Science.gov

Sample records for flexible authentication technique

  1. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  2. Techniques for Authentic Assessment. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Assessments are authentic when they have meaning in themselves--when the learning they measure has value beyond the classroom and is meaningful to the learner. Authentic assessments (AAs) address the skills and abilities needed to perform actual tasks. Perhaps the most widely used technique is portfolio assessment. Well-designed AAs demonstrate a…

  3. A digital technique for art authentication

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Siwei; Rockmore, Daniel; Farid, Hany

    2004-01-01

    We describe a computational technique for authenticating works of art, specifically paintings and drawings, from high-resolution digital scans of the original works. This approach builds a statistical model of an artist from the scans of a set of authenticated works against which new works then are compared. The statistical model consists of first- and higher-order wavelet statistics. We show preliminary results from our analysis of 13 drawings that at various times have been attributed to Pieter Bruegel the Elder; these results confirm expert authentications. We also apply these techniques to the problem of determining the number of artists that may have contributed to a painting attributed to Pietro Perugino and again achieve an analysis agreeing with expert opinion. PMID:15563599

  4. Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, R; Aparicio-Ruíz, R

    2000-06-01

    Food authentication has been evolving continually to situations that were basically governed by a global market trend. Analytical techniques have been developed or modified to give plausible solutions to the devious adulterations at each moment. Classical tests have largely been replaced with newer technical procedures, most of which are based on gas chromatography, with some being based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Determination of trans-fatty acid and sterolic composition, together with sterol-dehydration products, have been used most frequently used to detect contamination and adulteration. Sophisticated new adulterations, e.g., olive oil with hazelnut oil, represent a new challenge for the next millennium, although suggestive proposals for detecting these kinds of adulterations are emerging with the contribution of databases and mathematical algorithms. PMID:10905696

  5. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  6. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  7. A Review on Video/Image Authentication and Tamper Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Zarna; Upadhyay, Saurabh

    2013-02-01

    With the innovations and development in sophisticated video editing technology and a wide spread of video information and services in our society, it is becoming increasingly significant to assure the trustworthiness of video information. Therefore in surveillance, medical and various other fields, video contents must be protected against attempt to manipulate them. Such malicious alterations could affect the decisions based on these videos. A lot of techniques are proposed by various researchers in the literature that assure the authenticity of video information in their own way. In this paper we present a brief survey on video authentication techniques with their classification. These authentication techniques are generally classified into following categories: digital signature based techniques, watermark based techniques, and other authentication techniques.

  8. Active vibration control techniques for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Jayasuriya, Suhada

    1990-01-01

    Two proposed control system design techniques for active vibration control in flexible space structures are detailed. Control issues relevant only to flexible-body dynamics are addressed, whereas no attempt was made to integrate the flexible and rigid-body spacecraft dynamics. Both of the proposed approaches revealed encouraging results; however, further investigation of the interaction of the flexible and rigid-body dynamics is warranted.

  9. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. PMID:27400510

  10. Use of Authentic-Speech Technique for Teaching Sound Recognition to EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sersen, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test an authentic-speech technique for improving the sound-recognition skills of EFL (English as a foreign language) students at Roi-Et Rajabhat University. The secondary objective was to determine the correlation, if any, between students' self-evaluation of sound-recognition progress and the actual…

  11. Cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: modeling of parameterized systems; average cost analysis; reduction of parameterized systems; and static and dynamic controller synthesis.

  12. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental elements found in every terrestrial control system can be employed in all lunar applications. These elements include sensors which measure physical properties, controllers which acquire sensor data and calculate a control response, and actuators which apply the control output to the process. The unique characteristics of the lunar environment will certainly require the development of new control system technology. However, weightlessness, harsh atmospheric conditions, temperature extremes, and radiation hazards will most significantly impact the design of sensors and actuators. The controller and associated control algorithms, which are the most complex element of any control system, can be derived in their entirety from existing technology. Lunar process control applications -- ranging from small-scale research projects to full-scale processing plants -- will benefit greatly from the controller advances being developed today. In particular, new software technology aimed at commercial process monitoring and control applications will almost completely eliminate the need for custom programs and the lengthy development and testing cycle they require. The applicability of existing industrial software to lunar applications has other significant advantages in addition to cost and quality. This software is designed to run on standard hardware platforms and takes advantage of existing LAN and telecommunications technology. Further, in order to exploit the existing commercial market, the software is being designed to be implemented by users of all skill levels -- typically users who are familiar with their process, but not necessarily with software or control theory. This means that specialized technical support personnel will not need to be on-hand, and the associated costs are eliminated. Finally, the latest industrial software designed for the commercial market is extremely flexible, in order to fit the requirements of many types of processing

  13. Verification of component mode techniques for flexible multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Gloria J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the modeling aspects of flexible multibodies undergoing large angular displacements. Models were to be generated and analyzed through application of computer simulation packages employing the 'component mode synthesis' techniques. Multibody Modeling, Verification and Control Laboratory (MMVC) plan was implemented, which includes running experimental tests on flexible multibody test articles. From these tests, data was to be collected for later correlation and verification of the theoretical results predicted by the modeling and simulation process.

  14. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings.

    PubMed

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application. PMID:27314353

  15. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application. PMID:27314353

  16. New Quantization Technique in Semi-fragile Digital Watermarking for Image Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantasala, Raghu; Prasad, Munaga V. N. K.

    The Internet has been widely used for the distribution, commercialization and transmission of digital files such as images, audio and video. The growth of network multimedia systems has magnified the need for image copyright protection. In this paper we proposed new method for semi-fragile digital watermarking scheme for image authentication. The watermark is embedded in the discrete wavelet domain of the image by quantizing the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Using the proposed method the image distortion is decreased compared to the other techniques and the quantization parameter is a small value. It also robust against attacks including EZW compression, JPEG compression and JPEG 2000 compression algorithms.

  17. A data-hiding technique with authentication, integration, and confidentiality for electronic patient records.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hui-Mei; Hsu, Chin-Ming; Miaou, Shaou-Gang

    2002-03-01

    A data-hiding technique called the "bipolar multiple-number base" was developed to provide capabilities of authentication, integration, and confidentiality for an electronic patient record (EPR) transmitted among hospitals through the Internet. The proposed technique is capable of hiding those EPR related data such as diagnostic reports, electrocardiogram, and digital signatures from doctors or a hospital into a mark image. The mark image could be the mark of a hospital used to identify the origin of an EPR. Those digital signatures from doctors and a hospital could be applied for the EPR authentication. Thus, different types of medical data can be integrated into the same mark image. The confidentiality is ultimately achieved by decrypting the EPR related data and digital signatures with an exact copy of the original mark image. The experimental results validate the integrity and the invisibility of the hidden EPR related data. This newly developed technique allows all of the hidden data to be separated and restored perfectly by authorized users. PMID:11936596

  18. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  19. Flexible replication technique for high-aspect-ratio nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Szeghalmi, Adriana; Sklarek, Kornelia; Helgert, Michael; Brunner, Robert; Erfurth, Wilfried; Gosele, Ulrich; Knez, Mato

    2010-12-01

    A flexible, nondestructive, and cost-effective replication technique for nanostructures is presented. The advantages of the process are: 1) it allows for tailoring structural parameters of the replica (e.g., line width) nearly independent of the structural geometry of the master; 2) it allows for replication of high-aspect-ratio structures also in polymer materials from solution (especially noncurable polymers) such as polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate; 3) it includes an easy separation process, thus preserving the master for repeated use. Linear grating replicas with line widths ranging from 88 to 300 nm are obtained using a single nanostructured master. Nanofibers and complex nanopatterned replicas are achievable. The presented technique and its flexibility show that atomic layer deposition is a unique tool for the preparation of high-efficiency polarizer diffractive optics, photonics, electronics, and catalysts. PMID:21069891

  20. An optical authentication system based on encryption technique and multimodal biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Mingtang

    2013-12-01

    A major concern nowadays for a biometric credential management system is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources. To prevent a genuine user's templates from both internal and external threats, a novel and simple method combined optical encryption with multimodal biometric authentication technique is proposed. In this method, the standard biometric templates are generated real-timely by the verification keys owned by legal user so that they are unnecessary to be stored in a database. Compared with the traditional recognition algorithms, storage space and matching time are greatly saved. In addition, the verification keys are difficult to be forged due to the utilization of optical encryption technique. Although the verification keys are lost or stolen, they are useless for others in absence of the legal owner's biometric. A series of numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this method.

  1. Dynamic loads analyses of flexible airplanes - New and existing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, A. S.; Perry, B., III

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews existing techniques for calculating dynamic loads for flexible airplanes and presents a new technique. The new technique involves the summation-of-forces method of writing dynamic loads equations. Until now this form of the dynamic loads equations has been formulated in the frequency domain. The new technique uses s-plane approximation methods (previously applied only to the equations of motion) to transform the dynamic loads equations from a second-order frequency-domain formulation with frequency-dependent coefficients into a linear-time-invariant state-space formulation. Several numerical examples demonstrate the usefulfness of the new technique and the high quality of the results. In addition, a convergence investigation establishes that the summation-of-forces method converges more quickly (that is, with fewer modes) than does the mode displacement method.

  2. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  3. A special application of absolute value techniques in authentic problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value expressions are involved, the definition that is most helpful is the one involving solving by intervals and evaluating critical points. In point of fact, application of this technique is one reason that the topic of absolute value is important in mathematics in general and in mathematics teaching in particular. We present here an authentic practical problem that is solved using absolute values and the 'intervals' method, after which the solution is generalized with surprising results. This authentic problem also lends itself to investigation using educational technological tools such as GeoGebra dynamic geometry software: mathematics teachers can allow their students to initially cope with the problem by working in an inductive environment in which they conduct virtual experiments until a solid conjecture has been reached, after which they should prove the conjecture deductively, using classic theoretical mathematical tools.

  4. A framework for selecting analytical techniques in profiling authentic and counterfeit Viagra and Cialis.

    PubMed

    Anzanello, Michel J; Ortiz, Rafael S; Limberger, Renata; Mariotti, Kristiane

    2014-02-01

    Several analytical techniques aimed at profiling drugs are deemed costly and time consuming, and may not be promptly available for analysis when required. This paper proposes a method for identifying the analytical techniques providing the most relevant data for classification of drug samples into authentic and unauthentic categories. For that matter, we integrate principal components analysis (PCA) to k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification tools. PCA is first applied to data from five techniques, i.e., physical profile, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), active pharmacological ingredients profile (ultra performance liquid chromatography, UPLC-MS), and infrared spectroscopic profile (ATR-FTIR). Subsets of PCA scores are then combined with a "leave one subset out at a time" approach, and the classification accuracy using KNN and SVM evaluated after each subset is omitted. Subsets yielding the maximum accuracy indicate the techniques to be prioritized in profiling applications. When applied to data from Viagra and Cialis, the proposed method recommended using the data from UPLC-MS, physical profile and ATR-FTIR techniques, which increased the categorization accuracy. In addition, the SVM classification tool is suggested as more accurate when compared to the KNN. PMID:24447444

  5. Surface deformation over flexible joints using spline blending techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haavardsholm, Birgitte; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    Skinning over a skeleton joint is the process of skin deformation based on joint transformation. Popular geometric skinning techniques include implicit linear blending and dual quaternions. Generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) is a blending type spline construction where local functions at each knot are blended by Ck-smooth basis functions. A smooth skinning surface can be constructed over a transformable skeleton joint by combining various types of local surface constructions and applying local Hermite interpolation. Compared to traditional spline methods, increased flexibility and local control with respect to surface deformation can be achieved using the GERBS blending construction. We present a method using a blending-type spline surface for skinning over a flexible joint, where local geometry is individually adapted to achieve natural skin deformation based on skeleton transformations..

  6. Flexible use and technique extension of logistics management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Furong

    2011-10-01

    As we all know, the origin of modern logistics was in the United States, developed in Japan, became mature in Europe, and expanded in China. This is a historical development of the modern logistics recognized track. Due to China's economic and technological development, and with the construction of Shanghai International Shipping Center and Shanghai Yangshan International Deepwater development, China's modern logistics industry will attain a leap-forward development of a strong pace, and will also catch up with developed countries in the Western modern logistics level. In this paper, the author explores the flexibility of China's modern logistics management techniques to extend the use, and has certain practical and guidance significances.

  7. Rhinoplasty and rib grafts: evolving a flexible operative technique.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R K

    1994-10-01

    A flexible operative technique for utilizing rib grafts in difficult rhinoplasty and nasal reconstruction cases requiring support is presented. An osseocartilaginous rib segment is used for dorsal contour or support, while a rigid cartilaginous strut provides for both tip projection and columellar contour. The bone is contoured extensively, while the cartilage is altered minimally. An open approach is employed. A bony fixation platform is established by radix reduction followed by bony fixation with ultramicroscrews. Distally, the grafts are united when nasal lengthening or total support is required; otherwise, the grafts are juxtaposed to allow lateral movement. The operative technique and technical difficulties are described in detail based on experience in 14 patients. PMID:7938282

  8. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    PubMed

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia. PMID:26751854

  9. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation. PMID:19425014

  10. An Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPTV Users Based on an RFID-USB Convergence Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae

    With the growing trend towards convergence in broadcast and communications media, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) that delivers real-time multimedia content over diverse types of communications networks (e.g., broadband Internet, cable TV, and satellite TV) has become a mainstream technology. Authenticating mobile IPTV subscribers who are continuously on the move is a challenge. A complex authentication process often impairs conditional access security or service quality as increasing illegal users and delaying service. This paper proposes an RFID-USB authentication protocol, for mobile IPTV users, combined with USIM-based personalized authentication and lightweight authentication that utilizes the RFID-USB technology with an implanted agent module (called an "agent tag") which temporarily enhanced user status information. The proposed authentication protocol adopts a plug-and-play security agent module that is placed in both an RFID tag and an RFID-USB. The implanted security agents cooperate in such a way that multiple RFID tags are connected seamlessly to an RFID-USB.

  11. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  12. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  13. A flexible surface wetness sensor using a RFID technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Chien, Jui-Hung; Wang, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ping-Hei; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible wetness sensor whose detection signal, converted to a binary code, is transmitted through radio-frequency (RF) waves from a radio-frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) to a remote reader. The flexible sensor, with a fixed operating frequency of 13.56 MHz, contains a RFID IC and a sensor circuit that is fabricated on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) using a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) process. The sensor circuit contains a comb-shaped sensing area surrounded by an octagonal antenna with a width of 2.7 cm. The binary code transmitted from the RFIC to the reader changes if the surface conditions of the detector surface changes from dry to wet. This variation in the binary code can be observed on a digital oscilloscope connected to the reader. PMID:17665308

  14. Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2008-07-01

    Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

  15. Balancing techniques for high-speed flexible rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ideal and non-ideal conditions for multiplane balancing are addressed. Methodology and procedures for identifying optimum balancing configurations and for assessing, quantitatively, the penalties associated with non-optimum configurations were developed and demonstrated. The problems introduced when vibration sensors are supported on flexible mounts were assessed experimentally, and the effects of flexural asymmetry in the rotor on balancing were investigated. A general purpose method for predicting the threshold of instability of an asymmetric rotor was developed, and its predictions are compared with measurements under different degrees of asymmetry.

