankets was observed during the February 1997 servicing mission. After six years in LEO, many areas of the aluminized Teflon(R) outer blanket layer had significant cracks, and some material was peeled away to expose inner layers to solar flux. After the mission, the failure mechanism was determined, and repair materials and priorities were selected for follow-on missions. This paper focuses on the thermal, mechanical, and EVA design requirements for the blanket repair, the creative solutions developed for these unique problems, hardware development, and testing.

  16. Disinfection of woollen blankets in steam at subatmospheric pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alder, V. G.; Gillespie, W. A.

    1961-01-01

    Blankets may be disinfected in steam at subatmospheric pressures by temperatures below boiling point inside a suitably adapted autoclave chamber. The chamber and its contents are thoroughly evacuated of air so as to allow rapid heat penetration, and steam is admitted to a pressure of 10 in. Hg below atmospheric pressure, which corresponds to a temperature of 89°C. Woollen blankets treated 50 times by this process were undamaged. Vegetative organisms were destroyed but not spores. The method is suitable for large-scale disinfection of blankets and for disinfecting various other articles which would be damaged at higher temperatures. PMID:13860203

  17. Probing the Mechanical Strength of an Armored Bubble and Its Implication to Particle-Stabilized Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccoen, Nicolas; Lequeux, François; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Bubbles are dynamic objects that grow and rise or shrink and disappear, often on the scale of seconds. This conflicts with their uses in foams where they serve to modify the properties of the material in which they are embedded. Coating the bubble surface with solid particles has been demonstrated to strongly enhance the foam stability, although the mechanisms for such stabilization remain mysterious. In this paper, we reduce the problem of foam stability to the study of the behavior of a single spherical bubble coated with a monolayer of solid particles. The behavior of this armored bubble is monitored while the ambient pressure around it is varied, in order to simulate the dissolution stress resulting from the surrounding foam. We find that above a critical stress, localized dislocations appear on the armor and lead to a global loss of the mechanical stability. Once these dislocations appear, the armor is unable to prevent the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding liquid, which translates into a continued reduction of the bubble volume, even for a fixed overpressure. The observed route to the armor failure therefore begins from localized dislocations that lead to large-scale deformations of the shell until the bubble completely dissolves. The critical value of the ambient pressure that leads to the failure depends on the bubble radius, with a scaling of Δ Pcollapse∝R-1 , but does not depend on the particle diameter. These results disagree with the generally used elastic models to describe particle-covered interfaces. Instead, the experimental measurements are accounted for by an original theoretical description that equilibrates the energy gained from the gas dissolution with the capillary energy cost of displacing the individual particles. The model recovers the short-wavelength instability, the scaling of the collapse pressure with bubble radius, and the insensitivity to particle diameter. Finally, we use this new microscopic understanding to predict

  18. Flexible cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T J; Preminger, G M

    1988-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic technology was first applied to cystoscopy in 1973, with greatly increased usage since 1982. Most procedures formerly performed with rigid cystoscopes can be done using flexible cystoscopes with minimal or no anesthesia. Patient positioning and precystocopy preparation and draping are simplified with the flexible fiberoptic instruments. Complete examination of the urethra and bladder can be performed with a single-lens system and with the patient in a variety of positions. Fiberoptic cystoscopy is limited in patients who are bleeding or have blood clots in their bladders. Withdrawal of irrigant or bladder drainage is cumbersome, and the fiberoptic image is currently not of the same caliber as that of the rigid-lens systems. Fiberoptic cystoscopy has become the procedure of choice for many urologists for ureteral stenting prior to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. With the advent of lithotripters that require no anesthesia, this application is likely to broaden. Future applications of flexible cystoscopy may include a flexible videocystoscope for use in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:3407042

  19. Cassini/Titan-4 Acoustic Blanket Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational effort to develop and test verify new acoustic blankets. These blankets support NASA's goal in reducing the Titan-4 payload fairing internal acoustic environment to allowable levels for the Cassini spacecraft. To accomplish this goal a two phase acoustic test program was utilized. Phase One consisted of testing numerous blanket designs in a flat panel configuration. Phase Two consisted of testing the most promising designs out of Phase One in a full scale cylindrical payload fairing. This paper will summarize this highly successful test program by providing the rationale and results for each test phase, the impacts of this testing on the Cassini mission, as well as providing some general information on blanket designs.

  20. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  1. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  2. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. PMID:16524600

  3. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thin Thermal-Insulation Blankets for Very High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets of a proposed type would be exceptionally thin and would endure temperatures up to 2,100 C. These blankets were originally intended to protect components of the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft against radiant heating at its planned closest approach to the Sun (a distance of 4 solar radii). These blankets could also be used on Earth to provide thermal protection in special applications (especially in vacuum chambers) for which conventional thermal-insulation blankets would be too thick or would not perform adequately. A blanket according to the proposal (see figure) would be made of molybdenum, titanium nitride, and carbon- carbon composite mesh, which melt at temperatures of 2,610, 2,930, and 2,130 C, respectively. The emittance of molybdenum is 0.24, while that of titanium nitride is 0.03. Carbon-carbon composite mesh is a thermal insulator. Typically, the blanket would include 0.25-mil (.0.00635-mm)-thick hot-side and cold-side cover layers of molybdenum. Titanium nitride would be vapor-deposited on both surfaces of each cover layer. Between the cover layers there would be 10 inner layers of 0.15-mil (.0.0038-mm)-thick molybdenum with vapor-deposited titanium nitride on both sides of each layer. The thickness of each titanium nitride coat would be about 1,000 A. The cover and inner layers would be interspersed with 0.25-mil (0.00635-mm)-thick layers of carbon-carbon composite mesh. The blanket would have total thickness of 4.75 mils (approximately equal to 0.121 mm) and an areal mass density of 0.7 kilograms per square meter. One could, of course, increase the thermal- insulation capability of the blanket by increasing number of inner layers (thereby unavoidably increasing the total thickness and mass density).

  5. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications. PMID:20133823

  6. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. N.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight.

  7. Advanced Modeling Strategies for the Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    1999-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the deformation mechanisms in tile-reinforced armored components was conducted to develop the most efficient modeling strategies for the structural analysis of large components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The limitations of conventional finite elements with respect to the analysis of tile-reinforced structures were examined, and two complementary optimal modeling strategies were developed. These strategies are element layering and the use of a tile-adhesive superelement. Element layering is a technique that uses stacks of shear deformable shell elements to obtain the proper transverse shear distributions through the thickness of the laminate. The tile-adhesive superelement consists of a statically condensed substructure model designed to take advantage of periodicity in tile placement patterns to eliminate numerical redundancies in the analysis. Both approaches can be used simultaneously to create unusually efficient models that accurately predict the global response by incorporating the correct local deformation mechanisms.

  8. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  9. Development of an automated fuzing station for the future armored resupply vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.; Jansen, J.F.; Lloyd, P.D.; Varma, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army is developing the Advanced Field Artillery System (SGSD), a next generation armored howitzer. The Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV) will be its companion ammunition resupply vehicle. The FARV with automate the supply of ammunition and fuel to the AFAS which will increase capabilities over the current system. One of the functions being considered for automation is ammunition processing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing equipment to demonstrate automated ammunition processing. One of the key operations to be automated is fuzing. The projectiles are initially unfuzed, and a fuze must be inserted and threaded into the projectile as part of the processing. A constraint on the design solution is that the ammunition cannot be modified to simplify automation. The problem was analyzed to determine the alignment requirements. Using the results of the analysis, ORNL designed, built, and tested a test stand to verify the selected design solution.

  10. U.S. Plans and Strategy for ITER Blanket Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Sze, D.; Wong, C.; Sawan, M.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Malang, S

    2005-04-15

    Testing blanket concepts in the integrated fusion environment is one of the principal objectives of ITER. Blanket test modules will be inserted in ITER from Day 1 of its operation and will provide the first experimental data on the feasibility of the D-T cycle for fusion. With the US rejoining ITER, the US community has decided to have strong participation in the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) Program. A US strategy for ITER-TBM has evolved that emphasizes international collaboration. A study was initiated to select the two blanket options for the US ITER-TBM in light of new R and D results from the US and world programs over the past decade. The study is led by the Plasma Chamber community in partnership with the Materials, PFC, Safety, and physics communities. The study focuses on assessment of the critical feasibility issues for candidate blanket concepts and it is strongly coupled to R and D of modeling and experiments. Examples of issues are MHD insulators, SiC insert viability and compatibility with PbLi, tritium permeation, MHD effects on heat transfer, solid breeder 'temperature window' and thermomechanics, and chemistry control of molten salts. A dual coolant liquid breeder and a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket concept have been selected for the US ITER-TBM.

  11. The effect of ceramic/metal gradient armor's components characteristic on its impact-resistant characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-02-15

    The effect of ceramic/metal gradient armor's components characteristic on its impact-resistant characteristic has been investigated by a new modified Alekseevskii-Tate equation. The following researching work is done by the former model [1]: the effect of ceramic layer on the impact-resistant characteristic, the effect of gradient layer on the impact-resistant characteristic and the effect of metal layer on the impact-resistant characteristic.

  12. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI. PMID:19886461

  13. Simulation Tools for Ultrasonic Inspections of Multi-Layer Armor Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Nathaniel; Margetan, Frank J.; Gray, Tim; Thompson, R. Bruce

    2011-06-01

    Some armor panels are fabricated from several layers of material including ceramics, graphite and/or glass composites, and rubber. This multi-layer makeup can complicate UT inspection, since many possible sound paths (including intra-layer reverberations) can contribute to observed UT signals. At last year's QNDE conference we reported on baseline property measurements (density, sound speed, attenuation, etc.) for the constituent layers of one prototype panel, and we discussed how that information was used to design an ultrasonic inspection to look for disbonding at interfaces. We now report on progress to develop better simulation tools for armor panel inspections. In particular we consider normal-incidence pulse/echo inspections and use a paraxial beam model to predict time-domain signals for unflawed panels and those containing large delaminations. The model uses the frequency-dependent baseline property data as inputs, and treats beam spread and focusing effects. We describe the modeling approach and present comparisons of model predictions to the experimental data gathered last year during inspections of five-layer armor panels.

  14. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  16. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-04-15

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  17. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  18. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  19. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain

  20. Analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shao-fei; Xue, Hong-xiang; Tang, Wen-yong

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.

  1. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corea, Joseph R.; Flynn, Anita M.; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D.; Shin, Peter J.; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  2. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    PubMed

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners. PMID:26961073

  3. High Power Density Blanket Design Study for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. H.; Zhu, Y. K.; Deng, P. Zh.

    2003-06-01

    A conceptual design study of a high power density blanket has been carried out. The Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB, is adopted as the reference reactor. The neutron wall loading is 0.5 MW/m2. The blanket is cooled by 10 MPa helium in tube. The concept of LiPb eutectic/transuranium oxide suspension is adopted. The neutronics design is performed to provide the design basis, and it gives an energy multiplication of 37 and a flattened power density distribution with a peak value of 70 W/m3. Multiple cooling panels are introduced to reduce the peak temperature of the blanket. In spite of up to 15 cooling panels, the blanket module is calculated using the ANSYS code and analytically as well. The results are consistent with each other and can meet the thermal criteria. However, structural calculation results from ANSYS did not satisfy the criterion: The blanket structure design is then improved by using curved cooling panels to model the structure in detail. Temperature distribution is obtained using the Pro/Mechanica code. Detailed structural analyses are also done by this code. Some satisfactory results are obtained.

  4. Overview of design activities for Li/V blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    Recent fusion power plant design studies in the US have been conducted within the ARIES project. The most recent design of Li/V blankets was conducted as part of the ARIES-RS design. The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirement. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on a Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design.

  5. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deju; Szewciw, Lawrence; Vernerey, Franck; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-08-01

    The structure and mechanics of fish scales display unusual and attractive features which could inspire new protective materials and systems. This natural material is therefore attracting attention over the past few years, and recent work demonstrated the remarkable performance of individual fish scales. A puncture event as would occur from a predator's attack however involves more than one scale, and in this article we therefore investigate collective mechanisms occurring within the scaled skin of a fish in the event of a predator's attack. We first demonstrate that in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the scales increase by four to five times the force required to puncture the skin. We show that individual scales from striped bass provide a remarkable barrier against sharp puncture, regardless of the stiffness of the substrate. The scalation pattern in striped bass is such that three scales overlap at any point on the surface of the fish, which we show effectively multiplies the puncture force by three. We determined that the friction between scales is negligible and therefore it does not contribute to increasing puncture force. Likewise, we found that the local arrangement of the scales had little effect on the puncture performance. Interestingly, because the scales are several orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate, indenting a few isolated scales results in "sinking" of the scales into the substrate. The high local deflections and strain within the soft tissue may then result in blunt injury before the sharp indenter penetrates the scales. Stereo-imaging and image correlation performed around a puncture site in fish reveal that the surrounding scales collectively contribute to redistributing the puncture force over large volume, limiting local deflections and strains in the soft tissues. The structure and mechanisms of natural fish scales therefore offer an effective protection against several types of threat, and may inspire novel versatile protective systems with attractive flexural properties. PMID:23683758

  6. The evolution of US helium-cooled blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Cheng, E. T.; Schultz, K. R.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews and compares four helium-cooled fusion reactor blanket designs. These designs represent generic configurations of using helium to cool fusion reactor blankets that were studied over the past 20 years in the United States of America. These configurations are the pressurized module design, the pressurized tube design, the solid particulate and gas mixture design, and the nested shell design. Among these four designs, the nested shell design, which was invented for the ARIES study, is the simplest in configuration and has the least number of critical issues. Both metallic and ceramic-composite structural materials can be used for this design. It is believed that the nested shell design can be the most suitable blanket confirmation for helium-cooled fusion power and experimental reactors.

  7. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  8. Overview of the TFTR Lithium Blanket Module Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an {approximately}80-cm{sup 3} module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. This paper summarizes the design, development, and construction of the LBM, and indicates the present status of the LBM program. Construction of the LBM provided unique development and manufacturing experience with the mass production of reactor-representative lithium oxide pellets and fuel rods. Neutron activation and tritium assay data from present irradiation experiments with a point-neutron source and future experiments with the TFTR geometrically extended neutron source will reveal the ability to neutronics codes and models to characterize individual blanket module performance in a fusion device assembly.

