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Sample records for flexible modelling strategy

  1. Mental Model Progression in Learning the Electron Transport Chain: Effects of Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Hemphill, Jennifer; Nelson, David W.; Boulware, Wilma; Liang, Xinya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two instructional strategies, segmented and holistic, on the progression over time of learners' mental models toward that of an expert with the moderator of cognitive flexibility. Sixty-four juniors and seniors in a college metabolism course were randomly assigned to one of the two strategies for instruction…

  2. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  3. Flexible Cognitive Strategies during Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jordan A.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Visuomotor rotation tasks have proven to be a powerful tool to study adaptation of the motor system. While adaptation in such tasks is seemingly automatic and incremental, participants may gain knowledge of the perturbation and invoke a compensatory strategy. When provided with an explicit strategy to counteract a rotation, participants are initially very accurate, even without on-line feedback. Surprisingly, with further testing, the angle of their reaching movements drifts in the direction of the strategy, producing an increase in endpoint errors. This drift is attributed to the gradual adaptation of an internal model that operates independently from the strategy, even at the cost of task accuracy. Here we identify constraints that influence this process, allowing us to explore models of the interaction between strategic and implicit changes during visuomotor adaptation. When the adaptation phase was extended, participants eventually modified their strategy to offset the rise in endpoint errors. Moreover, when we removed visual markers that provided external landmarks to support a strategy, the degree of drift was sharply attenuated. These effects are accounted for by a setpoint state-space model in which a strategy is flexibly adjusted to offset performance errors arising from the implicit adaptation of an internal model. More generally, these results suggest that strategic processes may operate in many studies of visuomotor adaptation, with participants arriving at a synergy between a strategic plan and the effects of sensorimotor adaptation. PMID:21390266

  4. Modeling flexible active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Selinger, Robin

    We study active nematic phases of self-propelled flexible chains in two dimensions using computer simulation, to investigate effects of chain flexibility. In a ``dry'' phase of self-propelled flexible chains, we find that increasing chain stiffness enhances orientational order and correlation length, narrows the distribution of turning angles, increases persistence length, and increases the magnitude of giant density fluctuations. We further adapt the simulation model to describe behavior of microtubules driven by kinesin molecular motors in two different environments: on a rigid substrate with kinesin immobilized on the surface; and on a lipid membrane where kinesin is bonded to lipid head groups and can diffuse. Results are compared to experiments by L. Hirst and J. Xu. Lastly, we consider active nematics of flexible particles enclosed in soft, deformable encapsulation in two dimensions, and demonstrate novel mechanisms of pattern formation that are fundamentally different from those observed in bulk. Supported by NSF-DMR 1409658.

  5. Flexible simulation strategy for modeling 3D cultural objects based on multisource remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guienko, Guennadi; Levin, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    New ideas and solutions never come alone. Although automated feature extraction is not sufficiently mature to move from the realm of scientific investigation into the category of production technology, a new goal has arisen: 3D simulation of real-world objects, extracted from images. This task, which evolved from feature extraction and is not an easy task itself, becomes even more complex, multi-leveled, and often uncertain and fuzzy when one exploits time-sequenced multi-source remotely sensed visual data. The basic components of the process are familiar image processing tasks: fusion of various types of imagery, automatic recognition of objects, removng those objects from the source images, and replacing them in the images with their realistic simulated "twin" object rendering. This paper discusses how to aggregate the most appropriate approach to each task into one technological process in order to develop a Manipulator for Visual Simulation of 3D objects (ManVIS) that is independent or imagery/format/media. The technology could be made general by combining a number of competent special purpose algorithms under appropriate contextual, geometric, spatial, and temporal constraints derived from a-priori knowledge. This could be achieved by planning the simulation in an Open Structure Simulation Strategy Manager (O3SM) a distinct component of ManVIS building the simulation strategy before beginning actual image manipulation.

  6. Design Strategy for Flexible Health Sciences Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, John; Best, Gordon

    1970-01-01

    A statistical analysis of spatial allocations in university teaching hospitals and medical schools in three countries supports the hypothesis that on the “macro” level of major functional zones there is a considerable degree of invariance in space ratios, despite wide divergence in size, organization, and operating policies. On the basis of these findings a model is developed that makes it possible to predict, from a variety of indicators of space “needs,” the total area of a health sciences facility defined by levels of support servicing. The outputs of the model are seen as the inputs to a design strategy for potentially flexible medical facilities served by a communication lattice capable of indefinite extension. Images Fig. 9 PMID:5494269

  7. Flexible procurement strategies smooth price spikes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaalaas, T.

    2006-12-15

    Pace Global Energy Services has been predicting for some time that the recent peaks in spot coal prices were not sustainable and this has been borne out. The latest available data on coal supply and demand fundamental suggest that spot coal prices may decline even more rapidly than previously forecast. Price volatility over the last five years suggests that a flexible procurement strategy that is well adapted to volatile market conditions may be just as important as knowledge of market fundamentals. 3 figs.

  8. Modeling Intercellular Communication as a Survival Strategy of Cancer Cells: An In Silico Approach on a Flexible Bioinformatics Framework

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-García, Maura; González-Pérez, Pedro P.; Montagna, Sara; Cortés, Oscar Sánchez; Caballero, Elena Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communication is very important for cell development and allows a group of cells to survive as a population. Cancer cells have a similar behavior, presenting the same mechanisms and characteristics of tissue formation. In this article, we model and simulate the formation of different communication channels that allow an interaction between two cells. This is a first step in order to simulate in the future processes that occur in healthy tissue when normal cells surround a cancer cell and to interrupt the communication, thus preventing the spread of malignancy into these cells. The purpose of this study is to propose key molecules, which can be targeted to allow us to break the communication between cancer cells and surrounding normal cells. The simulation is carried out using a flexible bioinformatics platform that we developed, which is itself based on the metaphor chemistry-based model. PMID:26997867

  9. Modeling Intercellular Communication as a Survival Strategy of Cancer Cells: An In Silico Approach on a Flexible Bioinformatics Framework.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-García, Maura; González-Pérez, Pedro P; Montagna, Sara; Cortés, Oscar Sánchez; Caballero, Elena Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communication is very important for cell development and allows a group of cells to survive as a population. Cancer cells have a similar behavior, presenting the same mechanisms and characteristics of tissue formation. In this article, we model and simulate the formation of different communication channels that allow an interaction between two cells. This is a first step in order to simulate in the future processes that occur in healthy tissue when normal cells surround a cancer cell and to interrupt the communication, thus preventing the spread of malignancy into these cells. The purpose of this study is to propose key molecules, which can be targeted to allow us to break the communication between cancer cells and surrounding normal cells. The simulation is carried out using a flexible bioinformatics platform that we developed, which is itself based on the metaphor chemistry-based model. PMID:26997867

  10. A flexible search strategy for production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Pradip; Srinivasan, S.; Sundararaghavan, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    Most problems considered to be solvable by expert systems have very large search space. It is imperative to use efficient search strategy in expert system tools. Thus, OPS5 uses a kind of hill climbing which is very efficient. However, hill climbing is inadequate for many problems because it is one of the least dependable search strategies. In order to make the search efficient and adequate one can: (1) adopt best-first search instead of hill climbing, or (2) modify hill climbing with intelligent backtracking. The second alternative is adopted. It is implemented in a production system called PRO2 embedded in C running on UNIX. It is called hill tracking. It is a general purpose tool for developing expert systems. This is a rule based production system with an effective, intelligent and flexible backtracking control mechanism, which makes the system more dependable. The advantages and disadvantages of PRO2 are discussed.

  11. Protein flexibility oriented virtual screening strategy for JAK2 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiao; Yuan, Haoliang; Zhang, Yanmin; Xu, Jinxing; Ran, Ting; Liu, Haichun; Lu, Shuai; Xu, Anyang; Li, Hongmei; Jiang, Yulei; Lu, Tao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-10-01

    JAK2 has been considered as an important target for the development of anti-cancer agents. In this study, considering the flexibility of its binding site, an integrated strategy combining Bayesian categorization modeling and ensemble docking was established. Four representative crystal structures were selected for ensemble docking by the hierarchical clustering of 34 crystal structures according to the volume overlaps of each structure. A retrospective virtual screening was performed to validate this integrated strategy. As the preliminary filtration, the Bayesian model enhanced the ratio of actives by reducing the large amount of decoys. After docking the remaining compounds, the comparison between the ensemble and individual results showed that the enrichment of ensemble docking improved significantly. The results of analysis on conformational changes of two top ranked active inhibitors when docking into different proteins indicated that compounds with flexible conformations well fitted the different binding site shapes were more likely to be potential JAK2 inhibitors. This high efficient strategy will facilitate virtual screening for novel JAK2 inhibitors and could be even applied in drug discovery against other targets.

  12. Risk of cancer in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators: importance of using a flexible modelling strategy

    PubMed Central

    Goria, Sarah; Daniau, Côme; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Fabre, Pascal; Colonna, Marc; Duboudin, Cedric; Viel, Jean-François; Richardson, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Background We conducted an ecological study in four French administrative departments and highlighted an excess risk in cancer morbidity for residents around municipal solid waste incinerators. The aim of this paper is to show how important are advanced tools and statistical techniques to better assess weak associations between the risk of cancer and past environmental exposures. Methods The steps to evaluate the association between the risk of cancer and the exposure to incinerators, from the assessment of exposure to the definition of the confounding variables and the statistical analysis carried out are detailed and discussed. Dispersion modelling was used to assess exposure to sixteen incinerators. A geographical information system was developed to define an index of exposure at the IRIS level that is the geographical unit we considered. Population density, rural/urban status, socio-economic deprivation, exposure to air pollution from traffic and from other industries were considered as potential confounding factors and defined at the IRIS level. Generalized additive models and Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate the association between the risk of cancer and the index of exposure to incinerators accounting for the confounding factors. Results Modelling to assess the exposure to municipal solid waste incinerators allowed accounting for factors known to influence the exposure (meteorological data, point source characteristics, topography). The statistical models defined allowed modelling extra-Poisson variability and also non-linear relationships between the risk of cancer and the exposure to incinerators and the confounders. Conclusion In most epidemiological studies distance is still used as a proxy for exposure. This can lead to significant exposure misclassification. Additionally, in geographical correlation studies the non-linear relationships are usually not accounted for in the statistical analysis. In studies of weak associations it is

  13. Model reduction for flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1990-01-01

    Several conditions for a near-optimal reduction of general dynamic systems are presented focusing on the reduction in balanced and modal coordinates. It is shown that model and balanced reductions give very different results for the flexible structure with closely-spaced natural frequencies. In general, balanced reduction is found to give better results. A robust model reduction technique was developed to study the sensitivity of modeling error to variations in the damping of a structure. New concepts of grammians defined over a finite time and/or a frequency interval are proposed including computational procedures for evaluating them. Application of the model reduction technique to these grammians is considered to lead to a near-optimal reduced model which closely reproduces the full system output in the time and/or frequency interval.

  14. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  15. Investment strategy for flexible capacity considering demand-side disruption risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Cuicui; Ji, Jianhua; Li, Xinjun

    2016-04-01

    This article considers a firm selling two product families and confronting demand-side disruption risk. The firm has the option to invest in dedicated capacities and flexible capacity. To study the optimal investment strategy, we model the firm's decision as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, in which deviation risk is restricted within a certain level. Our analysis provides the necessary and sufficient conditions for the optimal strategy and the threshold policy for the flexible capacity investment. The results in the context of deviation risk constraint are compared with results derived outside of the context of deviation risk constraint. Furthermore, a numerical example is given to depict the optimal investment strategy.

  16. Flexible healthcare structures: analysis and evaluation of possible strategies and technologies.

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Nachiero, D; Capolongo, S

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals are complex buildings because of their articulation, function, organization and technology equipment. Planning hospitals needs an interdisciplinary approach in order to organize efficiently the construction of qualitative and flexible units, that must be able to answer to all the requirements of different users and to the fast changes due to the research innovations. Human and care activities have a rapid progress, that creates a constant demand of modernizations of the hospitals and readjustment of the functional connections. Flexibility becomes the core of all the modifications depending on the progress of the medical science. The future challenge is to build structures that promote sustainable flexibility and also allow to achieve wellness in a synergic relation with complementary external activities. Therefore the research aims to identify lay-out models, technical and constructive solutions to guarantee different levels of flexibility. The research was made of different stages to define flexibility inside healthcare structures using strategies and technologies. The first step has followed the evolution of hospital structures during the centuries. It illustrates the most efficient methods and solutions used in last fifty years to achieve the flexibility. The second step was the analysis of the most important contemporaries healthcare structures. In that analysis, the hospitals will be compared through an evaluation matrix made by diferent flexibility levels that underlines the most efficient technologies and strategies used. At the end it was made a list of design indications focused on the definition of a new design approach that guarantees flexibility for these complex systems. PMID:23234192

  17. Algebraic models of flexible manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskin, Aleksei Alekseevich

    Various aspects of the use of mathematical methods in the development of flexible manufacturing systems are examined. Attention is given to dynamical and structural models of flexible manufacturing systems developed by using methods of algebraic and differential geometry, topology, polynomial algebra, and extreme value problem theory. The principles of model integration are discussed, and approaches are proposed for solving problems related to the selection of flexible manufacturing equipment, real-time modeling of the manufacturing process, and optimization of local automation systems. The discussion is illustrated by examples.

  18. Stochastic model for protein flexibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Protein flexibility is an intrinsic property and plays a fundamental role in protein functions. Computational analysis of protein flexibility is crucial to protein function prediction, macromolecular flexible docking, and rational drug design. Most current approaches for protein flexibility analysis are based on Hamiltonian mechanics. We introduce a stochastic model to study protein flexibility. The essential idea is to analyze the free induction decay of a perturbed protein structural probability, which satisfies the master equation. The transition probability matrix is constructed by using probability density estimators including monotonically decreasing radial basis functions. We show that the proposed stochastic model gives rise to some of the best predictions of Debye-Waller factors or B factors for three sets of protein data introduced in the literature.

  19. Flexible Models for Solar Sail Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver Smith, Suzanne; Song, Haiping; Baker, John R.; Black, Jonathan; Muheim, Danniella M.

    2005-01-01

    Solar sails employ a unique form of propulsion, gaining momentum from incident and reflected photons. However, the momentum transferred by an individual photon is extremely small. Consequently, a solar sail must have an extremely large surface area and also be extremely light. The flexibility of the sail then must be considered when designing or evaluating control laws. In this paper, solar sail flexibility and its influence on control effectiveness is considered using idealized two-dimensional models to represent physical phenomena rather than a specific design. Differential equations of motion are derived for a distributed parameter model of a flexible solar sail idealized as a rotating central hub with two opposing flexible booms. This idealization is appropriate for solar sail designs in which the vibrational modes of the sail and supporting booms move together allowing the sail mass to be distributed along the booms in the idealized model. A reduced analytical model of the flexible response is considered. Linear feedback torque control is applied at the central hub. Two translational disturbances and a torque disturbance also act at the central hub representing the equivalent effect of deflecting sail shape about a reference line. Transient simulations explore different control designs and their effectiveness for controlling orientation, for reducing flexible motion and for disturbance rejection. A second model also is developed as a two-dimensional "pathfinder" model to calculate the effect of solar sail shape on the resultant thrust, in-plane force and torque at the hub. The analysis is then extended to larger models using the finite element method. The finite element modeling approach is verified by comparing results from a two-dimensional finite element model with those from the analytical model. The utility of the finite element modeling approach for this application is then illustrated through examples based on a full finite element model.

  20. A Model for Flexibly Editing CSCL Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobreira, Pericles; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model whose primary concern and design rationale is to offer users (teachers) with basic ICT skills an intuitive, easy, and flexible way of editing scripts. The proposal is based on relating an end-user representation as a table and a machine model as a tree. The table-tree model introduces structural expressiveness and…

  1. A flexible modelling software for data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Yang, S.; Liu, G. )

    1992-04-01

    A flexible modeling software for pulsed data acquisition is based on an event-driven simulator. It can be used to simulate a wide variety of systems which can be modeled as open queuing networks. This paper also describes some modeling program techniques and applications in plasma physics laboratories.

  2. Flexible Bayesian Human Fecundity Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungduk; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Pyper, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Human fecundity is an issue of considerable interest for both epidemiological and clinical audiences, and is dependent upon a couple’s biologic capacity for reproduction coupled with behaviors that place a couple at risk for pregnancy. Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to better model the conception probabilities by accounting for the acts of intercourse around the day of ovulation, i.e., during the fertile window. These models can be viewed in the framework of a generalized nonlinear model with an exponential link. However, a fixed choice of link function may not always provide the best fit, leading to potentially biased estimates for probability of conception. Motivated by this, we propose a general class of models for fecundity by relaxing the choice of the link function under the generalized nonlinear model framework. We use a sample from the Oxford Conception Study (OCS) to illustrate the utility and fit of this general class of models for estimating human conception. Our findings reinforce the need for attention to be paid to the choice of link function in modeling conception, as it may bias the estimation of conception probabilities. Various properties of the proposed models are examined and a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm was developed for implementing the Bayesian computations. The deviance information criterion measure and logarithm of pseudo marginal likelihood are used for guiding the choice of links. The supplemental material section contains technical details of the proof of the theorem stated in the paper, and contains further simulation results and analysis.

  3. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Finnveden, Göran; Björklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials. PMID:17412580

  4. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Goeran Bjoerklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Soerbom, Adrienne

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  5. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  6. Flexible robot control: Modeling and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, Irving J.; Shimoyama, Isao

    1989-01-01

    Described here is a model and its use in experimental studies of flexible manipulators. The analytical model uses the equivalent of Rayleigh's method to approximate the displaced shape of a flexible link as the static elastic displacement which would occur under end rotations as applied at the joints. The generalized coordinates are thereby expressly compatible with joint motions and rotations in serial link manipulators, because the amplitude variables are simply the end rotations between the flexible link and the chord connecting the end points. The equations for the system dynamics are quite simple and can readily be formulated for the multi-link, three-dimensional case. When the flexible links possess mass and (polar moment of) inertia which are small compared to the concentrated mass and inertia at the joints, the analytical model is exact and displays the additional advantage of reduction in system dimension for the governing equations. Four series of pilot tests have been completed. Studies on a planar single-link system were conducted at Carnegie-Mellon University, and tests conducted at Toshiba Corporation on a planar two-link system were then incorporated into the study. A single link system under three-dimensional motion, displaying biaxial flexure, was then tested at Carnegie-Mellon.

  7. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  8. Emulating a flexible space structure: Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.; Rice, S. C.; Jones, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    Control Dynamics, in conjunction with Marshall Space Flight Center, has participated in the modeling and testing of Flexible Space Structures. Through the series of configurations tested and the many techniques used for collecting, analyzing, and modeling the data, many valuable insights have been gained and important lessons learned. This paper discusses the background of the Large Space Structure program, Control Dynamics' involvement in testing and modeling of the configurations (especially the Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) configuration), the results from these two processes, and insights gained from this work.

  9. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  10. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  11. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  12. Flexible digestion strategies and trace metal assimilation in marine bivalves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decho, Alan W.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Pulse-chase experiments show that two marine bivalves take optimal advantage of different types of particulate food by varying food retention time in a flexible two-phase digestive system. For example, carbon is efficiently assimilated from bacteria by subjecting nearly all the ingested bacteria to prolonged digestion. Prolonging digestion also enhances assimilation of metals, many of which are toxic in minute quantities if they are biologically available. Detritus-feeding aquatic organisms have always lived in environments naturally rich in particle-reactive metals. We suggest that avoiding excess assimilation of metals could be a factor in the evolution of digestion strategies. We tested that suggestion by studying digestion of particles containing different Cr concentrations. We show that bivalves are capable of modifying the digestive processing of food to reduce exposure to high, biologically available, Cr concentrations. The evolution of a mechanism in some species to avoid high concentrations of metals in food could influence how effects of modern metal pollution are manifested in marine ecosystems.

  13. Model reduction results for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Mostarshedi, Masoud

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the novel subsystem balancing technique for obtaining reduced-order models of flexible structures, and investigates its properties fully. This method can be regarded as a combination of the best features of modal truncation (efficiency) and internal balancing (accuracy); it is particularly well suited to the typical practical case of structures which possess clusters of close modes. Numerical results are then presented demonstrating the results obtained by applying subsystem balancing to the Air Force Phillips Laboratory ASTREX testbed, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory antenna facility, and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center ACES structure.

  14. A Flexible Microarray Data Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dembélé, Doulaye

    2013-01-01

    Microarray technology allows monitoring of gene expression profiling at the genome level. This is useful in order to search for genes involved in a disease. The performances of the methods used to select interesting genes are most often judged after other analyzes (qPCR validation, search in databases...), which are also subject to error. A good evaluation of gene selection methods is possible with data whose characteristics are known, that is to say, synthetic data. We propose a model to simulate microarray data with similar characteristics to the data commonly produced by current platforms. The parameters used in this model are described to allow the user to generate data with varying characteristics. In order to show the flexibility of the proposed model, a commented example is given and illustrated. An R package is available for immediate use.