  16. Authentication and traceability of Italian extra-virgin olive oils by means of stable isotopes techniques.

    PubMed

    Portarena, S; Gavrichkova, O; Lauteri, M; Brugnoli, E

    2014-12-01

    Authentication of food origin is relevant to avoid food fraud. This work aimed to explore the variation of isotopic compositions (δ(13)C, δ(18)O) of extra-virgin olive oils from Italy growing in different environmental conditions. A total of 387 oil samples from nine different regions (from North to South), produced on 2009, 2010 and 2011, were analysed. Statistical analysis showed correlations among oil isotope compositions and latitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and xerothermic index. No correlation was found comparing isotope compositions with elevation and longitude. An observed shift of the oil δ(18)O per centigrade degree of the mean annual temperature is congruent with literature. The year effect was significant for both δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Samples from Sicilia and Sardegna were higher in (13)C and (18)O than oils from northern regions. PMID:24996298

  17. A simple technique for preventing upheaval buckling in flexible pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Colquhoun, R.S.; Nielsen, R.

    1995-10-01

    Previous papers have presented a method of predicting the cover depth required to prevent the upheaval of flexibles given design subjected to given loadings. The maximum upheaval that can occur if the cover is inadequate or if the vertical misalignment of the pipe is greater than expected was quantified. This quantification is governed by the axial coefficient of friction between the pipe and the soil and assumes that there is no other imperfection of equivalent magnitude within the length of sliding pipe associated with the primary imperfection at which the upheaval is taking place, ie: assumes that the primary upheaval is not alleviated by any secondary upheaval elsewhere. The probability of a second imperfection close enough to alleviate the primary upheaval was addressed. It was concluded that in general this probability is not high enough to justify reliance on any alleviating effect. The present paper demonstrates how the problem can be solved by the introduction of artificial imperfections using polymer collars at regular intervals and presents equations for the correct design of the collar system.

  18. "Offerings": A Flexible Technique for Assessment, Therapy, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Describes an art therapy method which purports to create an environment for healing and education by using small figurines. The technique allows participants to share imagery, metaphor, and symbolism. Uses three case examples (a child, women with eating disorders, and art therapy students) to illustrate this method in practice. (RJM)

  19. Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

  20. Authenticity determination of Ag-Cu Lebanese coins using combined PIXE and RBS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Assafiri, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A set of silver-copper coins were investigated for their stochiometry in order to check any possible counterfeit. The studied coins are 50 Lebanese Piastres and are relatively recent, minted in 1952. They are supposed to have nominal concentration of 60 wt.% Ag and 40 wt.% Cu. In this work, it is shown the utility and capability of combining PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) techniques to determine the elemental content and check the presence, if any, of surface layer. For this aim, 3 MeV proton beam and Al funny filter, used as x-ray absorber, were used to determine the elemental composition, based on the emission and detection of the characteristic x-rays of the corresponding elements. The first PIXE results of the supposed bulky coins showed an excess of silver composition vs. copper. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro coins.

  1. Operational modal analysis via image based technique of very flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Marco; Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.; Monti, Riccardo

    2013-08-01

    Vibrations represent one of the most important topics of the engineering design relevant to flexible structures. The importance of this problem increases when a very flexible system is considered, and this is often the case of space structures. In order to identify the modal characteristics, in terms of natural frequencies and relevant modal parameters, ground tests are performed. However, these parameters could vary due to the operative conditions of the system. In order to continuously monitor the modal characteristics during the satellite lifetime, an operational modal analysis is mandatory. This kind of analysis is usually performed by using classical accelerometers or strain gauges and by properly analyzing the acquired output. In this paper a different approach for the vibrations data acquisition will be performed via image-based technique. In order to simulate a flexible satellite, a free flying platform is used; the problem is furthermore complicated by the fact that the overall system, constituted by a highly rigid bus and very flexible panels, must necessarily be modeled as a multibody system. In the experimental campaign, the camera, placed on the bus, will be used to identify the eigenfrequencies of the vibrating structure; in this case aluminum thin plates simulate very flexible solar panels. The structure is excited by a hammer or studied during a fast attitude maneuver. The results of the experimental activity will be investigated and compared with respect to the numerical simulation obtained via a FEM-multibody software and the relevant results will be proposed and discussed.

  2. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipa, Daniel; Morikawa, Sérgio; Pires, Gustavo; Camerini, Claudio; Santos, JoãoMárcio

    2010-12-01

    Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit) and SS (semisubmersible) platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs) adaptive filter.

  3. Geospatial Authentication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time has been developed. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server. The Geospatial Authentication software has two parts Server and Client. The server software is a virtual private network (VPN) developed in Linux operating system using Perl programming language. The server can be a stand-alone VPN server or can be combined with other applications and services. The client software is a GUI Windows CE software, or Mobile Graphical Software, that allows users to authenticate into a network. The purpose of the client software is to pass the needed satellite information to the server for authentication.

  4. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  5. Using Mobile Devices for User Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Jacek

    One of the most common methods of user authentication utilizes passwords. This technique is widely spread and well known. Its main drawback is that it stresses human memory to allow for successful authentication and still remains in the domain which is called weak authentication. This paper presents a solution to this problem by introducing a form of two factor authentication by utilization of smartphones. The idea of such system is presented as well as a sample implementation, called MOTH (an acronym for MObile auTHentication), which allows for user authentication. The discussion of the system's security and its limitations is also presented.

  6. New Ways in Using Authentic Materials in the Classroom. New Ways in TESOL Series II: Innovative Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larimer, Ruth E., Ed.; Schleicher, Leigh, Ed.

    Ideas and activities for using authentic materials in the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom are collected here. Each activity centers on an audio, visual, or written text from an English language environment, including samples from many different genres: television, radio, and video; newspapers, magazines, and literature; maps, mail,…

  7. Geospatial Authentication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server.

  8. Flexible global calibration technique for an arbitrarily arranged fringe projection profilometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Huimin; Zhao, Biyu; Wu, Yuxiang; Li, Mingyang

    2016-06-01

    Calibration is a crucial step in fringe projection profilometry, which establishes the relationship between unwrapped phase and (FPP) three-dimensional (3-D) shape data (X,Y,h). For an arbitrarily arranged FPP system, a simple geometrical model and mathematical descriptions of the relationships among phase, height distribution, and transverse coordinate are presented. Based on this, a flexible global calibration method is presented to reconstruct 3-D shape by just using a checkerboard with known separation and alternating white and blue. The calibration board is placed at several random positions to determine the relationship between phase and height, and the relationship between pixel position and X, Y coordinates. To get high accuracy, distortion for each pixel is considered. The validity, flexibility, and practicality of this system and calibration technique are verified by experiments.

  9. Flexible multibody simulation of automotive systems with non-modal model reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiiba, Taichi; Fehr, Jörg; Eberhard, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The stiffness of the body structure of an automobile has a strong relationship with its noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) characteristics. In this paper, the effect of the stiffness of the body structure upon ride quality is discussed with flexible multibody dynamics. In flexible multibody simulation, the local elastic deformation of the vehicle has been described traditionally with modal shape functions. Recently, linear model reduction techniques from system dynamics and mathematics came into the focus to find more sophisticated elastic shape functions. In this work, the NVH-relevant states of a racing kart are simulated, whereas the elastic shape functions are calculated with modern model reduction techniques like moment matching by projection on Krylov-subspaces, singular value decomposition-based reduction techniques, and combinations of those. The whole elastic multibody vehicle model consisting of tyres, steering, axle, etc. is considered, and an excitation with a vibration characteristics in a wide frequency range is evaluated in this paper. The accuracy and the calculation performance of those modern model reduction techniques is investigated including a comparison of the modal reduction approach.

  10. A novel surgical technique for transverse sternal bone defects using flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Böcker, W; Euler, E; Schieker, M; Kettler, M; Mutschler, W

    2006-12-01

    Transverse sternal bone defects as a result of surgery or trauma remain an important clinical condition with serious sequelae. Patients sometimes complain of local pain during movement and breathing. Usually, defects are filled with prosthetic materials which remain permanently IN SITU. Small defects can be treated with autogenous bone grafts, whereas large defects are difficult to stabilize with common osteosynthetic techniques. Here, we report a new surgical technique using flexible intramedullary nailing ("Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing"--ESIN or "Embrochage Centro-Medullaire Elastique Stable"--ECMES) to stabilize a sternal defect after surgical removal of an osteochondral lesion. The defect was bridged by two elastic titanium nails and an autogenous corticocancellous bone graft. This new surgical technique showed a good clinical and functional outcome. PMID:17151979

  11. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  12. Authentication Without Secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  13. Authenticating cache.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tyler Barratt; Urrea, Jorge Mario

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the Authenticating Cache architecture is to ensure that machine instructions in a Read Only Memory (ROM) are legitimate from the time the ROM image is signed (immediately after compilation) to the time they are placed in the cache for the processor to consume. The proposed architecture allows the detection of ROM image modifications during distribution or when it is loaded into memory. It also ensures that modified instructions will not execute in the processor-as the cache will not be loaded with a page that fails an integrity check. The authenticity of the instruction stream can also be verified in this architecture. The combination of integrity and authenticity assurance greatly improves the security profile of a system.

  14. Application of Neutron Correlation Techniques to Warhead Authentication: Feasibility and Conceptual Requirements?Monte Carlo Simulations and Statistical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M I; Wolford, J K

    2004-08-05

    We explore the feasibility of using Feynman moments as attributes of fissile material in warhead authentication measurements. We present results of computer simulations of neutron correlation measurements to validate and inform the application of the method to measurements in an arms control scenario. We establish the robustness of the method for use in automated measuring equipment that protects classified or sensitive data using an information barrier. Drawing from our results, we define high-level requirements to govern the design process, and guide the construction of a prototype.

  15. Strengthening Authentication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The basics of authentication are straightforward. One can prove his or her identity in three ways: (1) something one "has" (for example, a key or a birth certificate); (2) something one "knows" (such as a password); or (3) something one "is" (such as one's fingerprints, used in biometric technologies). In the world of computers and networks, the…

  16. Techniques and efficacy of flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker’s diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Perbtani, Yaseen; Suarez, Alejandro; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    Zenker’s diverticulum (ZD) is an abnormal hypopharyngeal pouch often presenting with dysphagia. Treatment is often sought with invasive surgical management of the diverticulum being the only mode of definitive therapy. Primarily done by an open transcervical approach in the past, nowadays treatment is usually provided by otolaryngologists using a less invasive trans-oral technique with a rigid endoscope. When first described, this method grew into acceptance quickly due to its similar efficacy and vastly improved safety profile compared to the open transcervical approach. However, the main limitation with this approach is that it may not be suitable for all patients. Nonetheless, progress in the field of natural orifice endoscopic surgery over the last 10-20 years has led to the increase in utilization of the flexible endoscope in the treatment of ZD. Primarily performed by interventional gastroenterologists, this approach overcomes the prior limitation of its surgical counterpart and allows adequate visualization of the diverticulum independent of the patient’s body habitus. Additionally, it may be performed without the use of general anesthesia and in an outpatient setting, thus further increasing the utility of this modality, especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. Today, results in more than 600 patients have been described in various published case series using different techniques and devices demonstrating a high percentage of clinical symptom resolution with low rates of adverse events. In this article, we present our experience with flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker’s diverticulum and highlight the endoscopic technique, outcomes and adverse events related to this minimally invasive modality. PMID:25789090

  17. System and method for authentication

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Miller, Seth A.

    2015-12-29

    Described are methods and systems for determining authenticity. For example, the method may include providing an object of authentication, capturing characteristic data from the object of authentication, deriving authentication data from the characteristic data of the object of authentication, and comparing the authentication data with an electronic database comprising reference authentication data to provide an authenticity score for the object of authentication. The reference authentication data may correspond to one or more reference objects of authentication other than the object of authentication.

  18. A modified complex modal testing technique for a rotating tire with a flexible ring model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Wang, Semyung; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim; Kindt, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping values are the most important parameters to describe the noise and vibration behavior of a mechanical system. For rotating machinery, however, the directivity of the propagation wave of each mode should also be taken into account. For rotating systems, this directivity can be determined by complex modal testing. In this paper, a rolling tire is represented as a flexible ring model. The limitation of application of the complex modal testing which requires two directional measurements at a certain point, which is difficult to measure in practice, has been overcome through a modified complex modal testing which requires only one directional measurements at any two points. The technique is described in detail and applied to both a numerical example and to an experimental data set of a real rotating tire.

  19. Low-bandwidth authentication.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Patrick Joseph; McIver, Lauren; Gaines, Brian R.; Anderson, Erik; Collins, Michael Joseph; Thomas,Kurt Adam; McDaniel, Austin

    2007-09-01

    Remotely-fielded unattended sensor networks generally must operate at very low power--in the milliwatt or microwatt range--and thus have extremely limited communications bandwidth. Such sensors might be asleep most of the time to conserve power, waking only occasionally to transmit a few bits. RFID tags for tracking or material control have similarly tight bandwidth constraints, and emerging nanotechnology devices will be even more limited. Since transmitted data is subject to spoofing, and since sensors might be located in uncontrolled environments vulnerable to physical tampering, the high-consequence data generated by such systems must be protected by cryptographically sound authentication mechanisms; but such mechanisms are often lacking in current sensor networks. One reason for this undesirable situation is that standard authentication methods become impractical or impossible when bandwidth is severely constrained; if messages are small, a standard digital signature or HMAC will be many times larger than the message itself, yet it might be possible to spare only a few extra bits per message for security. Furthermore, the authentication tags themselves are only one part of cryptographic overhead, as key management functions (distributing, changing, and revoking keys) consume still more bandwidth. To address this problem, we have developed algorithms that provide secure authentication while adding very little communication overhead. Such techniques will make it possible to add strong cryptographic guarantees of data integrity to a much wider range of systems.

  20. On-line scheduling of Automatics and flexible Manufacturing System using SARSA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissani, N.; Beldjilali, B.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper context, we will show what will be the best organization of decision entities in flexible manufacturing system, but also show our approach steps to achieve a manufacturing control system which is more reliable insofar as it has responding to queries in online. With this intention, we use a multi-agent system of which the decisions taken by the system are the result of those agents group work, these agents ensure in the same time manufacturing scheduling solution and a continuously improvement of their quality thanks to the reinforcement learning technique and particularly SARSA algorithm which was introduced to them. This technique of learning makes it possible the agents to be adaptive and to learn the best behavior in their various roles (answer the requests, self-organization, plan…) without attenuating the system on-line. A computer implementation and experimentation of this model are provided in this paper to demonstrate the contribution of our approach compared to a famous metaheuristic: tabu search, widely used for scheduling in complex manufacturing systems.