  9. Experimental impacts into Teflon targets and LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed approximately 20 sq m of identical thermal protective blankets, predominantly on the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). Approximately 700 penetration holes greater than 300 micron in diameter were individually documented, while thousands of smaller penetrations and craters occurred in these blankets. As a result of their 5.7 year exposure and because they pointed into a variety of different directions relative to the orbital motion of the nonspinning LDEF platform, these blankets can reveal important dynamic aspects of the hypervelocity particle environment in near-earth orbit. The blankets were composed of an outer teflon layer (approximately 125 micron thick), followed by a vapor-deposited rear mirror of silver (less than 1000 A thick) that was backed with an organic binder and a thermal protective paint (approximately 50 to 75 micron thick), resulting in a cumulative thickness (T) of approximately 175 to 200 microns for the entire blanket. Many penetrations resulted in highly variable delaminations of the teflon/metal or metal/organic binder interfaces that manifest themselves as 'dark' halos or rings, because of subsequent oxidation of the exposed silver mirror. The variety of these dark albedo features is bewildering, ranging from totally absent, to broad halos, to sharp single or multiple rings. Over the past year experiments were conducted over a wide range of velocities (i.e., 1 to 7 km/s) to address velocity dependent aspects of cratering and penetrations of teflon targets. In addition, experiments were performed with real LDEF thermal blankets to duplicate the LDEF delaminations and to investigate a possible relationship of initial impact conditions on the wide variety of dark halo and ring features.

  10. Double layered tailorable advanced blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falstrup, D.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced flexible reusable surface insulation material for future space shuttle flights was investigated. A conventional fly shuttle loom with special modifications to weave an integral double layer triangular core fabric from quartz yarn was used. Two types of insulating material were inserted into the cells of the fabric, and a procedure to accomplish this was developed. The program is follow up of a program in which single layer rectangular cell core fabrics are woven and a single type of insulating material was inserted into the cells.

  11. 75 FR 50991 - Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...Based on affirmative final determinations by the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') and the International Trade Commission (``ITC''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on certain woven electric blankets (``woven electric blankets'') from the People's Republic of China...

  12. The Impacts of Armoring Our Deltas: Mapping and Modeling Large-Scale Deltaplain Aggradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Higgins, S.; Syvitski, J. P.; Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, R.

    2014-12-01

    Humans have hardened land-water boundaries in almost every delta they live on. Engineering includes stabilizing and embanking channels to protect from river floods, building dikes around islands and emerging bars to reclaim land, and putting up sea walls to protect from waves and storm surges. These measures aim to reduce the exchange of water and sediment between the distributary delta channel network and the adjacent deltaplain. To first order, armoring of deltas results in net elevation loss of the floodplain, due to subsidence, compaction and reduced aggradation. Here, we ask what are the mechanisms of aggradation in 'armored' deltas? How do aggradation patterns compare to more natural depositional patterns? We analyze 2-week period aggregates of MODIS satellite data from 2000 onwards to map inundation patterns due to irrigation, river floods and storm surges for selected deltas. Using a MODIS band-ratio, we assess relative concentrations of suspended sediment in stagnant water on the floodplains. In addition, we use a simple approach to route sediment through the delta distributary network based on the relative channel geometries. A depositional process model then calculates cross-channel sediment flux as an exponential decay function, and determines sediment deposition over inundated areas. Stacked inundation maps show vast areas of deltaplains have flooded between 2000-2014, despite armoring channels with dikes, and coastlines with seawalls. Flooding is caused by overtopping of levees and more rarely by breaching and in those latter cases the flooded areas are often locally constrained. In Asian deltas, rice paddy irrigation with floodwater can be mapped even in the more distal floodplain. Our model predicts that inundated areas still receive significant amounts of fresh sediment, but that the pattern is more variable than in natural systems. Sparse in-situ observations of floodplain aggradation rates and storm surge deposits corroborate high, but localized

  13. Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.; Blue, Craig A.

    2005-12-01

    Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) were coated on silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a refractory armor using a high power plasma arc lamp at powers up to 23.5 MW/m 2 in an argon flow environment. Both tungsten powder and molybdenum powder melted and formed coating layers on silicon carbide within a few seconds. The effect of substrate pre-treatment (vapor deposition of titanium (Ti) and tungsten, and annealing) and sample heating conditions on microstructure of the coating and coating/substrate interface were investigated. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical properties of the coated materials were evaluated by four-point flexural tests. A strong tungsten coating was successfully applied to the silicon carbide substrate. Tungsten vapor deposition and pre-heating at 5.2 MW/m 2 made for a refractory layer containing no cracks propagating into the silicon carbide substrate. The tungsten coating was formed without the thick reaction layer. For this study, small tungsten carbide grains were observed adjacent to the interface in all conditions. In addition, relatively large, widely scattered tungsten carbide grains and a eutectic structure of tungsten and silicon were observed through the thickness in the coatings formed at lower powers and longer heating times. The strength of the silicon carbide substrate was somewhat decreased as a result of the processing. Vapor deposition of tungsten prior to powder coating helped prevent this degradation. In contrast, molybdenum coating was more challenging than tungsten coating due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch as compared to tungsten and silicon carbide. From this work it is concluded that refractory armoring of silicon carbide by Infrared Transient Liquid Phase Processing is possible. The tungsten armored silicon carbide samples proved uniform, strong, and capable of withstanding thermal fatigue testing.

  14. Study of Automated Module Fabrication for Lightweight Solar Blanket Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective automated techniques for accomplishing the titled purpose; based on existing in-house capability are described. As a measure of the considered automation, the production of a 50 kilowatt solar array blanket, exclusive of support and deployment structure, within an eight-month fabrication period was used. Solar cells considered for this blanket were 2 x 4 x .02 cm wrap-around cells, 2 x 2 x .005 cm and 3 x 3 x .005 cm standard bar contact thin cells, all welded contacts. Existing fabrication processes are described, the rationale for each process is discussed, and the capability for further automation is discussed.

  15. Overview of the TFTR Lithium Blanket Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The LBM (Lithium Blanket Module) is an approximately cubic module, about 80 cm on each side, with construction representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. Measurements of neutron transport and tritium breeding in the LBM will be made in irradiation programs first with a point-neutron source, and subsequently with the D-D and D-T fusion-neutron sources of the TFTR. This paper summarizes the objectives of the LBM program, the design, development and construction of the LBM, and progress in the experimental tests.

  16. Neutron Dosimetry Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Lithium Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Harker, Y.D.; Anderl, R.A.; Nigg, D.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is a first-of-kind neutronics experiment involving a toroidal fusion neutron source. Qualification experiments have been conducted to develop primary measurement techniques and verify dosimetry materials that will be used to characterize the neutron environment inside and on the surfaces of the LBM. The deuterium-tritium simulation experiments utilizing a 14-MeV neutron generator and a fusion blanket mockup facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. Results and discussions are presented that identify the quality and limitations of the measured integral reaction data, including the minimum fluence requirement for the TFTR experiment.

  17. Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B.; Blower, D.F.

    1994-04-01

    Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Ballistic Performance of Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Armor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colakoglu, M.; Soykasap, O.; Özek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Ballistic properties of two different polymer matrix composites used for military and non-military purposes are investigated in this study. Backside deformation and penetration speed are determined experimentally and numerically for Kevlar 29/Polivnyl Butyral and Polyethylene fiber composites because designing armors for only penetration is not enough for protection. After experimental ballistic tests, a model is constructed using finite element program, Abaqus. The backside deformation and penetration speed are determined numerically. It is found that the experimental and numeric results are in agreement and Polyethylene fiber composite has much better ballistic limit, the backside deformation, and penetration speed than those of Kevlar 29/Polivnyl Butyral composite if areal densities are considered.

  19. Simple go/no-go test for subcritical damage in body armor panels

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Jason; Chimenti, D. E.

    2011-06-23

    The development of a simple test for subcritical damage in body armor panels using pressure-sensitive dye-indicator film has been performed and demonstrated effective. Measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Impacts from hard blunt impactors instrumented with an accelerometer and embedded force transducer were studied. Reliable correlations between the indicator film and instrumented impact force are shown for a range of impact energies. Force and acceleration waveforms with corresponding indicator film results are presented for impact events onto damaged and undamaged panels. We find that panel damage can occur at impact levels far below the National Institute of Justice acceptance test standard.

  20. The weight optimization of an armored crashworthy crewseat through the use of advanced composites and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Howard A.; Motoyama, Stephen M.; Smith, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of composite-related technology applicable to armored crashworthy helicopter crewseats is discussed. The main objective was to achieve a significant weight reduction relative to the first-generation seats exemplified by the UH-60A and the AH-64A designs. This weight reduction was achieved while maintaining full compliance with the most recent version of the military crashworthy crewseat specification, MIL-S-58095A. The technology developed during this effort is intended to apply to the next generation of Army helicopters, such as LHX.

  1. Biological armors under impact--effect of keratin coating, and synthetic bio-inspired analogues.

    PubMed

    Achrai, B; Bar-On, B; Wagner, H D

    2015-01-01

    A number of biological armors, such as turtle shells, consist of a strong exoskeleton covered with a thin keratin coating. The mechanical role upon impact of this keratin coating has surprisingly not been investigated thus far. Low-velocity impact tests on the turtle shell reveal a unique toughening phenomenon attributed to the thin covering keratin layer, the presence of which noticeably improves the fracture energy and shell integrity. Synthetic substrate/coating analogues were subsequently prepared and exhibit an impact behavior similar to the biological ones. The results of the present study may improve our understanding, and even future designs, of impact-tolerant structures. PMID:25599251

  2. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  3. Unexpected behavior of a flexible solar array at retraction under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Ken; Natori, M. C.; Abe, Masato

    2002-06-01

    A reemergence experiment with flexible fold-up blankets of solar cell array panels folded back contrary to expectation at the retrieval phase in space has been actualized on the ground under a microgravity condition. A simple calculation of the total elastic energy stored in an analytical model of the fold-up blankets has shown that the reverse folding phenomenon is a kind of snap-through buckling in structural mechanics. It is made clear that the abnormal folding phenomenon occurs only in certain combinations of design parameters.

  4. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  5. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  6. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  7. Fusion-reactor blanket-material safety-compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Keough, R.F.; Cohen, S.

    1982-11-01

    Blanket material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Blanket material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize blanket-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate that : (1) ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/ and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ alloy reactions with water generate heat, aerosol and hydrogen; (2) lithium oxide and Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release; (3) liquid lithium reacts substantially, while Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen; and (4) liquid lithium-air reactions present some major safety concerns.

  8. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  9. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.

  10. 18 CFR 33.1 - Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... United States, the authorization is conditioned on the holding company, consistent with 18 CFR 385.2005(b... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations. 33.1 Section 33.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  11. GREEN CANE TRASH BLANKETS: INFLUENCE ON RATOON CROPS IN LOUISIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 75% of Louisiana's 2000 sugarcane crop was harvested with a chopper harvester. A significant portion of the chopper-harvested sugarcane was harvested green, especially early in the season. Information on the impact of the post-harvest, green-cane residue blankets on subsequent ratoo...

  12. 27 CFR 40.134 - Amount of blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Amount of blanket bond. 40.134 Section 40.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  13. 27 CFR 40.134 - Amount of blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of blanket bond. 40.134 Section 40.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 40.134 - Amount of blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of blanket bond. 40.134 Section 40.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds...

  15. 27 CFR 40.134 - Amount of blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of blanket bond. 40.134 Section 40.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 40.134 - Amount of blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of blanket bond. 40.134 Section 40.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  17. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  18. 18 CFR 33.1 - Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... United States, the authorization is conditioned on the holding company, consistent with 18 CFR 385.2005(b... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations. 33.1 Section 33.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  19. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, V.; Weiss, A.; Vizel, A.; Ran, E.; Aizik, F.

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH) armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile's core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  20. ANALYSES OF VARIOUS DAMAGE MECHANISMS IN TRANSPARENT ARMOR SUBJECT TO PROJECTILE IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Canhai; Sun, Xin; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2009-01-23

    Design and manufacturing of transparent armor have been historically carried out using experimental approaches. In this study, we use advanced computational modeling tools to study the various stress components during the impact event and to identify the different crack/damage driving mechanisms for the different cracking patterns. Experimentally observed damage patterns for a thick glass laminate under fragmentation simulation projectile (FSP) impact are used to compare with the modeling results. AHPCRC developed modeling software EPIC’06 [1] is used in predicting the penetration resistance of transparent armor systems. It is found that a 1-parameter single state model can be used to predict the impact penetration depth with relatively good accuracy. In addition, hoop stress and circumferential stresses are found to produce ripple cracks, needle cracks and radial cracks. It is also found that a region of high hoop stress and circumferential stress is produced by the impact at the back side of the target plate, causing the floret damage region possibly leading to higher penetration depth for thinner laminates or higher velocity impact.

  1. Constitutive Modeling of Hot Deformation Behavior of High-Strength Armor Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-05-01

    The hot isothermal compression tests of high-strength armor steel under a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-1250 °C) and strain rates of (0.001-1/s) were performed. Based on the experimental data, constitutive models were established using the original Johnson-Cook (JC) model, modified JC model, and strain-compensated Arrhenius model, respectively. The modified JC model considers the coupled effects of strain hardening, strain rate hardening, and thermal softening. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of these developed models was determined by estimating the correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results demonstrate that the flow behavior of high-strength armor steel is considerably influenced by the strain rate and temperature. The original JC model is inadequate to provide good description on the flow stress at evaluated temperatures. The modified JC model and strain-compensated Arrhenius model significantly enhance the predictability. It is also observed from the microstructure study that at low strain rates (0.001-0.01/s) and high temperatures (1200-1250 °C), a typical dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs.

  2. An Investigation into Hot Deformation Characteristics and Processing Maps of High-Strength Armor Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Madhu, V.