  15. Dynamics modeling and adaptive control of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasiadek, J. Z.

    1991-01-01

    An application of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) to the position and force control of flexible manipulators and robots is presented. A single-link flexible manipulator is analyzed. The problem was to develop a mathematical model of a flexible robot that is accurate. The objective is to show that the adaptive control works better than 'conventional' systems and is suitable for flexible structure control.

  16. Modeling and Interrogative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Douglas R.

    Three studies to determine the effects of adult models on interrogative strategies of children (ages 6-11) are reviewed. Two issues are analyzed: (1) the comparative effectiveness of various types of modeling procedures for changing rule-governed behaviors, and (2) the interaction between observational learning and the developmental level of the…

  17. Modeling and control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Mingori, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    This monograph presents integrated modeling and controller design methods for flexible structures. The controllers, or compensators, developed are optimal in the linear-quadratic-Gaussian sense. The performance objectives, sensor and actuator locations and external disturbances influence both the construction of the model and the design of the finite dimensional compensator. The modeling and controller design procedures are carried out in parallel to ensure compatibility of these two aspects of the design problem. Model reduction techniques are introduced to keep both the model order and the controller order as small as possible. A linear distributed, or infinite dimensional, model is the theoretical basis for most of the text, but finite dimensional models arising from both lumped-mass and finite element approximations also play an important role. A central purpose of the approach here is to approximate an optimal infinite dimensional controller with an implementable finite dimensional compensator. Both convergence theory and numerical approximation methods are given. Simple examples are used to illustrate the theory.

  18. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin

    PubMed Central

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E. V.; van Ierland, Ekko C.; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J. G. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999–2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions. PMID:26934389

  19. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E V; van Ierland, Ekko C; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J G J

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions. PMID:26934389

  20. Designing Capital-Intensive Systems with Architectural and Operational Flexibility Using a Screening Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jijun; de Weck, Olivier; de Neufville, Richard; Robinson, Bob; MacGowan, David

    Development of capital intensive systems, such as offshore oil platforms or other industrial infrastructure, generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under various resource, technical, and market uncertainties. It is a very challenging task for development co-owners or joint ventures because important decisions, such as system architectures, have to be made while uncertainty remains high. This paper develops a screening model and a simulation framework to quickly explore the design space for complex engineering systems under uncertainty allowing promising strategies or architectures to be identified. Flexibility in systems’ design and operation is proposed as a proactive means to enable systems to adapt to future uncertainty. Architectural and operational flexibility can improve systems’ lifecycle value by mitigating downside risks and capturing upside opportunities. In order to effectively explore different flexible strategies addressing a view of uncertainty which changes with time, a computational framework based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed in this paper. This framework is applied to study flexible development strategies for a representative offshore petroleum project. The complexity of this problem comes from multi-domain uncertainties, large architectural design space, and structure of flexibility decision rules. The results demonstrate that architectural and operational flexibility can significantly improve projects’ Expected Net Present Value (ENPV), reduce downside risks, and improve upside gains, compared to adopting an inflexible strategy appropriate to the view of uncertainty at the start of the project. In this particular case study, the most flexible strategy improves ENPV by 85% over an inflexible base case.

  1. Flexible regression models over river networks

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, David; Rushworth, Alastair; Bowman, Adrian W; Marian Scott, E; Hallard, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Many statistical models are available for spatial data but the vast majority of these assume that spatial separation can be measured by Euclidean distance. Data which are collected over river networks constitute a notable and commonly occurring exception, where distance must be measured along complex paths and, in addition, account must be taken of the relative flows of water into and out of confluences. Suitable models for this type of data have been constructed based on covariance functions. The aim of the paper is to place the focus on underlying spatial trends by adopting a regression formulation and using methods which allow smooth but flexible patterns. Specifically, kernel methods and penalized splines are investigated, with the latter proving more suitable from both computational and modelling perspectives. In addition to their use in a purely spatial setting, penalized splines also offer a convenient route to the construction of spatiotemporal models, where data are available over time as well as over space. Models which include main effects and spatiotemporal interactions, as well as seasonal terms and interactions, are constructed for data on nitrate pollution in the River Tweed. The results give valuable insight into the changes in water quality in both space and time. PMID:25653460

  2. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review. PMID:26282942

  3. Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model…

  4. Modelling Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Nigel

    1995-01-01

    Describes a modelling language for representing teaching strategies, based in the context of the COCA intelligent tutoring system. Examines work on meta-reasoning in knowledge-based systems and describes COCA's architecture, giving details of the language used for representing teaching knowledge. Discusses implications for future work. (AEF)

  5. Eye Movements Reveal Components of Flexible Reading Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shebilske, Wayne L.; Fisher, Dennis F.

    The eye movements of two college graduates were monitored in a study of flexible reading, which is defined as the ability to adjust one's rate and approach to reading according to the purpose of reading, the difficulty of the material, and one's knowledge of the subject matter. The subjects were told to read an excerpt from a tenth grade biology…

  6. Flexible Learning Strategies in Higher and Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Diana, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers written by contributors from all areas of Great Britain in further and higher education. The following papers are included: "Learning to Be Flexible" (Diana Thomas); "Managing Change: Towards a New Paradigm?" (Mac Stephenson, Timothy Lehmann); "Open Learning: Educational Opportunity or Convenient Solution to Practical…

  7. Improving Educational Access of Vulnerable Children in High HIV Prevalence Communities of Malawi: The Potential of Open and Flexible Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jere, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Many children in Malawi have poor access to learning and are at risk of exclusion and early dropout. In the context of HIV/AIDS, formal schools need to become more flexible and responsive to children's lives. Introducing an educational model that integrates open and flexible learning strategies with conventional schooling, this paper highlights…

  8. Computational strategies in the dynamic simulation of constrained flexible MBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amirouche, F. M. L.; Xie, M.

    1993-01-01

    This research focuses on the computational dynamics of flexible constrained multibody systems. At first a recursive mapping formulation of the kinematical expressions in a minimum dimension as well as the matrix representation of the equations of motion are presented. The method employs Kane's equation, FEM, and concepts of continuum mechanics. The generalized active forces are extended to include the effects of high temperature conditions, such as creep, thermal stress, and elastic-plastic deformation. The time variant constraint relations for rolling/contact conditions between two flexible bodies are also studied. The constraints for validation of MBS simulation of gear meshing contact using a modified Timoshenko beam theory are also presented. The last part deals with minimization of vibration/deformation of the elastic beam in multibody systems making use of time variant boundary conditions. The above methodologies and computational procedures developed are being implemented in a program called DYAMUS.

  9. Modelling the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System: Another flexible model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhorst, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    High fidelity elastic system modeling algorithms are discussed. The particular system studied is the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) undergoing full articulated motion. The model incorporates flexibility via a methodology the author has been developing. The technique is based in variational principles, so rigorous boundary condition generation and weak formulations for the associated partial differential equations are realized, yet the analyst need not integrate by parts. The methodology is formulated using vector-dyad notation with minimal use of tensor notation, therefore the technique is believed to be affable to practicing engineers. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) determine the efficacy of the modeling method; and (2) determine if the method affords an analyst advantages in the overall modeling and simulation task. Generated out of necessity were Mathematica algorithms that quasi-automate the modeling procedure and simulation development. The project was divided into sections as follows: (1) model development of a simplified manipulator; (2) model development of the full-freedom RMS including a flexible movable base on a six degree of freedom orbiter (a rigid-body is attached to the manipulator end-effector); (3) simulation development for item 2; and (4) comparison to the currently used model of the flexible RMS in the Structures and Mechanics Division of NASA JSC. At the time of the writing of this report, items 3 and 4 above were not complete.

  10. Flexibility First, Then Standardize: A Strategy for Growing Inter-Departmental Systems.

    PubMed

    á Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør

    2015-01-01

    Any attempt to use IT to standardize work practices faces the challenge of finding a balance between standardization and flexibility. In implementing electronic whiteboards with the goal of standardizing inter-departmental practices, a hospital in Denmark chose to follow the strategy of "flexibility first, then standardization." To improve the local grounding of the system, they first focused on flexibility by configuring the whiteboards to support intra-departmental practices. Subsequently, they focused on standardization by using the white-boards to negotiate standardization of inter-departmental practices. This paper investigates the chosen strategy and finds: that super users on many wards managed to configure the whiteboard to support intra-departmental practices; that initiatives to standardize inter-departmental practices improved coordination of certain processes; and that the chosen strategy posed a challenge for finding the right time and manner to shift the balance from flexibility to standardization. PMID:26262096

  11. Modeling procedures for handling qualities evaluation of flexible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govindaraj, K. S.; Eulrich, B. J.; Chalk, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents simplified modeling procedures to evaluate the impact of flexible modes and the unsteady aerodynamic effects on the handling qualities of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft (SCR). The modeling procedures involve obtaining reduced order transfer function models of SCR vehicles, including the important flexible mode responses and unsteady aerodynamic effects, and conversion of the transfer function models to time domain equations for use in simulations. The use of the modeling procedures is illustrated by a simple example.

  12. The Emergence of Flexible Spatial Strategies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waismeyer, Anna S.; Jacobs, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of spatial navigation in children depends not only on remembering which landmarks lead to a goal location but also on developing strategies to deal with changes in the environment or imperfections in memory. Using cue combination methods, the authors examined 3- and 4-year-old children's memory for different types of spatial cues…

  13. EVALUATION OF FLEXIBLE AND INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR OZONE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Task provides the scientific understanding, evidence and tools needed by the Agency and States to evaluate the feasibility of using a reactivity-based control strategy for VOCs, based on the potential ozone and PM formation characteristics of individual VOCs. The research d...

  14. Flexibility and a Departmental Instructional Planning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    The flexibility of an educational program, institution, or system can be described as the ability of the unit to absorb negative responses, such as reductions in funding or enrollments, and continue to function in a viable manner. One approach to adjustment to such reductions is to effect cuts in personnel, current, and equipment spending. This…

  15. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  16. A process monitoring strategy for a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System

    SciTech Connect

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F.; Hebble, T.L.; Williams, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    For a number of years, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in an endeavor which is described as a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System (PFMS). The objective of this project is to enhance the existing manufacturing operations for the production of precision hemispherical workpieces. The present fabrication process uses T-base lathes, similar to the one shown in figure 1, which are equipped with a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) system. The CNC systems are coupled to a host computer over a local area network (LAN). Currently, this link is used to download machining part programs and upload limited process information. While the enhanced system will use the same machine tools and LAN, additional capabilities will be provided to perform automatic tool changing, part and fixture handling, on-machine gagging, and chip control. The project's quality goals are to automatically manufacture workpieces to tolerances of +/- 0.0005 in. on contour and +/- 0.001 in. on wall thickness with a 3 to 5 sigma level of confidence. The parts will range from 4 to 10 in. in diameter with a wall thickness as large as one inch. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Model Order Reduction of Aeroservoelastic Model of Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi; Song, Hongjun; Pant, Kapil; Brenner, Martin J.; Suh, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic model order reduction (MOR) methodology and framework that integrates key technological elements of sequential model reduction, consistent model representation, and model interpolation for constructing high-quality linear parameter-varying (LPV) aeroservoelastic (ASE) reduced order models (ROMs) of flexible aircraft. The sequential MOR encapsulates a suite of reduction techniques, such as truncation and residualization, modal reduction, and balanced realization and truncation to achieve optimal ROMs at grid points across the flight envelope. The consistence in state representation among local ROMs is obtained by the novel method of common subspace reprojection. Model interpolation is then exploited to stitch ROMs at grid points to build a global LPV ASE ROM feasible to arbitrary flight condition. The MOR method is applied to the X-56A MUTT vehicle with flexible wing being tested at NASA/AFRC for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation. Our studies demonstrated that relative to the fullorder model, our X-56A ROM can accurately and reliably capture vehicles dynamics at various flight conditions in the target frequency regime while the number of states in ROM can be reduced by 10X (from 180 to 19), and hence, holds great promise for robust ASE controller synthesis and novel vehicle design.

  18. Mathematical modeling of a class of multibody flexible spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, Atul, G.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model for a general multibody flexible spacecraft is obtained. The generic spacecraft considered consists of a flexible central body to which a number of flexible multibody structures are attached. The coordinate systems used in the derivation allow effective decoupling of the translational motion of the entire spacecraft from its rotational motion about its center of mass. The derivation assumes that the deformations in the bodies are only due to elastic motions. The dynamic model derived is a closed-form vector-matrix differential equation. The model developed can be used for analysis and simulation of many realistic spacecraft configurations.

  19. Model reduction for flexible structures - Test data approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek

    1989-01-01

    A reduced model of a system is obtained by truncating part of its state variables. Hankel singular values and component costs determine which component is deleted or retained in the reduced model. In this paper Hankel singular values and component costs of a flexible structure are obtained from the resonance test data, rather than from the system matrices. Test data, besides system dynamics, include also actuators and sensors dynamics. For this reason, the reduced model obtained from test data can be far from the optimal one. In this paper the reconstruction of the flexible structure indices from the joint actuator-sensor-flexible structure indices is discussed.

  20. Protein folding in hydrophobic-polar lattice model: a flexible ant-colony optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Li, Yun

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible ant colony (FAC) algorithm for solving protein folding problems based on the hydrophobic-polar square lattice model. Collaborations of novel pheromone and heuristic strategies in the proposed algorithm make it more effective in predicting structures of proteins compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:18537736

  1. System identification for modeling for control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Milman, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The major components of a design and operational flight strategy for flexible structure control systems are presented. In this strategy an initial distributed parameter control design is developed and implemented from available ground test data and on-orbit identification using sophisticated modeling and synthesis techniques. The reliability of this high performance controller is directly linked to the accuracy of the parameters on which the design is based. Because uncertainties inevitably grow without system monitoring, maintaining the control system requires an active on-line system identification function to supply parameter updates and covariance information. Control laws can then be modified to improve performance when the error envelopes are decreased. In terms of system safety and stability the covariance information is of equal importance as the parameter values themselves. If the on-line system ID function detects an increase in parameter error covariances, then corresponding adjustments must be made in the control laws to increase robustness. If the error covariances exceed some threshold, an autonomous calibration sequence could be initiated to restore the error enveloped to an acceptable level.

  2. Real-Time Strategy Game Training: Emergence of a Cognitive Flexibility Trait

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

  3. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    PubMed

    Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

  4. Intrinsic flexibility of porous materials; theory, modelling and the flexibility window of the EMT zeolite framework

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Rachel E.; Wells, Stephen A.; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P.; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2015-01-01

    Framework materials have structures containing strongly bonded polyhedral groups of atoms connected through their vertices. Typically the energy cost for variations of the inter-polyhedral geometry is much less than the cost of distortions of the polyhedra themselves – as in the case of silicates, where the geometry of the SiO4 tetrahedral group is much more strongly constrained than the Si—O—Si bridging angle. As a result, framework materials frequently display intrinsic flexibility, and their dynamic and static properties are strongly influenced by low-energy collective motions of the polyhedra. Insight into these motions can be obtained in reciprocal space through the ‘rigid unit mode’ (RUM) model, and in real-space through template-based geometric simulations. We briefly review the framework flexibility phenomena in energy-relevant materials, including ionic conductors, perovskites and zeolites. In particular we examine the ‘flexibility window’ phenomenon in zeolites and present novel results on the flexibility window of the EMT framework, which shed light on the role of structure-directing agents. Our key finding is that the crown ether, despite its steric bulk, does not limit the geometric flexibility of the framework. PMID:26634720

  5. Model reduction for flexible spacecraft with clustered natural frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. W. C.; Gawronski, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches to the problem of model reduction for flexible spacecraft that have proved very useful are balancing and model truncation. Furthermore, it is well known that a model representation of a lightly damped flexible structure with widely spaced natural frequencies is approximately balanced. Consequently, reduction in either coordinate system gives similar results for this case. It is important to note, however, that flexible space structures typically have clusters of closely spaced frequencies. In such cases, reduction in model coordinates can give large errors, while the error obtained using balancing is generally much smaller. A new reduction procedure which combines the best features of model and balanced reduction is therefore developed. It is more efficient than balanced reduction of the full system, as it only involves balancing those subsystems of close modes that are highly correlated, yet is shown to yield results which are essentially as good.

  6. FlexibleSUSY-A spectrum generator generator for supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athron, Peter; Park, Jae-hyeon; Stöckinger, Dominik; Voigt, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We introduce FlexibleSUSY, a Mathematica and C++ package, which generates a fast, precise C++ spectrum generator for any SUSY model specified by the user. The generated code is designed with both speed and modularity in mind, making it easy to adapt and extend with new features. The model is specified by supplying the superpotential, gauge structure and particle content in a SARAH model file; specific boundary conditions e.g. at the GUT, weak or intermediate scales are defined in a separate FlexibleSUSY model file. From these model files, FlexibleSUSY generates C++ code for self-energies, tadpole corrections, renormalization group equations (RGEs) and electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) conditions and combines them with numerical routines for solving the RGEs and EWSB conditions simultaneously. The resulting spectrum generator is then able to solve for the spectrum of the model, including loop-corrected pole masses, consistent with user specified boundary conditions. The modular structure of the generated code allows for individual components to be replaced with an alternative if available. FlexibleSUSY has been carefully designed to grow as alternative solvers and calculators are added. Predefined models include the MSSM, NMSSM, E6SSM, USSM, R-symmetric models and models with right-handed neutrinos.

  7. Liquid plug propagation in flexible microchannels: A small airway model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Fujioka, H.; Bian, S.; Torisawa, Y.; Huh, D.; Takayama, S.; Grotberg, J. B.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect of wall flexibility on the plug propagation and the resulting wall stresses in small airway models with experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimentally, a flexible microchannel was fabricated to mimic the flexible small airways using soft lithography. Liquid plugs were generated and propagated through the microchannels. The local wall deformation is observed instantaneously during plug propagation with the maximum increasing with plug speed. The pressure drop across the plug is measured and observed to increase with plug speed, and is slightly smaller in a flexible channel compared to that in a rigid channel. A computational model is then presented to model the steady plug propagation through a flexible channel corresponding to the middle plane in the experimental device. The results show qualitative agreements with experiments on wall shapes and pressure drops and the discrepancies bring up interesting questions on current field of modeling. The flexible wall deforms inward near the plug core region, the deformation and pressure drop across the plug increase with the plug speed. The wall deformation and resulting stresses vary with different longitudinal tensions, i.e., for large wall longitudinal tension, the wall deforms slightly, which causes decreased fluid stress and stress gradients on the flexible wall comparing to that on rigid walls; however, the wall stress gradients are found to be much larger on highly deformable walls with small longitudinal tensions. Therefore, in diseases such as emphysema, with more deformable airways, there is a high possibility of induced injuries on lining cells along the airways because of larger wall stresses and stress gradients.

  8. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that…

  9. Mechanism test bed. Flexible body model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Jimmy

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed is a six degree-of-freedom motion simulation facility used to evaluate docking and berthing hardware mechanisms. A generalized rigid body math model was developed which allowed the computation of vehicle relative motion in six DOF due to forces and moments from mechanism contact, attitude control systems, and gravity. No vehicle size limitations were imposed in the model. The equations of motion were based on Hill's equations for translational motion with respect to a nominal circular earth orbit and Newton-Euler equations for rotational motion. This rigid body model and supporting software were being refined.

  10. Modeling the interaction between flow and highly flexible aquatic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, J. T.; Uittenbogaard, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has an important role in estuaries and rivers by acting as bed stabilizer, filter, food source, and nursing area. However, macrophyte populations worldwide are under high anthropogenic pressure. Protection and restoration efforts will benefit from more insight into the interaction between vegetation, currents, waves, and sediment transport. Most aquatic plants are very flexible, implying that their shape and hence their drag and turbulence production depend on the flow conditions. We have developed a numerical simulation model that describes this dynamic interaction between very flexible vegetation and a time-varying flow, using the sea grass Zostera marina as an example. The model consists of two parts: an existing 1DV k-ɛ turbulence model simulating the flow combined with a new model simulating the bending of the plants, based on a force balance that takes account of both vegetation position and buoyancy. We validated this model using observations of positions of flexible plastic strips and of the forces they are subjected to, as well as hydrodynamic measurements. The model predicts important properties like the forces on plants, flow velocity profiles, and turbulence characteristics well. Although the validation data are limited, the results are sufficiently encouraging to consider our model to be of generic value in studying flow processes in fields of flexible vegetation.