  1. A novel pattern transfer technique for mounting glassy carbon microelectrodes on polymeric flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; van Niekerk, Pieter; Nguyen, Vivian; Gong, Nick; Hirabayashi, Mieko; Cinopri, Alessio; Logan, Kyle; Moghadasi, Ali; Varma, Priya; Kassegne, Sam

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel technology for transferring glassy carbon microstructures, originally fabricated on a silicon wafer through a high-temperature process, to a polymeric flexible substrate such as polyimide. This new transfer technique addresses a major barrier in Carbon-MEMS technology whose widespread use so has been hampered by the high-temperature pyrolysis process (⩾900 °C), which limits selection of substrates. In the new approach presented, patterning and pyrolysis of polymer precursor on silicon substrate is carried out first, followed by coating with a polymer layer that forms a hydrogen bond with glassy carbon and then releasing the ensuing glassy carbon structure; hence, transferring it to a flexible substrate. This enables the fabrication of a unique set of glassy carbon microstructures critical in applications that demand substrates that conform to the shape of the stimulated/actuated or sensed surface. Our findings based on Fourier transform infared spectroscopy on the complete electrode set demonstrate—for the first time—that carbonyl groups on polyimide substrate form a strong hydrogen bond with hydroxyl groups on glassy carbon resulting in carboxylic acid dimers (peaks at 2660 and 2585 cm-1). This strong bond is further confirmed by a tensile test that demonstrated an almost perfect bond between these materials that behave as an ideal composite material. Further, mechanical characterization shows that ultimate strain for such a structure is as high as 15% with yield stress of ~20 MPa. We propose that this novel technology not only offers a compelling case for the widespread use of carbon-MEMS, but also helps move the field in new and exciting directions.

  2. Molecular authentication of the traditional medicinal plant Peucedanum praeruptorum and its substitutes and adulterants by DNA - barcoding technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Wang, Wencai; Liu, Mengqi; Liu, Zhenwen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peucedanum praeruptorum L., a traditional Chinese medicine known as Qian-hu, is commonly used for dispelling wind-heat and expectorant and loss of energy. However, due to similar morphological characters and high market demand, there are many substitutes and adulterants of P. praeruptorum. DNA barcoding is an approach to identify species based on sequences from a short, standardized DNA region. Objective: To authenticate P. praeruptorum from its substitutes and adulterants. Materials and Methods: The differential identification of P. praeruptorum and 13 regional substitutes and 23 adulterants was investigated by means of DNA sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), a bootstrap neighbor-joining (NJ) tree according to Kimura's 2-parameter method was also calculated. Results: The data showed that P. praeruptorum, its substitutes and adulterants could be easily distinguished at the DNA level, while almost all species were well resolved, and successfully identified on the NJ tree. Conclusion: The ITS sequence can be used for the identification of P. praeruptorum and to distinguish it from common substitutes and adulterants. PMID:25422535

  3. Flexible reduced field of view magnetic resonance imaging based on single-shot spatiotemporally encoded technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Cong-Bo; Chen, Lin; Chen, Ying; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Cai, Shu-Hui

    2015-10-01

    In many ultrafast imaging applications, the reduced field-of-view (rFOV) technique is often used to enhance the spatial resolution and field inhomogeneity immunity of the images. The stationary-phase characteristic of the spatiotemporally-encoded (SPEN) method offers an inherent applicability to rFOV imaging. In this study, a flexible rFOV imaging method is presented and the superiority of the SPEN approach in rFOV imaging is demonstrated. The proposed method is validated with phantom and in vivo rat experiments, including cardiac imaging and contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging. For comparison, the echo planar imaging (EPI) experiments with orthogonal RF excitation are also performed. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratios of the images acquired by the proposed method can be higher than those obtained with the rFOV EPI. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in the cardiac imaging and perfusion imaging of rat kidney, and it can scan one or more regions of interest (ROIs) with high spatial resolution in a single shot. It might be a favorable solution to ultrafast imaging applications in cases with severe susceptibility heterogeneities, such as cardiac imaging and perfusion imaging. Furthermore, it might be promising in applications with separate ROIs, such as mammary and limb imaging. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474236, 81171331, and U1232212).

  4. A Study on User Authentication Methodology Using Numeric Password and Fingerprint Biometric Information

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility. PMID:24151601

  5. A study on user authentication methodology using numeric password and fingerprint biometric information.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Kwak, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility. PMID:24151601

  6. Retrieval of Embolized Intracardiac Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Line: Novel Percutaneous Technique by Utilizing a Flexible Biopsy Forceps

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Arindam; Sarkar, Achyut; Ahmed, Imran; Patil, Shailesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral catheter embolization to the heart is common but infrequently reported. In view of the hazardous complications of thrombosis, embolism, infection, arrhythmia and even death, percutaneous retrieval of such foreign bodies is usually attempted. Previously reported percutaneous technique of retrieval mainly involved the snaring technique. Herein, we report a novel nonsurgical retrieval technique for successful removal of a 46 cm long embolized intracardiac peripherally inserted central catheter by utilizing a flexible biopsy forceps. To the best of our knowledge, the use of flexible biopsy forceps for retrieval has hitherto been unreported and this case report therefore adds to the repertoire of percutaneous retrieval techniques for safe and easy removal of embolized catheters to the heart. PMID:26900421

  7. A Quantum Protocol for ( t, n)-Threshold Identity Authentication Based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hua

    2013-02-01

    A quantum protocol for ( t, n)-threshold identity authentication based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states is presented. A trusted third party (TTP) can authenticate the users simultaneously when and only when t or more users among n apply for authentication. Compared with the previous multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication (MSQIA) protocols, the proposed scheme is more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  8. Relative Noise Level Comparison Of Portable Broadband Seismometer Installation Techniques Used By PASSCAL And Flexible Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Woodward, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Reusch, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple methods of broadband seismometer emplacement are used on portable experiments. Techniques range from a typical IRIS PASSCAL vault (~1-m deep vault with a decoupled pier), to an EarthScope USArray Flexible Array (FA) vault (~1-m deep narrow vault with a cement plug in the bottom coupled to the vault), both using traditional vault (pier) sensors, as well as direct burial emplacement of both sensors purpose-built for direct burial and standard vault sensors. The selection of the appropriate sensor emplacement technique for a given environment has often relied on anecdotal assessment or personal preference. We have performed an inter-comparison of these various emplacement techniques, for diverse environments. Our goal is to provide quantitative information that will facilitate choosing deployment strategies that best meet an experiment's scientific goals and logistical constraints. For our analysis, a total of 15 networks (781 stations) from PASSCAL and FA are analyzed using SQLX, which utilizes the ambient noise analysis methods of McNamara and Buland*. Using this analysis, a comparison of the mean of the monthly mode (MMM) of each component of the networks is performed to evaluate the various emplacement methods currently used. We have used a total of 182 PASSCAL stations (5 networks using PASSCAL vaults and 1 network using direct burial installs) and 365 FA stations (5 networks with FA vaults, 2 networks using direct burial installs, and 2 networks with a mix of installation types). The installations span a variety of environments. For our analysis the MMM has been calculated for each component separately (Z, N and E) and these results are compared to similar results already computed for EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. To evaluate the relative network performance, we use three separate period bands: short period (< 1 s), microseism band (1-10 s) and long period (10 -100 s). Using the TA baseline as a reference, each network is ranked

  9. Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luqi, Tao; Danyang, Wang; Song, Jiang; Ying, Liu; Qianyi, Xie; He, Tian; Ningqin, Deng; Xuefeng, Wang; Yi, Yang; Tian-Ling, Ren

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, flexible electronic devices have become a hot topic of scientific research. These flexible devices are the basis of flexible circuits, flexible batteries, flexible displays and electronic skins. Graphene-based materials are very promising for flexible electronic devices, due to their high mobility, high elasticity, a tunable band gap, quantum electronic transport and high mechanical strength. In this article, we review the recent progress of the fabrication process and the applications of graphene-based electronic devices, including thermal acoustic devices, thermal rectifiers, graphene-based nanogenerators, pressure sensors and graphene-based light-emitting diodes. In summary, although there are still a lot of challenges needing to be solved, graphene-based materials are very promising for various flexible device applications in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  10. Should Teachers Be Authentic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be "authentic"? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical…

  11. Development and test of flexible film coupon strips for use as a sampling technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, C.

    1969-01-01

    Film consisting of a gelatin base serves as a flexible, water soluble microbiological assay coupon for clean room use. It is nontoxic to microorganisms and capable of remaining unchanged during periods of storage.

  12. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Michael A; Raupp, Gregory B

    2016-01-01

    Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm² and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate. PMID:27472329

  13. Authenticity and healing.

    PubMed

    McGee, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Caring and compassion cannot be faked. These are not actions we perform mechanically but states of being that flow from within to make healing connection with others in need. To be authentically healing requires that we live authentic lives. This paper describes what it means to be authentic from a psychospiritual perspective, discusses the components of authentic caring and ends with an exploration of ways to cultivate the authenticity of our lives in general and in our efforts to heal others. PMID:24526471

  14. Provably Secure Password-based Authentication in TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, Michel; Emmanuel, Bresson; Chevassut, Olivier; Moeller,Bodo; Pointcheval, David

    2005-12-20

    In this paper, we show how to design an efficient, provably secure password-based authenticated key exchange mechanism specifically for the TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol. The goal is to provide a technique that allows users to employ (short) passwords to securely identify themselves to servers. As our main contribution, we describe a new password-based technique for user authentication in TLS, called Simple Open Key Exchange (SOKE). Loosely speaking, the SOKE ciphersuites are unauthenticated Diffie-Hellman ciphersuites in which the client's Diffie-Hellman ephemeral public value is encrypted using a simple mask generation function. The mask is simply a constant value raised to the power of (a hash of) the password.The SOKE ciphersuites, in advantage over previous pass-word-based authentication ciphersuites for TLS, combine the following features. First, SOKE has formal security arguments; the proof of security based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption is in the random oracle model, and holds for concurrent executions and for arbitrarily large password dictionaries. Second, SOKE is computationally efficient; in particular, it only needs operations in a sufficiently large prime-order subgroup for its Diffie-Hellman computations (no safe primes). Third, SOKE provides good protocol flexibility because the user identity and password are only required once a SOKE ciphersuite has actually been negotiated, and after the server has sent a server identity.

  15. [Problems of food authenticity].

    PubMed

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2004-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning food authenticity were presented. Typical examples of food adulteration were described. The most known are adulteration of vegetable and fruit products, adulteration of wine, honeys, olive oil etc. The modern analytical techniques for detection of food adulteration were discussed. Among physicochemical methods isotopic techniques (SCIRA, IRMS, SNIF-NMR) were cited. The main spectral methods are: IACPAES, PyMs, FTIR, NIR. The chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC, HPAEC, HPTLC) with several kinds of detectors were described and the ELISA and PCR techniques are mentioned, too. The role of chemometrics as a way of several analytical data processing was highlighted. It was pointed out at the necessity of more rigorous control of food to support of all activity in area of fight with fraud in food industry. PMID:15307611

  16. The Effects of Cryotherapy and PNF Stretching Techniques on Hip Extensor Flexibility in Elderly Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Beth S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study determined whether three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility maneuvers (to increase hamstring length) were as effective in 31 older females as in younger subjects. Cryotherapy intervention was also employed. Results indicated contract-relax and slow-reversal-hold-relax procedures were superior to static stretching;…

  17. AVNG authentication features

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan Louis; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; White, Greg; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement (called authentication). An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information. To achieve both goals, the IB allows only very limited, previously agreed-on information to be displayed to the monitoring party. In addition to this limited information from the potentially classified measurement, other measurements are performed and procedures are put in place for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. In this presentation, we will discuss the techniques used in the AVNG attribute measuring system to facilitate authentication of the verification measurements by the monitors. These techniques include measuring unclassified items while allowing more information to be displayed; having the monitor understand the system function, design, and implementation; and randomly selecting the order of measurements.

  18. A novel imaging technique for measuring kinematics of light-weight flexible structures.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed Y; Eliethy, Ahmed S; Canfield, Robert A; Hajj, Muhammad R

    2016-07-01

    A new imaging algorithm is proposed to capture the kinematics of flexible, thin, light structures including frequencies and motion amplitudes for real time analysis. The studied case is a thin flexible beam that is preset at different angles of attack in a wind tunnel. As the angle of attack is increased beyond a critical value, the beam was observed to undergo a static deflection that is ensued by limit cycle oscillations. Imaging analysis of the beam vibrations shows that the motion consists of a superposition of the bending and torsion modes. The proposed algorithm was able to capture the oscillation amplitudes as well as the frequencies of both bending and torsion modes. The analysis results are validated through comparison with measurements from a piezoelectric sensor that is attached to the beam at its root. PMID:27475596

  19. A novel imaging technique for measuring kinematics of light-weight flexible structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohamed Y.; Eliethy, Ahmed S.; Canfield, Robert A.; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2016-07-01

    A new imaging algorithm is proposed to capture the kinematics of flexible, thin, light structures including frequencies and motion amplitudes for real time analysis. The studied case is a thin flexible beam that is preset at different angles of attack in a wind tunnel. As the angle of attack is increased beyond a critical value, the beam was observed to undergo a static deflection that is ensued by limit cycle oscillations. Imaging analysis of the beam vibrations shows that the motion consists of a superposition of the bending and torsion modes. The proposed algorithm was able to capture the oscillation amplitudes as well as the frequencies of both bending and torsion modes. The analysis results are validated through comparison with measurements from a piezoelectric sensor that is attached to the beam at its root.

  20. Authentication of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and other two Chinese Materia Medica of the Liliaceae family by pharmacognosy technique with GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjiao; Liu, Canhuang; Yu, Yafei; Xu, Bei; Gong, Limin; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Lan; Cheng, Qilai; Liu, Tasi

    2015-02-01

    Yuzhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma), Kangdingyuzhu (Polygonati Prattii Rhizoma), and zhugenqiyuzhu (Disporopsis Fuscopictae Rhizoma) are of the same family, but of different genera. They have all often used in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) as Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma in China market. Three species of CMM are confused. For better application, we need to identify these plants accurately. This study use pharmacognosy technique and GC-MS analysis, three species of CMM were authenticated. In macroscopic characteristics, the fruit of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is blue-black, while the other two are maroon and dark purple orderly. Nodes of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma are upward and light uplift, about 1 cm spacing, while the other are not. As for microscopic characteristics, the cortex of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma only occupies about 1/5 of the radius of the transverse section with inconspicuous endodermis, which is much smaller than others. The type of vascular bundles of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is closed collateral, but the other is amphivasal. Raphides of calcium oxalate are scattered, but Raphides of the other two are like brooms and neat rows. GC-MS analysis of essential oil could provide different characteristics to distinguish three species. Twenty-three compounds were identified from essential oil of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and the main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (49.45%), while n-hexadecanoic acid of the other two are 23.92% and 9.45%. The content of n-hexadecanoic is strongly different. This research was aimed to establish a method by pharmacognosy and GC-MS analysis to identify three CMM and for providing scientifical data to ensure accuracy of origin of three species. PMID:25408497

  1. The Effects of a Warm-up on Acute Hip Joint Flexibility Using a Modified PNF Stretching Technique

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, William L.; Hands, Mary R.

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of various types of warm-up on performance of the slow-reversal-hold-relax modified Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) flexibility maneuver. The subjects for this study (N=54) were active, injuryfree females who were randomly assigned to stationary cycling, whirlpool, or control groups. Each group participated in its assigned treatment for 20 minutes and did not perform any stretching exercises before or during their warm-up. Acute flexibility data were collected for hip flexion with the use of a Leighton Flexometer following the treatment condition. Hip range of motion (ROM) did not differ between the groups performing a warm-up and the control group; therefore, a warm-up had no effect on hip ROM when using a modified PNF technique. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558145

  2. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  3. Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

  4. Dynamic characterization, monitoring and control of rotating flexible beam-mass structures via piezo-embedded techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Steven H.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    A variational principle and a finite element discretization technique were used to derive the dynamic equations for a high speed rotating flexible beam-mass system embedded with piezo-electric materials. The dynamic equation thus obtained allows the development of finite element models which accommodate both the original structural element and the piezoelectric element. The solutions of finite element models provide system dynamics needed to design a sensing system. The characterization of gyroscopic effect and damping capacity of smart rotating devices are addressed. Several simulation examples are presented to validate the analytical solution.