    2015-12-01

    The isothermal hot compression tests of high-strength armor steel over wide ranges of strain rates (0.01-10 /s) and deformation temperatures (950-1100 °C) are carried out using Gleeble thermo-simulation machine. The true stress-strain data obtained from the experiments are employed to establish the constitutive equations based on the strain-compensated Arrhenius model. With strain-compensated Arrhenius model, good agreement between the experimental and predicted values is achieved, which represents the highest accuracy in comparison with the other models. The hot deformation activation energy is estimated to be 512 kJ/mol. By employing dynamic material model, the processing maps of high-strength armor steel at various strains are established. A maximum efficiency of about 45% of power dissipation is obtained at high temperature and low strain rate. Due to the high power dissipation efficiency and excellent processing ability in dynamic recrystallization zone for metal material, the optimum processing conditions are selected such that the temperature range is between 1050 and 1100°C and the strain rate range is between 0.01 and 0.1/s. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that the dislocation density is directly associated with the value of processing efficiency.

  3. United States Marine Corps light armored vehicle ride and shock mobility test

    SciTech Connect

    Casterlow, D.; Salami, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Mobility on the battlefield has been a major concern since the beginning of modern warfare. How do you transport troops more efficiently, in the least amount of time, from place to place on the battlefield? In the early days of World War I, came the invention of the tank and different types of armored vehicles. These vehicles were very slow and moved over a limited variety of terrain. Today, with faster, more powerful armored vehicles, extended testing is being done to determine their ability to move over various types of terrain encountered on the modern battlefield. Along with this testing, studies are performed which take into account the effect of the ride on soldiers. It has been proven that a sustained rough ride, of over 6 watts of vertical absorbed power, will affect a soldier`s ability to fight, once he reaches the battle. As a result, different vehicles go through testing in various off-road terrain to determine which one can handle the roughest terrain, at the fastest speed, while transporting troops, without imposing large amounts of human vibration on the soldiers. This is done through ride and shock mobility tests.

  4. Development of a Laboratory Scale Test Facility (LSTF) to investigate Armor solutions against buried explosive threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Felipe; Sinibaldi, Jose

    2009-11-01

    This LSTF will address the effects of High Velocity Sand Blast Impact; massive overpressures, impulsive effects, kinetic energy and momentum, from developing the type of flat sand- loading profile required for code validation purposes. The background of this study is to generate a planar shock-wave profile and a flat-loading profile from high velocity sand and air blast onto intended flat-plate targets, to properly characterize the codes under development; to do this we propose to use a flyer plate, which is explosively driven, so, we end with a design in which a slanted flyer plate, with an explosive layer underneath it, is set-up and detonated from one end, as the detonation wave runs through the explosive layer, it pushes the flyer plate. If all the geometry is carefully designed and the flyer plate/explosive layers are precisely positioned, in theory we should be able to produce a flat flyer plate that travels on the order of 1 to 2 km/s towards a layer of sand, therefore generating a shock wave within the sand that will eventually accelerate the sand with a flat top-hat profile towards the intended target, thus achieving a flat sand loading profile onto the target. Success in this domain will allow ease of testing of advanced armor concepts against simulate buried explosive threats, thus providing validation for numerical codes that will be used to perform optimization of novel armor designs at low costs.

  5. Effect of PTA Hardfaced Interlayer Thickness on Ballistic Performance of Shielded Metal Arc Welded Armor Steel Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2013-03-01

    Ballistic performance of armor steel welds is very poor due to the usage of low strength and low hardness austenitic stainless steel fillers, which are traditionally used to avoid hydrogen induced cracking. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of plasma transferred arc hardfaced interlayer thickness on ballistic performance of shielded metal arc welded armor steel weldments. The usefulness of austenitic stainless steel buttering layer on the armor grade quenched and tempered steel base metal was also considered in this study. Joints were fabricated using three different thickness (4, 5.5, and 7 mm) hardfaced middle layer by plasma transferred arc hardfacing process between the top and bottom layers of austenitic stainless steel using shielded metal arc welding process. Sandwiched joint, in addition with the buttering layer served the dual purpose of weld integrity and ballistic immunity due to the high hardness of hardfacing alloy and the energy absorbing capacity of soft backing weld deposits. This paper will provide some insight into the usefulness of austenitic stainless steel buttering layer on the weld integrity and plasma transferred arc hardfacing layer on ballistic performance enhancement of armor steel welds.

  6. Skeletal histology of the dermal armor of Placodontia: the occurrence of ‘postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone’ and its developmental implications

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M

    2007-01-01

    Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) is a group of enigmatic armored marine reptiles restricted to the Triassic time period. Only a single row of osteoderms dorsal to the spine is present in the basal placodontoid Placodus gigas, whereas derived cyamodontoids superficially resemble turtles in enclosing their body in an armor shell. Despite the extensive occurrence of the dermal armor in the derived cyamodontoid group, little research has focused on its bone histology and development. Here, I present an overview of the bone microstructures that reveals the unique presence of cartilaginous tissue in the postcranial armor plates. Placodont armor plates stand in contrast to osteoderms of other tetrapods that develop intramembraneously or through metaplastic ossification without cartilaginous preformation. The different developmental pathways leading to this ‘postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone’ tissue found in placodont plates compared to the dermal bone tissues of most other tetrapod osteoderms indicate the non-homology of these structures. A resulting morphogenetic model of histogenesis is given to exemplify how the derived armor morphologies (i.e. spiked, flat polygonal and hexagonal, and rhomboidal shapes) together with the peculiar bone histologies could have developed through differential growth. In accordance with the pachyostotic limb bones of placodonts, the presence of the compact ‘postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone’ is interpreted as an osteosclerotic trend in the armor plates which aids in buoyancy control and affects maneuverability and swimming speed. PMID:17944862

  7. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  8. One Dimension Analytical Model of Normal Ballistic Impact on Ceramic/Metal Gradient Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-02-15

    An analytical model of normal ballistic impact on the ceramic/metal gradient armor, which is based on modified Alekseevskii-Tate equations, has been developed. The process of gradient armour impacted by the long rod can be divided into four stages in this model. First stage is projectile's mass erosion or flowing phase, mushrooming phase and rigid phase; second one is the formation of comminuted ceramic conoid; third one is the penetration of gradient layer and last one is the penetration of metal back-up plate. The equations of third stage have been advanced by assuming the behavior of gradient layer as rigid-plastic and considering the effect of strain rate on the dynamic yield strength.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes. PMID:25329264

  10. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W.H.; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings. PMID:26949333

  11. Finite Element Modeling of the Behavior of Armor Materials Under High Strain Rates and Large Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzois, Ioannis

    For years high strength steels and alloys have been widely used by the military for making armor plates. Advances in technology have led to the development of materials with improved resistance to penetration and deformation. Until recently, the behavior of these materials under high strain rates and large strains has been primarily based on laboratory testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. With the advent of sophisticated computer programs, computer modeling and finite element simulations are being developed to predict the deformation behavior of these metals for a variety of conditions similar to those experienced during combat. In the present investigation, a modified direct impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus was modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS 6.8 for the purpose of simulating high strain rate compression of specimens of three armor materials: maraging steel 300, high hardness armor (HHA), and aluminum alloy 5083. These armor materials, provided by the Canadian Department of National Defence, were tested at the University of Manitoba by others. In this study, the empirical Johnson-Cook visco-plastic and damage models were used to simulate the deformation behavior obtained experimentally. A series of stress-time plots at various projectile impact momenta were produced and verified by comparison with experimental data. The impact momentum parameter was chosen rather than projectile velocity to normalize the initial conditions for each simulation. Phenomena such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands caused by deformation at high strains and strain rates were investigated through simulations. It was found that the Johnson-Cook model can accurately simulate the behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals such as steels. The maximum shear stress was calculated for each simulation at various impact momenta. The finite element model showed that shear failure first occurred in the center of the cylindrical specimen and

  12. Carbide-Free Bainitic Weld Metal: A New Concept in Welding of Armor Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Murthy, N.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Murty, B. S.; Reddy, G. M.; Rao, T. J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Carbide-free bainite, a fine mixture of bainitic ferrite and austenite, is a relatively recent development in steel microstructures. Apart from being very strong and tough, the microstructure is hydrogen-tolerant. These characteristics make it well-suited for weld metals. In the current work, an armor-grade quenched and tempered steel was welded such that the fusion zone developed a carbide-free bainitic microstructure. These welds showed very high joint efficiency and ballistic performance compared to those produced, as per the current industrial practice, using austenitic stainless steel fillers. Importantly, these welds showed no vulnerability to cold cracking, as verified using oblique Y-groove tests. The concept of carbide-free bainitic weld metal thus promises many useful new developments in welding of high-strength steels.

  13. Evaluation of bonds in armor plate and other materials using infrared nondestructive testing techniques.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P E

    1968-09-01

    Reported here are the results of using an ir technique in evaluating the bond in hot-roll bonded armor plate, a coating bond, and the bonds in the three-layer construction of a small missile motor. When a specimen is exposed to heat, the heat flows into it at a rate that can be determined. If the flow is interrupted by a void, the inclusion of a material of different conductivity, or any similar thermal barrier, a difference in surface temperature will result that can be defined with an ir radiometer or thermograph. Lack of bond, while not presenting a gross void, is shown here to be a sufficient impediment to be distinguishable. PMID:20068876

  14. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

  15. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  16. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  17. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  18. MHD considerations for a self-cooled liquid lithium blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, D. K.; Mattas, R. F.; Hull, A. B.; Picologlou, B. F.; Smith, D. L.

    1992-03-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects can present a feasibility issue for a self-cooled liquid metal blanket of magnetically confined fusion reactors, especially the inboard regime of a tokamak. This pressure drop can be significantly reduced by using an insulated wall structure. A self-healing insulating coating has been identified, which will reduce the pressure drop by more than a factor of 10. The future research direction to further quantify the performance of this coating is also outlined.

  19. MFTF-B Upgrade for blanket-technology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.; Doggett, J.N.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-10-22

    Based on preliminary studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we believe the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) could be upgraded for operation in a hot-ion Kelley mode in a portion of the central cell to provide fusion nuclear engineering data, particularly blanket technology information, by the end of the decade. Cost of this mode of operation would be modest compared with that of the other fusion devices considered in the last few years for such purposes.

  20. Helium-3 blankets for tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Don; Embrechts, Mark; Varsamis, Georgios; Vesey, Roger; Gierszewski, Paul

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that He-3 blankets offers considerable promise for tritium breeding in fusion reactors: good breeding potential, low operational risk, and attractive safety features. The availability of He-3 resources is the key issue for this concept. There is sufficient He-3 from decay of military stockpiles to meet the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor needs. Extraterrestrial sources of He-3 would be required for a fusion power economy.

  1. Evaluation of US demo helium-cooled blanket options

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; McQuillan, B.W.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1995-10-01

    A He-V-Li blanket design was developed as a candidate for the U.S. fusion demonstration power plant. This paper presents an 18 MPa helium-cooled, lithium breeder, V-alloy design that can be coupled to the Brayton cycle with a gross efficiency of 46%. The critical issue of designing to high gas pressure and the compatibility between helium impurities and V-alloy are addressed.

  2. DNA diagnostics of three armored scale species on kiwifruit in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Robert; Carraher, Colm; Poulton, Joanne; Sandanayaka, Manoharie; Todd, Jacqui H; Dobson, Shirley; Mauchline, Nicola; Hill, Garry; McKenna, Cathy; Newcomb, Richard D

    2008-12-01

    Three species of armored scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are found on kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) in New Zealand orchards: latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); greedy scale, Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); and oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Bouché). Each of them is a quarantine pest in some of the markets to which New Zealand kiwifruit are exported. Adult females of the three species can be distinguished morphologically; however, the task is laborious when large numbers must be identified. Furthermore, it is not possible to distinguish among the immature stages. A DNA-based diagnostic using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on differences in the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes was developed to distinguish the three species. The test relies on the rapid isolation of amplifiable DNA by using a protease (prepGEM), followed by multiplex PCR using primers that distinguish the species at three or more nucleotide positions within cytochrome oxidase I and II, resulting in PCR products of characteristic size for each species. The test was validated in a double-blind experiment and then used to determine the relative distribution and abundance of the three species on leaves and fruit of 'Hayward' and 'Hortl6A' kiwifruit across the dominant growing regions throughout New Zealand during the 2007 season. In total, 3,418 scale insects were identified to species level: 1,904 (56%) were latania scale; 1,473 (43%) were greedy scale; and 41 (1%) were oleander scale. Since the last survey in 1988, latania scale has displaced greedy scale as the dominant species of armored scale on Hayward kiwifruit in the North Island and was found for the first time in the South Island. Only a single latania scale was found on Hortl6A fruit, consistent with previous reports of reduced rates of settlement on the fruit of this cultivar by latania scale compared with greedy scale. PMID:19133478

  3. NOEL: a no-leak fusion blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J R; Yu, W S; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Makowitz, H

    1980-01-01

    Analysis and tests of a no-leak fusion blanket concept (NOEL-NO External Leak) are described. Coolant cannot leak into the plasma chamber even if large through-cracks develop in the first wall. Blanket modules contain a two-phase material, A, that is solid (several cm thick) on the inside of the module shell, and liquid in the interior. The solid layer is maintained by imbedded tubes carrying a coolant, B, below the freezing point of A. Most of the 14-MeV neutron energy is deposited as heat in the module interior. The thermal energy flow from the module interior to the shell keeps the interior liquid. Pressure on the liquid A interior is greater than the pressure on B, so that B cannot leak out if failures occur in coolant tubes. Liquid A cannot leak into the plasma chamber through first wall cracks because of the intervening frozen layer. The thermal hydraulics and neutronics of NOEL blankets have been investigated for various metallic (e.g., Li, Pb/sub 2/, LiPb, Pb) and fused salt choices for material A.

  4. Analysis of LBM (lithium blanket module) experiments at LOTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanek, J.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haldy, P.A.; Pelloni, S.

    1986-01-01

    A Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) has been designed at General Atomic Company for testing on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The LBM has both realistic fusion blanket materials and configuration and has been designed for detailed experimental analyses of tritium breeding and neutron flux spatial/spectral distributions. It is {approximately}80 cm{sup 3} and the breeding material is Li{sub 2}O. The main objective of the LBM program was to perform a series of experiments by irradiating it using the toroidal neutron source of the TFTR. The comparison between measured and calculated neutron spectra and reaction rates would indicate the accuracy of presently available nuclear data and calculational methods and show the need for future data evaluation and methods development. With a delay in undertaking the deuterium-tritium operation of the Princeton TFTR, it was clear that the LOTUS facility could now provide an extremely valuable resolution of basic technological uncertainties in fusion reactor blanket physics. This resolution has been a major force behind EPRI's fusion program. 6 refs.