  11. Energetic Optimisation of Foraging Honeybees: Flexible Change of Strategies in Response to Environmental Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An ‘economizing’ strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An ‘investment-guided’ strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an ‘investment-guided’ strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56–69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature (‘investment-guided’ strategy) but to save energy at high temperature (‘economizing’ strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18–76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions. PMID:25162211

  12. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions. PMID:25162211

  13. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  14. Mathematical model of a flexible space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a mathematical model of the lateral motion of a flexible space shuttle vehicle during ascent is described. The model was developed to perform control system synthesis using stochastic constrained optimization techniques. The goals of the control system synthesis are to demonstrate the applicability of the techniques and to discover any problems peculiar to the flexible nature of a shuttle vehicle. The equations of motion are derived. A brief description of the generation of numerical data is given. Explicit definitions and numerical values of trajectory data and coefficients appearing in the equations of motion are included.

  15. The Rigid-Flexible System Dynamics Model of Highline Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Daoqi; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shiyun

    The paper researches rigid flexible system dynamics model of the rope, and used it to simulate sealift Highline based on the multi-body dynamics theory. Meanwhile the paper simulated to the sea dry cargo replenishment of transverse process, then gain the conclusion that the rigid flexible dynamic model get in the paper is more close to the Caucasus, and the dynamic calculation results closer to the actual situation, through the analysis of simulation results, and combined with the actual situation in the Caucasus the structure of overhead cable.

  16. Frequency response modeling and control of flexible structures: Computational methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of vibrations in flexible structures can be conventiently modeled in terms of frequency response models. For structural control such models capture the distributed parameter dynamics of the elastic structural response as an irrational transfer function. For most flexible structures arising in aerospace applications the irrational transfer functions which arise are of a special class of pseudo-meromorphic functions which have only a finite number of right half place poles. Computational algorithms are demonstrated for design of multiloop control laws for such models based on optimal Wiener-Hopf control of the frequency responses. The algorithms employ a sampled-data representation of irrational transfer functions which is particularly attractive for numerical computation. One key algorithm for the solution of the optimal control problem is the spectral factorization of an irrational transfer function. The basis for the spectral factorization algorithm is highlighted together with associated computational issues arising in optimal regulator design. Options for implementation of wide band vibration control for flexible structures based on the sampled-data frequency response models is also highlighted. A simple flexible structure control example is considered to demonstrate the combined frequency response modeling and control algorithms.

  17. Model Offices: Flexible Options, Local Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 17 articles that focus on model local offices of the employment security (ES) and training systems. The articles are arranged in three parts. Part I, on developing new initiatives, contains the following five articles: "A Public Employment Service for the 1990s" (Elizabeth Dole); "The Revitalization of the…

  18. Flexible Environmental Modeling with Python and Open - GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryet, Alexandre; Atteia, Olivier; Delottier, Hugo; Cousquer, Yohann

    2015-04-01

    Numerical modeling now represents a prominent task of environmental studies. During the last decades, numerous commercial programs have been made available to environmental modelers. These software applications offer user-friendly graphical user interfaces that allow an efficient management of many case studies. However, they suffer from a lack of flexibility and closed-source policies impede source code reviewing and enhancement for original studies. Advanced modeling studies require flexible tools capable of managing thousands of model runs for parameter optimization, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. In addition, there is a growing need for the coupling of various numerical models associating, for instance, groundwater flow modeling to multi-species geochemical reactions. Researchers have produced hundreds of open-source powerful command line programs. However, there is a need for a flexible graphical user interface allowing an efficient processing of geospatial data that comes along any environmental study. Here, we present the advantages of using the free and open-source Qgis platform and the Python scripting language for conducting environmental modeling studies. The interactive graphical user interface is first used for the visualization and pre-processing of input geospatial datasets. Python scripting language is then employed for further input data processing, call to one or several models, and post-processing of model outputs. Model results are eventually sent back to the GIS program, processed and visualized. This approach combines the advantages of interactive graphical interfaces and the flexibility of Python scripting language for data processing and model calls. The numerous python modules available facilitate geospatial data processing and numerical analysis of model outputs. Once input data has been prepared with the graphical user interface, models may be run thousands of times from the command line with sequential or parallel calls. We

  19. Improving hypothesis testing through the application of flexible model structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Schoups, G.; Clark, M. P.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    Flexible model structures simplify the model building process, therefore facilitating hypothesis testing, which is particularly useful in the context of conceptual hydrological modelling. The recently introduced flexible framework SUPERFLEX is based on generic elements which can be customized and assembled to generate different model configurations. We here show how this framework can be used to characterize important aspects of catchment functional response, which, when combined with existing experimental knowledge about the catchment structure, help catchment characterization. The case study is based on a set of Luxembourgish catchments located in different geologies, which are perceived to behave differently based on previous fieldwork experience. The comparison of the performance of different model structures elucidates different aspects of catchment response associated to the various catchments, such as linear vs. nonlinear behaviour, or horizontal vs. vertical preferential flow pathways. We show how the synthesis of the modelling and experimenting experiences provides a more robust understanding of catchment behaviour than it could be achieved by any individual perspective.

  20. The Creative Music Strategy: A Seven-Step Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nathalie G.; Bell, Cindy L.; Pogonowski, Lenore

    2011-01-01

    The creative music strategy is a dynamic and flexible seven-step model for guiding general music students through the music concepts of improvisation and composition, followed by critical reflection. These are musical behaviors that cultivate the development of our students' deeper conceptual understandings and music independence by helping them…

  1. Strategy Generalization across Orientation Tasks: Testing a Computational Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzelmann, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    Humans use their spatial information processing abilities flexibly to facilitate problem solving and decision making in a variety of tasks. This article explores the question of whether a general strategy can be adapted for performing two different spatial orientation tasks by testing the predictions of a computational cognitive model. Human…

  2. Distributed Flexibility Characterization and Resource Allocation Strategies for Multi-zone Commercial Buildings in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, He; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-12-15

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning) system of commercial buildings is a complex system with a large number of dynamically interacting components. In particular, the thermal dynamics of each zone are coupled with those of the neighboring zones. In this paper, we study a multi-agent based approach to model and control commercial building HVAC system for providing grid services. In the multi-agent system (MAS), individual zones are modeled as agents that can communicate, interact, and negotiate with one another to achieve a common objective. We first propose a distributed characterization method on the aggregated airflow (and thus fan power) flexibility that the HVAC system can provide to the ancillary service market. Then, we propose a Nash-bargaining based airflow allocation strategy to track a dispatch signal (that is within the offered flexibility limit) while respecting the preference and flexibility of individual zones. Moreover, we devise a distributed algorithm to obtain the Nash bargaining solution via dual decomposition and average consensus. Numerical simulations illustrate that the proposed distributed protocols are much more scalable than the centralized approaches especially when the system becomes larger and more complex.

  3. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  4. Pressure Sensitive Paint Applied to Flexible Models Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    One gap in current pressure-measurement technology is a high-spatial-resolution method for accurately measuring pressures on spatially and temporally varying wind-tunnel models such as Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (IADs), parachutes, and sails. Conventional pressure taps only provide sparse measurements at discrete points and are difficult to integrate with the model structure without altering structural properties. Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) provides pressure measurements with high spatial resolution, but its use has been limited to rigid or semi-rigid models. Extending the use of PSP from rigid surfaces to flexible surfaces would allow direct, high-spatial-resolution measurements of the unsteady surface pressure distribution. Once developed, this new capability will be combined with existing stereo photogrammetry methods to simultaneously measure the shape of a dynamically deforming model in a wind tunnel. Presented here are the results and methodology for using PSP on flexible surfaces.

  5. A flexible active and reactive power control strategy for a variable speed constant frequency generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Xu, L.

    1995-07-01

    Variable-speed constant-frequency generating systems are used in wind power, hydro power, aerospace, and naval power generations to enhance efficiency and reduce friction. In these applications, an attractive candidate is the slip power recovery system comprising of doubly excited induction machine or doubly excited brushless reluctance machine and PWM converters with a dc link. In this paper, a flexible active and reactive power control strategy is developed, such that the optimal torque-speed profile of the turbine can be followed and overall reactive power can be controlled, while the machine copper losses have been minimized. At the same time, harmonics injected into the power network has also been minimized. In this manner, the system can function as both a high-efficient power generator and a flexible reactive power compensator.

  6. A new mathematical programming model for scheduling flexible manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacCarthy, B.; Liu, J.

    1994-12-31

    Flexibility is now a major consideration in the design of many manufacturing systems. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) have been developed in the last two decades. The principal elements of an FMS are (1) computer controlled machine tools, (2) a transport system and (3) a host computer system. Such systems may combine high flexibility with high productivity and may allow unsupervised production. However, in order to achieve these benefits, the control system must be capable of exercising intelligent supervisory management. Scheduling is at the heart of the control system and is still a major problem area. This paper describes a new mathematical programming model for a wide class of FMS scheduling problems based on a new classification scheme. A global optimization approach is adopted based on a mixed-integer linear programming model. Many important aspects of operational FMS, omitted form earlier models, are included. Key elements of model structure are highlighted. Computational experience with a comprehensive set of designed experiments is described. The applications of the model are noted and the development of effective heuristic procedures based on the model is highlighted.

  7. Reduced order component models for flexible multibody dynamics simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuha, Walter S.; Spanos, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Many flexible multibody dynamics simulation codes require some form of component description that properly characterizes the dynamic behavior of the system. A model reduction procedure for producing low order component models for flexible multibody simulation is described. Referred to as projection and assembly, the method is a Rayleigh-Ritz approach that uses partitions of the system modal matrix as component Ritz transformation matrices. It is shown that the projection and assembly method yields a reduced system model that preserves a specified set of the full order system modes. Unlike classical component mode synthesis methods, the exactness of the method described is obtained at the expense of having to compute the full order system modes. The paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, a proof of exactness, and numerical results demonstrating the method's effectiveness.

  8. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  9. Parameter estimation for distributed parameter models of complex, flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Distributed parameter modeling of structural dynamics has been limited to simple spacecraft configurations because of the difficulty of handling several distributed parameter systems linked at their boundaries. Although there is other computer software able to generate such models or complex, flexible spacecraft, unfortunately, neither is suitable for parameter estimation. Because of this limitation the computer software PDEMOD is being developed for the express purposes of modeling, control system analysis, parameter estimation and structure optimization. PDEMOD is capable of modeling complex, flexible spacecraft which consist of a three-dimensional network of flexible beams and rigid bodies. Each beam has bending (Bernoulli-Euler or Timoshenko) in two directions, torsion, and elongation degrees of freedom. The rigid bodies can be attached to the beam ends at any angle or body location. PDEMOD is also capable of performing parameter estimation based on matching experimental modal frequencies and static deflection test data. The underlying formulation and the results of using this approach for test data of the Mini-MAST truss will be discussed. The resulting accuracy of the parameter estimates when using such limited data can impact significantly the instrumentation requirements for on-orbit tests.

  10. Free energy calculations for a flexible water model.

    PubMed

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E

    2011-11-28

    In this work, we consider the problem of calculating the classical free energies of liquids and solids for molecular models with intramolecular flexibility. We show that thermodynamic integration from the fully-interacting solid of interest to a Debye crystal reference state, with anisotropic harmonic interactions derived from the Hessian of the original crystal, provides a straightforward route to calculating the Gibbs free energy of the solid. To calculate the molecular liquid free energy, it is essential to correctly account for contributions from both intermolecular and intramolecular motion; we employ thermodynamic integration to a Lennard-Jones reference fluid, coupled with direct evaluation of the molecular ro-vibrational partition function. These approaches are used to study the low-pressure classical phase diagram of the flexible q-TIP4P/F water model. We find that, while the experimental ice-I/liquid and ice-III/liquid coexistence lines are described reasonably well by this model, the ice-II phase is predicted to be metastable. In light of this finding, we go on to examine how the coupling between intramolecular flexibility and intermolecular interactions influences the computed phase diagram by comparing our results with those of the underlying rigid-body water model. PMID:21887423

  11. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling: 1. Motivation and theoretical development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2011-11-01

    This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to currently dominant "fixed" model applications, the flexible framework proposed here allows the hydrologist to hypothesize, build, and test different model structures using combinations of generic components. This is particularly useful for conceptual modeling at the catchment scale, where limitations in process understanding and data availability remain major research and operational challenges. The formulation of the model architecture and individual components to represent distinct aspects of catchment-scale function, such as storage, release, and transmission of water, is discussed. Several numerical strategies for implementing the model equations within a computationally robust framework are also presented. In the companion paper, the potential of the flexible framework is examined with respect to supporting more systematic and stringent hypothesis testing, for characterizing catchment diversity, and, more generally, for aiding progress toward more unified hydrological theory at the catchment scale.

  12. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that the system can extract spatial relations from visual scenes, select items based on relational spatial descriptions, and perform reference object selection in a single unified architecture. We further show that the performance of the system is consistent with behavioral data in humans by simulating results from 2 independent empirical studies, 1 spatial term rating task and 1 study of reference object selection behavior. The architecture we present thereby achieves a high degree of task flexibility under realistic stimulus conditions. At the same time, it also provides a detailed neural grounding for complex behavioral and cognitive processes. PMID:21517224

  13. Numerical modeling of flexible insect wings using volume penalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Joern

    2012-11-01

    We consider the effects of chordwise flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of insect flapping wings. We developed a numerical method for modeling viscous fluid flows past moving deformable foils. It extends on the previously reported model for flows past moving rigid wings (J Comput Phys 228, 2009). The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with the no-slip boundary conditions imposed by the volume penalization method. The deformable wing section is modeled using a non-linear beam equation. We performed numerical simulations of heaving flexible plates. The results showed that the optimal stroke frequency, which maximizes the mean thrust, is lower than the resonant frequency, in agreement with the experiments by Ramananarivo et al. (PNAS 108(15), 2011). The oscillatory part of the force only increases in amplitude when the frequency increases, and at the optimal frequency it is about 3 times larger than the mean force. We also study aerodynamic interactions between two heaving flexible foils. This flow configuration corresponds to the wings of dragonflies. We explore the effects of the phase difference and spacing between the fore- and hind-wing.

  14. TREAT Modeling and Simulation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark David

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a four-phase process used to describe the strategy in developing modeling and simulation software for the Transient Reactor Test Facility. The four phases of this research and development task are identified as (1) full core transient calculations with feedback, (2) experiment modeling, (3) full core plus experiment simulation and (4) quality assurance. The document describes the four phases, the relationship between these research phases, and anticipated needs within each phase.

  15. Modeling of the slewing control of a flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a formulation for the modeling of a single-link flexible beam that is undergoing slewing motion at an actively controlled pinned end, where the other end of the beam is free. This pinned end, or slewing axis, is of fixed orientation such that the beam rotates in the horizontal plane. A geared dc electric motor is connected to the beam at the slewing axis. A position and a velocity sensor are placed at this hinged location, and their proportional feedback provides a position control system about the slewing axis. The motor characteristics, gear ratio, and the position feedback constant determine an equivalent rotational spring constant, often called the servo stiffness. This paper generalizes the structure's boundary conditions at the slewing axis to include the effects of the servo system. It is shown that the clamped-free beam assumption for the dynamics of the structure is a valid assumption if the ratio of the servo stiffness to beam flexibility is high. However, for moderate or low values of this ratio, the clamped-free beam leads to erroneous system models so that it becomes necessary to consider the effects of the driving servo on the dynamics of the flexible beam.

  16. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Peter M. J.; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C. E.; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2015-01-01

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy. PMID:26633430

  17. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter M J; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C E; Oomen, Agnes G

    2015-12-01

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy. PMID:26633430

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A FLEXIBLE, MULTIZONE, MULTIFAMILY BUILDING SIMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; Im, Piljae

    2012-01-01

    Weatherization of multifamily buildings is gaining increased attention in the U.S. Available energy audit tools for multifamily buildings were found to need desirable improvements. On the wish list of field experts for enhanced features was the basic ability to model multizone buildings (i.e., one thermal zone per dwelling unit) with simplified user inputs, which allows a better analysis of decentralized and centralized HVAC and domestic hot water systems of multifamily buildings without having to create detailed building models. To address the desired capabilities, development of an enhanced energy audit tool was begun in 2011. The tool is a strategically structured, flexible, one-zone-per-unit, DOE-2.1e model coupled with a simplified user interface to model small to large multifamily buildings with decentralized or centralized systems and associated energy measures. This paper describes the modeling concept and its implementation.

  19. Flexible Learning in Teacher Education: Myths, Muddles and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigum, Chris; Rowan, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    While there has been widespread take-up of the concept 'flexible learning' within various educational environments--and equally frequent references to the flexible 'natures' of the computer and communication technologies that often underpin flexible learning initiatives--the relationship between technologies and flexibility is not a simple one. In…

  20. Elucidating the effects of adsorbent flexibility on fluid adsorption using simple models and flat-histogram sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Vincent K. Siderius, Daniel W.

    2014-06-28

    Using flat-histogram Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the adsorptive behavior of the square-well fluid in two simple slit-pore-like models intended to capture fundamental characteristics of flexible adsorbent materials. Both models require as input thermodynamic information about the flexible adsorbent material itself. An important component of this work involves formulating the flexible pore models in the appropriate thermodynamic (statistical mechanical) ensembles, namely, the osmotic ensemble and a variant of the grand-canonical ensemble. Two-dimensional probability distributions, which are calculated using flat-histogram methods, provide the information necessary to determine adsorption thermodynamics. For example, we are able to determine precisely adsorption isotherms, (equilibrium) phase transition conditions, limits of stability, and free energies for a number of different flexible adsorbent materials, distinguishable as different inputs into the models. While the models used in this work are relatively simple from a geometric perspective, they yield non-trivial adsorptive behavior, including adsorption-desorption hysteresis solely due to material flexibility and so-called “breathing” of the adsorbent. The observed effects can in turn be tied to the inherent properties of the bare adsorbent. Some of the effects are expected on physical grounds while others arise from a subtle balance of thermodynamic and mechanical driving forces. In addition, the computational strategy presented here can be easily applied to more complex models for flexible adsorbents.

  1. Gas Exchange Models for a Flexible Insect Tracheal System.

    PubMed

    Simelane, S M; Abelman, S; Duncan, F D

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two models for movement of respiratory gases in the insect trachea are presented. One model considers the tracheal system as a single flexible compartment while the other model considers the trachea as a single flexible compartment with gas exchange. This work represents an extension of Ben-Tal's work on compartmental gas exchange in human lungs and is applied to the insect tracheal system. The purpose of the work is to study nonlinear phenomena seen in the insect respiratory system. It is assumed that the flow inside the trachea is laminar, and that the air inside the chamber behaves as an ideal gas. Further, with the isothermal assumption, the expressions for the tracheal partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, rate of volume change, and the rates of change of oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide concentration are derived. The effects of some flow parameters such as diffusion capacities, reaction rates and air concentrations on net flow are studied. Numerical simulations of the tracheal flow characteristics are performed. The models developed provide a mathematical framework to further investigate gas exchange in insects. PMID:27209375

  2. A Flexible Statechart-to-Model-Checker Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, Nicolas; Dunphy, Julia; Feather, Martin S.

    2000-01-01

    Many current-day software design tools offer some variant of statechart notation for system specification. We, like others, have built an automatic translator from (a subset of) statecharts to a model checker, for use to validate behavioral requirements. Our translator is designed to be flexible. This allows us to quickly adjust the translator to variants of statechart semantics, including problem-specific notational conventions that designers employ. Our system demonstration will be of interest to the following two communities: (1) Potential end-users: Our demonstration will show translation from statecharts created in a commercial UML tool (Rational Rose) to Promela, the input language of Holzmann's model checker SPIN. The translation is accomplished automatically. To accommodate the major variants of statechart semantics, our tool offers user-selectable choices among semantic alternatives. Options for customized semantic variants are also made available. The net result is an easy-to-use tool that operates on a wide range of statechart diagrams to automate the pathway to model-checking input. (2) Other researchers: Our translator embodies, in one tool, ideas and approaches drawn from several sources. Solutions to the major challenges of statechart-to-model-checker translation (e.g., determining which transition(s) will fire, handling of concurrent activities) are retired in a uniform, fully mechanized, setting. The way in which the underlying architecture of the translator itself facilitates flexible and customizable translation will also be evident.

  3. Flexible and Versatile Strategy for the Construction of Large Biochemical Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongbo; Andersen, Erik; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic pathways and circuits have been increasingly used for microbial production of fuels and chemicals. Here, we report a flexible and versatile DNA assembly strategy that allows rapid, modular, and reliable construction of biological pathways and circuits from basic genetic parts. This strategy combines the automation-friendly ligase cycling reaction (LCR) method and the high-fidelity in vivo yeast-based DNA assembly method, DNA assembler. Briefly, LCR is used to preassemble basic genetic parts into gene expression cassettes or to preassemble small parts into larger parts to reduce the number of parts, in which many basic genetic parts can be reused. With the help of specially designed unique linkers, all preassembled parts will then be directly assembled using DNA assembler to build the target constructs. As proof of concept, three plasmids with varying sizes of 13.4, 24, and 44 kb were rapidly constructed with fidelities of 100, 88, and 71%, respectively. The yeast strain harboring the constructed 44 kb plasmid was confirmed to be capable of utilizing xylose, cellobiose, and glucose to produce zeaxanthin. This strategy should be generally applicable to any custom-designed pathways, circuits, or plasmids. PMID:26332374

  4. Nonlinear damping model for flexible structures. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Weijian

    1990-01-01

    The study of nonlinear damping problem of flexible structures is addressed. Both passive and active damping, both finite dimensional and infinite dimensional models are studied. In the first part, the spectral density and the correlation function of a single DOF nonlinear damping model is investigated. A formula for the spectral density is established with O(Gamma(sub 2)) accuracy based upon Fokker-Planck technique and perturbation. The spectral density depends upon certain first order statistics which could be obtained if the stationary density is known. A method is proposed to find the approximate stationary density explicitly. In the second part, the spectral density of a multi-DOF nonlinear damping model is investigated. In the third part, energy type nonlinear damping model in an infinite dimensional setting is studied.