  5. Authentication of byte sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1991-06-01

    Algorithms for the authentication of byte sequences are described. The algorithms are designed to authenticate data in the Storage, Retrieval, Analysis, and Display (SRAD) Test Data Archive of the Radiation Effects and Testing Directorate (9100) at Sandia National Laboratories, and may be used in similar situations where authentication of stored data is required. The algorithms use a well-known error detection method called the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). When a byte sequence is authenticated and stored, CRC bytes are generated and attached to the end of the sequence. When the authenticated data is retrieved, the authentication check consists of processing the entire sequence, including the CRC bytes, and checking for a remainder of zero. The error detection properties of the CRC are extensive and result in a reliable authentication of SRAD data.

  6. Multi-factor authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  7. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  8. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  9. Flexible Intramedullary Nailing of Pediatric Humeral Fractures: Indications, Techniques, and Tips.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Derek M

    2016-06-01

    Most proximal and diaphyseal pediatric humeral fractures can be treated successfully by closed means; however, certain patient factors or fracture characteristics may make surgical stabilization with flexible intramedullary nails (FIN) a better choice. Common indications for FIN of pediatric humeral fractures include unstable proximal-third fractures in children nearing skeletal maturity, unstable distal metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction fractures, shaft fractures in polytraumatized patients or patients with ipsilateral both-bone forearm fractures (floating elbow), and prophylactic stabilization of benign diaphyseal bone cysts or surgical stabilization of pathologic fractures. FIN can be safely inserted in an antegrade or retrograde manner depending on the fracture location and configuration. Careful dissection at the location of rod insertion can prevent iatrogenic nerve injuries. Rapid fracture union and return to full function can be expected in most cases. Implant prominence is the most common complication. PMID:27152902

  10. Flexible microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices using a low-cost wax patterning technique.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Wicaksono, Dedy H B; Gustiono, Dwi; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a simple wax patterning method on cotton cloth for performing colorimetric bioassays. Commercial cotton cloth fabric is proposed as a new inexpensive, lightweight, and flexible platform for fabricating two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic systems. We demonstrated that the wicking property of the cotton microfluidic channel can be improved by scouring in soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)) solution which will remove the natural surface wax and expose the underlying texture of the cellulose fiber. After this treatment, we fabricated narrow hydrophilic channels with hydrophobic barriers made from patterned wax to define the 2D microfluidic devices. The designed pattern is carved on wax-impregnated paper, and subsequently transferred to attached cotton cloth by heat treatment. To further obtain 3D microfluidic devices having multiple layers of pattern, a single layer of wax patterned cloth can be folded along a predefined folding line and subsequently pressed using mechanical force. All the fabrication steps are simple and low cost since no special equipment is required. Diagnostic application of cloth-based devices is shown by the development of simple devices that wick and distribute microvolumes of simulated body fluids along the hydrophilic channels into reaction zones to react with analytical reagents. Colorimetric detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in artificial urine is carried out by direct visual observation of bromophenol blue (BPB) colour change in the reaction zones. Finally, we show the flexibility of the novel microfluidic platform by conducting a similar reaction in a bent pinned μCAD. PMID:22089026

  11. A Safe and Flexible Cardiopulmonary Bypass Technique for Complex Aortic Surgery without the Requirement for Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Machin, David; Tams, Gemma; Bingham, Helen; Abid, Qamar; Adem, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This article describes an adaptable technique of full-body perfusion during complex aortic surgery, which was performed on six consecutive patients, at a nasopharyngeal temperature of 28–34°C for a mean duration of 5 hours. A modified perfusion system was used to provide upper and lower body perfusion through axillary and femoral artery cannulation. The option of selective antegrade cerebral perfusion was also available if required. A simple custom-made circuit and application of additional monitoring such as cerebral oximetry makes this technique a safe and flexible method of providing continuous whole-body perfusion at moderate hypothermia and above. We found that these patients all had no major coagulopathies after the procedure and demonstrated no observable neurological, renal, or gastrointestinal dysfunction on recovery. PMID:24649575

  12. MetaJC++: A flexible and automatic program transformation technique using meta framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beevi, Nadera S.; Reghu, M.; Chitraprasad, D.; Vinodchandra, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    Compiler is a tool to translate abstract code containing natural language terms to machine code. Meta compilers are available to compile more than one languages. We have developed a meta framework intends to combine two dissimilar programming languages, namely C++ and Java to provide a flexible object oriented programming platform for the user. Suitable constructs from both the languages have been combined, thereby forming a new and stronger Meta-Language. The framework is developed using the compiler writing tools, Flex and Yacc to design the front end of the compiler. The lexer and parser have been developed to accommodate the complete keyword set and syntax set of both the languages. Two intermediate representations have been used in between the translation of the source program to machine code. Abstract Syntax Tree has been used as a high level intermediate representation that preserves the hierarchical properties of the source program. A new machine-independent stack-based byte-code has also been devised to act as a low level intermediate representation. The byte-code is essentially organised into an output class file that can be used to produce an interpreted output. The results especially in the spheres of providing C++ concepts in Java have given an insight regarding the potential strong features of the resultant meta-language.

  13. On the authenticity of eight Reales 1730 Mexican silver coins by X-ray diffraction and by energy dispersion spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Rodriguez, I.; Herrera, A.; Vázquez-López, C.; Apolo, R.; González-Hernández, J.; Hernández-Landaverde, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. E.

    2004-02-01

    Ancient silver Mexican coins made during the years 1730-1734, were analyzed non-destructively by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by optical microscopy. Nine coins of denomination eight Reales were studied. These coins belong to the numismatic private collection in Mexico. Six elements (copper, aluminum, magnesium, silicon, chromium and silver) were determined quantitatively. The coins reveal a uniform Ag concentration. Some of the items are covered with patina. A strong positive correlation between Al and Cu content and also a strong negative correlation between S and Ag were determined. The weight of the coins varied between 26.1344 and 26.9913 g, which is a good indicator of the authenticity of the items. The purpose of this work is to investigate by precise means if some of the coins were falsified or if really all of them are authentic.

  14. A wake traverse technique for use in a 2 dimensional transonic flexible walled test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Reported two dimensional validation data from the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel (TSWT) concerns model lift. The models tested provided data on their pressure distributions. This information was numerically integrated over the model surface to determine lift, pressure drag and pitching moment. However, the pressure drag is only a small component of the total drag at nominal angles of attack and cannot be used to assess the quality of flow simulation. An intrusive technique for obtaining information on the total drag of a model in TSWT is described. The technique adopted is the wake traverse method. The associated tunnel hardware and control and data reduction software are outlined and some experimental results are presented for discussion.

  15. Uniaxial Pre-strain and Free Recovery (UPFR) as a Flexible Technique for Nitinol Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelli, A.; Manjeri, R. M.; Sczerzenie, F.; Coda, A.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of phase transformation temperatures of superelastic (SE) and shape memory (SM) NiTi alloy products and components was studied in this work. The transformation temperatures of a set of twenty different 300 μm NiTi superelastic wires were measured by two well-established and standardized techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and bend and free recovery (BFR) and then compared with the results from the Uniaxial Pre-Strain and Free Recovery (UPFR) test. UPFR is a tension-based test, whose aim is to overcome the limitations associated with BFR testing. Within this work, a test procedure has been set up and validated. UPFR is found to be the only method showing a very strong correlation with the mechanical properties measured using the standard uniaxial tensile test method for superelastic NiTi alloy. Further, UPFR has been validated as a robust technique for measuring the R-phase and austenitic transformation temperatures in specimens of various sizes, composition, and of different geometries. This technique overcomes the limitations of BFR and DSC which cannot be used for testing products such as 25 μm SM wire, a 50 μm SE strip, and different springs and microsprings for actuation.

  16. Poling of lead zirconate titanate ceramics and flexible piezoelectric composites by the corona discharge technique

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, D.; Safari, A.; Igbal, T.

    1989-02-01

    Poling of composites having a polymer matrix with 0-3 connectivity is difficult because the electric field within the high-dielectric-constant grains is far smaller than in the low-dielectric-constant polymer matrix. Therefore, very large electric fields are required to pole these types of composites. However, large electric fields often cause dielectric breakdown of the samples. In this study for improved poling, the corona discharge technique was used to pole piezoelectric ceramics, fired PXT composites, and 0.5PbTiO/sub 3/ . 0.5BiFeO/sub 3/ 0-3 polymer composites. An experimental setup for corona poling is described.

  17. Decolonizing Researcher Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which researcher authenticity is negotiated along three axes of difference, ethno-linguistic affiliation, sexual orientation and race/skin color. Ultimately, it analyzes how researcher authenticity is produced and played out within research, via interactions between participants, researchers and others who…

  18. Authenticity and Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Central to development of authenticity in teaching is self-understanding and self-awareness. Using a Jungian perspective, the author suggests that the imaginative dimensions of the self play a critical role in our journey and experience as teachers, and in developing self-awareness and authenticity in our teaching.

  19. Dynamic control modification techniques in teleoperation of a flexible manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, David Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to reduce the end-point vibration of a large, teleoperated manipulator while preserving the usefulness of the system motion. A master arm is designed to measure desired joint angles as the user specifies a desired tip motion. The desired joint angles from the master arm are the inputs to an adaptive PD control algorithm that positions the end-point of the manipulator. As the user moves the tip of the master, the robot will vibrate at its natural frequencies which makes it difficult to position the end-point. To eliminate the tip vibration during teleoperated motions, an input shaping method is presented. The input shaping method transforms each sample of the desired input into a new set of impulses that do not excite the system resonances. The method is explained using the equation of motion for a simple, second-order system. The impulse response of such a system is derived and the constraint equations for vibrationless motion are presented. To evaluate the robustness of the method, a different residual vibration equation from Singer's is derived that more accurately represents the input shaping technique. The input shaping method is shown to actually increase the residual vibration in certain situations when the system parameters are not accurately specified. Finally, the implementation of the input shaping method to a system with varying parameters is shown to induce a vibration into the system. To eliminate this vibration, a modified command shaping technique is developed. The ability of the modified command shaping method to reduce vibration at the system resonances is tested by varying input perturbations to trajectories in a range of possible user inputs. By comparing the frequency responses of the transverse acceleration at the end-point of the manipulator, the modified method is compared to the original PD routine. The control scheme that produces the smaller magnitude of resonant vibration at the first natural frequency is

  20. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics. PMID:15751854

  1. Experiences in applying optimization techniques to configurations for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization procedures are developed to systematically provide closely-spaced vibration frequencies. A general purpose finite-element program for eigenvalue and sensitivity analyses is combined with formal mathematical programming techniques. Results are presented for three studies. The first study uses a simple model to obtain a design with two pairs of closely-spaced frequencies. Two formulations are developed: an objective function-based formulation and constraint-based formulation for the frequency spacing. It is found that conflicting goals are handled better by a constraint-based formulation. The second study uses a detailed model to obtain a design with one pair of closely-spaced frequencies while satisfying requirements on local member frequencies and manufacturing tolerances. Two formulations are developed. Both the constraint-based and the objective function-based formulations perform reasonably well and converge to the same results. However, no feasible design solution exists which satisfies all design requirements for the choices of design variables and the upper and lower design variable values used. More design freedom is needed to achieve a fully satisfactory design. The third study is part of a redesign activity in which a detailed model is used.

  2. Experiences in applying optimization techniques to configurations for the Control Of Flexible Structures (COFS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.

    1988-01-01

    Optimization procedures are developed to systematically provide closely-spaced vibration frequencies. A general-purpose finite-element program for eigenvalue and sensitivity analyses is combined with formal mathematical programming techniques. Results are presented for three studies. The first study uses a simple model to obtain a design with two pairs of closely-spaced frequencies. Two formulations are developed: an objective function-based formulation and constraint-based formulation for the frequency spacing. It is found that conflicting goals are handled better by a constraint-based formulation. The second study uses a detailed model to obtain a design with one pair of closely-spaced frequencies while satisfying requirements on local member frequencies and manufacturing tolerances. Two formulations are developed. Both the constraint-based and the objective function-based formulations perform reasonably well and converge to the same results. However, no feasible design solution exists which satisfies all design requirements for the choices of design variables and the upper and lower design variable values used. More design freedom is needed to achieve a fully satisfactory design. The third study is part of a redesign activity in which a detailed model is used. The use of optimization in this activity allows investigation of numerous options (such as number of bays, material, minimum diagonal wall thicknesses) in a relatively short time. The procedure provides data for judgments on the effects of different options on the design.

  3. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  4. Highly flexible, transparent and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films prepared by a facile and scalable nanopyramid formation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2014-01-01

    A facile and scalable technique to fabricate optically transparent, mechanically flexible and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films for practical solar cell applications is proposed. The superhydrophobic films were fabricated simply by transferring a transparent porous alumina layer, which was prepared using an anodic aluminium oxidation (AAO) technique, onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film with a UV-curable polymer adhesive layer, followed by the subsequent formation of alumina nano pyramids (NPs) through the time-controlled chemical etching of the transferred porous alumina membrane (PAM). It was found experimentally that the proposed functional films can ensure the superhydrophobicity in the Cassie-Baxter wetting mode with superior water-repellent properties through a series of experimental observations including static contact angle (SCA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH), sliding behaviour on the tilted film, and dynamic behaviour of the liquid droplet impacting on the film. In addition to the superior surface wetting properties, an optical transmittance of ~79% at a light wavelength of 550 nm was achieved. Furthermore, there was no significant degradation in both the surface wetting properties and morphology even after 1500-cycles of repetitive bending tests, which indicates that the proposed superhydrophobic film is mechanically robust. Finally, the practicability of the proposed self-cleanable film was proven quantitatively by observing the changes in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a photovoltaic device covering the film before and after the cleaning process.

  5. Discovering your authentic leadership.

    PubMed

    George, Bill; Sims, Peter; McLean, Andrew N; Mayer, Diana

    2007-02-01

    The ongoing problems in business leadership over the past five years have underscored the need for a new kind of leader in the twenty-first century: the authentic leader. Author Bill George, a Harvard Business School professor and the former chairman and CEO of Medtronic, and his colleagues, conducted the largest leadership development study ever undertaken. They interviewed 125 business leaders from different racial, religious, national, and socioeconomic backgrounds to understand how leaders become and remain authentic. Their interviews showed that you do not have to be born with any particular characteristics or traits to lead. You also do not have to be at the top of your organization. Anyone can learn to be an authentic leader. The journey begins with leaders understanding their life stories. Authentic leaders frame their stories in ways that allow them to see themselves not as passive observers but as individuals who learn from their experiences. These leaders make time to examine their experiences and to reflect on them, and in doing so they grow as individuals and as leaders. Authentic leaders also work hard at developing self-awareness through persistent and often courageous self-exploration. Denial can be the greatest hurdle that leaders face in becoming self-aware, but authentic leaders ask for, and listen to, honest feedback. They also use formal and informal support networks to help them stay grounded and lead integrated lives. The authors argue that achieving business results over a sustained period of time is the ultimate mark of authentic leadership. It may be possible to drive short-term outcomes without being authentic, but authentic leadership is the only way to create long-term results. PMID:17345686

  6. Authenticity and Constructivism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of authenticity and its relevance in education, from a philosophical perspective. Under the heading of educational authenticity (EA), I critique Fred Newmann's views on authentic pedagogy and intellectual work. I argue against the notion that authentic engagement is usefully analyzed in terms of a relationship…

  7. Richard Peters and Valuing Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degenhardt, M. A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Peters has been praised for the authenticity of his philosophy, and inquiry into aspects of the development of his philosophy reveals a profound authenticity. Yet authenticity is something he seems not to favour. The apparent paradox is resolved by observing historical changes in the understanding of authenticity as an important value.…

  8. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  9. Authentication of quantum messages.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.