  5. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings for Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius; Carroll, Carol; Smith, Dane; Guzinski, Mike; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan; Ridge, Jerry; Tran, Duoc

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the evaluation and testing of high emissivity protective coatings applied to flexible insulations for the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology program. Ceramic coatings were evaluated for their thermal properties, durability, and potential for reuse. One of the major goals was to determine the mechanism by which these coated blanket surfaces become brittle and try to modify the coatings to reduce or eliminate embrittlement. Coatings were prepared from colloidal silica with a small percentage of either SiC or SiB6 as the emissivity agent. These coatings are referred to as gray C-9 and protective ceramic coating (PCC), respectively. The colloidal solutions were either brushed or sprayed onto advanced flexible reusable surface insulation blankets. The blankets were instrumented with thermocouples and exposed to reentry heating conditions in the Ames Aeroheating Arc Jet Facility. Post-test samples were then characterized through impact testing, emissivity measurements, chemical analysis, and observation of changes in surface morphology. The results show that both coatings performed well in arc jet tests with backface temperatures slightly lower for the PCC coating than with gray C-9. Impact testing showed that the least extensive surface destruction was experienced on blankets with lower areal density coatings.

  6. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-09-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  7. Growth rate reduction of the curvature-driven flute instability by plasma blanket line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.

    1983-09-01

    The effect of an annular, line-tied blanket, on the curvature-driven flute in a magnetic mirror is considered. The blanket is assumed to be line tied to a thermoionically emitting annular end plate. Reduction of the flute growth rate is computed as function of Larmor radius, blanket radius, and axial plasma conductance through either an external plasma or mirror sheath. It is found that significant reduction in growth rate can be achieved.

  8. Surge current and electron swarm tunnel tests of thermal blanket and ground strap materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmaster, D. K.; Inouye, G. T.; Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The results are described of a series of current conduction tests with a thermal control blanket to which grounding straps have been attached. The material and the ground strap attachment procedure are described. The current conduction tests consisted of a surge current examination of the ground strap and a dilute flow, energetic electron deposition and transport through the bulk of the insulating film of this thermal blanket material. Both of these test procedures were used previously with thermal control blanket materials.

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope solar array blanket: Post flight technology verification -- Recent R and D results for the assessment of weld joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bebermeier, H.

    1994-12-31

    More than 7 years ago the flexible Hubble Space Telescope solar array blanket was designed and manufactured by the European industry with the ambitious goal to realize a retractable solar array system with full protection against ATOX; full protection of the electrical network against shadowing; a lifetime of 5 years in LEO equivalent to 30,000 thermal cycles. One wing of the solar array was successfully recovered and is now subject of extended post flight investigations under ESA/EsteC contracts. The paper will present in detail recent r and D results from the module and interconnection technology which confirm the technological approach of the Hubble Space Telescope solar array.

  10. Helium-cooled, FLiBe-breeder, beryllium-multiplier blanket for MINIMARS

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    We adapted the helium-cooled, FLiBe-breeder blanket to the commercial tandem-mirror fusion-reactor design, MINIMARS. Vanadium was used to achieve high performance from the high-energy-release neutron-capture reactions and from the high-temperature operation permitted by the refractory property of the material, which increases the conversion efficiency and decreases the helium-pumping power. Although this blanket had the highest performance among the MINIMARS blankets designs, measured by Mn/sub th/ (blanket energy multiplication times thermal conversion efficiency), it had a cost of electricity (COE) 18% higher than the University of Wisconsin (UW) blanket design (42.5 vs 35.9 mills/kW.h). This increased cost was due to using higher-cost blanket materials (beryllium and vanadium) and a thicker blanket, which resulted in higher-cost central-cell magnets and the need for more blanket materials. Apparently, the high efficiency does not substantially affect the COE. Therefore, in the future, we recommend lowering the helium temperature so that ferritic steel can be used. This will result in a lower-cost blanket, which may compensate for the lower performance resulting from lower efficiency.

  11. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  12. Modular System for Neutronics Calculations of Fission Reactors, Fusion Blankets, and Other Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-23

    AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energymore » deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous release, AUS87, are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM mainframe computers to UNIX workstations.« less

  13. The UAH/NSSTC Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Knupp, Kevin; Carey, Lawrence D.; Phillips, Dustin; Deierling, Wiebke; Gatlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The past four years have seen a marked enhancement in meteorological-radar infrastructure and radar-research capability at the University of Alabama-Huntsville (UAH) and National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC; a collaborative center supported by UAH, NASA-MSFC and USRA). This enhancement is due in part to the development of the ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar facility (amongst other mobile radar facilities also discussed in this conference). The ARMOR radar, located at Huntsville International Airport, originated as a unique collaboration between university, government and broadcast meteorologists (the very first of its kind relative to concurrent operational, research and broadcast applications of dual-polarimetry). Contributions from each of these entities resulted in the upgrade of a surplus National Weather Service WSR-74C radar to a research-grade C-band polarimetric radar. The initial upgrade of the radar took place in late 2004 with WHNT-TV purchase and installation of a SIGMET (now Vaisala) Antenna Mounted Receiver (AMR), RVP8/RCP8 radar processor/antenna controller, new radome, and a new dual-polarimetric antenna feed. The AMR enabled simultaneous transmit and receive (STSR) capability and hence collection of dual-polarimetric moments. During the initial part of the AMR upgrade the original WSR74C antenna reflector and 250 kW magnetron-transmitter were used. In early 2005, a new 350 kW magnetron transmitter was purchased from Baron Services and installed. In October of 2006 a new high performance parabolic antenna and dual-pol feed (Seavey) were installed together with a new Orbit pedestal. ARMOR Radar control and data delivery are facilitated through the use of T-1 lines that run from the airport to both NSSTC and WHNT-TV in Huntsville. Under current operating protocols radar scanning and product development are completed at NSSTC, though meteorologists at WHNT-TV can also control the radar if desired. In its default scanning

  14. A recurrent regulatory change underlying altered expression and Wnt response of the stickleback armor plates gene EDA

    PubMed Central

    O'Brown, Natasha M; Summers, Brian R; Jones, Felicity C; Brady, Shannon D; Kingsley, David M

    2015-01-01

    Armor plate changes in sticklebacks are a classic example of repeated adaptive evolution. Previous studies identified ectodysplasin (EDA) gene as the major locus controlling recurrent plate loss in freshwater fish, though the causative DNA alterations were not known. Here we show that freshwater EDA alleles have cis-acting regulatory changes that reduce expression in developing plates and spines. An identical T → G base pair change is found in EDA enhancers of divergent low-plated fish. Recreation of the T → G change in a marine enhancer strongly reduces expression in posterior armor plates. Bead implantation and cell culture experiments show that Wnt signaling strongly activates the marine EDA enhancer, and the freshwater T → G change reduces Wnt responsiveness. Thus parallel evolution of low-plated sticklebacks has occurred through a shared DNA regulatory change, which reduces the sensitivity of an EDA enhancer to Wnt signaling, and alters expression in developing armor plates while preserving expression in other tissues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05290.001 PMID:25629660

  15. A recurrent regulatory change underlying altered expression and Wnt response of the stickleback armor plates gene EDA.

    PubMed

    O'Brown, Natasha M; Summers, Brian R; Jones, Felicity C; Brady, Shannon D; Kingsley, David M

    2015-01-01

    Armor plate changes in sticklebacks are a classic example of repeated adaptive evolution. Previous studies identified ectodysplasin (EDA) gene as the major locus controlling recurrent plate loss in freshwater fish, though the causative DNA alterations were not known. Here we show that freshwater EDA alleles have cis-acting regulatory changes that reduce expression in developing plates and spines. An identical T → G base pair change is found in EDA enhancers of divergent low-plated fish. Recreation of the T → G change in a marine enhancer strongly reduces expression in posterior armor plates. Bead implantation and cell culture experiments show that Wnt signaling strongly activates the marine EDA enhancer, and the freshwater T → G change reduces Wnt responsiveness. Thus parallel evolution of low-plated sticklebacks has occurred through a shared DNA regulatory change, which reduces the sensitivity of an EDA enhancer to Wnt signaling, and alters expression in developing armor plates while preserving expression in other tissues. PMID:25629660

  16. Comparing the comfort and potential military performance restriction of neck collars from the body armor of six different countries.

    PubMed

    Breeze, John; Watson, Celia H; Horsfall, Ian; Clasper, Jon

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to undertake an assessment of ballistic neck collars to assess comfort and potential military performance restriction. Neck collars from six different countries were procured with 71 U.K. servicemen assessing two randomly allocated collars to rate one against the other. 58% of participants had worn UK neck collars previously on exercise, but only 6% had used them on operational tours. Body armor with shorter and thinner collars was rated the most comfortable, despite lying close to the neck. It was easier to aim a rifle wearing collars with overlapping segments, especially when in the prone position. Although higher and more rigid collars fared worse overall, this could potentially be offset by the higher levels of ballistic protection they provide. There is a need to evaluate other methods of protecting the neck such as nape protectors and ballistic scarves in combination with the use of backpacks and biometric data collection. Currently, there exists no agreed method of performing ergonomic (or human factor) assessments of the varying components of military body armor systems. Published standards for the minimum military performance requirements of the various components of body armor, including neck collars, need to be established. PMID:22165655

  17. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Palmer, Sheila M.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Wearing, Catherine; Irvine, Brian; Brown, Lee E.

    2015-08-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flow paths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied 10 blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments, we studied plots where the last burn occurred ˜2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7), or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at similar topographic wetness index locations in the control catchments. Plots subject to prescribed vegetation burning had significantly deeper water tables (difference in means = 5.3 cm) and greater water table variability than unburnt plots. Water table depths were significantly different between burn age classes (B2 > B4 > B7 > B10+) while B10+ water tables were not significantly different to the unburnt controls. Overland flow was less common on burnt peat than on unburnt peat, recorded in 9% and 17% of all runoff trap visits, respectively. Storm lag times and hydrograph recession limb periods were significantly greater (by ˜1 and 13 h on average, respectively) in the burnt catchments overall, but for the largest 20% of storms sampled, there was no significant difference in storm lag times between burnt and unburnt catchments. For the largest 20% of storms, the hydrograph intensity of burnt catchments was significantly greater than those of unburnt catchments (means of 4.2 × 10-5 and 3.4 × 10-5 s-1, respectively), thereby indicating a nonlinear streamflow response to prescribed burning. Together, these results from plots to whole river catchments indicate that prescribed vegetation burning has important effects on blanket peatland hydrology at a range of spatial scales.

  18. Radiator Heat Pipes with Carbon-Carbon Fins and Armor for Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed

    2005-02-06

    Technologies for Space Reactor Power Systems are being developed to enable future NASA's missions early next decade to explore the farthest planets in the solar system. The choices of the energy conversion technology for these power systems require radiator temperatures that span a wide range, from 350 K to 800 K. Heat pipes with carbon-carbon fins and armor are the preferred choice for these radiators because of inherent redundancy and efficient spreading and rejection of waste heat into space at a relatively small mass penalty. The performance results and specific masses of radiator heat pipes with cesium, rubidium, and potassium working fluids are presented and compared in this paper. The heat pipes operate at 40% of the prevailing operation limit (a design margin of 60%), typically the sonic and/or capillary limit. The thickness of the carbon-carbon fins is 0.5 mm but the width is varied, and the evaporator and condenser sections are 0.15 and 1.35 m long, respectively. The 400-mesh wick and the heat pipe thin metal wall are titanium, and the carbon-carbon armor ({approx} 2 mm-thick) provides both structural strength and protection against meteoroids impacts. The cross-section area of the D-shaped radiator heat pipes is optimized for minimum mass. Because of the low vapor pressure of potassium and its very high Figure-Of-Merit (FOM), radiator potassium heat pipes are the best performers at temperatures above 800 K, where the sonic limit is no longer an issue. On the other hand, rubidium heat pipes are limited by the sonic limit below 762 K and by the capillary limit at higher temperature. The transition temperature between these two limits for the cesium heat pipes occurs at a lower temperature of 724 K, since cesium has lower FOM than rubidium. The present results show that with a design margin of 60%, the cesium heat pipes radiator is best at 680-720 K, the rubidium heat pipes radiator is best at 720-800 K, while the potassium heat pipes radiator is the best

  19. Dynamic failure mechanisms in armor grade ceramics (the effect of lateral confinement and membrane restraint)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarva, Sai Sushilkumar

    Light weight ceramics such as SiC and Al2O3, have been used in impact related applications such as integrated armor for more than a decade and are an excellent prospect for the next-generation multi-functional armor systems. It is known that ceramics fail under a wide variety of failure modes ranging from brittle to ductile depending on the deformation conditions, such as the strain rate and the state of stress. The dynamic properties are dependent on the underlying failure mechanisms. The underpinning mechanisms of compression failure and their effect on the mechanical properties have been examined over a range of deformation rates from quasi-static to ballistic strain rates. Under moderate confining pressures [˜350 MPa] and at moderate deformation rates [strain-rates up to a few thousand per second], occurring during quasi-static and Hopkinson bar experiments, brittle failure involves initiation of micro-cracks at dominant micro-flaws and pre-existing micro-cracks and their subsequent interactive growth leading to axial splitting, faulting or a mixture of brittle-ductile failure. Experimental results relating to SiC have been compared to a wing-crack array model, developed by Nemat-Nasser and Deng, which describes the influence of microstructure on the dynamic behavior of materials. Under extreme conditions of stress, attained during shock impact, ceramics pulverize into fine powder. Classical crack-growth models seem inadequate for representing the actual failure initiation and evolution. Experiments have also been conducted to study the ballistic performance and failure of ceramic tiles. It has been observed that the defeat capability can be vastly improved by restraining the impact-face of ceramic tiles with a membrane of suitable tensile strength. The comparative effect of restraint by materials such as E-glass/epoxy pre-preg, carbon-fiber/epoxy pre-preg and Ti-3%Al-2.5%V alloy has been studied. Tungsten heavy alloy was used as the projectile material. The

  20. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-10-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m{sup 3} per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics.