  5. Flexible aircraft dynamic modeling for dynamic analysis and control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    The linearization and simplification of a nonlinear, literal model for flexible aircraft is highlighted. Areas of model fidelity that are critical if the model is to be used for control system synthesis are developed and several simplification techniques that can deliver the necessary model fidelity are discussed. These techniques include both numerical and analytical approaches. An analytical approach, based on first-order sensitivity theory is shown to lead not only to excellent numerical results, but also to closed-form analytical expressions for key system dynamic properties such as the pole/zero factors of the vehicle transfer-function matrix. The analytical results are expressed in terms of vehicle mass properties, vibrational characteristics, and rigid-body and aeroelastic stability derivatives, thus leading to the underlying causes for critical dynamic characteristics.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Variable Mass, Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Matras, Alex L.; Wilson, Heath E.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of the new Ares I launch vehicle has highlighted the need for advanced dynamic analysis tools for variable mass, flexible structures. This system is composed of interconnected flexible stages or components undergoing rapid mass depletion through the consumption of solid or liquid propellant. In addition to large rigid body configuration changes, the system simultaneously experiences elastic deformations. In most applications, the elastic deformations are compatible with linear strain-displacement relationships and are typically modeled using the assumed modes technique. The deformation of the system is approximated through the linear combination of the products of spatial shape functions and generalized time coordinates. Spatial shape functions are traditionally composed of normal mode shapes of the system or even constraint modes and static deformations derived from finite element models of the system. Equations of motion for systems undergoing coupled large rigid body motion and elastic deformation have previously been derived through a number of techniques [1]. However, in these derivations, the mode shapes or spatial shape functions of the system components were considered constant. But with the Ares I vehicle, the structural characteristics of the system are changing with the mass of the system. Previous approaches to solving this problem involve periodic updates to the spatial shape functions or interpolation between shape functions based on system mass or elapsed mission time. These solutions often introduce misleading or even unstable numerical transients into the system. Plus, interpolation on a shape function is not intuitive. This paper presents an approach in which the shape functions are held constant and operate on the changing mass and stiffness matrices of the vehicle components. Each vehicle stage or component finite element model is broken into dry structure and propellant models. A library of propellant models is used to describe the

  7. Inverse problems in the modeling of vibrations of flexible beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Powers, R. K.; Rosen, I. G.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation and solution of inverse problems for the estimation of parameters which describe damping and other dynamic properties in distributed models for the vibration of flexible structures is considered. Motivated by a slewing beam experiment, the identification of a nonlinear velocity dependent term which models air drag damping in the Euler-Bernoulli equation is investigated. Galerkin techniques are used to generate finite dimensional approximations. Convergence estimates and numerical results are given. The modeling of, and related inverse problems for the dynamics of a high pressure hose line feeding a gas thruster actuator at the tip of a cantilevered beam are then considered. Approximation and convergence are discussed and numerical results involving experimental data are presented.

  8. Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Pitsch, Heinz

    2010-05-31

    The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation; a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet transformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.

  9. Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz Pitsch

    2010-05-31

    The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high-fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation, a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet tranformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.

  10. Direct Adaptive Control Methodologies for Flexible-Joint Space Manipulators with Uncertainties and Modeling Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Steve

    This work addresses the direct adaptive trajectory tracking control problem associated with lightweight space robotic manipulators that exhibit elastic vibrations in their joints, and which are subject to parametric uncertainties and modeling errors. Unlike existing adaptive control methodologies, the proposed flexible-joint control techniques do not require identification of unknown parameters, or mathematical models of the system to be controlled. The direct adaptive controllers developed in this work are based on the model reference adaptive control approach, and manage modeling errors and parametric uncertainties by time-varying the controller gains using new adaptation mechanisms, thereby reducing the errors between an ideal model and the actual robot system. More specifically, new decentralized adaptation mechanisms derived from the simple adaptive control technique and fuzzy logic control theory are considered in this work. Numerical simulations compare the performance of the adaptive controllers with a nonadaptive and a conventional model-based controller, in the context of 12.6 m xx 12.6 m square trajectory tracking. To validate the robustness of the controllers to modeling errors, a new dynamics formulation that includes several nonlinear effects usually neglected in flexible-joint dynamics models is proposed. Results obtained with the adaptive methodologies demonstrate an increased robustness to both uncertainties in joint stiffness coefficients and dynamics modeling errors, as well as highly improved tracking performance compared with the nonadaptive and model-based strategies. Finally, this work considers the partial state feedback problem related to flexible-joint space robotic manipulators equipped only with sensors that provide noisy measurements of motor positions and velocities. An extended Kalman filter-based estimation strategy is developed to estimate all state variables in real-time. The state estimation filter is combined with an adaptive

  11. Facet Modelling: An Approach to Flexible and Integrated Conceptual Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opdahl, Andreas L.; Sindre, Guttorm

    1997-01-01

    Identifies weaknesses of conceptual modelling languages for the problem domain of information systems (IS) development. Outlines an approach called facet modelling of real-world problem domains to deal with the complexity of contemporary analysis problems. Shows how facet models can be defined and visualized; discusses facet modelling in relation…

  12. Aeroelastic modeling of the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Heeg, Jennifer; Bennett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary issues involved in the generation of linear, state-space equations of motion of a flexible wind tunnel model, the Active Flexible Wing (AFW), are discussed. The codes that were used and their inherent assumptions and limitations are also briefly discussed. The application of the CAP-TSD code to the AFW for determination of the model's transonic flutter boundary is included as well.

  13. Copula based flexible modeling of associations between clustered event times.

    PubMed

    Geerdens, Candida; Claeskens, Gerda; Janssen, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Multivariate survival data are characterized by the presence of correlation between event times within the same cluster. First, we build multi-dimensional copulas with flexible and possibly symmetric dependence structures for such data. In particular, clustered right-censored survival data are modeled using mixtures of max-infinitely divisible bivariate copulas. Second, these copulas are fit by a likelihood approach where the vast amount of copula derivatives present in the likelihood is approximated by finite differences. Third, we formulate conditions for clustered right-censored survival data under which an information criterion for model selection is either weakly consistent or consistent. Several of the familiar selection criteria are included. A set of four-dimensional data on time-to-mastitis is used to demonstrate the developed methodology. PMID:26210669

  14. A flexible self-learning model based on granular computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Wu, Yu; Li, Yinguo

    2007-04-01

    Granular Computing(GrC) is an emerging theory which simulates the process of human brain understanding and solving problems. Rough set theory is a tool for dealing with uncertainty and vagueness aspects of knowledge model. SMLGrC algorithm introduces GrC to classical rough set algorithms, and makes the length of the rules relatively short but it can not process mass data sets. In order to solve this problem, based on the analysis of the hierarchical granular model of information table, the method of Granular Distribution List(GDL) is introduced to generate granule, and a granular computing algorithm(SLMGrC) is improved. Sample Covered Factor(SCF) is also introduced to control the generation of rules when the algorithm generates conflicting rules. The improved algorithm can process mass data sets directly without influencing the validity of SLMGrC. Experiments demonstrated the validity and flexibility of our method.

  15. A mathematical programming model for reconfiguration of flexible manufacturing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Ebru; Erol, Rızvan

    2015-02-01

    In flexible manufacturing cells, changes in demand size, product mix, part variety, existing routings and set-up/operation times may require reconfiguration of the cells. In this study, an approach is developed to decide when and how such a reconfiguration should be carried out for existing cells. This study considers reconfiguration in terms of changing part routings, adding a new machine type in a cell, duplicating an existing machine type, removing an existing machine from a cell and transferring a machine to another cell. The study also shows the total number of tools of each type on each machine located in each cell after reconfiguration. To make the optimal reconfiguration decisions, a mathematical programming model to minimize the total reconfiguration cost is developed. The developed model considers the lower and upper bounds on machine utilizations and the time limits on machine cycle times to decide when to reconfigure the system.

  16. A flexible modeling package for topographically based watershed hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Endreny, Theodore A.; Hassett, James M.

    2005-11-01

    An OBJect-oriented TOPographic-based (OBJTOP) hydrological model with a graphical user interface (GUI) was created using object-oriented design (OOD) methods and the objected-oriented programming (OOP) language-C++. OBJTOP presents an array of alternative TOPMODEL hydrological processes of (1) saturation excess or the mixture of infiltration/saturation excess overland flow, (2) exponential or power law decay of hydraulic conductivity with soil depth, (3) topographic index (TI) or soil topographic index (STI) weighting of run-off likelihood, and (4) simulations with or without channel routing, to explain watershed response and increase flexibility and applicability. OBJTOP utilized an object-oriented design (OOD) approach, including the 'inheritance' concept to study individual objects (or processes) at multiple levels, and the 'aggregation' concept to study the interactions of objects (or processes). Further, OOD readily provides for model extension, creating a description of hydrologic processes in a natural, direct, concise, and adaptable manner distinct from procedurally designed and implemented models. The OBJTOP GUI provides an efficient tool for data input, parameter modification, simulation scheme selection and model calibration with three objective functions, including Nash-Sutcliffe. Graphical outputs include time series plots of precipitation depth, partitioned run-off volumes, watertable depth (average or TI/STI based), and map graphics of TI, STI, and depth to watertable. Applications illustrating OBJTOP ability and flexibility include simulation of the TOPMODEL standard Slapton Wood, UK dataset, and simulation of Ward Pound Ridge, NY a small forested catchment with power function decay of hydraulic conductivity and extensive impervious surfaces.

  17. Organizational Learning, Strategic Flexibility and Business Model Innovation: An Empirical Research Based on Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yaodong; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Jian

    Using the data of 237 Jiangsu logistics firms, this paper empirically studies the relationship among organizational learning capability, business model innovation, strategic flexibility. The results show as follows; organizational learning capability has positive impacts on business model innovation performance; strategic flexibility plays mediating roles on the relationship between organizational learning capability and business model innovation; interaction among strategic flexibility, explorative learning and exploitative learning play significant roles in radical business model innovation and incremental business model innovation.

  18. Introducing MERGANSER: A Flexible Framework for Ecological Niche Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawonn, M.; Dow, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) is a collection of techniques to find a "fundamental niche", the range of environmental conditions suitable for a species' survival in the absence of inter-species interactions, given a set of environmental parameters. Traditional approaches to ENM face a number of obstacles including limited data accessibility, data management problems, computational costs, interface usability, and model validation. The MERGANSER system, which stands for Modeling Ecological Residency Given A Normalized Set of Environmental Records, addresses these issues through powerful data persistence and flexible data access, coupled with a clear presentation of results and fine-tuned control over model parameters. MERGANSER leverages data measuring 72 weather related phenomena, land cover, soil type, population, species occurrence, general species information, and elevation, totaling over 1.5 TB of data. To the best of the authors' knowledge, MERGANSER uses higher-resolution spatial data sets than previously published models. Since MERGANSER stores data in an instance of Apache SOLR, layers generated in support of niche models are accessible to users via simplified Apache Lucene queries. This is made even simpler via an HTTP front end that generates Lucene queries automatically. Specifically, a user need only enter the name of a place and a species to run a model. Using this approach to synthesizing model layers, the MERGANSER system has successfully reproduced previously published niche model results with a simplified user experience. Input layers for the model are generated dynamically using OpenStreetMap and SOLR's spatial search functionality. Models are then run using either user-specified or automatically determined parameters after normalizing them into a common grid. Finally, results are visualized in the web interface, which allows for quick validation. Model results and all surrounding metadata are also accessible to the user for further study.

  19. Protein flexibility and ligand recognition: challenges for molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Spyrakis, Francesca; BidonChanal, Axel; Barril, Xavier; Luque, F Javier

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic dynamics of macromolecules is an essential property to relate the structure of biomolecular systems with their function in the cell. In the field of ligand-receptor recognition, numerous evidences have revealed the limitations of the lock-and-key theory, and the need to elaborate models that take into account the inherent plasticity of biomolecules, such as the induced-fit model or the existence of an ensemble of pre-equilibrated conformations. Depending on the nature of the target system, ligand binding can be associated with small local adjustments in side chains or even the backbone to large-scale motions of structural fragments, domains or even subunits. Reproducing the inherent flexibility of biomolecules has thus become one of the most challenging issues in molecular modeling and simulation studies, as it has direct implications in our understanding of the structure-function relationships, but even in areas such as virtual screening and structure-based drug discovery. Given the intrinsic limitation of conventional simulation tools, only events occurring in short time scales can be reproduced at a high accuracy level through all-atom techniques such as Molecular Dynamics simulations. However, larger structural rearrangements demand the use of enhanced sampling methods relying on modified descriptions of the biomolecular system or the potential surface. This review illustrates the crucial role that structural plasticity plays in mediating ligand recognition through representative examples. In addition, it discusses some of the most powerful computational tools developed to characterize the conformational flexibility in ligand-receptor complexes. PMID:20939788

  20. Ground testing and model updating for flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, James Mackenzie

    2001-07-01

    Aspects of the ground testing portion of the Dynamics Identification and Control Experiment (DICE) are explored. DICE is a proposed International Space Station (ISS) experiment whose goal is to investigate System Identification (SI) and attitude and shape control using a small free flying spacecraft, inside an ISS experimental module, that features a rigid central bus controlled using reaction wheels and an array of flexible appendages or 'ribs' fitted with control moment gyroscope end-effectors. Extensive testing prior to launch is required before a high quality 0-g math model can be predicted and the benefits of on-orbit system identification evaluated. To this end, two technologies are developed in this thesis. The first is a passive mechanical suspension system that allows dynamical ground testing in the fully deployed configuration, providing support for the DICE bodies, a zero deflection at-rest state, and high compliance for all degrees of freedom. Based on concepts from the literature combined with innovative design improvements, a prototype is built and evaluated, showing excellent performance in local mode suppression and damping. It is then successfully used in tests with one of the prototype DICE ribs. The second technology is a Model Updating (MU) technique that uses experimental data to fine tune the 1-g math model while retaining the ability to generalize the model to the 0-g case. The technique optimizes the parameters in the nonlinear model by making direct use of time history data from multiple ground test configurations and the weighted uncertainties of the parameters, thereby maximizing the validity of the extrapolated on-orbit model. Although more computationally intensive than other SI methods, the MU technique allows nonlinear models to be updated, retains physically meaningful model parameters and state-space (a requirement for the 0-g model prediction), and when demonstrated with real experimental data performs just as well in reducing

  1. Modeling and control of flexible space platforms with articulated payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Philip C.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1989-01-01

    The first steps in developing a methodology for spacecraft control-structure interaction (CSI) optimization are identification and classification of anticipated missions, and the development of tractable mathematical models in each mission class. A mathematical model of a generic large flexible space platform (LFSP) with multiple independently pointed rigid payloads is considered. The objective is not to develop a general purpose numerical simulation, but rather to develop an analytically tractable mathematical model of such composite systems. The equations of motion for a single payload case are derived, and are linearized about zero steady-state. The resulting model is then extended to include multiple rigid payloads, yielding the desired analytical form. The mathematical models developed clearly show the internal inertial/elastic couplings, and are therefore suitable for analytical and numerical studies. A simple decentralized control law is proposed for fine pointing the payloads and LFSP attitude control, and simulation results are presented for an example problem. The decentralized controller is shown to be adequate for the example problem chosen, but does not, in general, guarantee stability. A centralized dissipative controller is then proposed, requiring a symmetric form of the composite system equations. Such a controller guarantees robust closed loop stability despite unmodeled elastic dynamics and parameter uncertainties.

  2. Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats.

    PubMed

    Perony, Nicolas; Townsend, Simon W

    2013-01-01

    Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significantly more often than subordinates, yet were consistently less likely to cross first. Our results suggest that a reshuffling occurs in progression order when meerkat groups reach the road. By employing a simple model of collective movement, we have shown that risk aversion alone may be sufficient to explain this reshuffling, but that the risk aversion of dominant females toward road crossing is significantly higher than that of subordinates. It seems that by not crossing first, dominant females avoid occupying the most risky, exposed locations, such as at the front of the group--a potential selfish strategy that also promotes the long-term stability and hence reproductive output of their family groups. We argue that our findings support the idea that animals can flexibly apply phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to deal with emerging modern-day problems. PMID:23441144

  3. Adaptive Strategies for Controls of Flexible Arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Bau-San

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a modern manipulator has been designed based on asymptotical stability via the Lyapunov criterion with the output error between the system and a reference model used as the actuating control signal. Computer simulations were carried out to test the design. The combination of the adaptive controller and a system vibration and mode shape estimator show that the flexible arm should move along a pre-defined trajectory with high-speed motion and fast vibration setting time. An existing computer-controlled prototype two link manipulator, RALF (Robotic Arm, Large Flexible), with a parallel mechanism driven by hydraulic actuators was used to verify the mathematical analysis. The experimental results illustrate that assumed modes found from finite element techniques can be used to derive the equations of motion with acceptable accuracy. The robust adaptive (modal) control is implemented to compensate for unmodelled modes and nonlinearities and is compared with the joint feedback control in additional experiments. Preliminary results show promise for the experimental control algorithm.

  4. Real-time dynamics and control strategies for space operations of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alvin, K. F.; Alexander, S.

    1993-01-01

    This project (NAG9-574) was meant to be a three-year research project. However, due to NASA's reorganizations during 1992, the project was funded only for one year. Accordingly, every effort was made to make the present final report as if the project was meant to be for one-year duration. Originally, during the first year we were planning to accomplish the following: we were to start with a three dimensional flexible manipulator beam with articulated joints and with a linear control-based controller applied at the joints; using this simple example, we were to design the software systems requirements for real-time processing, introduce the streamlining of various computational algorithms, perform the necessary reorganization of the partitioned simulation procedures, and assess the potential speed-up realization of the solution process by parallel computations. The three reports included as part of the final report address: the streamlining of various computational algorithms; the necessary reorganization of the partitioned simulation procedures, in particular the observer models; and an initial attempt of reconfiguring the flexible space structures.

  5. Photon Acceleration Model of Flexible Spinning Solar Sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimasu, Yuya; Kitajima, Akifumi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Funase, Ryu; Y. Morimoto, Mutsuko; Sawada, Hirotaka; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Osamu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    The solar sailing spacecraft is one of the promising propulsion systems for the future deep space exploration mission. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying the spin solar sail spacecraft which has a squared-shape type solar sail. One of the most significant objective to control the satellite orbit of the spacecraft is to estimate the thrust force induced by the photon, namely to establish the acceleration model before the launch. In a view point to use this model in orbit, the calibration of the acceleration model and evaluation of the dynamics on orbit are also important issue. This paper presents the way to construct the acceleration model of the Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) on ground, and the calibration and evaluation strategy for this model by using the on-orbit data.

  6. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  7. Modeling Deficits in Attention, Inhibition, and Flexibility in HAND

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Landhing M.; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all HIV-1-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are afflicted with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The most prevalent cognitive deficits observed in the cART era are those of attention and executive function. Presently, we sought to model deficits in attention and core components of executive function (inhibition, flexibility, and set-shifting) observed in HAND using the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which expresses 7 of the 9 HIV-1 genes. Ovariectomized female Fischer HIV-1 Tg and non-transgenic control rats (ns=39–43) were tested in a series of operant tasks: signal detection, discrimination learning, reversal learning, and extradimensional set-shifting. The HIV-1 Tg animals attained the criterion of three sessions at 70% accuracy at a significantly slower rate than the control animals on all tasks with the exception of the extradimensional set-shifting task. Of the animals that met the criteria, there was no significant difference in percent accuracy in any task. However, the HIV-1 Tg rats showed a lower overall response rate in signal detection and discrimination learning. A discriminant function analysis classified the animals by genotype with 90.4% accuracy based on select measures of their performance. The functional consequences of chronic low-level expression of the HIV-1 proteins on attention, as well as inhibition and flexibility as core components of executive function, are apparent under conditions which resemble the brain proinflammatory immune responses and suppression of infection in HIV-1+ individuals under cART. Deficits in attention and core components of executive function may reflect an underlying impairment in temporal processing in HAND. PMID:24764039

  8. Flexible automated parameterization of hydrologic models using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Sudeep; Mackay, D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in model calibration suggest that information obtained from calibration is inherently uncertain in nature. Therefore identification of optimum parameter values is often highly nonspecific. A calibration framework using fuzzy logic is presented to deal with such uncertain information. An application of this technique to calibrate the streamflow of a hydrologic submodel embedded within an ecosystem simulation model demonstrates that objective estimates of parameter values and the range of model output associated with a failure to identify a unique solution can be obtained with suitable choices of objective functions. An iterative refinement in parameter estimates through a process of elimination was possible by incorporating multiple objective functions in calibration, thereby reducing the range of parameter values that capture the streamflow response. It is shown that objective function tradeoffs can lead to suboptimal solutions using the process of elimination without an automated procedure for reevaluation. Owing to its computational simplicity and flexibility this framework could be extended into a nonmonotonic system for automated parameter estimation.