  10. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  11. Authentic Learning and Alien Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Sara D.; Watt, Keith; Gleim, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Glendale Community College has developed a laboratory course and observing program which provides non-science majors with opportunities to perform authentic science in a community college setting. The program is designed around experiential learning which allows students to meaningfully construct concepts within contexts that involve real-world problems that are relevant to the learner. Students learn observational astronomy and data analysis techniques by observing exoplanet transits using 8-inch Celestron telescopes. The exoplanet data gathered and analyzed by the students is contributed to the exoplanet database. This poster presents an overview of the program and highlights early educational results.

  12. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  13. High-performance plastic platinized counter electrode via photoplatinization technique for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nian-Qing; Fang, Yan-Yan; Duan, Yan-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Xu-Rui; Lin, Yuan

    2012-11-27

    A photoplatinization technique was proposed to deposit Pt on a thin TiO(2) layer modified indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrate at low temperature (about 50 °C after 1 h of UV irradiation) for the first time. The fabrication process includes coating and hydrolyzing the tetra-n-butyl titanate to form a TiO(2)-modified layer and the photoplatinization of the modified substrate in H(2)PtCl(6)/2-propanol precursor solution under UV irradiation. The obtained platinized electrodes were used as counter electrodes (CE) for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSCs). The well-optimized platinized electrode showed high optical transmittance, up to 76.5% between 400 and 800 nm (T(av)), and the charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) was as low as 0.66 Ω cm(2). A series of characterizations also demonstrated the outstanding chemical/electrochemical durability and mechanical stability of the platinized electrode. The FDSCs with TiO(2)/Ti photoanodes and the obtained CEs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.12% under rear-side irradiation (AM 1.5 illumination, 100 mW cm(-2)). The obtained CEs were also employed in all-plastic bifacial DSCs. When irradiated from the rear side, the bifacial FDSC yielded a PCE of 6.26%, which approached 90% that of front-side irradiation (6.97%). Our study revealed that, apart from serving as a functional layer for deposition of Pt, the thin TiO(2) layer modification on ITO/PEN substrates also played an important role in improving the transparency and the mechanical properties of the CE. The effect of the thickness of the TiO(2) layer for Pt coating on the performance of the CE was also investigated. PMID:23039879

  14. Authentication of digital video evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.

    2003-11-01

    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  15. Information barriers and authentication.

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D. W.; Wolford, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  16. Authentication of Kalix (N.E. Sweden) vendace caviar using inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques: evaluation of different approaches.

    PubMed

    Rodushkin, I; Bergman, T; Douglas, G; Engström, E; Sörlin, D; Baxter, D C

    2007-02-01

    Different analytical approaches for origin differentiation between vendace and whitefish caviars from brackish- and freshwaters were tested using inductively coupled plasma double focusing sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). These approaches involve identifying differences in elemental concentrations or sample-specific isotopic composition (Sr and Os) variations. Concentrations of 72 elements were determined by ICP-SFMS following microwave-assisted digestion in vendace and whitefish caviar samples from Sweden (from both brackish and freshwater), Finland and USA, as well as in unprocessed vendace roe and salt used in caviar production. This data set allows identification of elements whose contents in caviar can be affected by salt addition as well as by contamination during production and packaging. Long-term method reproducibility was assessed for all analytes based on replicate caviar preparations/analyses and variations in element concentrations in caviar from different harvests were evaluated. The greatest utility for differentiation was demonstrated for elements with varying concentrations between brackish and freshwaters (e.g. As, Br, Sr). Elemental ratios, specifically Sr/Ca, Sr/Mg and Sr/Ba, are especially useful for authentication of vendace caviar processed from brackish water roe, due to the significant differences between caviar from different sources, limited between-harvest variations and relatively high concentrations in samples, allowing precise determination by modern analytical instrumentation. Variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for vendace caviar from different harvests (on the order of 0.05-0.1%) is at least 10-fold less than differences between caviar processed from brackish and freshwater roe. Hence, Sr isotope ratio measurements (either by ICP-SFMS or by MC-ICP-MS) have great potential for origin differentiation. On the contrary, it was impossible to

  17. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-09-01

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  18. Flexible Timed-Release Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Maki; Fujiwara, Toru

    This paper presents a new scheme for Timed-Release Encryption (TRE), which is mainly designed for global use. TRE aims to control the timing of disclosing information. The major approach to TRE assumes that any participants can receive a time token broadcasted by a trusted agent, called a time server. Our scheme is based on this approach and allows participants to generate an encrypted message that can be decrypted using designated or any authenticated time servers including even those which are authenticated after encryption. In this sense, our scheme has a more flexible framework in terms of message decryption.

  19. Quantum cryptography and authentication with low key-consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, A.; Pacher, C.; Lorünser, T.; Larsson, J.-Å.; Peev, M.

    2011-11-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD - also referred to as Quantum Cryptography) is a technique for secret key agreement. It has been shown that QKD rigged with Information-Theoretic Secure (ITS) authentication (using secret key) of the classical messages transmitted during the key distribution protocol is also ITS. Note, QKD without any authentication can trivially be broken by man-in-the-middle attacks. Here, we study an authentication method that was originally proposed because of its low key consumption; a two-step authentication that uses a publicly known hash function, followed by a secret strongly universal2 hash function, which is exchanged each round. This two-step authentication is not information-theoretically secure but it was argued that nevertheless it does not compromise the security of QKD. In the current contribution we study intrinsic weaknesses of this approach under the common assumption that the QKD adversary has access to unlimited resources including quantum memories. We consider one implementation of Quantum Cryptographic protocols that use such authentication and demonstrate an attack that fully extract the secret key. Even including the final key from the protocol in the authentication does not rule out the possibility of these attacks. To rectify the situation, we propose a countermeasure that, while not information-theoretically secure, restores the need for very large computing power for the attack to work. Finally, we specify conditions that must be satisfied by the two-step authentication in order to restore information-theoretic security.

  20. Facilitating Authentic Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A "Model of Authentic Becoming" that conceptualizes learning as a continuous and ongoing embodied and relational process, and uses social constructionism assumptions as well as Kolb's experiential learning model as its point of departure, is presented. Through a focus on the subjective, embodied, and relational nature of organizational life, the…

  1. Authentic to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukral, Nicole; Spector, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    When educators think about what makes learning relevant to students, often they narrow their thinking to electives or career technical education. While these provide powerful opportunities for students to make relevant connections to their learning, they can also create authentic experiences in the core curriculum. In the San Juan Unified School…

  2. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  3. Tools for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  4. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  5. Authentic Writing & Literature Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus in Change, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reflecting some of the emerging issues sustaining debate in secondary school literature instruction and writing instruction, this newsletter presents articles that discuss the impact of E. D. Hirsch's book "Cultural Literacy,""authentic discourse," and collaborative classroom research. Articles in the newsletter are: "Rethinking Literature" (Anne…

  6. A national-scale authentication infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.; Engert, D.; Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Volmer, J.; Welch, V.; National Center for Supercomputing Applications; Univ. of Chicago; USC Information Sciences Institute

    2000-12-01

    Today, individuals and institutions in science and industry are increasingly forming virtual organizations to pool resources and tackle a common goal. Participants in virtual organizations commonly need to share resources such as data archives, computer cycles, and networks - resources usually available only with restrictions based on the requested resource's nature and the user's identity. Thus, any sharing mechanism must have the ability to authenticate the user's identity and determine if the user is authorized to request the resource. Virtual organizations tend to be fluid, however, so authentication mechanisms must be flexible and lightweight, allowing administrators to quickly establish and change resource-sharing arrangements. However, because virtual organizations complement rather than replace existing institutions, sharing mechanisms cannot change local policies and must allow individual institutions to maintain control over their own resources. Our group has created and deployed an authentication and authorization infrastructure that meets these requirements: the Grid Security Infrastructure. GSI offers secure single sign-ons and preserves site control over access policies and local security. It provides its own versions of common applications, such as FTP and remote login, and a programming interface for creating secure applications.

  7. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  8. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  9. Medical Image Authentication Using DPT Watermarking: A Preliminary Attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. L. Dennis; Goh, Antionette W.-T.; Chua, Hong Siang

    Secure authentication of digital medical image content provides great value to the e-Health community and medical insurance industries. Fragile Watermarking has been proposed to provide the mechanism to authenticate digital medical image securely. Transform Domain based Watermarking are typically slower than spatial domain watermarking owing to the overhead in calculation of coefficients. In this paper, we propose a new Discrete Pascal Transform based watermarking technique. Preliminary experiment result shows authentication capability. Possible improvements on the proposed scheme are also presented before conclusions.

  10. Rapid growth of thin and flexible organic semiconductor single crystal Anthracene by solution growth technique for device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupugalmani, K.; Shanmugam, G.; Kannan, V.; Brahadeeswaran, S.

    2015-03-01

    Growth of thin and flexible organic semiconductor crystal Anthracene (AN) has been achieved in a very short duration. This simple, yet an effective approach was serendipitously found to yield high quality crystal with typical dimensions of 22×23×0.15-0.50 mm3 within a duration of about 30 min whereas a conventional method could take about 7-10 days to achieve similar dimensions. Further, these crystals were seen swirling and settling down slowly at the bottom of the growth flask. These factors were favorably utilized to place the Anthracene crystals firmly on prefabricated flexible substrates when they were kept in different heights within the solutions. This systematic approach also facilitated the fabrication of organic field effect transistor (OFET) and the results obtained were encouraging.

  11. Probabilistic authenticated quantum dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping

    2015-12-01

    This work proposes a probabilistic authenticated quantum dialogue (PAQD) based on Bell states with the following notable features. (1) In our proposed scheme, the dialogue is encoded in a probabilistic way, i.e., the same messages can be encoded into different quantum states, whereas in the state-of-the-art authenticated quantum dialogue (AQD), the dialogue is encoded in a deterministic way; (2) the pre-shared secret key between two communicants can be reused without any security loophole; (3) each dialogue in the proposed PAQD can be exchanged within only one-step quantum communication and one-step classical communication. However, in the state-of-the-art AQD protocols, both communicants have to run a QKD protocol for each dialogue and each dialogue requires multiple quantum as well as classical communicational steps; (4) nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack, and even other well-known attacks.

  12. CHALLENGE MEASUREMENTS FOR AUTHENTICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-10-07

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator’s ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  13. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  14. Live biometric authenticity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Szu, Clifford; Wang, Shoujue

    2003-04-01

    This research defined the underpinning concepts of a system that was highly secure, yet was efficient and non-invasive enough for everyday use. The live biometric authenticity check augmented invariant fingerprints with variable live features offered superior security by combining physical characteristics of the user"s with a passcode (numerical PIN) or passphrase (a string of words), and might also easily be augmented with other biometric video imaging devices for the utmost security.

  15. Simulation on quantum authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobšíček, M.

    2007-03-01

    This paper divides into two main parts. The first one discusses authentication of quantum messages. The protocol proposed in [1] for one qubit message-length case is especially considered. The protocol uses a shared EPR pair as a secret key. In the second part, it is shown how such a protocol can be simulated using the Quantum-Octave package. Quantum-Octave is a set of functions for a Matlab-like numerical environment allowing calculations with general density matrices.

  16. Adolescent Perspectives on Authentic Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behizadeh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and educators support the idea of providing authentic literacy experiences to students. However, a critical misconception of the locus of authenticity exists; the focus has generally been on making tasks authentic to college, careers, or researcher-determined notions of authenticity rather than making tasks authentic to students and…

  17. A novel fast and flexible technique of radical kinetic behaviour investigation based on pallet for plasma evaluation structure and numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Arkadiusz; Takeuchi, Takuya; Chen, Shang; Suzuki, Toshiya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Lukasiak, Lidia; Jakubowski, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a new, fast, and case-independent technique for sticking coefficient (SC) estimation based on pallet for plasma evaluation (PAPE) structure and numerical analysis. Our approach does not require complicated structure, apparatus, or time-consuming measurements but offers high reliability of data and high flexibility. Thermal analysis is also possible. This technique has been successfully applied to estimation of very low value of SC of hydrogen radicals on chemically amplified ArF 193 nm photoresist (the main goal of this study). Upper bound of our technique has been determined by investigation of SC of fluorine radical on polysilicon (in elevated temperature). Sources of estimation error and ways of its reduction have been also discussed. Results of this study give an insight into the process kinetics, and not only they are helpful in better process understanding but additionally they may serve as parameters in a phenomenological model development for predictive modelling of etching for ultimate CMOS topography simulation.

  18. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  19. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  20. Wide-capture-range, high-precision wavelength stabilization within ±50 MHz for flexible-grid wavelength division multiplexing by photomixing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Jun; Kuboki, Takeshi; Kato, Kazutoshi

    2016-08-01

    The lasers for the flexible-grid wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system are required to have high precision of wavelength stability. Previously, we proposed the wavelength-controlling system of the distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with the photomixing technique and a microwave filter to precisely measure the optical frequency error from the target value. To enlarge the wavelength-capture range, we improve the system to detect the wavelength error with two different microwave filters in parallel. Experimental results show that the wavelength-capture range is extended up to 4 GHz while the wavelength error is still kept within ±50 MHz.

  1. Mechanism for control plane authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to propose an ``Authentication Information Element`` that can be used to carry authentication information within the ATM signaling protocols. This information may be used by either signaling entity to validate the claimed identity of the other, and to verify the integrity of a portion of a message`s contents. By specifying a generic authentication IE, authentication information can be generated by any signature algorithm, and can be appended to any ATM signaling message. Procedures for the use of this information element are also provided.

  2. NMACA Approach Used to Build a Secure Message Authentication Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alosaimy, Raed; Alghathbar, Khaled; Hafez, Alaaeldin M.; Eldefrawy, Mohamed H.

    Secure storage systems should consider the integrity and authentication of long-term stored information. When information is transferred through communication channels, different types of digital information can be represented, such as documents, images, and database tables. The authenticity of such information must be verified, especially when it is transferred through communication channels. Authentication verification techniques are used to verify that the information in an archive is authentic and has not been intentionally or maliciously altered. In addition to detecting malicious attacks, verifying the integrity also identifies data corruption. The purpose of Message Authentication Code (MAC) is to authenticate messages, where MAC algorithms are keyed hash functions. In most cases, MAC techniques use iterated hash functions, and these techniques are called iterated MACs. Such techniques usually use a MAC key as an input to the compression function, and this key is involved in the compression function, f, at every stage. Modification detection codes (MDCs) are un-keyed hash functions, and are widely used by authentication techniques such as MD4, MD5, SHA-1, and RIPEMD-160. There have been new attacks on hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-1, which requires the introduction of more secure hash functions. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC methodology that uses an input MAC key in the compression function, to change the order of the message words and shifting operation in the compression function. The new methodology can be used in conjunction with a wide range of modification detection code techniques. Using the SHA-1 algorithm as a model, a new (SHA-1)-MAC algorithm is presented. The (SHA-1)-MAC algorithm uses the MAC key to build the hash functions by defining the order for accessing source words and defining the number of bit positions for circular left shifts.