  1. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE THERMAL BLANKETS ARE INSTALLED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    German technicians in the Multi-Payload Processing Facility at KSC are installing thermal blankets on the main telescope of the Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS- SPAS) II, mounted atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. The main telescope houses two spectrographs, the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV), which will gather data about the life cycle of stars during the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS-80 this fall. A third spectrograph, the Interstellar Medium Profile Spectrometer (IMAPS), will be installed on the side of the ASTRO-SPAS platform.

  2. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  3. Influences on Bed Sorting and Armoring in an Upland Gravel-Cobble Bed River, Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork is an unconfined to partly confined upland river with channel length of 34 km, drainage area of 250-850 km2, and channel gradients of 0.004 to 0.006 in the study area. Geology is dominated by Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks that yield abundant coarse clasts. Surface and subsurface bed material was sampled volumetrically at twenty-five sites. The textural types range from gravelly cobbles to sandy cobbly gravels, sand content is low (2 to 13%), mud content is very low, and sorting is poor to very poor. Generally the surface layer is an open framework gravel or cobble, while the subsurface layer is a filled or partially filled framework gravel or cobble. Despite an armored appearance, only 20% of the sites are armored using the standard armor ratio (surface D50/subsurface D50). While surface layers are not coarser than their subsurface layers in terms of the median or coarse end of the distribution, they are coarser in terms of fines (ratios based on D25, D16, % sand), suggesting that alternatives to the D50armor ratio might be useful. Multivariate analysis of size fraction data reveals four distinct groups of samples, distinguished mainly by differences in proportions of coarse to fine gravels, and in abundance of sand. While one group comprises only surface samples and another subsurface samples, two of the groups are mixed. One goal of the project is to evaluate the effects of land use history on bed material characteristics and mobility. Sediment characteristics were examined in relation to distance downstream, geology, relation to debris-flow sources, land use history, and other potential influences. There are no geologic associations or downstream trends in fining or other grain size parameters. Differences in land use history, such as former dredged-mined reaches and reaches with recent restoration projects also do not explain patterns of armoring or other sediment characteristics. High variability within each reach suggests that

  4. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tungsten Brush High Heat Flux Armor During High Temperature Steam Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Pawelko, Robert James; Anderl, Robert Andrew; Petti, David Andrew

    2000-05-01

    Tungsten brush accommodates thermal stresses and high heat flux in fusion reactor components such as plasma facing surfaces or armor. However, inherently higher surface areas are introduced with the brush design. We have tested a specific design of tungsten brush in steam between 500 and 1100°C. Hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization rates were determined to address fusion safety issues. The brush prepared from 3.2-mm diameter welding rods had a packing density of 85 percent. We found that both hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush, fixtured to represent a unit within a larger component, were less than projections based upon the total integrated surface area (TSA). Steam access and the escape of hydrogen and volatile oxide from void spaces within the brush are restricted compared to specimens with more direct diffusion pathways to the test environment. Hydrogen generation rates from restrained specimens based on normal surface area (NSA) remain about five times higher than rates based on total surface areas from specimens with direct steam access. Volatilization rates from restrained specimens based upon normal surface area (NSA) were only 50 percent higher than our historic cumulative maximum flux plot (CMFP) for tungsten. This study has shown that hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush do not scale according to predictions with previously determined rates, but in fact, with higher packing density could approach those from flat surfaces.

  5. Characterization of vibration and noise exposure in Canadian Forces armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Ann M.; Borland, Matthew J.; Abel, Sharon M.

    2005-09-01

    A study to characterize the vibration and noise exposure in several Canadian Forces (CF) armored vehicles is in progress. Measurements of whole-body vibration and ambient noise levels are being made in the LAV III, Bison, Coyote, and M113 vehicles at three different positions: driver, crew commander, and passenger bench (or navigator seat in the case of the Coyote). The measurements are being made while the vehicles are idling, driven over rough terrain, and driven at a high speed on paved highways. There are several standards that provide guidance on the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration, but they are difficult to implement in practice, particularly in adverse environments. The whole-body vibration measurements in this study are particularly difficult to interpret in the case of the crew commander, who often stands on the seat, and the passenger, who is seated but unrestrained by a seatbelt. The preliminary results-suggest, that according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines (ISO 2631-1:1997), there may be potential health risks for the driver and passenger after driving on rough terrain for less than 10 min. Noise levels were as high as 100 dBA during high-speed highway driving.

  6. Environmental assessment of depleted uranium used in military armor-piercing rounds in terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Brasfield, Sandra M; Bednar, Anthony J; Ang, Choo Y

    2014-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) from the military testing and use of armor-piercing kinetic energy penetrators has been shown to accumulate in soils; however, little is known about the toxicity of DU geochemical species created through corrosion or weathering. The purpose of the present study was to assess the toxic effects and bioaccumulation potential of field-collected DU oxides to the model terrestrial invertebrates Eisenia fetida (earthworm) and Porcellio scaber (isopod). Earthworm studies were acute (72 h) dermal exposures or 28-d spiked soil exposures that used noncontaminated field-collected soils from the US Army's Yuma and Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Endpoints assessed in earthworm testing included bioaccumulation, growth, reproduction, behavior (soil avoidance), and cellular stress (neutral red uptake in coelomocytes). Isopod testing used spiked food, and endpoints assessed included bioaccumulation, survival, and feeding behavior. Concentration-dependent bioaccumulation of DU in earthworms was observed with a maximum bioaccumulation factor of 0.35; however, no significant reductions in survival or impacts to cellular stress were observed. Reproduction lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) of 158 mg/kg and 96 mg/kg were observed in Yuma Proving Ground and a Mississippi reference soil (Karnac Ferry), respectively. Earthworm avoidance of contaminated soils was not observed in 48-h soil avoidance studies; however, isopods were shown to avoid food spiked with 12.7% by weight DU oxides through digital tracking studies. PMID:24549573

  7. SIRE (sight-integrated ranging equipment): an eyesafe laser rangefinder for armored vehicle fire control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeter, Howard S.; Gudmundson, Glen A.; Woodall, Milton A., II

    1991-04-01

    The Sight Integrated Ranging Equipment (SIRE) incorporates an eyesafe laser rangefinder into the M-36 periscope used in tactical armored vehicles, such as the Commando Stingray light tank. The SIRE unit provides crucial range data simultaneously to the gunner and fire control computer. This capability greatly reduces 'time-to-fire', improves first-round hit probability, and increases the overall effectiveness of the vehicle under actual and simulated battlefield conditions. The SIRE can provide target range up to 10-km, with an accuracy of 10-meters. The key advantage of the SIRE over similar laser rangefinder systems is that it uses erbium:glass as the active lasing medium. With a nominal output wavelength of 1.54-microns, the SIRE can produce sufficient peak power to penetrate long atmospheric paths (even in the presence of obscurants), while remaining completely eyesafe under all operating conditions. The SIRE is the first eyesafe vehicle-based system to combine this level of accuracy, maximum range capability, and fire control interface. It simultaneously improves the accuracy and confidence of the operator, and eliminates the ocular hazard issues typically encountered with laser rangefinder devices.

  8. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  9. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  10. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  11. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  12. Combat body armor and injuries to the head, face, and neck region: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Darryl; Beirne, Ross

    2013-04-01

    There has been a reported increase in combat-related head, face, and neck (HFN) injuries among service personnel wearing combat body armor (CBA) that have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Modern ceramic plate CBA has decreased the incidence of fatal-penetrating injuries to the torso but offers no protection to the limbs and face which remain exposed to gunshot wounds and fragments from explosive devices. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize the literature reporting on HFN injuries sustained by combat personnel wearing CBA and to highlight recommendations for increased protection to the facial region. Three major contributing factors were identified with this proportional increase in HFN injuries, namely the increased survivability of soldiers because of CBA, fragments injuries from explosive devices, and the lack of protection to the face and limbs. There appears to be no evidence to suggest that by virtue of wearing CBA the likelihood of sustaining an HFN injury increases as such, but a higher incidence of fragment injuries to the HFN region may be due to the more common use of improvised explosive devicess and other explosive devices. Further development of lightweight protection for the face is needed. PMID:23707828

  13. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    PubMed

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. PMID:25732181

  14. Persisting effects of armored military maneuvers on some soils of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prose, D.V.

    1985-01-01

    Soil compaction and substrate modification produced during large-scale armored military maneuvers in the early 1940s were examined in 1981 at seven sites in California's eastern Mojave Desert Recording penetrometer measurements show that tracks left by a single pass of an M3 "medium" tank have average soil resistance values that are 50% greater than those of the surrounding untracked soil in the upper 20 cm At one site, measurements made along short segments of track that have been visually eliminated by erosion and deposition processes show a 73% increase in penetrometer resistance over adjacent, undisturbed soils Dirt roadways at three former base camp locations could not be penetrated below 5-10 cm because of extreme compaction Soil bulk density was not as sensitive an indicator of soil compaction as was penetrometer resistance Density values in the upper 10 cm of soil are not significantly different between tank tracks and undisturbed soils at most sites, and roadways at two base camps show an average increase in bulk density of only 12% over adjacent soils. Trench excavations across tank tracks show that physical modifications of the substrate can extend vertically beneath a track to a depth of 25 cm and outward from a track's edge to 50 cm These soil disturbances are probably major factors that encourage accelerated soil erosion throughout the manuever area and also retard or prevent the return of vegetation to pre-disturbance conditions ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Armoring, stability, and transport driven by fluid flow over a granular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Benjamin; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We discuss experiments investigating the evolution of a granular bed by a fluid flow as a function of shear rate at the fluid-bed interface. This is a model system to investigate a variety of physical examples including wind blowing over sand, sediment transport in rivers, tidal flows interacting with beaches, flows in slurry pipelines, and sand proppants in hydraulic fracturing. In order to examine the onset and entrainment of the granular bed under steady state conditions, we have constructed a novel conical rheometer system which allows a variable amount of shear to be applied to the granular bed. The grain-fluid system is index matched so that we can visualize the grains away from the sides as well as visualize the fluid flow above and below the interface by using fluorescent tracer particles. We demonstrate that the onset of erosion arises as particles rotate out of their stable position highlighting the importance of torque balance to onset. We find significant armoring of the bed, as the bed is sheared by the fluid flow. Above onset, at least three distinct regions of bed mobility can be found. We will discuss the measured integrated granular flux as a function of shear rate and compare them with empirical laws found in the geophysical literature. Supported by NSF Grant Number CBET 1335928.

  16. Flexible Shields for Protecting Spacecraft Against Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee

    2004-01-01

    A report presents the concept of Flexshield a class of versatile, lightweight, flexible shields for protecting spacecraft against impacts by small meteors and orbiting debris. The Flexshield concept incorporates elements of, but goes beyond, prior spacecraft-shielding concepts, including those of Whipple shields and, more recently, multi-shock shields and multi-shock blankets. A shield of the Flexshield type includes multiple outer layers (called bumpers in the art) made, variously, of advanced ceramic and/or polymeric fibers spaced apart from each other by a lightweight foam. As in prior such shields, the bumpers serve to shock an impinging hypervelocity particle, causing it to disintegrate vaporize, and spread out over a larger area so that it can be stopped by an innermost layer (back sheet). The flexibility of the fabric layers and compressibility of the foam make it possible to compress and fold the shield for transport, then deploy the shield for use. The shield can be attached to a spacecraft by use of snaps, hook-and-pile patches, or other devices. The shield can also contain multilayer insulation material, so that it provides some thermal protection in addition to mechanical protection.

  17. Modeling the Importance of Baseflow and Sediment Supply on Armor Development: Contrasting Intermittent Dryland and Perennially-Flowing Gravel-Bedded Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K.; Johnson, J. P.; Viparelli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Most gravel-bedded rivers with perennial base flow are often armored, defined as having a bed surface grain size distribution that is coarser than the subsurface. In contrast, ephemerally flowing rivers, which are commonly flash flood-dominated, are typically unarmored. Although both types of channels have high peak discharges during floods, a key difference between these hydrological settings is in flow intermittency and how much flow occurs during moderate and low flow periods. High sediment supply and elevated shear stresses during floods have been identified as processes that may reduce or prevent armor development, but the preferential transport of smaller grain sizes during lower flows may also strongly affect armor development. We use numerical modeling to explore the relative importance of these armor-related processes. Calculations are based on a previous model called the Spawning Gravel Refresher, which includes mixed grain size sediment transport, morphodynamic feedbacks with channel slope, variable discharge hydrographs, and interactions with the subsurface grain sizes as the bed surface aggrades and erodes. Model runs are calibrated to natural rivers with varying degrees of bed surface armoring and flood hydrograph shape. These natural rivers include: i) the Nahal Yatir, an ephemerally flowing unarmored river in the Negev Desert, Israel, and ii) Trinity River, California, a larger perennially flowing, armored mountain river with annual snowmelt floods. We present a thorough exploration of model parameters, including base flow duration and magnitude, flood hydrograph shape and sand supply, combined with data from natural rivers. This produces quantitative bounds on how armor development varies in a wide range of parameter spaces unobtainable in the field alone.

  18. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  19. 18 CFR 284.403 - Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... persons holding blanket marketing certificates. 284.403 Section 284.403 Conservation of Power and Water... Pipelines § 284.403 Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates. (a) To the extent... must provide accurate and factual information, and not knowingly submit false or misleading...

  20. THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN SEMI-DISPOSABLE BLANKETS FROM RECYCLED POLYESTER/COTTON FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recycled polyester fibers and cotton fibers that require no chemical processing were used to produce a low-cost, semi-durable, nonwoven thermal blanket. Thermal blankets were given carboxylic acid finish to improve structural stability during use and laundering. A Steady-State Heat Flow meter FOX ...

  1. Design analysis and optimization of self-cooled lithium blankets and shields

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1988-02-01

    A study of self-cooled lithium blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main design parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio, the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Another study was carried out to determine materials, compositions, arrangements, and thickness of the shield zone for the reference blanket. Helium and water-cooled shields were optimized for the inboard and outboard sections of the reactor. Based on the above two studies, the reference blanket and shield configurations were developed for the ANL Tokamak Power Systems Study. The helium-cooled shield was selected for use with liquid metal blankets to reduce safety concerns related to lithium-water reactivity. This helium-cooled shield provides shielding characteristics similar to a conventional water-cooled shield. The analyses and results from these studies are the subject of this paper. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 78 FR 13663 - Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 12, 2013, Equitrans, L.P. (Equitrans), pursuant to the blanket certificate... open to public inspection. \\1\\ Equitrans, L.P., 85 FERC ] 61,089 (1998). Equitrans proposes to...