  9. A Hypothesis-based Approach to Hydrological Model Development: The Case for Flexible Model Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Fenicia, F.

    2010-12-01

    Ambiguities in the appropriate representation of environmental processes have manifested themselves in a plethora of hydrological models, differing in almost every aspect of their conceptualization and implementation. This current overabundance of models is symptomatic of insufficient scientific understanding of environmental dynamics at the catchment scale, which can be attributed to difficulties in quantifying the impact of sub-catchment heterogeneities on the catchment’s hydrological response. In this presentation we advocate the use of flexible modeling frameworks during the development and subsequent refinement of catchment-scale hydrological models. We argue that the ability of flexible modeling frameworks to decompose a model into its constituent hypotheses, necessarily combined with incisive diagnostics to scrutinize these individual hypotheses against observed data, provides hydrologists with a very powerful and systematic approach for improving process representation in models. Flexible models also support a broader coverage of the model hypothesis space and hence facilitate a more comprehensive quantification of the predictive uncertainty associated with system and component non-identifiabilities that plague many model analyses. As part of our discussion of the advantages and limitations of flexible model frameworks, we critically review major contemporary challenges in hydrological hypothesis-testing, including exploiting data to investigate the fidelity of alternative process representations, accounting for model structure ambiguities arising from uncertainty in environmental data, and the challenge of understanding regional differences in dominant hydrological processes. We assess recent progress in these research directions, and how such progress can be exploited within flexible model applications to advance the community’s quest for more scientifically defensible catchment-scale hydrological models.

  10. Flexible building primitives for 3D building modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, B.; Jancosek, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2015-03-01

    3D building models, being the main part of a digital city scene, are essential to all applications related to human activities in urban environments. The development of range sensors and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) technology facilitates our ability to automatically reconstruct level of details 2 (LoD2) models of buildings. However, because of the high complexity of building structures, no fully automatic system is currently available for producing building models. In order to simplify the problem, a lot of research focuses only on particular buildings shapes, and relatively simple ones. In this paper, we analyze the property of topology graphs of object surfaces, and find that roof topology graphs have three basic elements: loose nodes, loose edges, and minimum cycles. These elements have interesting physical meanings: a loose node is a building with one roof face; a loose edge is a ridge line between two roof faces whose end points are not defined by a third roof face; and a minimum cycle represents a roof corner of a building. Building primitives, which introduce building shape knowledge, are defined according to these three basic elements. Then all buildings can be represented by combining such building primitives. The building parts are searched according to the predefined building primitives, reconstructed independently, and grouped into a complete building model in a CSG-style. The shape knowledge is inferred via the building primitives and used as constraints to improve the building models, in which all roof parameters are simultaneously adjusted. Experiments show the flexibility of building primitives in both lidar point cloud and stereo point cloud.

  11. Nonlinear Flutter Aspects of the Flexible HSCT Semispan Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, Muhammad R.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear aspects that lead to the flutter of an High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Flexible Semispan Model are analyzed. A hierarchy of spectral moments was used to determine the characteristics of the aerodynamic loading and structural strains and motions. The results show that the frequency of the bending motion of the wing varied significantly as the Mach number was increased between 0.90 and 0.97. Examination of the pressure coefficients in terms of mean value and fluctuations showed that the flow characteristics over the wing changed significantly around a Mach number of 0.97. A strong shock was identified near the trailing edge. Nonlinear analysis of the pressure fluctuations, under these conditions, showed nonlinear coupling involving low-frequency components at pressure locations where the mean value was at a local minimum. This shows that the aerodynamic forces acting on the model had nonlinearly coupled frequency components. The results presented here show how nonlinear analysis tools can be used to identify nonlinear aspects of the flutter phenomenon which are needed in the validation of nonlinear computational methodologies. Keywords: Nonlinear aeroelasticity, Flutter, Bispectrum.

  12. Distinct Tensile Response of Model Semi-flexible Elastomer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera-Mercado, Bernardo M.; Cohen, Claude; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2011-03-01

    Through coarse-grained molecular modeling, we study how the elastic response strongly depends upon nanostructural heterogeneities in model networks made of semi-flexible chains exhibiting both regular and realistic connectivity. Idealized regular polymer networks have been shown to display a peculiar elastic response similar to that of super-tough natural materials (e.g., organic adhesives inside abalone shells). We investigate the impact of chain stiffness, and the effect of including tri-block copolymer chains, on the network's topology and elastic response. We find in some systems a dual tensile response: a liquid-like behavior at small deformations, and a distinct saw-tooth shaped stress-strain curve at moderate to large deformations. Additionally, stiffer regular networks exhibit a marked hysteresis over loading-unloading cycles that can be deleted by heating-cooling cycles or by performing deformations along different axes. Furthermore, small variations of chain stiffness may entirely change the nature of the network's tensile response from an entropic to an enthalpic elastic regime, and micro-phase separation of different blocks within elastomer networks may significantly enhance their mechanical strength. This work was supported by the American Chemical Society.

  13. Control system design for flexible structures using data models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. Dennis; Frazier, W. Garth; Mitchell, Jerrel R.; Medina, Enrique A.; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics and control of flexible aerospace structures exercises many of the engineering disciplines. In recent years there has been considerable research in the developing and tailoring of control system design techniques for these structures. This problem involves designing a control system for a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) system that satisfies various performance criteria, such as vibration suppression, disturbance and noise rejection, attitude control and slewing control. Considerable progress has been made and demonstrated in control system design techniques for these structures. The key to designing control systems for these structures that meet stringent performance requirements is an accurate model. It has become apparent that theoretically and finite-element generated models do not provide the needed accuracy; almost all successful demonstrations of control system design techniques have involved using test results for fine-tuning a model or for extracting a model using system ID techniques. This paper describes past and ongoing efforts at Ohio University and NASA MSFC to design controllers using 'data models.' The basic philosophy of this approach is to start with a stabilizing controller and frequency response data that describes the plant; then, iteratively vary the free parameters of the controller so that performance measures become closer to satisfying design specifications. The frequency response data can be either experimentally derived or analytically derived. One 'design-with-data' algorithm presented in this paper is called the Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The current CIP designs controllers for MIMO systems so that classical gain, phase, and attenuation margins are achieved. The center-piece of the CIP algorithm is the constraint improvement technique which is used to calculate a parameter change vector that guarantees an improvement in all unsatisfied, feasible performance metrics from iteration to iteration. The paper also

  14. The Motive--Strategy Congruence Model Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, David; Hattie, John

    1992-01-01

    Research with 1,266 Australian secondary school students supports 2 propositions critical to the motive-strategy congruence model of J. B. Biggs (1985). Students tend to use learning strategies congruent with motivation for learning, and congruent motive-strategy combinations are associated with higher average school grades. (SLD)

  15. Polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD): a full-solution strategy for flexible, stretchable, compressible, and wearable metal conductors.

    PubMed

    Yu, You; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-20

    Metal interconnects, contacts, and electrodes are indispensable elements for most applications of flexible, stretchable, and wearable electronics. Current fabrication methods for these metal conductors are mainly based on conventional microfabrication procedures that have been migrated from Si semiconductor industries, which face significant challenges for organic-based compliant substrates. This Research News highlights a recently developed full-solution processing strategy, polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD), which is particularly suitable for the roll-to-roll, low-cost fabrication of high-performance compliant metal conductors (Cu, Ni, Ag, and Au) on a wide variety of organic substrates including plastics, elastomers, papers, and textiles. This paper presents i) the principles of PAMD, and how to use it for making ii) flexible, stretchable, and wearable conductive metal electrodes, iii) patterned metal interconnects, and d) 3D stretchable and compressible metal sponges. A critical perspective on this emerging strategy is also provided. PMID:24458846

  16. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Yanto; Jiang, Li Crystal; Wang, Cheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs' strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies-a reduction from the 39 strategies-and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making. PMID:26998970

  17. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  18. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world’s largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs’ strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies―a reduction from the 39 strategies―and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making. PMID:26998970

  19. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and element bending group modeling of flexible fibers interacting with viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Moubin; Peng, Shiliu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and element bending group (EBG) coupling method for modeling the interaction of flexible fibers with moving viscous fluids. SPH is a well-developed mesh-free particle method for simulating viscous fluid flows. EBG is also a particle method for modeling flexible bodies. The interaction of flexible fibers with moving viscous fluids is rendered through the interaction of EBG particles for flexible fiber and SPH particles for fluid. In numerical simulation, flexible fibers of different lengths are immersed in a moving viscous fluid driven by a body force. The drag force on the fiber obtained from SPH-EBG simulation agrees well with experimental observations. It is shown that the flexible fiber demonstrates three typical bending modes, including the U-shaped mode, the flapping mode, and the closed mode, and that the flexible fiber experiences a drag reduction due to its reconfiguration by bending. It is also found that the U 4/3 drag scaling law for a flexible fiber is only valid for the U-shaped mode, but not valid for the flapping and closed modes. The results indicate that the reconfiguration of a flexible fiber is caused by the fluid force acting on it, while vortex shedding is of importance in the translations of bending modes.

  20. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and element bending group modeling of flexible fibers interacting with viscous fluids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Moubin; Peng, Shiliu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and element bending group (EBG) coupling method for modeling the interaction of flexible fibers with moving viscous fluids. SPH is a well-developed mesh-free particle method for simulating viscous fluid flows. EBG is also a particle method for modeling flexible bodies. The interaction of flexible fibers with moving viscous fluids is rendered through the interaction of EBG particles for flexible fiber and SPH particles for fluid. In numerical simulation, flexible fibers of different lengths are immersed in a moving viscous fluid driven by a body force. The drag force on the fiber obtained from SPH-EBG simulation agrees well with experimental observations. It is shown that the flexible fiber demonstrates three typical bending modes, including the U-shaped mode, the flapping mode, and the closed mode, and that the flexible fiber experiences a drag reduction due to its reconfiguration by bending. It is also found that the U4/3 drag scaling law for a flexible fiber is only valid for the U-shaped mode, but not valid for the flapping and closed modes. The results indicate that the reconfiguration of a flexible fiber is caused by the fluid force acting on it, while vortex shedding is of importance in the translations of bending modes. PMID:25615191

  1. Reconciling Flexible Staffing Models with Inclusive Governance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia; Gordon, George

    2013-01-01

    Higher education managers are under increasing pressure from governments to reduce costs by adopting more flexible staffing practices and tensions can arise as institutions seek to sustain motivation and morale across a diversifying workforce. This paper considers how institutional management and governance practices facilitate innovative…

  2. Flexible biogas production for demand-driven energy supply--feeding strategies and types of substrates.

    PubMed

    Mauky, Eric; Jacobi, H Fabian; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Purpose of this work was the evaluation of demand driven biogas production. In laboratory-scale experiments it could be demonstrated that with diurnal flexible feeding and specific combination of substrates with different degradation kinetics biogas can be produced highly flexible in CSTR systems. Corresponding to the feedings the diurnal variation leads to alternations of the methane, carbon dioxide and acid concentrations as well as the pH-value. The long-time process stability was not negatively affected by the dynamic feeding regime at high OLRs of up to 6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). It is concluded that the flexible gas production can give the opportunity to minimize the necessary gas storage capacity which can save investments for non-required gas storage at site. PMID:25280601

  3. A general strategy for fabricating flexible magnetic silica nanofibrous membranes with multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Si, Yang; Yan, Chengcheng; Hong, Feifei; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-08-14

    Flexible, magnetic, and hierarchical porous NiFe2O4@SiO2 nanofibrous membranes were prepared by combining the gelatin method with electrospun nanofibers. The membranes exhibited prominent mechanical strength and mesoporosity, as well as multifunctionality of magnetic responsiveness, dye adsorption, and emulsion separation. PMID:26095072

  4. Radial Maze Analog for Pigeons: Evidence for Flexible Coding Strategies May Result from Faulty Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Cassandra D.; DiGian, Kelly A.; Miller, Holly C.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research with the radial maze has found evidence that rats can remember both places that they have already been (retrospective coding) and places they have yet to visit (prospective coding; Cook, R. G., Brown, M. F., & Riley, D. A. (1985). Flexible memory processing by rats: Use of prospective and retrospective information in the radial…

  5. Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbine by a Mixed Flexible-Rigid Multi-Body Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhong; Qin, Datong; Ding, Yi

    A mixed flexible-rigid multi-body model is presented to study the dynamic behavior of a horizontal axis wind turbine. The special attention is given to flexible body: flexible rotor is modeled by a newly developed blade finite element, support bearing elasticities, variations in the number of teeth in contact as well as contact tooth's elasticities are mainly flexible components in the power train. The couple conditions between different subsystems are established by constraint equations. The wind turbine model is generated by coupling models of rotor, power train and generator with constraint equations together. Based on this model, an eigenproblem analysis is carried out to show the mode shape of rotor and power train at a few natural frequencies. The dynamic responses and contact forces among gears under constant wind speed and fixed pitch angle are analyzed.

  6. Strategy generalization across orientation tasks: testing a computational cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Gunzelmann, Glenn

    2008-07-01

    Humans use their spatial information processing abilities flexibly to facilitate problem solving and decision making in a variety of tasks. This article explores the question of whether a general strategy can be adapted for performing two different spatial orientation tasks by testing the predictions of a computational cognitive model. Human performance was measured on an orientation task requiring participants to identify the location of a target either on a map (find-on-map) or within an egocentric view of a space (find-in-scene). A general strategy instantiated in a computational cognitive model of the find-on-map task, based on the results from Gunzelmann and Anderson (2006), was adapted to perform both tasks and used to generate performance predictions for a new study. The qualitative fit of the model to the human data supports the view that participants were able to tailor a general strategy to the requirements of particular spatial tasks. The quantitative differences between the predictions of the model and the performance of human participants in the new experiment expose individual differences in sample populations. The model provides a means of accounting for those differences and a framework for understanding how human spatial abilities are applied to naturalistic spatial tasks that involve reasoning with maps. PMID:21635355

  7. Strategies for developing competency models.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry. PMID:16082796

  8. Modeling and Simulation of a Slider Crank Mechanism with a Flexible Extensible Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupac, M.; Noroozi, S.

    In this paper the modelling of a slider-crank mechanism with an extensible flexible link is presented and its dynamical behaviour analyzed. The link flexibility is modelled using extensible rigid links and rotational springs. The equations of motion with and without slider clearance are written. Accurate simulation of the extensible mechanism is performed to study its possible performance and behaviour under the combined effect of different parameters. A dynamic analysis is carried out in order to understand its behaviour under motion reconfiguration.

  9. Dynamics modeling of multibody flexible systems with traveling multi-point joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messac, Achille; Herman, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a general methodology for modeling the dynamics of a flexible structure which moves on the surface of another flexible structure. The relative motion of the two bodies need not follow a straight line, nor need the contact surfaces be planar in their undeformed state. A model reduction approach is also developed, which makes the methodology applicable to large structural systems. The Space Station Freedom Mobile Transporter represents one such system, when attached to the Shuttle Orbiter. Numerical examples are provided.

  10. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  11. Development of a low-cost wireless controller for flexible sampling strategies based on real-time flow monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, Pierre; Besuchet, Jonathan; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Even if models are able to predict more and more accurately pollutant discharge in streams, surface water sampling remains a very common practice to monitor substance concentrations and loads in streams and to calibrate models. However, as this method is temporally and spatially punctual, monitoring a whole catchment requires multiple sampling sites with time-distributed samples. Instruments are expensive, and sample collection, on-site interventions and maintenance are costly and time-consuming, in particular if the experimental site is remote. Another issue is the estimation of the discharge loads of a pollutant, especially for non-chemostatic compounds; their hydrograph-related chemical dynamics may be miss-evaluated when a rapid storm occurs using a time-paced sampling strategy with large sampling intervals. Many manufacturers provide discharge gauges (pressure probes or ultra-sonic sensors) or other instruments (rain gauge, chemical probes, etc.) that can be coupled with automatic water samplers in order to program an event-paced sampling. However, automatic samplers usually provide limited programming options that may not meet the needs of the experimenter of a specific catchment. The concept presented here proposes to use a simple microcontroller board in order to determine the timing of the samples by sending electrical pulses to a conventional automatic sampler with input capability. The flow level is measured by a low-cost ultrasonic sensor and sent to the microcontroller, which will process the signal according to user and site-custom parameters. For example, a simple power-law recession model can be apply to approximate the duration of the recession period given the maximal discharge rate measured for a storm. The sample intervals can thereafter be set in order to distribute all the bottles available over the total recession duration. The microcontroller sends a pulse (grab sample query) to the sampler at every sample time calculated by the program. A

  12. Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…

  13. Model reduction in the simulation of interconnected flexible bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, Fidelis O.; Man, Guy K.

    1988-01-01

    Given the control system specifications for a system of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies, methods now exist for determining the system modes that do not interact 'strongly' with the controller. Once these important system modes are known, there still remains the problem of determining the modes of individual bodies that should be retained, since, in the final analysis, it is the modal information at the component level that must be fed into any multibody simulation code. Systematic identification of these component modes is achieved through a two-phase matrix diagonalization process starting with judiciously chosen submatrices of the system modal matrix.

  14. Measuring Model Flexibility with Parameter Space Partitioning: An Introduction and Application Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Myung, Jay I.; Montenegro, Maximiliano; Pooley, James

    2008-01-01

    A primary criterion on which models of cognition are evaluated is their ability to fit empirical data. To understand the reason why a model yields a good or poor fit, it is necessary to determine the data-fitting potential (i.e., flexibility) of the model. In the first part of this article, methods for comparing models and studying their…

  15. Comprehensive modeling and control of flexible flapping wing micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogar, Stephen Michael

    Flapping wing micro air vehicles hold significant promise due to the potential for improved aerodynamic efficiency, enhanced maneuverability and hover capability compared to fixed and rotary configurations. However, significant technical challenges exist to due the lightweight, highly integrated nature of the vehicle and coupling between the actuators, flexible wings and control system. Experimental and high fidelity analysis has demonstrated that aeroelastic effects can change the effective kinematics of the wing, reducing vehicle stability. However, many control studies for flapping wing vehicles do not consider these effects, and instead validate the control strategy with simple assumptions, including rigid wings, quasi-steady aerodynamics and no consideration of actuator dynamics. A control evaluation model that includes aeroelastic effects and actuator dynamics is developed. The structural model accounts for geometrically nonlinear behavior using an implicit condensation technique and the aerodynamic loads are found using a time accurate approach that includes quasi-steady, rotational, added mass and unsteady effects. Empirically based parameters in the model are fit using data obtained from a higher fidelity solver. The aeroelastic model and its ingredients are compared to experiments and computations using models of higher fidelity, and indicate reasonable agreement. The developed control evaluation model is implemented in a previously published, baseline controller that maintains stability using an asymmetric wingbeat, known as split-cycle, along with changing the flapping frequency and wing bias. The model-based controller determines the control inputs using a cycle-averaged, linear control design model, which assumes a rigid wing and no actuator dynamics. The introduction of unaccounted for dynamics significantly degrades the ability of the controller to track a reference trajectory, and in some cases destabilizes the vehicle. This demonstrates the

  16. Multistate Model Builder (MSMB): a flexible editor for compact biochemical models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Building models of molecular regulatory networks is challenging not just because of the intrinsic difficulty of describing complex biological processes. Writing a model is a creative effort that calls for more flexibility and interactive support than offered by many of today’s biochemical model editors. Our model editor MSMB — Multistate Model Builder — supports multistate models created using different modeling styles. Results MSMB provides two separate advances on existing network model editors. (1) A simple but powerful syntax is used to describe multistate species. This reduces the number of reactions needed to represent certain molecular systems, thereby reducing the complexity of model creation. (2) Extensive feedback is given during all stages of the model creation process on the existing state of the model. Users may activate error notifications of varying stringency on the fly, and use these messages as a guide toward a consistent, syntactically correct model. MSMB default values and behavior during model manipulation (e.g., when renaming or deleting an element) can be adapted to suit the modeler, thus supporting creativity rather than interfering with it. MSMB’s internal model representation allows saving a model with errors and inconsistencies (e.g., an undefined function argument; a syntactically malformed reaction). A consistent model can be exported to SBML or COPASI formats. We show the effectiveness of MSMB’s multistate syntax through models of the cell cycle and mRNA transcription. Conclusions Using multistate reactions reduces the number of reactions need to encode many biochemical network models. This reduces the cognitive load for a given model, thereby making it easier for modelers to build more complex models. The many interactive editing support features provided by MSMB make it easier for modelers to create syntactically valid models, thus speeding model creation. Complete information and the installation package can be

  17. 2'-Alkynylnucleotides: A Sequence- and Spin Label-Flexible Strategy for EPR Spectroscopy in DNA.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Marius M; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Porter, Rachel J; Peña, Javier; Brown, Tom; Anderson, Edward A; Lovett, Janet E

    2016-07-27

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful method to elucidate molecular structure through the measurement of distances between conformationally well-defined spin labels. Here we report a sequence-flexible approach to the synthesis of double spin-labeled DNA duplexes, where 2'-alkynylnucleosides are incorporated at terminal and internal positions on complementary strands. Post-DNA synthesis copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions with a variety of spin labels enable the use of double electron-electron resonance experiments to measure a number of distances on the duplex, affording a high level of detailed structural information. PMID:27409454

  18. A new minimum-time control law for a one-mode model of a flexible slewing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, Enrique; Ozguner, Umit

    1993-01-01

    We describe the construction of a new minimum-time control law for a single-axis, undamped, one-mode model of a flexible slewing structure. The set of necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality are developed using phase-plane techniques, and are given in terms of the vibration frequencies and the rigid-body states. This effectively provides the switching hypersurface in four-dimensional space. The resulting control strategy has the advantage that can be implemented on-line since no a priori computation of switching times is required.