  3. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

  4. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  5. Application of the LQG/LTR technique to robust controller synthesis for a large flexible space antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Armstrong, E. S.; Sundararajan, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of synthesizing a robust controller is considered for a large, flexible space-based antenna by using the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG)/loop transfer recovery (LTR) method. The study is based on a finite-element model of the 122-m hoop/column antenna, which consists of three rigid-body rotational modes and the first 10 elastic modes. A robust compensator design for achieving the required performance bandwidth in the presence of modeling uncertainties is obtained using the LQG/LTR method for loop-shaping in the frequency domain. Different sensor actuator locations are analyzed in terms of the pole/zero locations of the multivariable systems and possible best locations are indicated. The computations are performed by using the LQG design package ORACLS augmented with frequency domain singular value analysis software.

  6. Anonymous authenticated communications

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, Cheryl L.; Schroeppel, Richard C.; Snyder, Lillian A.

    2007-06-19

    A method of performing electronic communications between members of a group wherein the communications are authenticated as being from a member of the group and have not been altered, comprising: generating a plurality of random numbers; distributing in a digital medium the plurality of random numbers to the members of the group; publishing a hash value of contents of the digital medium; distributing to the members of the group public-key-encrypted messages each containing a same token comprising a random number; and encrypting a message with a key generated from the token and the plurality of random numbers.

  7. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  8. Authenticity, Culture and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; Dasli, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In philosophy, authenticity has been used with two meanings: one entails the notion of correspondence; the other entails the notion of genesis (Cooper, 1983: 15). As in certain branches of philosophy, language teaching has perhaps clung too long to the first of these notions of authenticity at the expense of the other. This paper reviews four key…

  9. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. PMID:25315338

  10. A nuclear method to authenticate Buddha images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Channuie, J.; Wonglee, S.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Silva, K.; Liamsuwan, T.

    2015-05-01

    The value of Buddha images in Thailand varies dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make the justification which frequently leads to obscurity, deception and illegal activities. Here, we propose two non-destructive techniques of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) to reveal respectively structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. For NR, a thermal neutron flux of 105 n cm-2s-1 was applied. NAAR needed a higher neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 to activate the samples. Results from NR and NAAR revealed unique characteristic of the samples. Similarity of the profile played a key role in the classification of the samples. The results provided visual evidence to enhance the reliability of authenticity approval. The method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers in Thailand.

  11. Requirements for signaling channel authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1995-12-11

    This contribution addresses requirements for ATM signaling channel authentication. Signaling channel authentication is an ATM security service that binds an ATM signaling message to its source. By creating this binding, the message recipient, and even a third party, can confidently verify that the message originated from its claimed source. This provides a useful mechanism to mitigate a number of threats. For example, a denial of service attack which attempts to tear-down an active connection by surreptitiously injecting RELEASE or DROP PARTY messages could be easily thwarted when authenticity assurances are in place for the signaling channel. Signaling channel authentication could also be used to provide the required auditing information for accurate billing which is impervious to repudiation. Finally, depending on the signaling channel authentication mechanism, end-to-end integrity of the message (or at least part of it) can be provided. None of these capabilities exist in the current specifications.

  12. High performance of carbon nanotubes/silver nanowires-PET hybrid flexible transparent conductive films via facile pressing-transfer technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To obtain low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, small open spaces in conductive networks, and enhanced adhesion of flexible transparent conductive films, a carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanowire (AgNW)-PET hybrid film was fabricated by mechanical pressing-transfer process at room temperature. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), the optical transmittance and sheet resistance were tested by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) spectrophotometer and four-point probe technique, and the adhesion was also measured by 3M sticky tape. The results indicate that in this hybrid nanostructure, AgNWs form the main conductive networks and CNTs as assistant conductive networks are filled in the open spaces of AgNWs networks. The sheet resistance of the hybrid films can reach approximately 20.9 to 53.9 Ω/□ with the optical transmittance of approximately 84% to 91%. The second mechanical pressing step can greatly reduce the surface roughness of the hybrid film and enhance the adhesion force between CNTs, AgNWs, and PET substrate. This process is hopeful for large-scale production of high-end flexible transparent conductive films. PMID:25386105

  13. Determination of the ratio of cationic flexible nanoparticles binding constant of counterions X- and Br- (KX/KBr) using the semi-empirical spectrophotometric (SESp) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Khalisanni; Khan, M. Niyaz; Sharifuddin, M. Z.; Kim, R. P. T.; Azri, M. N. Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    The determination of the ion exchange constant (KXBr) for ion-exchange process occurring between counterions X- and Br- (X= C6H5CO2- ) at the cationic flexible nanoparticles surface using the semi-emperical spectrophotometric (SESp) technique is described in this paper. The method uses an anionic spectrophotometric probe molecule, N-(2-methoxyphnyl) phthalamate ion (1-), which measures the effects of varying concentrations of nanoparticles (CTABr/NaX/H2O) on absorbance, (Aob) at 310 nm of samples containing constant concentration of (1-), NaOH, CTABr and NaX. The observed data, Aob vs [NaX] fit satisfactorily to an empirical equation which gives the values of two empirical constants. These empirical constants lead to the determination of KXBr (=KX/KBr with KX and KBr representing cationic flexible nanoparticles binding constants of counterions X- Br- respectively). This method gives values of KXBr for moderately hydrophobic X-. The value of KXBr, obtained by using this method, is comparable with the corresponding values of KXBr , obtained by the use of semi-emperical kinetic (SEK) method.

  14. Smart environment as a service: three factor cloud based user authentication for telecare medical information system.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zeeshan; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghamdi, Abdullah S

    2014-01-01

    The Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) provides a set of different medical services to the patient and medical practitioner. The patients and medical practitioners can easily connect to the services remotely from their own premises. There are several studies carried out to enhance and authenticate smartcard-based remote user authentication protocols for TMIS system. In this article, we propose a set of enhanced and authentic Three Factor (3FA) remote user authentication protocols utilizing a smartphone capability over a dynamic Cloud Computing (CC) environment. A user can access the TMIS services presented in the form of CC services using his smart device e.g. smartphone. Our framework transforms a smartphone to act as a unique and only identity required to access the TMIS system remotely. Methods, Protocols and Authentication techniques are proposed followed by security analysis and a performance analysis with the two recent authentication protocols proposed for the healthcare TMIS system. PMID:24346931

  15. Security enhanced multiple-image authentication based on cascaded optical interference and sparse phase mixed encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qu; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2016-08-01

    An interference-based cascaded filtering method is proposed to perform multiple-image authentication. By using spatial phase mixed encoding technique and phase retrieval iteration in Fresnel transform domain, multiple original images are encoded in two phase-only cipher texts. Using correct keys in an interference-based configuration, one can only recover a noisy image without any secret information revealed. A cascaded phase-only filtering structure, instead of correlation methods, is applied to perform authentication where the decrypted image is converted into a pre-specified irregular pattern that functions as authentication criterion. The proposed structure can strengthen security greatly because authentication output strongly depends on the decrypted images and authentication keys. Moreover, the decryption and authentication procedures can be completed optically in a more compact way than previous methods. Simulation results have been given to prove the effectiveness of this proposal and evaluate its performance.

  16. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Margaret M; O'Neil, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254

  17. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Margaret M.; O’Neil, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254

  18. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  19. Holograms and authentication: meeting future demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Ian M.

    2004-06-01

    The use of holograms as authentication or security devices is the most valuable application of holograms yet devised. In 20 years, this has developed from the first use of a hologram on credit cards, to the situation today where governments turn to holograms as a key security feature on the protected documents they issue, including banknotes, identity documents and tax banderols. At the same time, holograms (and related devices) are the most recognised visible feature used to authenticate and protect branded and OEM products; this sector covers the gamut from CD jewel-box seals to the protection of safety-related items such as medicines and vehicle replacement parts. There has been creative synergy between the commercial suppliers of such holograms and the practical holography community. But new technologies are coming forward to challenge the role of holograms, a challenge that is aided by the counterfeiting of security holograms. What are the characteristics of those technologies and can holograms provide similar resources to users? Examples of collaboration between hologram producers and producers of other technologies to create combination devices suggest a possible route forward for holography to maintain its role in authentication and security. By scrutinising and adapting to needs, often by combination with other techniques, holographers may be able to retain their role in this important application.

  20. Authentically Assessing an Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.; Kendrick, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Authentic assessment in elementary school technology education is linked to a continuum of teacher behavior: nondirective, mediating, directive, and concurrent with teaching. It should be a two-way process between the students and the activity. (JOW)

  1. Quantum direct communication with authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2006-04-15

    We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states.

  2. A real-time inspection system using a terahertz technique to detect microleak defects in the seal of flexible plastic packages.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasuyuki; Dobroiu, Adrian; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

    2005-04-01

    A method to detect production faults in flexible plastic packages with the use of terahertz radiation is presented. Relying on the large difference between the absorption coefficients of plastic and water (for water-filled channel defects) and on the refraction index difference between plastic and air (for air-filled channel defects), our technique consists of focusing and scanning a terahertz beam on the sealed area of the package, followed by detection of the transmitted signal. Compared with previous methods, such as visual and ultrasound inspection, our technique can be applied to optically opaque packages and does not require immersion in a matching liquid. We tested our system on defects that we fabricated as water-filled and air-filled channels imbedded in polyethylene films, with diameters in the range of 10 to 100 microm. The detection limit (the minimum size of a detectable defect) depends on the conveying speed; this relationship was determined and analyzed. The results show that our system has the potential for application in an actual production line for real-time inspection. PMID:15830679

  3. Authentically Engaged Learning through Live Supervision: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Steven; Kostohryz, Katie; Vereen, Linwood

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the experiential learning of 5 master's-level counseling students undergoing live supervision in a group techniques course. Multiple themes were identified to provide a textural-structural description of how students authentically engaged in the learning process. Implications for counselor education and…

  4. Authentication codes that permit arbitration

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Objective of authentication is to detect attempted deceptions in a communications channel. Traditionally this has been restricted to providing the authorized receiver with a capability of detecting unauthentic messages. The known codes have all left open the possibility for either the transmitter to disavow a message that he actually sent to the receiver, i.e., an authentic message, or else for the receiver to falsely attribute a message of his own devising to the transmitter. Of course the party being deceived would know that he was the victim of a deception by the other, but would be unable to ''prove'' this to a third party. Ideally, authentication should provide a means to detect attempted deceptions by insiders (the transmitter or receiver) as well as outsiders (the opponent). It has been an open question of whether it was possible to devise authentication codes that would permit a third party, an arbiter, to decide (in probability) whether the transmitter or the receiver was cheating in the event of a dispute. We answer this question in that both permits the receiver to detect outsider deceptions, as well affirmative by first constructing an example of an authentication code as permitting a designated arbiter to detect insider deceptions and then by generalizing this construction to an infinite class of such codes.

  5. Designing Pu600 for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2008-07-10

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include an authentication component. Demonstrating assurance that software and hardware performs as expected without hidden 'back-doors' is crucial to a project's success. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that the system performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. Pu600 is a mature software solution for determining the presence of Pu and the ratio of Pu240 to Pu239 by analyzing the gamma ray spectra in the 600 KeV region. The project's goals are to explore hardware and software technologies which can by applied to Pu600 which ease the authentication of a complete, end-to-end solution. We will discuss alternatives and give the current status of our work.

  6. [Rapid PCR authentication Lonicera japanica].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Hou, Jing-Yi; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To simply and rapid authenticate Lonicera japanica. Rapid allele-specific PCR primer was designed base on trnL-trnF 625 G/T Single nucleotide polymorphism and the PCR reaction systems including annealing temperature was optimized; optimized results were performed to authenticate L. japanica and its 9 adulterants. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product of 87 degrees C initial denatured 1 min; 87 degrees C denatured 5 s, 68 degrees C annealing 5 s, 30 cycle; L. japanica visualize strong green fluorescence under 365 nm UV lamp whereas adulterants without. The results indicate rapid allele-specific PCR could authenticate L. japanica and its adulterants rapidly and simply. PMID:25612418

  7. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  8. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  9. Introduction to Methods Demonstrations for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Pitts, W. K.

    2002-07-15

    During the Trilateral Initiative Technical Workshop on Authentication & Certification, PNNL will demonstrate some authentication technologies. This paper briefly describes the motivation for these demonstrations and provide background on them.

  10. Approaching Authentic Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some scholars writing about improving students' reading and integrating reading and writing instruction suggest using think-aloud techniques to teach students reading comprehension skills. Using think-alouds to teach reading comprehension and then the read-aloud protocol technique (which is based on think-alouds) for peer review has two major…

  11. The Authentic Personality: A Theoretical and Empirical Conceptualization and the Development of the Authenticity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…

  12. Quantified Trust Levels for Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ivonne; Menzel, Michael; Meinel, Christoph

    Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) facilitate applications to integrate seamlessly services from collaborating business partners regardless of organizational borders. In order to secure access to these services, mechanisms for authentication and authorisation must be deployed that control the access based on identity-related information. To enable a business partners’ users to access the provided services, an identity federation is often established that enables the brokering of identity information across organisational borders. The establishment of such a federation requires complex agreements and contracts that define common policies, obligations and procedures. Generally, this includes obligations on the authentication process as well.

  13. 7 CFR 1.22 - Authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authentication. 1.22 Section 1.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.22 Authentication. When a request is received for an authenticated copy of a document that the agency determines to...

  14. 7 CFR 1.22 - Authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authentication. 1.22 Section 1.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.22 Authentication. When a request is received for an authenticated copy of a document that the agency determines to...

  15. Authentic Montessori: The Teacher Makes the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxel, Alexa C.

    2013-01-01

    What are the elements that make up authentic Montessori? Is Montessori something concrete or abstract? Are there intangibles that make Montessori what it is? Many classrooms today have Montessori materials and small tables and chairs. Are they authentic Montessori? When examining areas that traditionally make defining authentic Montessori…

  16. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness...

  17. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness...

  18. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  19. 29 CFR 18.50 - Authenticity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authenticity. 18.50 Section 18.50 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.50 Authenticity. The authenticity of all documents submitted as...

  20. 28 CFR 68.46 - Authenticity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authenticity. 68.46 Section 68.46... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.46 Authenticity. The authenticity of all documents submitted as proposed exhibits in advance of the hearing shall be deemed...

  1. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  2. Calorimetry for Fast Authentication of Edible Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiuli, Marco; Bussolino, Gian Carlo; Ferrari, Carlo; Matteoli, Enrico; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Salvetti, Giuseppe; Tombari, Elpidio

    2009-06-01

    There are little data in the literature on how to authenticate edible oils through calorimetry techniques. However, oil melting curves can be used to represent correlations between calorimetric results and oil quality. A calorimetric method has been developed for studying the solid-liquid phase transitions of olive oil and seed oils, in which melting peak behavior is correlated to the type, quality, and composition of the oil. Good reproducible thermograms were obtained by defining precise protocols for use in testing, which take into account the specific characteristics of a particular oil. This approach does not replace classical analytical methods; nevertheless, it is believed that calorimetric tests could be a useful preliminary stage for quality testing. The calorimetric technique allows the detection of the adulterant (seed oils or refined olive oil), oil origin, and possible photo-oxidation degradation processes, before more complex and expensive procedures and analyses are applied.