  3. 78 FR 30911 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate On May 8, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), filed a prior notice request... Act, and Texas Eastern's blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP82-535-000. Texas Eastern...

  4. Cotton-based hydromulches versus conventional hydromulches and blankets: Erosion and grass establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One commonly used means of reducing the impact of erosion from steep slopes while vegetation is being established is with erosion control products such as roll-out blankets and/or hydromulches. Roll-out blankets are commonly made of wheat straw, coconut husks, or fiberized wood, while the most preva...

  5. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000,...

  6. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  7. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  8. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  9. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  10. 76 FR 44324 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 14, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... located in San Jacinto and Liberty Counties, Texas, under Tennessee's blanket certificate issued in...

  11. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control. PMID:27181248

  12. Axially staggered seed-blanket reactor fuel module construction

    DOEpatents

    Cowell, Gary K.; DiGuiseppe, Carl P.

    1985-01-01

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor of the seed-blanket type is provided wher the fissile (seed) and fertile (blanket) nuclear fuels are segregated axially within each fuel element such that fissile and fertile regions occur in an alternating pattern along the length of the fuel element. Further, different axial stacking patterns are used for the fuel elements of at least two module types such that when modules of different types are positioned adjacent to one another, the fertile regions of the modules are offset or staggered. Thus, when a module of one type is surrounded by modules of the second type the fertile regions thereof will be surrounded on all sides by fissile material. This provides enhanced neutron communication both radially and axially, thereby resulting in greater power oscillation stability than other axial arrangements. The arrangements of the fissile and fertile regions in an alternating axial manner minimizes the radial power peaking factors and provides a more optional thermal-hydraulic design than is afforded by radial arrangements.

  13. First wall/blanket/shield design and optimization system

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Attaya, H.; Cha, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Scandora, T.

    1988-02-01

    First wall/blanket/shield design and optimization system (BSDOS) has been developed to provide a state-of-the-art design tool for fast accurate analysis. In addition, it has been designed to perform several other functions: (1) allowing comparison and evaluation studies for different concepts using the same data bases and ground rules, (2) permitting the use of any figure of merit in the evaluation studies, (3) optimizing the first wall/blanket/shield design parameters for any figure of merit under several design constraints, (4) permitting the use of different reactor parameters in the evaluation and optimization analyses, (5) allowing the use of improved eingineering data bases to study the impact on the design performance for planning future research and development, and (6) evaluating the effect of the data base uncertainties on the design performance. BSDOS is the first design and optimization system to couple the highly interacting neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, stress analysis, radioactivity and decay-heat analyses, tritium balance, and capital cost. A brief description of the main features of BSDOS is given in this paper. Also, results from using BSDOS to perform design analysis for several reactor components are presented. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Forced-air patient warming blankets disrupt unidirectional airflow.

    PubMed

    Legg, A J; Hamer, A J

    2013-03-01

    We have recently shown that waste heat from forced-air warming blankets can increase the temperature and concentration of airborne particles over the surgical site. The mechanism for the increased concentration of particles and their site of origin remained unclear. We therefore attempted to visualise the airflow in theatre over a simulated total knee replacement using neutral-buoyancy helium bubbles. Particles were created using a Rocket PS23 smoke machine positioned below the operating table, a potential area of contamination. The same theatre set-up, warming devices and controls were used as in our previous study. This demonstrated that waste heat from the poorly insulated forced-air warming blanket increased the air temperature on the surgical side of the drape by > 5°C. This created convection currents that rose against the downward unidirectional airflow, causing turbulence over the patient. The convection currents increased the particle concentration 1000-fold (2 174 000 particles/m(3) for forced-air warming vs 1000 particles/m(3) for radiant warming and 2000 particles/m(3) for the control) by drawing potentially contaminated particles from below the operating table into the surgical site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:407-10. PMID:23450029

  15. Composite flexible insulation for thermal protection of space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Tran, Huy K.; Chiu, S. Amanda

    1991-01-01

    A composite flexible blanket insulation (CFBI) system considered for use as a thermal protection system for space vehicles is described. This flexible composite insulation system consists of an outer layer of silicon carbide fabric, followed by alumina mat insulation, and alternating layers of aluminized polyimide film and aluminoborosilicate scrim fabric. A potential application of this composite insulation would be as a thermal protection system for the aerobrake of the aeroassist space transfer vehicle (ASTV). It would also apply to other space vehicles subject to high convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The thermal performance of this composite insulation as exposed to a simulated atmospheric entry environment in a plasma arc test facility is described. Other thermophysical properties which affect the thermal response of this composite insulation is included. It shows that this composite insulation is effective as a thermal protection system at total heating rates up to 30.6 W/sq cm.

  16. Modelling of tritium transport in a pin-type solid breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    This study supplements a larger study of a solid breeder blanket design featuring lithium ceramic pins. This aspect of the study looks at tritium transport, release, and inventory within this blanket design. Li/sub 2/O and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ are the two primary candidates for ceramic solid breeders. ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ was chosen for this blanket design due to its higher structural stability. Analysis of tritium behavior in solid breeder blankets is of great importance due to its impact on several critical issues: the generation of an adequate amount of fusion fuel, the safety-related issue of keeping radioactive blanket inventories as low as possible, and the release, purge, and economical processing of the bred tritium without undue contamination of the coolant and other reactor structures.

  17. Tritium processing system for the ITER Li/V blanket test module

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Hua, T.Q.; Abdou, M.A.; Dagher, M.A.; Waganer, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the ITER Blanket Testing Module is to test the operating and performance of candidate blanket concepts under a real fusion environment. To assure fuel self-sufficiency the tritium breeding, recovery and processing have to be demonstrated. The tritium produced in the blanket has to be processed to a purity which can be used for refueling. All these functions need to be accomplished so that the tritium system can be scaled to a commercial fusion power plant from a safety and reliability point of view. This paper summarizes the tritium processing steps, the size of the equipment, power requirements, space requirements, etc. for a self-cooled lithium blanket. This information is needed for the design and layout of the test blanket ancillary system and to assure that the ITER guidelines for remote handling of ancillary equipment can be met.

  18. Initial effects of light armored vehicle use on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey R; Ayers, Paul D; Lombardi-Przybylowicz, Angela M; Simmons, Katie

    2006-12-01

    Sustainable use of military training lands requires understanding and prediction of the effects of military vehicles on vegetation. We examined the initial impacts of an 8-wheeled, light armored vehicle (LAV) on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington. The LAV drove replicate spiral paths at two starting velocities, 10.3 and 5.1 m s(-1). The disturbed width (width of ground impacted by the tires) increased as turning radius decreased, but was unaffected by vehicle velocity. An inverse-exponential model predicted disturbed width (r(2)=0.68) at all turning radii for both velocities combined. In low-velocity spirals, and for straight tracking (turning radius>40 m) and moderate turns (radius 20-40 m) in high-velocity spirals, all vegetation damage was imprint (plants flattened by wheels). During sharp (radius <20 m), high-velocity turns, most or all of the disturbed width was scraped free of surface vegetation and soil, which was piled to the outside of each tire track. Total plant cover (all species) was not affected by track curvature in low-velocity spirals, but decreased in the order straight tracking>moderate turns>sharp turns in high-velocity spirals. In low-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of several plant growth forms (non-native species, perennial species, sod-forming grasses) was similar to pre-tracking cover, but in high-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of these growth forms decreased in the order straight > or =moderate=sharp. Cover of native species and forbs decreased more in high- than in low-velocity spirals, but was unaffected by curvature. Pre- and post-tracking cover of annual species, bunchgrasses, and shrubs was < or =3%. The most severe vegetation damage caused by operation of wheeled LAVs on grasslands is associated with sharp, high-velocity turns. PMID:16549228

  19. Neutronic analysis of alternative structural materials for fusion reactor blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1988-07-01

    The neutronic performance of the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) blanket was studied when several alternative structural materials were used instead of the INTOR reference structural material, type 316 stainless steel. The alternative structural materials included: ferritic-, vanadium-, titanium-, long range ordered-, manganese austenitic-, and nimonic-alloys. All were treated both with and without a first-wall coating of beryllium or graphite. The tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, and the gas (hydrogen and helium) production rates in the structural materials were calculated for the possible combinations of structural material and first-wall coating. These parameters were compared with those obtained by using SS-316. The nimonic alloy was the only one with worse neutronic performance than the SS-316.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  1. Tailorable advanced blanket insulation using aluminoborosilicate and alumina batting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calamito, Dominic P.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI) flat panels for Advanced Space Transportation Systems were produced. Both types consisted of integrally woven, 3-D fluted core having parallel faces and connecting ribs of Nicalon yarns. The triangular cross section flutes of one type was filled with mandrels of processed Ultrafiber (aluminoborosilicate) stitchbonded Nextel 440 fibrous felt, and the second type wall filled with Saffil alumina fibrous felt insulation. Weaving problems were minimal. Insertion of the fragile insulation mandrels into the fabric flutes was improved by using a special insertion tool. An attempt was made to weave fluted core fabrics from Nextel 440 yarns but was unsuccessful because of the yarn's fragility. A small sample was eventually produced by an unorthodox weaving process and then filled with Saffil insulation. The procedures for setting up and weaving the fabrics and preparing and inserting insulation mandrels are discussed. Characterizations of the panels produced are also presented.

  2. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    SciTech Connect

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  3. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-01

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  4. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J. A.; Meier, W. R.; Jolodosky, A.; Frantoni, M.; Reyes, S.

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  5. Thermal-hydraulic design of the target/blanket for the accelerator production of tritium conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Kapernick, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    A conceptual design was developed for the target/blanket system of an accelerator-based system to produce tritium. The target/blanket system uses clad tungsten rods for a spallation target and clad lead rods as a neutron multiplier in a blanket surrounding the target. The neutrons produce tritium in {sup 3}He, which is contained in aluminum tubes located in the decoupler and blanket regions. This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic design of the target, decoupler, and blanket developed for the conceptual design of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, and demonstrates there is adequate margin in the design at full power operation.

  6. Neutronics experiments for DEMO blanket at JAERI/FNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Ochiai, K.; Hori, J.; Verzilov, Y.; Klix, A.; Wada, M.; Terada, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Morimoto, Y.; Nishitani, T.

    2003-07-01

    In order to verify the accuracy of the tritium production rate (TPR), neutron irradiation experiments have been performed with a mockup relevant to the fusion DEMO blanket consisting of F82H blocks, Li2TiO3 blocks with a 6Li enrichment of 40% and 95%, and beryllium blocks. Sample pellets of Li2TiO3 were irradiated and the TPR was measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The TPR was also calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B with the nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 and ENDF-B/VI. The results agreed with experimental values within the statistical error (10%) of the experiment. Accordingly, it was clarified that the TPR could be evaluated within 10% uncertainty by the calculation code and the nuclear data. In order to estimate the induced activity caused by sequential reactions in cooling water pipes in the DEMO blanket, neutron irradiation experiments have been performed using test specimens simulating the pipes. Sample metals of Fe, W, Ti, Pb, Cu, V and reduced activation ferritic steel F82H were irradiated as typical fusion materials. The effective cross-sections needed to calculate the formation of the radioactive nuclei (56Co, 184Re, 48V, 206Bi, 65Zn and 51Cr) due to sequential reactions were measured. From the experimental results, it was found that the effective cross-sections increased remarkably while coming closer to polyethylene board, which was a substitute for water. As a result of this present study, it has become clear that the sequential reaction rates are important factors in the accurate evaluation of induced activity in fusion reactor design.

  7. River bed armoring in a local scour under no-supply conditions; experimental investigation and numerical model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Gergerly; Baranya, Sandor; Rüther, Nils

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present a novel method for numerical modeling of morphological changes. The essence of the method doesn't mean the development of a new sediment transport formula, but the combined application of the existing, conditionally validated sediment transport models. Many bedload transport formulas can be found in the literature, which were developed based on different field and laboratory measurements. Thus, the most reliability of the models usually can be expected only for the given morphological and hydrological conditions connected to the base measurements. However, commonly in the analysed cases the morphological and hydrological features are more variable both in time and in space. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that, complex hydromorphological processes can't be modeled by one sediment transport formula. The authors present a solution based on laboratory experiments. Spatio-temporal developments of bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition under no supply condition was monitored and analysed. The sediment transport model of Wilcock and Crowe (2003) was expected to calculate properly the local scouring and bed armoring processes, while the motion and aggradation of the finer materials were supposed to estimate reliably by the van Rijn formula (1984). The main challenge of the combining method is to find an appropriate criterion to decide which transport formula is activated in the given space and in the given time step. The result of the investigation showed that the most reliable criteria is based on the d50 value. As soon as the d50 grain size goes below a certain value, van Rijn is activated, otherwise the Wilcock and Crowe formula calculates the sorting and armoring processes. The results show that the combining method clearly improve the reliability of the morphological calculation. The benefit of the Wilcock and Crowe model is that it estimates quite well the sediment transport in mixed or armored

  8. Pressure drop considerations of a lithium cooled fusion breeder tokamak reactor blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.

    1983-12-06

    Liquid lithium was selected as one of the coolants for the 1983 fusion breeder blanket used on the magnetically confined tokamak fusion reactor, and as a result, the thermal-hydraulic calculations were dominated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) considerations. The applicable sets of MHD equations for the engineering thermal-hydraulic design were reviewed and compared. Special attention was given to the MHD calculations for the fertile material zone, a packed bed of composite beryllium and thorium balls, since this region can dominate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of this blanket module. To keep the pressure drops acceptable, fertile fuel balls were omitted in the inboard blanket.