  19. Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.; Kress, R.; Jansen, J.

    1996-12-01

    Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  20. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  1. The Strategies of Modeling in Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svoboda, Julia; Passmore, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Modeling, like inquiry more generally, is not a single method, but rather a complex suite of strategies. Philosophers of biology, citing the diverse aims, interests, and disciplinary cultures of biologists, argue that modeling is best understood in the context of its epistemic aims and cognitive payoffs. In the science education literature,…

  2. Testing Strategies for Model-Based Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Whalen, Mike; Rajan, Ajitha; Miller, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an approach for testing artifacts generated in a model-based development process. This approach divides the traditional testing process into two parts: requirements-based testing (validation testing) which determines whether the model implements the high-level requirements and model-based testing (conformance testing) which determines whether the code generated from a model is behaviorally equivalent to the model. The goals of the two processes differ significantly and this report explores suitable testing metrics and automation strategies for each. To support requirements-based testing, we define novel objective requirements coverage metrics similar to existing specification and code coverage metrics. For model-based testing, we briefly describe automation strategies and examine the fault-finding capability of different structural coverage metrics using tests automatically generated from the model.

  3. Modeling and tachometer feedback in the control of an experimental single link flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    In this work a formulation for the modeling of a single link flexible structure will be introduced that includes the effects of dynamic interaction between the actuator and structure. These effects are the rotational modal participation factors for the structure's vibratory motion that occurs at the slewing axis. It will be shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that this dynamic interaction can be advantageous for vibration suppression of the flexible modes of the system during slewing positioning maneuvers.

  4. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Gardner, Beth; Maunder, Mark; Berg, Casper W.; Brooks, Mollie; Comita, Liza; Crone, Elizabeth; Cubaynes, Sarah; Davies, Trevor; de Valpine, Perry; Ford, Jessica; Gimenez, Olivier; Kéry, Marc; Kim, Eun Jung; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Magunsson, Arni; Martell, Steve; Nash, John; Nielson, Anders; Regentz, Jim; Skaug, Hans; Zipkin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. 2. R is convenient and (relatively) easy to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. 3. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield) to specific suggestions about how to change the mathematical description of models to make them more amenable to parameter estimation. 4. A companion web site (https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/nonlinear-modeling/projects) presents detailed examples of application of the three tools to a variety of typical ecological estimation problems; each example links both to a detailed project report and to full source code and data.

  5. A Flexible Latent Trait Model for Response Times in Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Latent trait models for response times in tests have become popular recently. One challenge for response time modeling is the fact that the distribution of response times can differ considerably even in similar tests. In order to reduce the need for tailor-made models, a model is proposed that unifies two popular approaches to response time…

  6. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Michoud, G; Cario, A; Ollivier, J; Franzetti, B; Jebbar, M; Oger, P; Peters, J

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  7. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  8. Salicylaldiminato derivatives of cyclotriveratrylene: flexible strategy for new rim-metalated CTV complexes.

    PubMed

    Bohle, D S; Stasko, D J

    2000-12-11

    The amino-derivatized cyclotriveratrylene analogue, triaminotrimethoxytribenzocyclononene [CTV(NH2)3(OMe)3], 1, is readily converted into triply substituted imine compounds [CTV(sal)3(OMe)3], 2, in high yield by treatment of the acid salt of 1 with a variety of substituted salicylaldehydes. Cleavage of the protecting methoxy group generates the tristridentate chelate CTV(sal)3(OH)3, 3, which is readily converted into new rim-metalated species CTV(sal)3(ONiL)3, 4a (a, L = pyrrolidine; b, L = 1-n-butyl-imidazole). Taken together, these results illustrate the remarkable synthetic flexibility that is possible for the CTV-based metal complexes by alteration of the metal, the salicylaldehyde component of the CTV ligand, or the ancillary ligands coordinated to the metal. PMID:11151378

  9. Adaptive Flexibility and Maladaptive Routines in Selecting Fast and Frugal Decision Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Arndt; Schiffer, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Decision routines unburden the cognitive capacity of the decision maker. In changing environments, however, routines may become maladaptive. In 2 experiments with a hypothetical stock market game (n = 241), the authors tested whether decision routines tend to persist at the level of decision strategies rather than at the level of options in…

  10. Modeling, Control, and Estimation of Flexible, Aerodynamic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Cody W.

    Engineers have long been inspired by nature’s flyers. Such animals navigate complex environments gracefully and efficiently by using a variety of evolutionary adaptations for high-performance flight. Biologists have discovered a variety of sensory adaptations that provide flow state feedback and allow flying animals to feel their way through flight. A specialized skeletal wing structure and plethora of robust, adaptable sensory systems together allow nature’s flyers to adapt to myriad flight conditions and regimes. In this work, motivated by biology and the successes of bio-inspired, engineered aerial vehicles, linear quadratic control of a flexible, morphing wing design is investigated, helping to pave the way for truly autonomous, mission-adaptive craft. The proposed control algorithm is demonstrated to morph a wing into desired positions. Furthermore, motivated specifically by the sensory adaptations organisms possess, this work transitions to an investigation of aircraft wing load identification using structural response as measured by distributed sensors. A novel, recursive estimation algorithm is utilized to recursively solve the inverse problem of load identification, providing both wing structural and aerodynamic states for use in a feedback control, mission-adaptive framework. The recursive load identification algorithm is demonstrated to provide accurate load estimate in both simulation and experiment.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of the SMAP Rotating Flexible Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeri, Reza D.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic model development in ADAMS for the SMAP project is explained: The main objective of the dynamic models are for pointing error assessment, and the control/stability margin requirement verifications

  12. Flexible Scientific Workflow Modeling Using Frames, Templates, and Dynamic Embedding

    SciTech Connect

    Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong; Bowers, Shawn; Haasch, Nicholas; McPhillips, Timothy; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2008-07-30

    While most scientific workflows systems are based on dataflow, some amount of control-flow modeling is often necessary for engineering fault-tolerant, robust, and adaptive workflows. However, control-flow modeling within dataflow often results in workflow specifications that are hard to comprehend, reuse, and maintain. We describe new modeling constructs to address these issues that provide a structured approach for modeling control-flow within scientific workflows, and discuss their implementation within the Kepler scientific workflow system.

  13. Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model-Based Control of Spacecraft with Flexible Appendage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Sendi, Chokri

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model-based approach to model and control a rigid spacecraft with flexible antenna. First, the equations of motion of the flexible spacecraft, which are based on Lagrange equations and given in terms of quasi-coordinates and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, are briefly reviewed. Then, the T-S fuzzy modeling and the parallel distributed compensation control technique are introduced. We utilize full state-feedback and optimal H∞ robustness performance via a T-S fuzzy model to achieve position and attitude stabilization, vibration suppression, and disturbance rejection objectives. Finally, this technique is applied to the flexible spacecraft equations of motion resulting in a nonlinear controller. The controller produces an asymptotically stable closed-loop system which is robust to external disturbances and has a simple structure for straightforward implementation. Numerical simulation is provided for performance evaluation of the proposed controller design.

  14. Generalized finite element dynamic modelling and simulation for flexible robot manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng

    1993-01-01

    The finite element approach is used to model multi-link flexible robotic manipulators. The kinematic character of flexible manipulators is analyzed using body-fixed and link element attached coordinates. Dynamic equations for flexible robot manipulators are then derived. The position of each point on the link is expressed using a transformation matrix, and the kinetic and potential energy for each element is computed and summed over all the elements. The Lagrangian formulation is applied to set up the dynamic equations of the system. Computational simulations are performed on single- and two-link manipulators with and without torque to check the validity and correctness of the derived dynamic equations. The Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the dynamic equations for flexible manipulators on which all the joints are revolute.

  15. The CAOS model: a physically based, flexible hydrological model for the mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Zehe, Erwin

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological models are not only tools to predict discharge, but they are also hypotheses of how a catchment functions with respect to rainfall-runoff behaviour. In this work in progress, we present a new (physically based) model concept that should ultimately be suitable to run at the mesoscale. To be able to run it efficiently on the mesoscale, the model cannot be too complex. Yet, we wanted it physically based, with explicit incorporation of dissipative structures, such as macropores and lateral preferential flow paths. Besides water fluxes it should also be able to simulate solute concentrations and energy fluxes. This helps to parameterize the model while the model is also thermodynamically consistent, meaning that it is suitable to test thermodynamic optimality principles (such as maximum entropy production principle). With these constraints in mind, we developed a model where, in each subroutine, flow is modelled in only one dimension (vertical for the unsaturated zone and lateral for subsurface storm flow, groundwater flow and stream flow routines, making the model multiple 1-D), decreasing computation time significantly. The code is developed in an object oriented way, leading to more flexibility to test different model structures. For example, we will demonstrate the effect on simulated rapid subsurface flow for different mathematical descriptions (i.e. the Darcy-Weisbach equation vs. the diffusive wave and kinematic wave equation). For this study, the model will also be evaluated for hillslopes in three different geological settings within the Attert Basin in Luxembourg.

  16. Pseudoabsence Generation Strategies for Species Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Hanberry, Brice B.; He, Hong S.; Palik, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Species distribution models require selection of species, study extent and spatial unit, statistical methods, variables, and assessment metrics. If absence data are not available, another important consideration is pseudoabsence generation. Different strategies for pseudoabsence generation can produce varying spatial representation of species. Methodology We considered model outcomes from four different strategies for generating pseudoabsences. We generating pseudoabsences randomly by 1) selection from the entire study extent, 2) a two-step process of selection first from the entire study extent, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from areas with predicted probability <25%, 3) selection from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, 4) a two-step process of selection first for pseudoabsences from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from the areas with predicted probability <25%. We used Random Forests as our statistical method and sixteen predictor variables to model tree species with at least 150 records from Forest Inventory and Analysis surveys in the Laurentian Mixed Forest province of Minnesota. Conclusions Pseudoabsence generation strategy completely affected the area predicted as present for species distribution models and may be one of the most influential determinants of models. All the pseudoabsence strategies produced mean AUC values of at least 0.87. More importantly than accuracy metrics, the two-step strategies over-predicted species presence, due to too much environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences, whereas models based on random pseudoabsences under-predicted species presence, due to too little environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences. Models using pseudoabsences from surveyed plots produced a balance between areas with high and low predicted probabilities and the strongest relationship between

  17. Distributed parameter modeling for the control of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The use of FEMs of spacecraft structural dynamics is a common practice, but it has a number of shortcomings. Distributed-parameter models offer an alternative, but present both advantages and difficulties. First, the model order does not have to be reduced prior to the inclusion of control system dynamics. This advantage eliminates the risk involved with model 'order reduction'. Second, distributed parameter models inherently involve fewer parameters, thereby enabling more accurate parameter estimation using experimental data. Third, it is possible to include the damping in the basic model, thereby increasing the accuracy of the structural damping. The difficulty in generating distributed parameter models of complex spacecraft configurations has been greatly alleviated by the use of PDEMOD, BUNVIS-RG, or DISTEL. PDEMOD is being developed for simultaneously modeling structural dynamics and control system dynamics.

  18. Designing a flexible grid enabled scientific modeling interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, M.; Taylor, J.; Mickelson, S.

    2002-08-15

    The Espresso Scientific Modeling Interface (Espresso) is a scientific modeling productivity tool developed from climate modelers. Espresso was designed to be an extensible interface to both scientific models and Grid resources. It also aims to be a contemporary piece of software that relies on Globus.org's Java CoG Kit for a Grid toolkit, Sun's Java 2 API and is configured using XML. This article covers the design implementation of Espresso's Grid functionality and how it interacts with existing scientific models. The authors give specific examples of how they have designed Espresso to perform climate simulations using the PSU/NCAR MM5 atmospheric model. Plans to incorporate the CCSM and FOAM climate models are also discussed.

  19. A multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible microgrid based on sliding-mode direct voltage and hierarchical controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinjin; Liu, Yancheng; Zhao, Youtao; Wang, Ning

    2016-03-01

    Multi-mode operation and transient stability are two problems that significantly affect flexible microgrid (MG). This paper proposes a multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible MG based on a three-layer hierarchical structure. The proposed structure is composed of autonomous, cooperative, and scheduling controllers. Autonomous controller is utilized to control the performance of the single micro-source inverter. An adaptive sliding-mode direct voltage loop and an improved droop power loop based on virtual negative impedance are presented respectively to enhance the system disturbance-rejection performance and the power sharing accuracy. Cooperative controller, which is composed of secondary voltage/frequency control and phase synchronization control, is designed to eliminate the voltage/frequency deviations produced by the autonomous controller and prepare for grid connection. Scheduling controller manages the power flow between the MG and the grid. The MG with the improved hierarchical control scheme can achieve seamless transitions from islanded to grid-connected mode and have a good transient performance. In addition the presented work can also optimize the power quality issues and improve the load power sharing accuracy between parallel VSIs. Finally, the transient performance and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are evaluated by theoretical analysis and simulation results. PMID:26686458

  20. Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Ondrej

    A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various

  1. A Strategy for Configuration of an Integrated Flexible Sulfur Cathode for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Huakun; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-03-14

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are regarded as promising candidates for energy storage devices owing to their high theoretical energy density. The practical application is hindered, however, by low sulfur utilization and unsatisfactory capacity retention. Herein, we present a strategy for configuration of the sulfur cathode, which is composed of an integrated carbon/sulfur/carbon sandwich structure on polypropylene separator that is produced using the simple doctor-blade technique. The integrated electrode exhibits excellent flexibility and high mechanical strength. The upper and bottom carbon layers of the sandwich-structured electrode not only work as double current collectors, which effectively improve the conductivity of the electrode, but also serve as good barriers to suppress the diffusion of the polysulfide and buffer the volume expansion of the active materials, leading to suppression of the shuttle effect and low self-discharge behavior. PMID:26889652

  2. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production. PMID:26857972

  3. Flexible marginalized models for bivariate longitudinal ordinal data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keunbaik; Daniels, Michael J.; Joo, Yongsung

    2013-01-01

    Random effects models are commonly used to analyze longitudinal categorical data. Marginalized random effects models are a class of models that permit direct estimation of marginal mean parameters and characterize serial correlation for longitudinal categorical data via random effects (Heagerty, 1999). Marginally specified logistic-normal models for longitudinal binary data. Biometrics 55, 688–698; Lee and Daniels, 2008. Marginalized models for longitudinal ordinal data with application to quality of life studies. Statistics in Medicine 27, 4359–4380). In this paper, we propose a Kronecker product (KP) covariance structure to capture the correlation between processes at a given time and the correlation within a process over time (serial correlation) for bivariate longitudinal ordinal data. For the latter, we consider a more general class of models than standard (first-order) autoregressive correlation models, by re-parameterizing the correlation matrix using partial autocorrelations (Daniels and Pourahmadi, 2009). Modeling covariance matrices via partial autocorrelations. Journal of Multivariate Analysis 100, 2352–2363). We assess the reasonableness of the KP structure with a score test. A maximum marginal likelihood estimation method is proposed utilizing a quasi-Newton algorithm with quasi-Monte Carlo integration of the random effects. We examine the effects of demographic factors on metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein using the proposed models. PMID:23365416

  4. NASA Workshop on Distributed Parameter Modeling and Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, Virginia B. (Compiler); Keckler, Claude R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in modeling and controlling flexible systems, there remains a need for improvements in model accuracy and in control performance. The finite element models of flexible systems are unduly complex and are almost intractable to optimum parameter estimation for refinement using experimental data. Distributed parameter or continuum modeling offers some advantages and some challenges in both modeling and control. Continuum models often result in a significantly reduced number of model parameters, thereby enabling optimum parameter estimation. The dynamic equations of motion of continuum models provide the advantage of allowing the embedding of the control system dynamics, thus forming a complete set of system dynamics. There is also increased insight provided by the continuum model approach.

  5. Resonator modeling by field tracing: a flexible approach for fully vectorial laser resonator modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank; Schweitzer, Hagen; Hellmann, Christian; Kuhn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays lasers cover a broad spectrum of applications, like laser material processing, metrology and communications. Therefore a broad variety of different lasers, containing various active media and resonator setups, are used to provide high design flexibility. The optimization of such multi-parameter laser setups requires powerful simulation techniques. In literature mainly three practical resonator modeling techniques can be found: Rigorous techniques, e.g. the finite element method (FEM), approximated solutions based on paraxial Gaussian beam tracing by ABCD matrices and the Fox and Li algorithm are used to analyze transversal resonator modes. All of these existing approaches have in common, that only a single simulation technique is used for the whole resonator. In contrast we reformulate the scalar Fox and Li integral equation for resonator eigenmode calculation into a fully vectorial field tracing operator equation. This allows the flexible combination of different modeling techniques in different subdomains of the resonator. The work introduces the basic concepts of field tracing in resonators to calculate vectorial, transversal eigenmodes of stable and unstable resonators.

  6. A flexible and efficient multi-model framework in support of water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Tran Quoc, Quan; Willems, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Flexible, fast and accurate water quantity models are essential tools in support of water management. Adjustable levels of model detail and the ability to handle varying spatial and temporal resolutions are requisite model characteristics to ensure that such models can be employed efficiently in various applications. This paper uses a newly developed flexible modelling framework that aims to generate such models. The framework incorporates several approaches to model catchment hydrology, rivers and floodplains, and the urban drainage system by lumping processes on different levels. To illustrate this framework, a case study of integrated hydrological-hydraulic modelling is elaborated for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium. Three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (NAM, PDM and VHM) were implemented in a generalized model structure, allowing flexibility in the spatial resolution by means of an innovative disaggregation/aggregation procedure. They were linked to conceptual hydraulic models of the rivers in the catchment, which were developed by means of an advanced model structure identification and calibration procedure. The conceptual models manage to emulate the simulation results of a detailed full hydrodynamic model accurately. The models configured using the approaches of this framework are well-suited for many applications in water management due to their very short calculation time, interfacing possibilities and adjustable level of detail.

  7. Stability analysis, modeling, simulation and experimental testing of an EMS Maglev system with structural flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Aravind M.

    Vehicle-guideway interaction studies of Magnetically Levitated (Maglev) vehicles indicate that structural flexibility can adversely affect the overall stability and performance of such systems. This is one of the reasons why guideways are generally made very rigid. This in turn leads to increased cost of the overall system since guideway construction forms a significant portion of the overall cost. In this dissertation, the influence of structural flexibility on the stability of Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev systems is studied. It is shown how inherently unstable and flexible structure EMS Maglev systems can achieve guaranteed stability by using collocated actuators and sensors, along with de-centralized Proportional plus Derivative (PD) controllers. These results are valid even in the presence of Track/Guideway flexibility. A detailed dynamic model is developed for the EMS Maglev demonstration system (Test Bogie) currently under research and development at Old Dominion University (ODU). This model incorporates structural dynamics with flexible modes of vibration, non-linear electrodynamics, feedback controllers, discrete time implementation, noise filters and disturbance inputs. This model is validated via real time experimental testing. The model thus validated is used for simulation case studies involving levitation and lateral disturbance, lateral control, and centralized control.

  8. Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H.