  3. Authentic Learning: The Gift Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohemia, Erik; Davison, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Higher Education is experiencing an increasingly diverse student population. Students bring a range of skills and experiences to their courses; they have different backgrounds and different needs. This fluidity requires an approach to teaching that encompasses the social aspects of learning. It has been suggested that authentic approaches to…

  4. Authentic Instruction and Technology Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cydis, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Technology integration is an important aspect of student competence in the 21st century. The use of technology in teaching and learning is a valuable practice for supporting student learning and engagement. Modelling the pedagogical practices that integrate authentic, performance-based opportunities for technology integration was the focus of a…

  5. Authentic Assessment in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Electronic portfolios allow teachers to authentically assess student performance. Examines the creation and use of electronic portfolios and describes three electronic portfolios based on HyperCard that can be used in physical education classes to monitor student health fitness, sport skills, and other performance standards, and allow students to…

  6. The embodiment of authentic leadership.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole; Smith-Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Meloy, Faye A

    2014-01-01

    Development of student leadership capacity and efficacy is critical to the nursing profession, and vital to this process is a strong foundation in critical thinking that includes a depth of understanding of self (i.e., authentic leadership development). This article will (a) present a theoretical overview of authentic leadership as compared with other popular leadership theories, (b) provide an overview of development/implementation of an authentic leadership course, the first in a series of six one-credit courses as an integral component of the Macy Undergraduate Leadership Fellows Program for upper-level nursing students, and (c) discuss related implications for nursing education. Findings from an investigator-developed quantitative pre-post survey and qualitative evaluation questions are provided. Student feedback regarding the comprehensive nature of the course was extremely positive and affirmed the value of introspection associated with authentic leadership in ongoing personal and professional development. Critical pedagogy and action-oriented learning strategies also proved beneficial to student engagement. PMID:25150413

  7. Authentic Learning at Its Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Karen Clemens; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Children learn best when given opportunities to connect facts and figures with real-world situations. The article describes two class projects that demonstrate authentic, holistic learning. One project involves planting a classroom garden, and the other explores the desert of the Southwest. (SM)

  8. Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

  9. Authenticity in a Digital Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Charles T.; Hirtle, Peter B.; Levy, David; Lynch, Clifford A.; Rothenberg, Jeff

    On January 24, 2000, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) convened a group of experts from different domains of the information resources community to address the question, "What is an authentic digital object?" Five writers--an archivist, a digital library expert, a documentary editor and special collections librarian, an…

  10. Authenticity and Lesbian Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler-Timmins, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative inquiry to explore how lesbian health educators navigate authenticity in a heteronormative higher education setting. The study was grounded in a lesbian standpoint pedagogical viewpoint, which provided a lens with which to view the nine participants' experiences. Of particular interest was how the educators in…

  11. Resource optimized TTSH-URA for multimedia stream authentication in swallowable-capsule-based wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Chunqiu; Zhao, Min

    2014-03-01

    To ease the burdens on the hospitalization capacity, an emerging swallowable-capsule technology has evolved to serve as a remote gastrointestinal (GI) disease examination technique with the aid of the wireless body sensor network (WBSN). Secure multimedia transmission in such a swallowable-capsule-based WBSN faces critical challenges including energy efficiency and content quality guarantee. In this paper, we propose a joint resource allocation and stream authentication scheme to maintain the best possible video quality while ensuring security and energy efficiency in GI-WBSNs. The contribution of this research is twofold. First, we establish a unique signature-hash (S-H) diversity approach in the authentication domain to optimize video authentication robustness and the authentication bit rate overhead over a wireless channel. Based on the full exploration of S-H authentication diversity, we propose a new two-tier signature-hash (TTSH) stream authentication scheme to improve the video quality by reducing authentication dependence overhead while protecting its integrity. Second, we propose to combine this authentication scheme with a unique S-H oriented unequal resource allocation (URA) scheme to improve the energy-distortion-authentication performance of wireless video delivery in GI-WBSN. Our analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed TTSH with URA scheme achieves considerable gain in both authenticated video quality and energy efficiency. PMID:24608045

  12. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned.

  13. Joint forensics and watermarking approach for video authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemert, Stefan; Liu, Huajian; Steinebach, Martin; Croce-Ferri, Lucilla

    2007-02-01

    In our paper we discuss and compare the possibilities and shortcomings of both content-fragile watermarking and digital forensics and analyze if the combination of both techniques allows the identification of more than the sum of all manipulations identified by both techniques on their own due to synergetic effects. The first part of the paper discusses the theoretical possibilities offered by a combined approach, in which forensics and watermarking are considered as complementary tools for data authentication or deeply combined together, in order to reduce their error rate and to enhance the detection efficiency. After this conceptual discussion the paper proposes some concrete examples in which the joint approach is applied to video authentication. Some specific forensics techniques are analyzed and expanded to handle efficiently video data. The examples show possible extensions of passive-blind image forgery detection to video data, where the motion and time related characteristics of video are efficiently exploited.

  14. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  15. Flexible cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T J; Preminger, G M

    1988-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic technology was first applied to cystoscopy in 1973, with greatly increased usage since 1982. Most procedures formerly performed with rigid cystoscopes can be done using flexible cystoscopes with minimal or no anesthesia. Patient positioning and precystocopy preparation and draping are simplified with the flexible fiberoptic instruments. Complete examination of the urethra and bladder can be performed with a single-lens system and with the patient in a variety of positions. Fiberoptic cystoscopy is limited in patients who are bleeding or have blood clots in their bladders. Withdrawal of irrigant or bladder drainage is cumbersome, and the fiberoptic image is currently not of the same caliber as that of the rigid-lens systems. Fiberoptic cystoscopy has become the procedure of choice for many urologists for ureteral stenting prior to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. With the advent of lithotripters that require no anesthesia, this application is likely to broaden. Future applications of flexible cystoscopy may include a flexible videocystoscope for use in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:3407042

  16. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  17. An Examination of Career Indecision and Application to Dispositional Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nathan J.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity has been viewed as a dimension related to life satisfaction, but we propose that authenticity is related to career outcomes. In this study, we examined the relation between authenticity and career indecision. Authenticity was assessed by the Authenticity Scale and it was found to be moderately related to different indices of career…

  18. Authentication of Medicines Using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Barras, Jamie; Althoefer, Kaspar; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    The production and sale of counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical products, such as essential medicines, is an important global public health problem. We describe a chemometric passport-based approach to improve the security of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Our method is based on applying nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy to authenticate the contents of medicine packets. NQR is a non-invasive, non-destructive, and quantitative radio frequency (RF) spectroscopic technique. It is sensitive to subtle features of the solid-state chemical environment and thus generates unique chemical fingerprints that are intrinsically difficult to replicate. We describe several advanced NQR techniques, including two-dimensional measurements, polarization enhancement, and spin density imaging, that further improve the security of our authentication approach. We also present experimental results that confirm the specificity and sensitivity of NQR and its ability to detect counterfeit medicines. PMID:26841409

  19. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

  20. Data fusion methodologies for food and beverage authentication and quality assessment - a review.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The ever increasing interest of consumers for safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities has driven the attention towards the analytical techniques used for analyzing these commodities. In recent years, rapid and reliable sensor, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques have emerged that, together with multivariate and multiway chemometrics, have improved the whole control process by reducing the time of analysis and providing more informative results. In this progression of more and better information, the combination (fusion) of outputs of different instrumental techniques has emerged as a means for increasing the reliability of classification or prediction of foodstuff specifications as compared to using a single analytical technique. Although promising results have been obtained in food and beverage authentication and quality assessment, the combination of data from several techniques is not straightforward and represents an important challenge for chemometricians. This review provides a general overview of data fusion strategies that have been used in the field of food and beverage authentication and quality assessment. PMID:26388360

  1. Obfuscated authentication systems, devices, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Robert C; Hutchinson, Robert L

    2013-10-22

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward authentication systems, devices, and methods. Obfuscated executable instructions may encode an authentication procedure and protect an authentication key. The obfuscated executable instructions may require communication with a remote certifying authority for operation. In this manner, security may be controlled by the certifying authority without regard to the security of the electronic device running the obfuscated executable instructions.

  2. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices. PMID:26494213

  3. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices. PMID:26494213

  4. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices.

  5. Epistemological authenticity in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Paul S.

    A scientifically literate individual understands important characteristics of both the nature of scientific knowledge and the activity that produces it, scientific inquiry. (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1993) In support of these goals the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) envisions science classrooms where students engage productively in activity that is similar to scientific inquiry. It is presumed that by engaging in this kind of activity students will come to deeper understandings of scientific inquiry and scientific knowledge. For this instructional approach to be successful it is necessary students not only engaging in activity that "looks" like science in important ways, but also view their own activity as authentically using knowledge for the purpose of making sense of natural phenomena. Notably the determination of what is authentic is problematic in a science classroom. There are two different possible arbiters "present" in a classroom, the students themselves and the discipline of science. And what is authentic to one might not be to the other. This work provides perspectives on classroom and teacher professional development implications of this view of science instruction. Chapter two articulates a conceptualization, epistemological authenticity, of the nature of student activity necessary to achieve these instructional goals. Such activity involves students engaging in scientific practices with the same purposes as scientists. Chapter three uses a case study of a science classroom to illustrate some of the features of student activity that provide evidence of more and less productive student expectations about the purposes of their own participation in a science class. It also discusses the role teacher instructional choices play in influencing how students perceive the purposes of classroom activity. Chapter four considers teacher professional development, specifically images of exemplary science classrooms in the Standards and a supplement to it

  6. Predicting vibrational failure of flexible ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Technique applies to liquid or gas transfer through flexible ducting and proves valuable in high velocity fluid flow cases. Fluid mechanism responsible for free bellows vibrational excitation also causes flexible hose oscillation. Static pressure stress influences flexible ducting fatigue life and is considered separately.

  7. Performance Analysis of Motion-Sensor Behavior for User Authentication on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chao; Yu, Tianwen; Yuan, Sheng; Li, Yunpeng; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The growing trend of using smartphones as personal computing platforms to access and store private information has stressed the demand for secure and usable authentication mechanisms. This paper investigates the feasibility and applicability of using motion-sensor behavior data for user authentication on smartphones. For each sample of the passcode, sensory data from motion sensors are analyzed to extract descriptive and intensive features for accurate and fine-grained characterization of users’ passcode-input actions. One-class learning methods are applied to the feature space for performing user authentication. Analyses are conducted using data from 48 participants with 129,621 passcode samples across various operational scenarios and different types of smartphones. Extensive experiments are included to examine the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieves a false-rejection rate of 6.85% and a false-acceptance rate of 5.01%. Additional experiments on usability with respect to passcode length, sensitivity with respect to training sample size, scalability with respect to number of users, and flexibility with respect to screen size were provided to further explore the effectiveness and practicability. The results suggest that sensory data could provide useful authentication information, and this level of performance approaches sufficiency for two-factor authentication on smartphones. Our dataset is publicly available to facilitate future research. PMID:27005626

  8. Performance Analysis of Motion-Sensor Behavior for User Authentication on Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Yu, Tianwen; Yuan, Sheng; Li, Yunpeng; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The growing trend of using smartphones as personal computing platforms to access and store private information has stressed the demand for secure and usable authentication mechanisms. This paper investigates the feasibility and applicability of using motion-sensor behavior data for user authentication on smartphones. For each sample of the passcode, sensory data from motion sensors are analyzed to extract descriptive and intensive features for accurate and fine-grained characterization of users' passcode-input actions. One-class learning methods are applied to the feature space for performing user authentication. Analyses are conducted using data from 48 participants with 129,621 passcode samples across various operational scenarios and different types of smartphones. Extensive experiments are included to examine the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieves a false-rejection rate of 6.85% and a false-acceptance rate of 5.01%. Additional experiments on usability with respect to passcode length, sensitivity with respect to training sample size, scalability with respect to number of users, and flexibility with respect to screen size were provided to further explore the effectiveness and practicability. The results suggest that sensory data could provide useful authentication information, and this level of performance approaches sufficiency for two-factor authentication on smartphones. Our dataset is publicly available to facilitate future research. PMID:27005626

  9. 22 CFR 92.37 - Authentication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication procedure. 92.37 Section 92.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.37 Authentication procedure. (a) The consular officer must compare the foreign official's seal and signature on the document...

  10. A Comparison of Textbook and Authentic Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the discourse features of seven dialogues published in coursebooks between 1981 and 1997, and contrasts them with comparable authentic interactions. It finds that the textbook dialogues differ considerably from their authentic equivalents across a range of discourse features: length and turn-taking…

  11. Authentic Assessment in Reading Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, Bonnie; Smith, Lynn C.

    Noting that many teachers and some states have abandoned traditional testing methods of public school students in favor of authentic and performance-based assessment, this paper shares alternative assessment methods used by two teacher educators. After a brief introduction to the issues of authentic assessment in reading education courses, the…

  12. Authentic Moral Conflicts and Students' Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Wei-li

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with the different psychological processes people undergo when they experience firsthand authentic moral conflicts. It also discusses the value of authentic moral conflicts in students' moral development, and reasons for the ineffectiveness of moral education in China. The main reason for the unsatisfactory effects of moral…

  13. Authenticity and Technology in Montessori Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbell, Elizabeth Ross

    2006-01-01

    Montessori classrooms commonly integrate their learning across the curriculum, and participate in service learning projects. Both of these practices are authentic experiences for children. This article outlines examples of technology being used to create authentic learning environments, tasks, audiences, sources, and assessments. Technology…

  14. Wikis as Platforms for Authentic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Lawrence, April

    2013-01-01

    Calls for accountability focus attention on assessment of student learning. Authentic assessment involves evaluating student learning as students perform real world tasks. We present a four-stage conceptual framework for authentic assessment. We argue first that evaluation is a process rather than a static one-time event. Second, authentic…

  15. Authentic Interdisciplinary Instruction: Raising the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…

  16. Aggregated Authentication (AMAC) Using Universal Hash Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znaidi, Wassim; Minier, Marine; Lauradoux, Cédric

    Aggregation is a very important issue to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs). There is currently a lack of cryptographic primitives for authentication of aggregated data. The theoretical background for Aggregated Message Authentication Codes (AMACs) has been proposed by Chan and Castelluccia at ISIT 08.

  17. Continuous user authentication using temporal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinuma, Koichiro; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-04-01

    Conventional computer systems authenticate users only at the initial log-in session, which can be the cause of a critical security flaw. To resolve this problem, systems need continuous user authentication methods that continuously monitor and authenticate users based on some biometric trait(s). We propose a new method for continuous user authentication based on a Webcam that monitors a logged in user's face and color of clothing. Our method can authenticate users regardless of their posture in front of the workstation (laptop or PC). Previous methods for continuous user authentication cannot authenticate users without biometric observation. To alleviate this requirement, our method uses color information of users' clothing as an enrollment template in addition to their face information. The system cannot pre-register the clothing color information because this information is not permanent. To deal with the problem, our system automatically registers this information every time the user logs in and then fuses it with the conventional (password) identification system. We report preliminary authentication results and future enhancements to the proposed system.