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Liquid Metal MHD Pressure Drop in the Blanket for the FDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-yan; Wu, Yi-can; He, Xiao-xong

    2002-10-01

    Preliminary analysis and calculation of liquid metal Li17Pb83 magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the blanket for the FDS have been presented to evaluate the significance of MHD effects on the thermal-hydraulic design of the blanket. To decrease the liquid metal MHD pressure drop, Al2O3 is applied as an electronically insulated coating onto the inner surface of the ducts. The requirement for the insulated coating to reduce the additional leakage pressure drop caused by coating imperfections has been analyzed. Finally, the total liquid metal MHD pressure drop and magnetic pump power in the FDS blanket have been given.

  10. APT Blanket Thermal Analysis of Cavity Flood Cooling with a Beam Window Break

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A.

    1999-11-19

    The cavity flood system is designed to be the primary safeguard for the integrity of the blanket modules and target assemblies during loss of coolant accidents, LOCA''s. In the unlikely event that the internal flow passages in a blanket module or a target assembly dryout, decay heat in the metal structures will be dissipated to the cavity flood system through the module or assembly walls. This study supplements the two previous studies by demonstrating that the cavity flood system can adequately cool the blanket modules when the cavity vessel beam window breaks.

  11. Molten salt cooling//sup 17/Li-/sup 83/Pb breeding blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-02-01

    A description of a fusion breeding blanket concept using draw salt coolant and static /sup 17/Li-/sup 83/Pb is presented. /sup 17/Li-/sup 83/Pb has high breeding capability and low tritium solubility. Draw salt operates at low pressure and is inert to water. Corrosion, MHD, and tritium containment problems associated with the MARS design are alleviated because of the use of a static LiPb blanket. Blanket tritium recovery is by permeation toward the plasma. A direct contact steam generator is proposed to eliminate some generic problems associated with a tube shell steam generator.

  12. Flexibility, Is That All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Wim M.

    This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…

  13. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  14. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  15. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  16. Flexible Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  17. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. Flexibility within Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  19. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  20. Surface water-groundwater interaction and chemistry in a mineral-armored hydrothermal outflow channel, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M. V.; Gardner, P.; Hinman, N. W.

    2008-11-01

    Small quantities of groundwater interact with hydrothermal surface water to drive in-stream geochemical processes in a silica-armored hot-spring outflow channel in Yellowstone National Park, USA. The objective of this study was to characterize the hydrology and geochemistry of this unique system in order to (1) learn more about the Yellowstone Plateau’s subsurface water mixing between meteoric and hydrothermal waters and (2) learn more about the chemical and physical processes that lead to accumulation of streambed cements, i.e., streambed armor. A combination of hydrological, geochemical, mineralogical, microscopic, and petrographic techniques were used to identify groundwater and surface-water exchange. Interaction could be identified in winter because of differences in surface water and groundwater composition but interaction at other times of the year cannot be ruled out. Dissolved constituents originating from groundwater (e.g., Fe(II) and Mg) were traced downstream until oxidation and/or subsequent precipitation with silica removed them, particularly where high affinity substrates like cyanobacterial surfaces were present. Because the stream lies in a relatively flat drainage basin and is fed mainly by a seasonally relatively stable hot spring, this system allowed study of the chemical processes along a stream without the obscuring effects of sedimentation.

  1. 77 FR 73652 - Honeoye Storage Corporation: Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Honeoye Storage Corporation: Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on November 16, 2012, Honeoye Storage Corporation (Honeoye) as supplemented...

  2. ITER fast ion confinement in the presence of the European test blanket module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Asunta, Otto; Cavinato, Mario; Gagliardi, Mario; Hirvijoki, Eero; Saibene, Gabriella; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Särkimäki, Konsta; Varje, Jari

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the confinement of thermonuclear alpha particles and neutral beam injected deuterons in the 15 MA Q = 10 inductive scenario in the presence of the magnetic perturbation caused by the helium cooled pebble bed test blanket module using the vacuum approximation. Both the flat top phase and plasma ramp-up are studied. The transport of fast ions is calculated using the Monte Carlo guiding center orbit-following code ASCOT. A detailed three-dimensional wall, derived from the ITER blanket module CAD data, is used for evaluating the fast ion wall loads. The effect of the test blanket module is studied for both overall confinement and possible hot spots. The study indicates that the test blanket modules do not significantly deteriorate the fast ion confinement.

  3. Feasibility study of a fission supressed blanket for a tandem-mirror hybrid reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Barr, W.L.

    1981-10-05

    A study of fission suppressed blankets for the tandem mirror not only showed such blankets to be feasible but also to be safer than fissioning blankets. Such hybrids could produce enough fissile material to support up to 17 light water reactors of the same nuclear power rating. Beryllium was compared to /sup 7/Li for neutron multiplication; both were considered feasible but the blanket with Li produced 20% less fissile fuel per unit of nuclear power in the reactor. The beryllium resource, while possibly being too small for extensive pure fusion application, would be adequate (with carefully planned industrial expansion) for the hybrid because of the large support ratio, and hence few hybrids required. Radiation damage and coatings for beryllium remain issues to be resolved by further study and experimentation.

  4. Role of Fabrication on Materials Compatibility in APT Target/Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, N.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper summarizes several of the options associated with the fabrication of selected target/blanket components. In addition, the materials characterization technologies required to validate these components performance is presented.

  5. 77 FR 26544 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 18, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe... authorization to construct and operate certain natural gas transmission facilities in Chesterfield...

  6. 78 FR 20315 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500... the application should be directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas...

  7. Thin blanket design for MINIMARS - A compact tandem mirror fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sawan, M.E.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Corradini, M.L.; Vogelsang, W.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1986-11-01

    Recent fusion power reactor designs have shown a trend toward lower power, lower cost, higher mass utilization compact configurations with inherent safety, in order to improve the economic aspects of fusion and make them more competitive with other energy sources. Since the blanket thickness directly impacts the size and mass of the remaining reactor components, it is prudent to minimize its thickness while ensuring adequate neutronic and thermal performance. This paper describes the blanket for the MINI-MARS compact tandem mirror fusion power reactor. The blanket which utilizes HT-9 ferritic steel structure, LiPb breeder, Be multiplier/moderator and He gas cooling is only 17 cm thick and is backed up by a steel reflector. Helium gas cools the blanket and reflector in series and the outlet temperature of 575/sup 0/C gives a gross thermal power cycle efficiency of 42.7%.

  8. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  9. Sediment mobility and bed armoring in the St Clair River: insights from hydrodynamic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Parker, Gary; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Mier, Jose M.; Best, James L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Ashmore, Peter; Krishnappan, Bommanna G.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2012-01-01

    The lake levels in Lake Michigan-Huron have recently fallen to near historical lows, as has the elevation difference between Lake Michigan-Huron compared to Lake Erie. This decline in lake levels has the potential to cause detrimental impacts on the lake ecosystems, together with social and economic impacts on communities in the entire Great Lakes region. Results from past work suggest that morphological changes in the St Clair River, which is the only natural outlet for Lake Michigan-Huron, could be an appreciable factor in the recent trends of lake level decline. A key research question is whether bed erosion within the river has caused an increase in water conveyance, therefore, contributed to the falling lake level. In this paper, a numerical modeling approach with field data is used to investigate the possibility of sediment movement in the St Clair River and assess the likelihood of morphological change under the current flow regime. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to study flow structure, bed shear stress, and sediment mobility/armoring over a range of flow discharges. Boundary conditions for the numerical model were provided by detailed field measurements that included high-resolution bathymetry and three-dimensional flow velocities. The results indicate that, without considering other effects, under the current range of flow conditions, the shear stresses produced by the river flow are too low to transport most of the coarse bed sediment within the reach and are too low to cause substantial bed erosion or bed scour. However, the detailed maps of the bed show mobile bedforms in the upper St Clair River that are indicative of sediment transport. Relatively high shear stresses near a constriction at the upstream end of the river and at channel bends could cause local scour and deposition. Ship-induced propeller wake erosion also is a likely cause of sediment movement in the entire reach. Other factors that may promote sediment movement, such as ice

  10. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-01-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts that large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales, and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of

  11. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-10-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of blanket

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management inspections conducted under authority of 44 U.S.C. 2904 and 2906. M. Routine Use—Disclosure to the... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part...) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses...

  13. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  14. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 806b - DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD âBlanket Routine Usesâ C Appendix C to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. C Appendix C to Part 806b—DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’ Certain DoD... the issuance of a license, grant, or other benefit. c. Disclosure of Requested Information Routine...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part...) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses (See paragraph (c) of § 310.22 of subpart E) A. Routine Use—Law Enforcement If a system of records maintained...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 806b - DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD âBlanket Routine Usesâ C Appendix C to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. C Appendix C to Part 806b—DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’ Certain DoD... the issuance of a license, grant, or other benefit. c. Disclosure of Requested Information Routine...

  18. First wall and blanket design for a high wall loading compact tokamak power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Corradini, M.L.; El-Afify, M.; Huh, K.Y.; Kuleinski, G.L.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1985-07-01

    Among the specific limitations which tend to complicate a compact high wall loading (HWL) tokamak reactor design are high surface and nuclear heating, compactness leading to crowded components, unlikely breeding on the inboard side and frequent first wall/blanket replacement. This paper describes the mechanical, thermal hydraulic and tritium aspects of an improved blanket design for a high ..beta.. (20%), high wall loading (R 10 MW/m/sup 2/) compact fusion power reactor of 1000 MW /sub th/ power output.

  19. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  20. Liquid immersion blanket design for use in a compact modular fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Hartwig, Zachary; Olynyk, Geoffrey; Sierchio, Jennifer; Whyte, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    Traditional tritium breeding blankets in fusion reactor designs include a large amount of structural material. This results in complex engineering requirements, complicated sector maintenance, and marginal tritium breeding ratios (TBR). We present a conceptual design of a fully liquid blanket. To maximize tritium breeding volume, the vacuum vessel is completely immersed in a continuously recycled FLiBe blanket, with the exception of small support posts. FLiBe has a wide liquid temperature window (459 C to 1430 C), low electrical conductivity to minimize MHD effects, similar thermal/fluid characteristics to water, and is chemically inert. While tritium breeding with FLiBe in traditional blankets is poor, we use MCNP neutronics analysis to show that the immersion blanket design coupled with a beryllium neutron multiplier results in TBR > 1. FLiBe is shown to be a sufficient radiation shield for the toroidal field magnets and can be used as a coolant for the vacuum vessel and divertor, allowing for a simplified single-phase, low-pressure, single-fluid cooling scheme. When coupled with a high-field compact reactor design, the immersion blanket eliminates the need for complex sector maintenance, allows the vacuum vessel to be a replaceable component, and reduces financial cost.

  1. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qun-Ying; Li, Jian-Gang; Chen, Yi-Xue

    2004-12-01

    Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB) to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW.yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  2. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  3. (Deuterium-deuterium)-driven experimental hybrid blankets and their neutronic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Sahin, S.

    1984-09-01

    The impressive progress made so far toward the achievement of the physics goal of ignited fusion fuel of deuterium-tritium (D-T) is stirring the scientific community to look back and work for the earliest possible introduction of advanced fusion fuel based reactors with the ultimate objective of very clean, safe, and limitless fusion power. As the introduction of advanced fuel fusion drivers is expected to be in phases due to energetics considerations, it is quite instructive to examine the neutronic aspects of deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron driven hybrid blankets. The neutronics investigations of some compact hybrid blankets that could be tested experimentally are presented. The blanket designs are selected to conform to a rather small experimental chamber of the LOTUS fusionfission hybrid facility. The parallelepiped-shaped blankets are driven by a (D-D) neutron source from one side. The fertile fuel is either ThO/sub 2/, natural UO/sub 2/, or LOTUS UO/sub 2/. The tritium breeders are chosen from lithium, LiAlO/sub 2/, or Li/sub 2/O. The relative performances of different fertile fuels and tritium breeders are compared. The performance characteristics of ThO/sub 2/ blankets driven by (D-T) and (D-D) neutrons are compared. The improvement in performance characteristics obtained by the introduction of actinides as multipliers with ThO/sub 2/ hybrid blankets is also investigated.

  4. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  5. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D. R.

    1985-09-10

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  6. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston; Merrill, Brad Johnson

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  7. A code for line blanketing without local thermodynamic equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. S.

    A numerical code has been written which is designed to calculate radiation transport and atmospheric structure under the constraints of statistical equilibrium in atomic transitions and radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium in the medium. In addition to the complete linearization and variable Eddington factor techniques of Auer and Mihalas, it uses a multi-frequency/multi-gray algorithm which admits the inclusion of many spectral lines in full statistical equilibrium. The program can comfortably accept up to about 300 specific lines arising from about 30 lower states and any number of continua. Cleverly constructed artificial model atoms can extend the number of lines to 3000 or more, where opacity sampling techniques can begin to approximate the blanketing accomplished by Kurucz in LTE. By way of example, a model of a stellar atmosphere is presented with effective temperature 35,000 K and surface gravity 10 to the 4 cm per second squared. The calculation includes 98 bound-free transitions and 93 bound-bound transitions (57 with radiative rates) between 91 states in 36 ions of nine cosmically abundant species.

  8. Smoke from Canadian Fires Blankets Eastern U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke from multiple large wildfires in Quebec is blanketing the southern portion of the Canadian province and extending southward over the Great Lakes and eastern United States. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 7, 2002, and shows dozens of active fire detections (red dots) east of James Bay at upper left. The enormous smoke plume is almost 200 miles wide where it enters the United States over the New York and Vermont state lines. The thick pall is affecting air quality in places well to the south, including New York, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. The image shows the smoke drifting out over the Atlantic Ocean, and then curling back in over North Carolina (bottom right). On Sunday, July 7, the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Center reported 15 new fires in Quebec in the preceding 24 hours, bringing the total to more than 40 fires in the region, at least 7 which were burning out of control. Most of the fires are believed to have been caused by lightning, more of which is expected on Monday. According to news reports, several hundred people remain evacuated from their homes. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory, based upon data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. The effect of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on shoot growth of the invasive plant Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the effect of feeding by the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi, 1920) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the growth of the plant Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) was evaluated under field conditions in its native range. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of R. donacis, a c...