    A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…

  9. Can Flexible Non-Linear Modeling Tell Us Anything New about Educational Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores whether flexible nonlinear models (including neural networks and genetic algorithms) can reveal otherwise unexpected patterns of relationship in typical school-productivity data. Applying three types of algorithms alongside regression modeling to school-level data in 183 elementary schools proves the hypothesis and reveals new directions…

  10. A flexible count data regression model for risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Guikema, Seth D; Coffelt, Jeremy P; Goffelt, Jeremy P

    2008-02-01

    In many cases, risk and reliability analyses involve estimating the probabilities of discrete events such as hardware failures and occurrences of disease or death. There is often additional information in the form of explanatory variables that can be used to help estimate the likelihood of different numbers of events in the future through the use of an appropriate regression model, such as a generalized linear model. However, existing generalized linear models (GLM) are limited in their ability to handle the types of variance structures often encountered in using count data in risk and reliability analysis. In particular, standard models cannot handle both underdispersed data (variance less than the mean) and overdispersed data (variance greater than the mean) in a single coherent modeling framework. This article presents a new GLM based on a reformulation of the Conway-Maxwell Poisson (COM) distribution that is useful for both underdispersed and overdispersed count data and demonstrates this model by applying it to the assessment of electric power system reliability. The results show that the proposed COM GLM can provide as good of fits to data as the commonly used existing models for overdispered data sets while outperforming these commonly used models for underdispersed data sets. PMID:18304118

  11. An easy and efficient method for flexible robots modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celentano, Laura

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a very easy, numerically stable and computationally efficient method is presented, which allows to model and simulate a flexible robot with high precision, also under the hypothesis of large link deformations and of time-varying geometrical and physical parameters of the robot and of the end-effector. This methodology uses the same approach of the rigid robots modeling, after suitably and fictitiously subdividing each link of the robot into sublinks, rigid to the aim of the calculus of the inertia matrix and flexible to the aim of the calculus of the elastic matrix. The static and dynamic precision of the method is proved with interesting theorems. Finally, the method is used to model, control and simulate a crane with three flexible links and a varying length cable carrying a body with a variable mass.

  12. Reducing model uncertainty effects in flexible manipulators through the addition of passive damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    An important issue in the control of practical systems is the effect of model uncertainty on closed loop performance. This is of particular concern when flexible structures are to be controlled, due to the fact that states associated with higher frequency vibration modes are truncated in order to make the control problem tractable. Digital simulations of a single-link manipulator system are employed to demonstrate that passive damping added to the flexible member reduces adverse effects associated with model uncertainty. A controller was designed based on a model including only one flexible mode. This controller was applied to larger order systems to evaluate the effects of modal truncation. Simulations using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) design assuming full state feedback illustrate the effect of control spillover. Simulations of a system using output feedback illustrate the destabilizing effect of observation spillover. The simulations reveal that the system with passive damping is less susceptible to these effects than the untreated case.

  13. Validation of a Model for a Two-Bladed Flexible Rotor System: Progress to Date

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Kelley, N. D.; Osgood, R. M.

    1998-11-19

    At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we tested a very flexible wind turbine. This machine, the Cannon Wind Eagle turbine, exhibited an ability to significantly reduce the rotor flap-wise bending moments through a unique combination of a flexible rotor and hub design. In parallel to this testing effort, we developed analytical models of this machine using our simulation codes. The goal of this work was to validate the analytical models of this machine by comparing analytical predictions to measured results from the real machine. We first describe briefly the simulation codes used in this study. We then describe the wind turbine we analyzed. We then describe analytical model validation progress for this flexible rotor and show preliminary validation results. Finally, we make conclusions and state our plans for future studies.

  14. Flexibility need prompts installation of Zeepipe modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Thaule, S.B.; Postvoll, W.

    1998-03-23

    Installation by den norske stats oljeselskap A.S. (Statoil) of a powerful pipeline-modeling system on Zeepipe has allowed this major North Sea gas pipeline to meet the growing demands and seasonal variations of the European gas market. The Troll gas-sales agreement (TGSA) in 1986 called for large volumes of Norwegian gas to begin arriving from the North Sea Sleipner East field in october 1993. It is important to Statoil to maintain regular gas delivers from its integrated transport network. In addition, high utilization of transport capacity maximizes profits. In advance of operations, Statoil realized that state-of-the-art supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) and pipeline-modeling systems (PMS) would be necessary to meet its goals and to remain the most efficient North Sea operator. The paper describes the linking of Troll and Zeebrugge, contractual issues, the supervisory system, the scada module, pipeline modeling, real-time model, look-ahead model, predictive model, and model performance.

  15. Integrated Model Reduction and Control of Aircraft with Flexible Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to the modeling and control of aircraft with exible wings. The coupled aircraft rigid body dynamics with a high-order elastic wing model can be represented in a nite dimensional state-space form. Given a set of desired output covariance, a model reduction process is performed by using the weighted Modal Cost Analysis (MCA). A dynamic output feedback controller, which is designed based on the reduced-order model, is developed by utilizing output covariance constraint (OCC) algorithm, and the resulting OCC design weighting matrix is used for the next iteration of the weighted cost analysis. This controller is then validated for full-order evaluation model to ensure that the aircraft's handling qualities are met and the uttering motion of the wings suppressed. An iterative algorithm is developed in CONDUIT environment to realize the integration of model reduction and controller design. The proposed integrated approach is applied to NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) for demonstration.

  16. The Strategies of Modeling in Biology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Julia; Passmore, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Modeling, like inquiry more generally, is not a single method, but rather a complex suite of strategies. Philosophers of biology, citing the diverse aims, interests, and disciplinary cultures of biologists, argue that modeling is best understood in the context of its epistemic aims and cognitive payoffs. In the science education literature, modeling has been discussed in a variety of ways, but often without explicit reference to the diversity of roles models play in scientific practice. We aim to expand and bring clarity to the myriad uses of models in science by presenting a framework from philosopher of biology Jay Odenbaugh that describes five pragmatic strategies of model use in the biological sciences. We then present illustrative examples of each of these roles from an empirical study of an undergraduate biological modeling curriculum, which highlight how students used models to help them frame their research question, explore ideas, and refine their conceptual understanding in an educational setting. Our aim is to begin to explicate the definition of modeling in science in a way that will allow educators and curriculum developers to make informed choices about how and for what purpose modeling enters science classrooms.

  17. Maximum likelihood estimation for distributed parameter models of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Williams, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A distributed-parameter model of the NASA Solar Array Flight Experiment spacecraft structure is constructed on the basis of measurement data and analyzed to generate a priori estimates of modal frequencies and mode shapes. A Newton-Raphson maximum-likelihood algorithm is applied to determine the unknown parameters, using a truncated model for the estimation and the full model for the computation of the higher modes. Numerical results are presented in a series of graphs and briefly discussed, and the significant improvement in computation speed obtained by parallel implementation of the method on a supercomputer is noted.

  18. Modeling structure and flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Trodler, Peter; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background The structure and flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in water and five different organic solvent models was investigated using multiple molecular dynamics simulations to describe the effect of solvents on structure and dynamics. Interactions of the solvents with the protein and the distribution of water molecules at the protein surface were examined. Results The simulated structure was independent of the solvent, and had a low deviation from the crystal structure. However, the hydrophilic surface of CALB in non-polar solvents decreased by 10% in comparison to water, while the hydrophobic surface is slightly increased by 1%. There is a large influence on the flexibility depending on the dielectric constant of the solvent, with a high flexibility in water and a low flexibility in organic solvents. With decreasing dielectric constant, the number of surface bound water molecules significantly increased and a spanning water network with an increasing size was formed. Conclusion The reduced flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvents is caused by a spanning water network resulting from less mobile and slowly exchanging water molecules at the protein-surface. The reduced flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvent is not only caused by the interactions between solvent-protein, but mainly by the formation of a spanning water network. PMID:18254946

  19. Flexible and fixed mathematical models describing growth patterns of chukar partridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    In animal science, the nonlinear regression models for growth curve analysis ofgrowth patterns are separated into two groups called fixed and flexible according to their point of inflection. The aims of this study were to compare fixed and flexible growth functions and to determine the best fit model for the growth data of chukar partridges. With this aim, the growth data of partridges were modeled with widely used models, such as Gompertz, Logistic, Von Bertalanffy as well as the flexible functions, such as, Richards, Janoschek, Levakovich. So as to evaluate growth functions, the R2 (coefficient of determination), adjusted R2 (adjusted coefficient of determination), MSE (mean square error), AIC (Akaike's information criterion) and BIC (Bayesian information criterion) goodness of fit criteria were used. It has been determined that the best fit model from the point of chukar partridge growth data according to mentioned goodness of fit criteria is Janoschek function which has a flexible structure. The Janoschek model is not only important because it has a higher number of parameters with biological meaning than the other functions (the mature weight and initial weight parameters), but also because it was not previously used in the modeling of the chukar partridge growth.

  20. Dynamic modeling and analysis of a flexible sailcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiafu; Cui, Naigang; Shen, Fan; Rong, Siyuan; Wen, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The coupled orbit, attitude and structural dynamics is very important for an orbiting sailcraft because the orbit is determined by the attitude, and the attitude and structural vibrations are affected mutually. Thus it is critical to derive the coupled dynamics and analyze how the vibrations are excited by the attitude motions, and how the orbit and attitude motions are affected by the vibrations. To solve this problem, the coupled orbit, attitude and structural dynamics is established for the sailcraft modeled by the Euler beam with large deformations merely experiencing the pitch motion in this paper. The Von-Karman's nonlinear strain-displacement relation is adopted to consider the sailcraft with large transverse deformations, moderate rotations and small strains. The external loads include the torques by the control vanes, the offset between the center-of-mass (cm) and center-of-pressure (cp) and the gravity gradient force. The full nonlinear coupled dynamics denoted by "model 1" is established using Lagrange equation method based on the calculation of the kinetic energy, strain energy, the dissipation function and the external loads respectively. "model 2, 3" are obtained by neglecting the geometrically nonlinear terms, the second and higher terms including the vibration displacement, velocity and acceleration in "model 1" respectively, and "model 4" is a rigid body model. A 90 deg pitch maneuver will be performed for the sailcraft initially on the geostationary (GEO) orbit for all the four models. The control torque generated by the control vanes is obtained based on the nonlinear optimal proportional-integral controller considering the saturation problem of the control vanes. The attitude, orbit and vibration responses are presented and compared to see the differences between the four models, some discussions and conclusions on the dynamics and control are also given, all based on the dynamics simulations.

  1. From flexibility to cooperativity: multiscale modeling of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yinghao

    2013-03-01

    Cadherins constitute a large family of Ca2 +-dependent adhesion molecules in the Inter-cellular junctions that play a pivotal role in the assembly of cells into specific three-dimensional tissues. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying cadherin-mediated cell adhesion are still not fully understood, it seems likely that both cis dimers that are formed by binding of extracellular domains of two cadherins on the same cell surface, and trans-dimers formed between cadherins on opposing cell surfaces, are critical to trigger the junction formation. Here we present a new multiscale computational strategy to model the process of junction formation based on the knowledge of cadherin molecular structures and its 3D binding affinities. The cell interfacial region is defined by a simplified system where each of two interacting membrane surfaces is represented as a two-dimensional lattice with each cadherin molecule treated as a randomly diffusing unit. The binding energy for a pair of interacting cadherins in this two-dimensional discrete system is obtained from 3D binding affinities through a renormalization process derived from statistical thermodynamics. The properties of individual cadherins used in the lattice model are based on molecular level simulations. Our results show that within the range of experimentally-measured binding affinities, cadherins condense into junctions driven by the coupling of cis and trans interactions. The key factor appears to be a loss of molecular flexibility during trans dimerization that increases the magnitude of lateral cis interactions. We have also developed stochastic dynamics to study the adhesion of multiple cells. Each cell in the system is described as a mechanical entity and adhesive properties between two cells are derived from the lattice model. The cellular simulations are used to study the specific problems of tissue morphogenesis and tumor metastasis. The consequent question and upcoming challenge is to understand the

  2. Fast Flexible Modeling of RNA Structure Using Internal Coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Samuel Coulbourn; Sherman, Michael A.; Bruns, Christopher M.; Eastman, Peter; Altman, Russ Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the structure and dynamics of large macromolecules remains a critical challenge. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are expensive because they model every atom independently, and are difficult to combine with experimentally derived knowledge. Assembly of molecules using fragments from libraries relies on the database of known structures and thus may not work for novel motifs. Coarse-grained modeling methods have yielded good results on large molecules but can suffer from difficulties in creating more detailed full atomic realizations. There is therefore a need for molecular modeling algorithms that remain chemically accurate and economical for large molecules, do not rely on fragment libraries, and can incorporate experimental information. RNABuilder works in the internal coordinate space of dihedral angles and thus has time requirements proportional to the number of moving parts rather than the number of atoms. It provides accurate physics-based response to applied forces, but also allows user-specified forces for incorporating experimental information. A particular strength of RNABuilder is that all Leontis-Westhof basepairs can be specified as primitives by the user to be satisfied during model construction. We apply RNABuilder to predict the structure of an RNA molecule with 160 bases from its secondary structure, as well as experimental information. Our model matches the known structure to 10.2 Angstroms RMSD and has low computational expense. PMID:21778523

  3. Development of a Flexible Strategy Toward FR900482 and the Mitomycins

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Brendan M.; Torres, Wildeliz; Ameriks, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    FR900482 and the mitomycins are two intriguing classes of alkaloid natural products that have analogous biological mechanisms and obvious structural similarity. Both classes possess potent anti-cancer activity, a feature that has led to their investigation and implementation for the clinical treatment of human cancer. Given the structural similarity between these natural products, we envisioned a common synthetic strategy by which both classes could be targeted through assembling the mitomycin skeleton prior to further oxidative functionalization. Realization of this strategy with respect to FR900482 was accomplished through the synthesis of 7-epi-FR900482, which displayed equal potency relative to the natural product against two human cancer cell lines. With the challenging goal of a synthesis of either mitomycin or FR900482 in mind, several methodologies where explored. While not all of these methods ultimately proved useful for our synthetic goal, a number of them led to intriguing findings that provide a more complete understanding of several methodologies. In particular, amination via π-allyl palladium complexes for the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines, 8-membered heterocycle formation via carbonylative lactamization, and amination through late-stage C-H insertion via rhodium catalysis all featured prominently in our synthetic studies. PMID:21618622

  4. Discrete and continuous dynamics modeling of a mass moving on a flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Deborah Ann

    1992-01-01

    A general discrete methodology for modeling the dynamics of a mass that moves on the surface of a flexible structure is developed. This problem was motivated by the Space Station/Mobile Transporter system. A model reduction approach is developed to make the methodology applicable to large structural systems. To validate the discrete methodology, continuous formulations are also developed. Three different systems are examined: (1) simply-supported beam, (2) free-free beam, and (3) free-free beam with two points of contact between the mass and the flexible beam. In addition to validating the methodology, parametric studies were performed to examine how the system's physical properties affect its dynamics.

  5. Unsymmetric Lanczos model reduction and linear state function observer for flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes part of the research work accomplished during the second year of a two-year grant. The research, entitled 'Application of Lanczos Vectors to Control Design of Flexible Structures' concerns various ways to use Lanczos vectors and Krylov vectors to obtain reduced-order mathematical models for use in the dynamic response analyses and in control design studies. This report presents a one-sided, unsymmetric block Lanczos algorithm for model reduction of structural dynamics systems with unsymmetric damping matrix, and a control design procedure based on the theory of linear state function observers to design low-order controllers for flexible structures.

  6. Special class of nonlinear damping models in flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Anren; Singh, Ramendra P.; Taylor, Lawrence W.

    1991-01-01

    A special class of nonlinear damping models is investigated in which the damping force is proportional to the product of positive integer or the fractional power of the absolute values of displacement and velocity. For a one-degree-of-freedom system, the classical Krylov-Bogoliubov 'averaging' method is used, whereas for a distributed system, both an ad hoc perturbation technique and the finite difference method are employed to study the effects of nonlinear damping. The results are compared with linear viscous damping models. The amplitude decrement of free vibration for a single mode system with nonlinear models depends not only on the damping ratio but also on the initial amplitude, the time to measure the response, the frequency of the system, and the powers of displacement and velocity. For the distributed system, the action of nonlinear damping is found to reduce the energy of the system and to pass energy to lower modes.

  7. A Flexible Atmospheric Modeling Framework for the CESM

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, David; Heikes, Ross; Konor, Celal

    2014-11-12

    We have created two global dynamical cores based on the unified system of equations and Z-grid staggering on an icosahedral grid, which are collectively called UZIM (Unified Z-grid Icosahedral Model). The z-coordinate version (UZIM-height) can be run in hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic modes. The sigma-coordinate version (UZIM-sigma) runs in only hydrostatic mode. The super-parameterization has been included as a physics option in both models. The UZIM versions with the super-parameterization are called SUZI. With SUZI-height, we have completed aquaplanet runs. With SUZI-sigma, we are making aquaplanet runs and realistic climate simulations. SUZI-sigma includes realistic topography and a SiB3 model to parameterize the land-surface processes.

  8. Flutter suppression control law synthesis for the Active Flexible Wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    The Active Flexible Wing Project is a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. The objectives are the validation of methodologies associated with mathematical modeling, flutter suppression control law development and digital implementation of the control system for application to flexible aircraft. A flutter suppression control law synthesis for this project is described. The state-space mathematical model used for the synthesis included ten flexible modes, four control surface modes and rational function approximation of the doublet-lattice unsteady aerodynamics. The design steps involved developing the full-order optimal control laws, reducing the order of the control law, and optimizing the reduced-order control law in both the continuous and the discrete domains to minimize stochastic response. System robustness was improved using singular value constraints. An 8th order robust control law was designed to increase the symmetric flutter dynamic pressure by 100 percent. Preliminary results are provided and experiences gained are discussed.

  9. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling: 2. Application and experimental insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio

    2011-11-01

    In this article's companion paper, flexible approaches for conceptual hydrological modeling at the catchment scale were motivated, and the SUPERFLEX framework, based on generic model components, was introduced. In this article, the SUPERFLEX framework and the "fixed structure" GR4H model (an hourly version of the popular GR4J model) are applied to four hydrologically distinct experimental catchments in Europe and New Zealand. The estimated models are scrutinized using several diagnostic measures, ranging from statistical metrics, such as the statistical reliability and precision of the predictive distribution of streamflow, to more process-oriented diagnostics based on flow-duration curves and the correspondence between model states and groundwater piezometers. Model performance was clearly catchment specific, with a single fixed structure unable to accommodate intercatchment differences in hydrological behavior, including seasonality and thresholds. This highlights an important limitation of any "fixed" model structure. In the experimental catchments, the ability of competing model hypotheses to reproduce hydrological signatures of interest could be interpreted on the basis of independent fieldwork insights. The potential of flexible frameworks such as SUPERFLEX is then examined with respect to systematic and stringent hypothesis-testing in hydrological modeling, for characterizing catchment diversity, and, more generally, for aiding progress toward a more unified formulation of hydrological theory at the catchment scale. When interpreted in physical process-oriented terms, the flexible approach can also serve as a language for dialogue between modeler and experimentalist, facilitating the understanding, representation, and interpretation of catchment behavior.

  10. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  11. A geometry and texture coupled flexible generalization of urban building models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Xie, Wenqing; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    In the past, numerous research efforts have focused on generalization of city building models. However, a generic procedure for creating flexible generalization results supporting the fast and efficient update of original building models with various complexities is still an open problem. Moreover, building clusters created in previously published generalization methods are not flexible enough to meet the various requirements for both legible and realistic visualization. Motivated by these observations, this paper proposes a new method for generating a flexible generalization outcome which enables convenient updating of original building models. It also proposes a flexible preprocessing of this generalized information to render a legible and realistic urban scene. This is accomplished by introducing a novel component structure, termed as FEdge, particularly designed for efficiently managing the geometry and texture information in building cluster instances (both original building models and building clusters) during the generalization, visualization and updating processes. Furthermore, a multiple representation structure, referred to as Evolved Buffer-Tree (EBT), is also introduced. The purpose of the EBT is to organize building cluster instances and to employ more flexible LODs for both legible and realistic visualization of urban scenes. FEdge has an intuitive planar shape which can be effectively used in representing rough 3D facade composed by detailed continuous meshes. Each FEdge is given a unique identifier, referred to as FEdge Index. In the proposed generalization scheme, firstly each original building model treated as a building cluster instance is abstracted and presented as FEdge Indices. These FEdge Indices are then used for producing generalized building cluster instances in the EBT portably, and to support convenient model updating and flexible preprocessing of the generalization results for renderable building cluster instances. Secondly, to achieve

  12. Flexible Modeling of Epidemics with an Empirical Bayes Framework

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Logan C.; Farrow, David C.; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J.; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics cause consistent, considerable, widespread loss annually in terms of economic burden, morbidity, and mortality. With access to accurate and reliable forecasts of a current or upcoming influenza epidemic’s behavior, policy makers can design and implement more effective countermeasures. This past year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted the “Predict the Influenza Season Challenge”, with the task of predicting key epidemiological measures for the 2013–2014 U.S. influenza season with the help of digital surveillance data. We developed a framework for in-season forecasts of epidemics using a semiparametric Empirical Bayes framework, and applied it to predict the weekly percentage of outpatient doctors visits for influenza-like illness, and the season onset, duration, peak time, and peak height, with and without using Google Flu Trends data. Previous work on epidemic modeling has focused on developing mechanistic models of disease behavior and applying time series tools to explain historical data. However, tailoring these models to certain types of surveillance data can be challenging, and overly complex models with many parameters can compromise forecasting ability. Our approach instead produces possibilities for the epidemic curve of the season of interest using modified versions of data from previous seasons, allowing for reasonable variations in the timing, pace, and intensity of the seasonal epidemics, as well as noise in observations. Since the framework does not make strict domain-specific assumptions, it can easily be applied to some other diseases with seasonal epidemics. This method produces a complete posterior distribution over epidemic curves, rather than, for example, solely point predictions of forecasting targets. We report prospective influenza-like-illness forecasts made for the 2013–2014 U.S. influenza season, and compare the framework’s cross-validated prediction error on historical data to

  13. Pilot modeling, modal analysis, and control of large flexible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The issues to be addressed are threefold. The first deals with the question of whether dynamic aeroelastic effects can significantly impact piloted flight dynamics. For example, if one were to explore this problem experimentally, what mathematical model would be appropriate to use in the simulation? What modes, for example, should be included in the simulation, or what linear model should be used in the control synthesis? The second question deals with the appropriate design criteria or design objectives. In the case of active control, for example, what would be the design objectives for the control synthesis if aeroelastic effects are a problem? The outline of the topics includes a description of a model analysis methodology aimed at answering the question of the significance of higher order dynamics. Secondly, a pilot vehicle analysis of some experimental data addresses the question of ""What's important in the task?'' The experimental data will be presented briefly, followed by the results of an open-loop modal analysis of the generic vehicle configurations in question. Finally, one of the vehicles will be augmented via active control and the results presented.