  18. Authentic Learning and Multimedia in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The momentum gathering behind authentic learning/critical skills raises fundamental issues concerning teaching and learning. This article discusses some of the more general arguments surrounding authentic learning with particular reference to an in-depth evaluation of its impact on schools in one part of Great Britain. It then moves on to describe…

  19. Making it Real: Authenticity, Process and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Richard; MacDonald, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Authenticity has been a part of the intellectual resources of language teaching since the 1890s but its precise meaning and implications are contested. This commentary argues for a view of authenticity which recognizes the limits of the concept as a guide for pedagogic practice and acknowledges the fact that texts are processes rather than…

  20. Authenticated Quantum Dialogue Based on Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes an authenticated quantum dialogue (AQD) based on Bell states, allowing two communicants to perform mutual authentication and secure bidirectional communications simultaneously via public classical channels. Compared with the other AQDs, the proposed protocol is free from information leakage and is secure under several well-known attacks.

  1. Teacher Authenticity: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoury, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on a small, under-acknowledged body of educational works that speak to the problem of an overly technical focus on teaching, which negates a more authentic consideration of what it means to teach, including an exploration of the spiritual and moral dimensions. A need for educational change and the teacher's authentic way of…

  2. DNA authentication of animal-derived concentrated Chinese medicine granules.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Li; Lo, Yat-Tung; Chen, Wei-Ting; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2016-09-10

    Concentrated Chinese medicine granules (CCMG) offer patients a convenient option for traditional therapy. However with morphological and microscopic characteristics lost, it is difficult to authenticate and control the quality of these medicinal products. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of using DNA techniques to authenticate animal-derived CCMG, which has so far lacking of effective means for authentication. Primers targeting amplicons of different sizes were designed to determine the presence of PCR-amplifiable DNA fragments in two types of CCMG, namely Zaocys and Scorpio. Species-specific primers were designed to differentiate the genuine drugs from their adulterants. The specificity of the designed primers was evaluated in crude drugs (including genuine and adulterant) and CCMG. Results showed that by using species-specific primers, DNA fragments of less than 200bp could be isolated from the CCMG and the concerned source materials. This study demonstrated the presence of small size DNA in animal-derived CCMG and the DNA is effective in species identification. The work has extended the application of DNA techniques in herbal medicine and this approach may be further developed for quality control and regulatory compliance in the CCMG industry. PMID:27468133

  3. On the fly finger knuckle print authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Narishige; Shinzaki, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Finger knuckle print authentication has been researched not only as a supplemental authentication modality to fingerprint recognition but also as a method for logging into a PC or entering a building. However, in previous works, some specific devices were necessary to capture a finger knuckle print and users had to keep their fingers perfectly still to capture their finger knuckle. In this paper, we propose a new on the fly finger knuckle print authentication system using a general web camera. In our proposed authentication system, users can input their finger knuckle prints without needing their hand to remain motionless during image capture. We also evaluate the authentication accuracy of the proposed system, achieving an 7% EER under best conditions.

  4. Extensible Authentication Protocol Overview and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youm, Heung Youl

    The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication framework that supports multiple authentication mechanisms [38] between a peer and an authentication server in a data communication network. EAP is used as a useful tool for enabling user authentication and distribution of session keys. There are numerous EAP methods that have been developed by global SDOs such as IETF, IEEE, ITU-T, and 3GPP. In this paper, we analyze the most widely deployed EAP methods ranging from the EAP-TLS [27] to the EAP-PSK [25]. In addition, we derive the security requirements of EAP methods meet, evaluate the typical EAP methods in terms of the security requirements, and discuss the features of the existing widely-deployed EAP methods. In addition, we identify two typical use cases for the EAP methods. Finally, recent global standardization activities in this area are reviewed.

  5. Safety of templates in biometric person authentication using error-correcting code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Tetsushi; Akatsuka, Shiro; Komatsu, Naohisa; Kasahara, Masao

    2006-02-01

    Biometric person authentication has been attracting considerable attention in recent years. Conventional biometric person authentication systems, however, simply store each user's template as-is on the system. If registered templates are not properly protected, the risk arises of template leakage to a third party and impersonation using biometric data restored from a template. We propose a technique that partially deletes and splits template information so as to prevent template restoration using only registered template information while enabling restoration for only that template's owner using error-correcting code. This technique can be applied to general biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we introduce this technique and evaluate template security with it by simulating a speaker verification system.

  6. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity. PMID:26395416

  7. Ultra-Thin, Flexible Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Brian; McPherson, Ryan; Zhang, Tan; Hou, Zhenwei; Dean, Robert; Johnson, R. Wayne; DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Thinned die can be used to realize ultra-thin flexible electronics for applications such as conformal and wearable electronics. Three techniques have been developed to achieve this goal using thinned die: die flip chip bonded onto flexible substrates, die laminated onto LCP films, and die embedded in polyimide. A key to achieving each of these techniques is the thinning of die to a thickness of 50 microns or thinner. Conventional CMP processing can be used to thin to 50 microns. At 50 microns, the active die become flexible and must be handled by temporarily bonding them to a holder die, for further processing. Once bonded face down to the holder die, the active die can be further thinned by DRIE etching the exposed backside. The thinned die can then been packaged in or on the flexible substrate.

  8. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  9. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  10. The Comparison of the Effects of Three Physiotherapy Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility in Children: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kędra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10–13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation – PIR (n = 40), (2) static stretch combined with stabilizing exercises – SS (n = 40) and (3) stabilizing exercises – SE (n = 40). Hamstring flexibility was assessed with straight leg raise (SLR), popliteal angle (PA) and finger-to-floor (FTF) tests. The examinations were conducted by blinded observers twice, prior to the program and a week after the last session with the physiotherapist. Twenty-six children who did not participate in all six exercise sessions with physiotherapists were excluded from the analysis. The results obtained by 94 children were analyzed (PIR, n = 32; SS, n = 31; SE, n = 31). In the PIR and SS groups, a significant (P<0.01) increase in SLR, PA, FTF results was observed. In the SE group, a significant (P<0.001) increase was observed in the SLR but not in the PA and FTF (P>0.05). SLR result in the PIR and SS groups was significantly (P<0.001) higher than in the SE group. As far as PA results are concerned, a significant difference was observed only between the SS and SE groups (P = 0.014). There were no significant (P = 0.15) differences regarding FTF results between the three groups. Post-isometric muscle relaxation and static stretch with stabilizing exercises led to a similar increase in hamstring flexibility and trunk forward bend in healthy 10–13-year-old children. The exercises limited to straightening gluteus maximus improved the SLR result, but did not change the PA and FTF results. PMID:23951281

  11. Final report for the network authentication investigation and pilot.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Miller, Marc M.; Wiener, Dallas J; Witzke, Edward L.

    2006-11-01

    New network based authentication mechanisms are beginning to be implemented in industry. This project investigated different authentication technologies to see if and how Sandia might benefit from them. It also investigated how these mechanisms can integrate with the Sandia Two-Factor Authentication Project. The results of these investigations and a network authentication path forward strategy are documented in this report.

  12. Digital imaging based classification and authentication of granular food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, R. M.; Yan, Y.; Tomlins, K.

    2006-02-01

    In the food industry there are many types of product that are in the form of particles, granules or grains. Consistent material size and quality within any given sample is an important requirement that is well known in industry. In addition it is possible that samples of material may be of unknown type or have been subject to adulteration, thus making material authentication a real requirement. The present work implements an advanced, but cost-effective, digital imaging and image processing technique to characterize granular foodstuffs either in real time process control or in an off-line, sample-based, manner. The imaging approach not only provides cost-effective and rugged hardware when compared with other approaches but also allows precise characterization of individual grains of material. In this paper the imaging system is briefly described and the parameters it measures are discussed. Both cluster and discriminant analyses are performed to establish the suitability of the measured parameters for authenticity study and a simple fuzzy logic is implemented based on the findings. Tests are performed, using rice as an example, to evaluate the performance of the system for authenticity testing, and encouraging results are achieved.

  13. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  14. Control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for future space missions indicate that many of these spacecraft will be large, flexible, and in some applications, require precision geometries. A technology program that addresses the issues associated with the structure/control interactions for these classes of spacecraft is discussed. The goal of the NASA control of flexible structures technology program is to generate a technology data base that will provide the designer with options and approaches to achieve spacecraft performance such as maintaining geometry and/or suppressing undesired spacecraft dynamics. This technology program will define the appropriate combination of analysis, ground testing, and flight testing required to validate the structural/controls analysis and design tools. This work was motivated by a recognition that large minimum weight space structures will be required for many future missions. The tools necessary to support such design included: (1) improved structural analysis; (2) modern control theory; (3) advanced modeling techniques; (4) system identification; and (5) the integration of structures and controls.

  15. The Effect of Authentic versus Non-Authentic Texts on Upper Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nematollahi, Shirin; Maghsoudi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    In this current study the researchers have tried to investigate the possible effect of authentic and non-authentic texts on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary retention. Despite the great deal of studies conducted in the area of EFL/ESL learning, the effect of authentic versus non-authentic texts have almost gained little attention and been…

  16. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  17. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  18. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification. PMID:20591819

  19. Survivable authentication for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Kemal; Baykal, Nazife

    2003-01-01

    Possible solutions to establish a survivable authentication framework in a health information system including the one based on one-time passwords (OTPs) are discussed. A new convenient method to generate OTPs is proposed. PMID:14728296

  20. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  1. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag's unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  2. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag`s unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  3. Survivable Authentication for Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bicakci, Kemal; Baykal, Nazife

    2003-01-01

    Possible solutions to establish a survivable authentication framework in a health information system including the one based on one-time passwords (OTPs) are discussed. A new convenient method to generate OTPs is proposed. PMID:14728296

  4. Developing Listening Skills with Authentic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to help English-as-a-Second-Language learners develop effective listening skills. Suggests a process for helping ESL learners develop their listening skills and makes suggestions for how this might be achieved with authentic materials. (VWL)

  5. Quantum Authentication Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penghao, Niu; Yuan, Chen; Chong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Based on the entanglement swapping, a quantum authentication scheme with a trusted- party is proposed in this paper. With this scheme, two users can perform mutual identity authentication to confirm each other's validity. In addition, the scheme is proved to be secure under circumstances where a malicious attacker is capable of monitoring the classical and quantum channels and has the power to forge all information on the public channel.

  6. GEOSS authentication/authorization services: a Broker-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the achievement of societal benefits through voluntary contribution and sharing of resources to better understand the relationships between the society and the environment where we live. The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) allows users to search, access, and use the resources contributed by the GEOSS members. The GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) is the GCI component in charge of interconnecting the heterogeneous data systems contributing to GEOSS. Client applications (i.e. the portals and apps) can connect to GEO DAB as a unique entry point to discover and access resources available through GCI, with no need to implement the many service protocols and models applied by the GEOSS data providers. The GEO DAB implements the brokering approach (Nativi et al., 2013) to build a flexible and scalable System of Systems. User authentication/authorization functionality is becoming more and more important for GEOSS data providers and users. The Providers ask for information about who accessed their resources and, in some cases, want to limit the data download. The Users ask for a profiled interaction with the system based on their needs and expertise level. Besides, authentication and authorization is necessary for GEOSS to provide moderated social services - e.g. feedback messages, data "fit for use" comments, etc. In keeping with the GEOSS principles of building on existing systems and lowering entry-barriers for users, an objective of the authentication/authorization development was to support existing and well-used users' credentials (e.g. Google, Twitter, etc.). Due to the heterogeneity of technologies used by the different providers and applications, a broker-based approach for the authentication/authorization was introduced as a new functionality of GEO DAB. This new capability will be demonstrated at the next GEO XI Plenary (November 2014). This work will be presented and discussed

  7. An analytical technique for predicting the characteristics of a flexible wing equipped with an active flutter-suppression system and comparison with wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical technique for predicting the performance of an active flutter-suppression system is presented. This technique is based on the use of an interpolating function to approximate the unsteady aerodynamics. The resulting equations are formulated in terms of linear, ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. This technique is then applied to an aeroelastic model wing equipped with an active flutter-suppression system. Comparisons between wind-tunnel data and analysis are presented for the wing both with and without active flutter suppression. Results indicate that the wing flutter characteristics without flutter suppression can be predicted very well but that a more adequate model of wind-tunnel turbulence is required when the active flutter-suppression system is used.

  8. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  9. A highly reliable copper nanowire/nanoparticle ink pattern with high conductivity on flexible substrate prepared via a flash light-sintering technique.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung-Jun; Park, Sung-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-03-18

    In this work, copper nanowires (NWs) and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were employed to increase the reliability of a printed electrode pattern under mechanical bending fatigue. The fabricated Cu NW/NP inks with different weight fractions of Cu NWs were printed on a polyimide substrate and flash light-sintered within a few milliseconds at room temperature under ambient conditions. Then, 1000 cycles of outer and inner bending fatigue tests were performed using a lab-made fatigue tester. The flash light-sintered Cu NW/NP ink film with 5 wt % Cu NWs prepared under the flash light-sintering conditions (12.5 J·cm–2 irradiation energy, 10 ms pulse duration, and one pulse) showed a lower resistivity (22.77 μΩ·cm) than those of the only Cu NPs and Cu NWs ink (94.01 μΩ·cm and 104.15 μΩ·cm, respectively). In addition, the resistance change (ΔR·R0(–1)) of the 5 wt % Cu NWs Cu NW/NP film was greatly enhanced to 4.19 compared to the 92.75 of the Cu NPs film obtained under mechanical fatigue conditions over 1000 cycles and an outer bending radius of 7 mm. These results were obtained by the densification and enhanced mechanical flexibility of flash light-sintered Cu NW/NP network, which resulted in prevention of crack initiation and propagation. To characterize the Cu NW/NP ink film, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used. PMID:25714508

  10. Location and Flexibility of the Unique C-Terminal Tail of Aquifex aeolicus Co-Chaperonin Protein 10 as Derived by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Biophysical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Hua; Luke, Kathryn; Zhang, Junjie; Chiu, Wah; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-01-01

    Co-chaperonin protein 10 (cpn10, GroES in Escherichia coli) is a ring-shaped heptameric protein that facilitates substrate folding when in complex with cpn60 (GroEL in E. coli). The cpn10 from the hyperthermophilic, ancient bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aacpn10) has a 25-residue C-terminal extension in each monomer not found in any other cpn10 protein. Earlier in vitro work has shown that this tail is not needed for heptamer assembly or protein function. Without the tail, however, the heptamers (Aacpn10del-25) readily aggregate into fibrillar stacked rings. To explain this phenomenon, we performed binding experiments with a peptide construct of the tail to establish its specificity for Aacpn10del-25 and used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the GroEL–Aacpn10–ADP complex at an 8-Å resolution. We found that the GroEL–Aacpn10 structure is similar to the GroEL–GroES structure at this resolution, suggesting that Aacpn10 has molecular interactions with cpn60 similar to other cpn10s. The cryo-electron microscopy density map does not directly reveal the density of the Aacpn10 25-residue tail. However, the 3D statistical variance coefficient map computed from multiple 3D reconstructions with randomly selected particle images suggests that the tail is located at the Aacpn10 monomer–monomer interface and extends toward the cis-ring apical domain of GroEL. The tail at this location does not block the formation of a functional co-chaperonin/chaperonin complex but limits self-aggregation into linear fibrils at high temperatures. In addition, the 3D variance coefficient map identifies several regions inside the GroEL–Aacpn10 complex that have flexible conformations. This observation is in full agreement with the structural properties of an effective chaperonin. PMID:18588898