  10. Preparation of His-Tagged Armored RNA Phage Particles as a Control for Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yangjian; Niu, Jianjun; Zhang, Yongyou; Huang, Jianwei; Li, Qingge

    2006-01-01

    Armored RNA has been increasingly used as both an external and internal positive control in nucleic acid-based assays for RNA virus. In order to facilitate armored RNA purification, a His6 tag was introduced into the loop region of the MS2 coat protein, which allows the exposure of multiple His tags on the surface during armored RNA assembly. The His-tagged armored RNA particles were purified to homogeneity and verified to be free of DNA contamination in a single run of affinity chromatography. A fragment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome targeted for SARS-CoV detection was chosen for an external positive control preparation. A plant-specific gene sequence was chosen for a universal noncompetitive internal positive control preparation. Both controls were purified by Co2+ affinity chromatography and were included in a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for SARS-CoV. The noncompetitive internal positive control can be added to clinical samples before RNA extraction and enables the identification of potential inhibitive effects without interfering with target amplification. The external control could be used for the quantification of viral loads in clinical samples. PMID:17021082

  11. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage. PMID:27186563

  12. Modeling flexible active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Selinger, Robin

    We study active nematic phases of self-propelled flexible chains in two dimensions using computer simulation, to investigate effects of chain flexibility. In a ``dry'' phase of self-propelled flexible chains, we find that increasing chain stiffness enhances orientational order and correlation length, narrows the distribution of turning angles, increases persistence length, and increases the magnitude of giant density fluctuations. We further adapt the simulation model to describe behavior of microtubules driven by kinesin molecular motors in two different environments: on a rigid substrate with kinesin immobilized on the surface; and on a lipid membrane where kinesin is bonded to lipid head groups and can diffuse. Results are compared to experiments by L. Hirst and J. Xu. Lastly, we consider active nematics of flexible particles enclosed in soft, deformable encapsulation in two dimensions, and demonstrate novel mechanisms of pattern formation that are fundamentally different from those observed in bulk. Supported by NSF-DMR 1409658.

  13. Flexible memory networks.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;ℤ)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

  14. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrov, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some questions connected with Cauchy's theorem which states that two convex closed polyhedral surfaces whose corresponding faces are congruent and whose faces adjoin each other in the same way are congruent. Describes how to construct a flexible polyhedron. (ASK)

  15. Flexibility in insulin prescription.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage. PMID:27186563

  16. Flexible sliding seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallenhorst, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Circular seal both slides and flexes to accomodate relative motion between two sealed members. Originally developed for Space Shuttle orbiter, it contains sliding seal to accommodate engine gimbaling and flexible seal that absorbs forward motion at high thrust of engine heat shield relative to airframe. Other possible applications are in support structures of heavy machinery and vehicle engines. Flexible sliding seal is ring about 7 feet in diameter and can withstand temperatures up to 1,600 F.

  17. Flexible production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, A. D.; Shchetinin, D. D.

    1986-03-01

    Flexible production systems are a technological tool design to automate multiple product line manufacturing. Flexible production systems provide an efficient means of organizing combined equipment operations and bring the production organization nearer to an unmanned arrangement or one requiring a limited number of workers. This is achieved by intensifying and automating manufacturing processes; coordinating the automated processes involved in warehousing and materials transport to maintain a tight production path; and using computers to automate production preparation and production control. The prerequisites for a change to these new production structures include numerical control NC tools and machining centers, power connection points for robots, automated conveying and warehousing systems controlled by microelectronic devices and control computer complexes consisting primarily of microprocessor-based units capable of controlling equipment via a direct connection and on a real-time basis. The types of flexible production systems in operation are divided into three groups: (1) flexible automated lines (GAL), (2) flexible production modules (GPM); and (3) flexible production complexes (GPK).

  18. Axial blanket fuel design and demonstration. First semi-annual progress report, January-September 1980. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The axial blanket fuel design in this program, which is retrofittable in operating pressurized water reactors, involves replacing the top and bottom of the enriched fuel column with low-enriched (less than or equal to 1.0 wt % /sup 235/U) fertile uranium. This repositioning of the fissile inventory in the fuel rod leads to decreased axial leakage and increased discharge burnups in the enriched fuel. Various axial blanket fuel designs, with blanket thicknesses from 0 to 10 inches and blanket enrichments from 0.2 to 1.0 wt % /sup 235/U, were investigated to determine the relationship between uranium utilization and power peaking. Analyses were preformed to assess the nuclear, mechanical, and thermal-hydraulic effects arising from the use of axial blankets. Four axial blanket lead test assemblies are being fabricated for scheduled irradiation in cycle 5 of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Rancho Seco pressurized water reactor. Analyses to support licensing cycle 5 are in progress.

  19. An analytical approach for assessing the collapse strength of an unbonded flexible pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. G.; Liu, J.; Zhu, L. F.; Tan, Z. M.; Karabelas, G.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical scheme for predicting the collapse strength of a flexible pipe, which considers the structural interaction between relevant layers. The analytical results were compared with a FEA model and a number of test data, and showed reasonably good agreement. The theoretical analysis showed that the pressure armor layer enhanced the strength of the carcass against buckling, though the barrier weakened this effect. The collapse strength of pipe was influenced by many factors such as the inner radius of the pipe, the thickness of the layers and the mechanical properties of the materials. For example, an increase in the thickness of the barrier will increase contact pressure and in turn reduce the critical pressure.

  20. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  1. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crosswait, K.M.

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  2. Composite molding of SPECTRA{reg_sign} extended chain polyethylene fibers in a flexible rubber matrix

    SciTech Connect

    McKeehan, K.

    1997-08-01

    THETA Technologies, Inc. is a multidisciplinary research and development firm involved in the design and development of affordable, lightweight, high ballistic protection modular body armor ensemble for future military, law enforcement, and specialized commercial market applications. In the course of their research, THETA Technologies, Inc. identified that current state-of-the-art in ballistic protection and overall composite reinforcement is a high density extended chain polyethylene (HDECPE) fiber known as SPECTRA{reg_sign}, a product of AlliedSignal Fibers, Petersburg, VA. SPECTRA{reg_sign} is ten times stronger than steel of equal weight. As a non-aramid polyethylene, it offers highly desirable properties in areas of resistance to chemical degradation, virtual neutral buoyancy (0.97), and increased capacity for composite bonding over competing nylon-based fibers, such as KEVLAR{reg_sign}. SPECTRA Shield{trademark}, a woven ballistic-resistant fabric using the SPECTRA{reg_sign} fiber, is presently the most effective ballistic-resistant component for both flexible and hard plate composite armors. THETA Technologies, Inc. identified a market need for a boot sole design that would measurably increase protection to the wearer without significantly degrading performance in other areas, such as flexibility and overall weight. THETA Technologies, Inc. proposed a nitrile rubber and SPECTRA{reg_sign} fiber matrix to produce an optimal boot sole. The objective of this CRADA effort was to develop and test a process for combining the SPECTRA{reg_sign} fiber, in both chopped fiber and SPECTRA Shield{trademark} form, within a semiflexible nitrile composite having desirable and marketable properties in areas of resistance to penetration and mechanical stress.

  3. Characterization of the effects of continuous salt processing on the performance of molten salt fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.

    1984-05-01

    Several continuous salt processing options are available for use in molten salt fusion breeder blanket designs. The effects of processing on blanket performance have been assessed for three levels of processing and various equilibrium uranium concentrations in the salt. A one-dimensional model of the blanket was used in the neutronics analysis which incorporated transport calculations with time-dependent isotope generation and depletion calculations. The level of salt processing was found to have little effect on the behavior of the blanket during reactor operation; however, significant effects were observed during the decay period after reactor shutdown.

  4. Sensitivity of blanket peat vegetation and hydrochemistry to local disturbances.

    PubMed

    Robroek, Bjorn J M; Smart, Richard P; Holden, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    At the ecosystem scale, peatlands can be extremely resilient to perturbations. Yet, they are very sensitive to local disturbances, especially mechanical perturbations (e.g. trampling). The effects of these disturbances on vegetation, and potential effects on hydrochemical conditions along the peat surface, however, are largely unknown. We used three research tracks (paths researchers use to access their study sites) differing in time of abandonment to investigate the impact of local disturbance (trampling) on the vegetation and its short-term (< or = 2 year) recovery in a flagship research blanket peatland. Additionally, we examined the effects of local disturbance on fluvial runoff events and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in runoff water. Local disturbance heavily impacted peat vegetation, resulting in large areas of scarred and churned peat. Recovery of vascular plants along abandoned tracks was slow, but a functional Sphagnum layer re-established after just one year. The absence of vegetation elicited an increase in the number of runoff events along the tracks, by which POC runoff from the tracks increased. POC concentrations were highest in the surface water from the recently abandoned track, while they were low in the runoff water from the track abandoned longest and the undisturbed control track. We attribute this to the relatively fast recovery of the Sphagnum vegetation. DOC concentrations did not differ significantly either spatially or temporally in surface runoff or soil solution waters. While at an ecosystem scale local disturbances may be negligible in terms of carbon loss, our data points to the need for further research on the potential long-term effects of local disturbance on the vegetation, and significant effects on local scale carbon fluxes. Moreover, the effects of disturbances could be long-lasting and their role on ecosystem processes should not be underestimated. PMID:20692016

  5. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  6. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

    2013-09-01

    A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish. PMID:23903566

  7. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  8. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  9. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Tingting; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Guojing; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Xie, Jiehong; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7%) were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL). In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection of measles virus

  10. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2014-09-01

    In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process was introduced. The model is of a modular type and comprises five modules, each designed to handle a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: (i) electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; (ii) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric-arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; (iii) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (iv) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and (v) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties. In the present work, the GMAW process model has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic-limit (i.e., penetration-resistance) of the weld. The model is upgraded through the introduction of the sixth module in the present work in recognition of the fact that in thick steel GMAW weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor may become controlled by the (often inferior) ballistic limits of its weld (fusion and heat-affected) zones. To demonstrate the utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel, MIL A46100. The model predictions concerning the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic-limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with prior observations and general expectations.

  11. Flexible transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  12. Design and technology development of solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoeda, M.; Kosaku, Y.; Hatano, T.; Kuroda, T.; Miki, N.; Honma, T.; Akiba, M.; Konishi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Sato, S.; Furuya, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents results of conceptual design activities and associated R&D of a solid breeder blanket system for demonstration of power generation fusion reactors (DEMO blanket) cooled by supercritical water. The Fusion Council of Japan developed the long-term research and development programme of the blanket in 1999. To make the fusion DEMO reactor more attractive, a higher thermal efficiency of more than 40% was strongly recommended. To meet this requirement, the design of the DEMO fusion reactor was carried out. In conjunction with the reactor design, a new concept of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was proposed and design and technology development of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was performed. By thermo-mechanical analyses of the first wall, the tresca stress was evaluated to be 428 MPa, which clears the 3Sm value of F82H. By thermal and nuclear analyses of the breeder layers, it was shown that a net TBR of more than 1.05 can be achieved. By thermal analysis of the supercritical water power plant, it was shown that a thermal efficiency of more than 41% is achievable. The design work included design of the coolant flow pattern for blanket modules, module structure design, thermo-mechanical analysis and neutronics analysis of the blanket module, and analyses of the tritium inventory and permeation. Preliminary integration of the design of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was achieved in this study. In parallel with the design activities, engineering R&D was conducted covering all necessary issues, such as development of structural materials, tritium breeding materials, and neutron multiplier materials; neutronics experiments and analyses; and development of the blanket module fabrication technology. Upon developing the fabrication technology for the first wall and box structure, a hot isostatic pressing bonded F82H first wall mock-up with embedded rectangular cooling channels was

  13. Printed Microinductors for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Whitacre, Jay; Wesseling, Emily

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabricating planar, flexible microinductors that exhibit a relatively high quality factor (Q) between 1 and 10 MHz has been devised. These inductors are targeted for use in flexible, low-profile power-converter circuits. They could also be incorporated into electronic circuits integrated into flexible structures, including flexible antenna and solar-sail structures that are deployable.

  14. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are ; (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li/sub 2/O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO/sub 2//He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies.

  15. Liquid metal blanket module testing and design for ITER/TIBER II

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.; Finn, P.A.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.; Stevens, H.; Turner, L.

    1988-05-01

    A major goal for ITER is the testing of nuclear components to demonstrate the integrated performance of the most attractive concepts that can lead to a commercial fusion reactor. As part of the ITER/TIBER II study, the test program and design of test models were examined for a number of blanket concepts. The work at Argonne National Laboratory focused on self-cooled liquid metal blankets. A test program for liquid metal blankets was developed based upon the ITER/TIBER II operating schedule and the specific data needs to resolve the key issues for liquid metals. Testing can begin early in reactor operation with liquid metal MHD tests to confirm predictive capability. Combined heat transfer/MHD tests can be performed during initial plasma operation. After acceptable heat transfer performance is verified, tests to determine the integrated high temperature performance in a neutron environment can begin. During the high availability phase operation, long term performance and reliability tests will be performed. It is envisioned that a companion test program will be conducted outside ITER to determine behavior under severe accident conditions and upper performance limits. A detailed design of a liquid metal test module and auxiliary equipment was also developed. The module followed the design of the TPSS blanket. Detailed analysis of the heat transfer and tritium systems were performed, and the overall layout of the systems was determined. In general, the blanket module appears to be capable of addressing most of the testing needs. 8 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Thin blanket design for MINIMARS - a compact tandem mirror fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sawan, M.E.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Corradini, M.L.; Vogelsang, W.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A primary goal in the MINIMARS fusion power reactor design is to achieve the lowest possible cost of electricity and highest mass utilization while maintaining credibility and passive safety. Because the blanket impacts many components, reducing its thickness-while achieving adequate breeding and a high energy multiplication-was of prime importance. The MINIMARS blanket is a helium-gas-cooled design using 17Li-83Pb (LiPb) breeder, HT-9 structure, and beryllium moderator/multiplier. The helium gas is contained in small tubes that are immersed in a close-packed matrix of beryllium balls and LiPb. The result is a compact blanket only 18 cm thick in which only the tubes are operated in a stressed condition, but the blanket structure is designed to withstand a helium gas leak in one of the tubes. By circulating the helium gas from the blanket into the reflector, the reflector energy is recovered at a high temperature giving a gross power cycle efficiency of 42.7% while maintaining a low interface temperature between the breeding material and structure.

  17. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  18. Flexible radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

  19. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  20. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y.; Aiello, A.; Utili, M.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)