  14. Politeness Strategies Used in Requests--A Cybernetic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    This paper discusses a cybernetic model of politeness strategies used in the process of making a request. The concept of systems, cybernetic models, and politeness strategies are reviewed, and the way they work together in the proposed model is examined. Politeness strategies are communication strategies used to change behavior enough to achieve…

  15. Modeling and control system design and analysis tools for flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anissipour, Amir A.; Benson, Russell A.; Coleman, Edward E.

    1989-01-01

    Described here are Boeing software tools used for the development of control laws of flexible structures. The Boeing Company has developed a software tool called Modern Control Software Package (MPAC). MPAC provides the environment necessary for linear model development, analysis, and controller design for large models of flexible structures. There are two features of MPAC which are particularly appropriate for use with large models: (1) numerical accuracy and (2) label-driven nature. With the first feature MPAC uses double precision arithmetic for all numerical operations and relies on EISPAC and LINPACK for the numerical foundation. With the second feature, all MPAC model inputs, outputs, and states are referenced by user-defined labels. This feature allows model modification while maintaining the same state, input, and output names. In addition, there is no need for the user to keep track of a model variable's matrix row and colunm locations. There is a wide range of model manipulation, analysis, and design features within the numerically robust and flexible environment provided by MPAC. Models can be built or modified using either state space or transfer function representations. Existing models can be combined via parallel, series, and feedback connections; and loops of a closed-loop model may be broken for analysis.

  16. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the effects of flexibility on the binding of environmental estrogens to the estrogen receptor
    There are many reports of environmental endocrine disruption in the literature, yet it has been difficult to identify the specific chemicals responsible for these effects. ...

  17. A General and Flexible Approach to Estimating the Social Relations Model Using Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Kenny, David A.; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The social relations model (SRM) is a conceptual, methodological, and analytical approach that is widely used to examine dyadic behaviors and interpersonal perception within groups. This article introduces a general and flexible approach to estimating the parameters of the SRM that is based on Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo…

  18. A Competency-Based Technical Training Model That Embraces Learning Flexibility and Rewards Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasinski, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Today's adult learners are continuously searching for successful programs with added learner flexibility, a positive learning experience, and the best education for their investment. Red Deer College's unique competency based welder apprenticeship training model fulfills this desire for many adult learners.

  19. Application of partial differential equation modeling of the control/structural dynamics of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.

    1991-01-01

    Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.

  20. Preschoolers' Use of Feedback for Flexible Behavior: Insights from a Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Dauvier, Bruno; Blaye, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed preschoolers' cognitive flexibility in an inductive task requiring response feedback processing to infer relevant task goals. A total of 63 4- to 6-year-olds were tested on a perceptual matching task in which they needed to switch attention among three colors. A computational model was designed to track down how responses to…

  1. Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes: A Flexible Model-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Tan, Xianming; Bray, Bethany C.

    2013-01-01

    Although prediction of class membership from observed variables in latent class analysis is well understood, predicting an observed distal outcome from latent class membership is more complicated. A flexible model-based approach is proposed to empirically derive and summarize the class-dependent density functions of distal outcomes with…

  2. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  3. Evolutionary model of flexible exponential function to characterize decay pattern of OCT signal in turbid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bingling; Guo, Zhouyi

    2008-12-01

    Conventional analyses of OCT signal measurements resolve the signal decay profile in terms of single discrete exponential function with distinct exponential model. In symmetrical medium, mono-exponential decay function can appear to provide a well fit to OCT signal decay data, but the assuption of symmetrical components is essentially arbitrary and is often erroneous. Actually, the real biological samples such as tissue contained more complex components and are more heterogeneous. To avoid the shortages of mono-exponential decay function fitting to OCT signal decay data from heterogeneous biological tissues, a novel model of flexible exponential function has been developed. The main idea of the flexible exponential function modle is based on the assuption that heterogeneous biological tissue can be considered as a multi-layered tissue. Each layer is symmetric and the OCT signal decay profile in each layer obeies to a distinct single exponential function. If we can find out all the distinct single exponential function for each layer, the total flexible exponential function is determined by summing up all the single exponential functions. As pilot studies on the practical application of flexibleexponential decay model for monitoring and quantifying the diffusion of different analytes in turbid biological tissues in vivo by using OCT system, we demonstrate an experiment of monitoring of glucose diffusion in agar gel. In addition, the flexible-exponential decay model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of the sample, and the analysis of turbid tissues OCT map using the flexible-exponential decay model can reveal subtle tissue differences that other models fail to show.

  4. Flexible analysis of digital PCR experiments using generalized linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Vynck, Matthijs; Vandesompele, Jo; Nijs, Nele; Menten, Björn; De Ganck, Ariane; Thas, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The use of digital PCR for quantification of nucleic acids is rapidly growing. A major drawback remains the lack of flexible data analysis tools. Published analysis approaches are either tailored to specific problem settings or fail to take into account sources of variability. We propose the generalized linear mixed models framework as a flexible tool for analyzing a wide range of experiments. We also introduce a method for estimating reference gene stability to improve accuracy and precision of copy number and relative expression estimates. We demonstrate the usefulness of the methodology on a complex experimental setup. PMID:27551671

  5. Model reference adaptive control of flexible robots in the presence of sudden load changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvorth, Rodrigo; Kaufman, Howard; Neat, Gregory W.

    1991-02-01

    Direct command generator tracker based model reference adaptive control (MRAC) algorithms are applied to the dynamics for a flexible-joint arm in the presence of sudden load changes. Because of the need to satisfy a positive real condition such MRAC procedures are designed so that a feedforward augmented output follows the reference model output thus resulting in an ultimately bounded rather than zero output error. Thus modifications are suggested and tested that 1)incorporate feedforward into the reference model''s output as well as the plant''s output and 2)incorporate a derivative term into only the process feedforward loop. The results of these simulations give a response with zero steady state model following error and thus encourage further use of MRAC for more complex flexible robotic systems.

  6. Flexible Approximation Model Approach for Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Kim, Hongman; Ragon, Scott; Soremekun, Grant; Malone, Brett

    2004-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is an approach that allows design problems to be naturally decomposed into a set of subsystem optimizations and a single system optimization. In the BLISS approach, approximate mathematical models are used to transfer information from the subsystem optimizations to the system optimization. Accurate approximation models are therefore critical to the success of the BLISS procedure. In this paper, new capabilities that are being developed to generate accurate approximation models for BLISS procedure will be described. The benefits of using flexible approximation models such as Kriging will be demonstrated in terms of convergence characteristics and computational cost. An approach of dealing with cases where subsystem optimization cannot find a feasible design will be investigated by using the new flexible approximation models for the violated local constraints.

  7. Tracking control strategy for the optoelectronic system on the flexible suspended platform based on backstepping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Ma, Jiaguang; Xiao, Jing

    2012-10-01

    To improve the optoelectronic tracking ability and rope-hanged platform attitude stability, against the interact effect between rope-hanged platform and optoelectronic system during system tracking process, the optoelectronic system fixed on rope hanged platform simplified dynamic model, according to the system's Lagrange dynamic model, was established. Backstepping method was employed to design an integrated controller for both optoelectronic system azimuth direction steering and platform attitude stabilizing. To deal with model's uncertainty and disturbance, a sliding mode controller form based exponential reaching law was adopted to structure the integrated controller. Simulation experiments simulated an optoelectronic system with 600mm caliber telescope, whose inertia fluctuation is 6%. The maximal control moment is 15Nm. And the external disturbance and internal friction effected together. When the line of sight(LOS) azimuth angular input is a step signal with 1rad amplitude, the response's overshoot is 6%, and the response time is 6.2s, and the steady state error is less than 4×10-4rad. When the input is a sinusoidal signal of 0.2rad amplitude with 0.0318Hz frequency, the LOS azimuth angular error amplitude is 5. 6×10-4rad. It is concluded that the controller designed in this article has excellent ability and can ensure the system's stability.

  8. A model of smoldering combustion applied to flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlemiller, T. J.; Rogers, F.; Bellan, J.

    1979-01-01

    Smoldering combustion, particularly in upholstery and bedding materials, has been proven a serious life hazard. The simplest representation of this hazard situation is one-dimensional downward propagation of a smolder wave against a buoyant upflow (cocurrent smolder); the configuration treated here is identical in all respects to this except for the presence of a forced flow replacing the buoyant one. The complex degradation chemistry of the polyurethanes is here reduced to the two major overall reactions of char formation and char oxidation. The model solutions, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental results, show the smolder process to be oxygen-limited, which leads to some very simple trends. More subtle behavior aspects determine actual propagation velocity, fraction of fuel consumed, and apparent equivalence ratio (all of which are variable). The self-insulating character of the smolder wave makes it viable in a wide-ranging set of conditions if the igniting stimulus is sufficiently long. These results have significant implications regarding the problem of smolder prevention or hindrance.

  9. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlea, Edward; Elfring, Chris

    2012-12-04

    Climate models are the foundation for understanding and projecting climate and climate-related changes and are thus critical tools for supporting climate-related decision making. This study developed a holistic strategy for improving the nation's capability to accurately simulate climate and related Earth system changes on decadal to centennial timescales. The committee's report is a high level analysis, providing a strategic framework to guide progress in the nation's climate modeling enterprise over the next 10-20 years. This study was supported by DOE, NSF, NASA, NOAA, and the intelligence community.

  10. Iron-Clad Fibers: A Metal-Based Biological Strategy for Hard Flexible Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Masic, Admir; Holten-Andersen, Niels; Waite, J. Herbert; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The extensible byssal threads of marine mussels are shielded from abrasion in wave-swept habitats by an outer cuticle that is largely proteinaceous and approximately fivefold harder than the thread core. Threads from several species exhibit granular cuticles containing a protein that is rich in the catecholic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) as well as inorganic ions, notably Fe3+. Granular cuticles exhibit a remarkable combination of high hardness and high extensibility. We explored byssus cuticle chemistry by means of in situ resonance Raman spectroscopy and demonstrated that the cuticle is a polymeric scaffold stabilized by catecholato-iron chelate complexes having an unusual clustered distribution. Consistent with byssal cuticle chemistry and mechanics, we present a model in which dense cross-linking in the granules provides hardness, whereas the less cross-linked matrix provides extensibility.

  11. Accurate, efficient, and (iso)geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Hector; Reali, Alessandro; Sangalli, Giancarlo

    2014-04-01

    We propose new collocation methods for phase-field models. Our algorithms are based on isogeometric analysis, a new technology that makes use of functions from computational geometry, such as, for example, Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). NURBS exhibit excellent approximability and controllable global smoothness, and can represent exactly most geometries encapsulated in Computer Aided Design (CAD) models. These attributes permitted us to derive accurate, efficient, and geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models. The performance of our method is demonstrated by several numerical examples of phase separation modeled by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We feel that our method successfully combines the geometrical flexibility of finite elements with the accuracy and simplicity of pseudo-spectral collocation methods, and is a viable alternative to classical collocation methods.

  12. Generalism as a subsistence strategy: advantages and limitations of the highly flexible feeding traits of Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Kaiser, Thomas M.

    2011-08-01

    The so-called Hundsheim rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, was a very common faunal element of the Early to early Middle Pleistocene period in the western Palaearctic. In this study, individuals from two different central European populations of the Hundsheim rhinoceros were analysed in order to determine whether their local dietary signals could reflect differing food availability between the two populations, and whether such information could provide a better understanding of the ecological role of S. hundsheimensis within corresponding faunal assemblages, and of its principal subsistence strategy in the western Palaearctic. The mesowear traits observed in the studied S. hundsheimensis populations have been interpreted as representing biome-specific signals, indicating grassland vegetation at the site of Süßenborn, and dense to open forests at Voigtstedt (both localities in Germany). The analyses performed on the fossil rhino material demonstrate the most pronounced dietary variability ever established for a single herbivorous ungulate species by mesowear studies. This variability ranges from an attrition dominated grazing regime, to a one of predominantly browsing, and characterises S. hundsheimensis as the most ecologically tolerant rhinoceros of the Palaearctic Plio-Pleistocene. Although such dietary flexibility proved an effective enough subsistence strategy over a period of 600-900 ka (1.4/1.2-0.6/0.5 Myr) in the western Palaearctic, the situation changed dramatically after 0.6 Myr BP, when the new species of rhinoceroses, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, appeared and started to compete for both the grass and the browse. For the generalist S. hundsheimensis, this bilateral interference was detrimental to its success in all of its habitats. The successful competition of specialised forms of rhinoceroses, which might have originated as a result of the development of 100 ka periodicity in the global climatic record, is

  13. Combined optimization model for sustainable energization strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Mohammed Seid

    Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved mixed-integer programming energy-source optimization model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy optimization models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.

  14. Investigating habits: strategies, technologies and models

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look “under the hood” of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits. PMID:24574988

  15. Multiple boundary condition test (MBCT) approach to update mathematical models of large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.; Kuo, C.-P.; Glaser, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A major challenge to the structural dynamicist is to validate mathematical models of large space structures which cannot be ground tested because of its size and/or flexibility. The paper presents a Multiple Boundary Condition Test (MBCT) approach which allows a systematic validation of the mathematical model by performing a number of ground tests on a large structure with variable boundary conditions. A numerical simulation is presented which illustrates the validity of the MBCT including some of the potential limitations.

  16. Predictive wall adjustment strategy for two-dimensional flexible walled adaptive wind tunnel: A detailed description of the first one-step method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Goodyer, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Following the realization that a simple iterative strategy for bringing the flexible walls of two-dimensional test sections to streamline contours was too slow for practical use, Judd proposed, developed, and placed into service what was the first Predictive Strategy. The Predictive Strategy reduced by 75 percent or more the number of iterations of wall shapes, and therefore the tunnel run-time overhead attributable to the streamlining process, required to reach satisfactory streamlines. The procedures of the Strategy are embodied in the FORTRAN subroutine WAS (standing for Wall Adjustment Strategy) which is written in general form. The essentials of the test section hardware, followed by the underlying aerodynamic theory which forms the basis of the Strategy, are briefly described. The subroutine is then presented as the Appendix, broken down into segments with descriptions of the numerical operations underway in each, with definitions of variables.

  17. EzGal: A Flexible Interface for Stellar Population Synthesis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancone, Conor; Gonzalez, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    EzGal is a flexible Python program which generates observable parameters (magnitudes, colors, and mass-to-light ratios) for arbitrary input stellar population synthesis (SPS) models; it enables simple, direct comparison of different model sets so that the uncertainty introduced by choice of model set can be quantified. EzGal is also capable of generating composite stellar population models (CSPs) for arbitrary input star-formation histories and reddening laws, and can be used to interpolate between metallicities for a given model set.

  18. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

    PubMed Central

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  19. Exact performance analytical model for spectrum allocation in flexible grid optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yiming; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Li, Hui; Ji, Yuefeng; Gu, Wanyi

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic flexible grid optical networks have gained much attention because of the advantages of high spectrum efficiency and flexibility, while the performance analysis will be more complex compared with fixed grid optical networks. An analytical Markov model is first presented in the paper, which can exactly describe the stochastic characteristics of the spectrum allocation in flexible grid optical networks considering both random-fit and first-fit resource assignment policies. We focus on the effect of spectrum contiguous constraint which has not been systematically studied in respect of mathematical modeling, and three major properties of the model are presented and analyzed. The model can expose key performance features and act as the foundation of modeling the Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) problem with diverse topologies. Two heuristic algorithms are also proposed to make it more tractable. Finally, several key parameters, such as blocking probability, resource utilization rate and fragmentation rate are presented and computed, and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulation results match closely with analytical results, which prove the correctness of this mathematical model.

  20. Flexible modelling of vaccine effect in self-controlled case series models.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Yonas; Whitaker, Heather J; Farrington, C Paddy

    2016-05-01

    The self-controlled case series (SCCS) method, commonly used to investigate the safety of vaccines, requires information on cases only and automatically controls all age-independent multiplicative confounders, while allowing for an age-dependent baseline incidence. Currently, the SCCS method represents the time-varying exposures using step functions with pre-determined cut points. A less prescriptive approach may be beneficial when the shape of the relative risk function associated with exposure is not known a priori, especially when exposure effects can be long-lasting. We therefore propose to model exposure effects using flexible smooth functions. Specifically, we used a linear combination of cubic M-splines which, in addition to giving plausible shapes, avoids the integral in the log-likelihood function of the SCCS model. The methods, though developed specifically for vaccines, are applicable more widely. Simulations showed that the new approach generally performs better than the step function method. We applied the new method to two data sets, on febrile convulsion and exposure to MMR vaccine, and on fractures and thiazolidinedione use. PMID:26494534

  1. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  2. Design, dynamic modelling and experimental validation of a 2DOF flexible antenna sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Claudia F.; Naci Engin, Seref; Feliu Batlle, Vicente

    2014-04-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom flexible antenna sensor platform was designed to physically simulate the ability of a robotic arm, which rapidly reorients and targets itself towards specific surfaces from different approachable angles. An accurate antenna model involves non-linear expressions that represent the system dynamics. Therefore, a comprehensive study along with experimental work has been carried out in order to achieve accurate system identification and validate the dynamic model. The model developed has proven useful in controlling the antenna tip, minimising the effects of the non-linear flexural dynamics and the Coulomb friction. The system was driven by servo motors. Algebraic controllers were developed for the antenna tip to track the reference trajectory. The platform system used encoders to measure the joint angles and a loadcell sensor to obtain the flexible link tip position. To validate the sensory information, the results obtained by the integrated sensors were compared to that of an external camera system.

  3. A numerical model for flexible pavements rut depth evolution with time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allou, Fatima; Chazallon, Cyrille; Hornych, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for the finite elements modelling of flexible pavements rut depth evolution with time. This method is based on the shakedown theory established by Zarka for metallic structures. The yield surface of Drucker-Prager and the plastic potential of Von Mises have been used. The simplified method determines straightforwardly the purely elastic state or the elastic shakedown state or the plastic shakedown state. The calibration of the simplified method with two unbound granular materials for roads under repeated loads triaxial tests, is explained. Then, a finite elements modelling of a flexible pavement has been carried out. Calculations of 2D and 3D have been performed and rut depth evolutions with time are shown, which underline the capabilities of the model to take into account the accumulation of plastic strains along the loading cycles. Copyright

  4. LED luminaire longevity strategy models comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Hugo; Thibault, Simon; Martel, Alain A.

    2010-08-01

    As energy efficiency becomes more and more important, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising alternative to traditional lighting. Indeed, the energy efficiency of LEDs is still improving as their luminosity is modulated by current. Moreover, for applications such as exterior lamp posts, their small size, directionality, colors and high frequency response allow to combine them and provide design possibilities which are impossible with any other light source. However, as any lamp, LEDs have a lumen depreciation which is a function of both current and temperature. Thus, to take advantage of the full characteristics of LEDs, LED luminaire longevity strategies must be carefully studied and planned, especially since the IES and CIE guidelines state clearly that the luminaire must maintain the rated recommended light level until the end of the system's operating life. The recommended approach for LED luminaire specification is therefore to use the end-of-life light level when evaluating the luminaire. Different power supply strategies have been simulated to determine which one maximizes energy saving and lifetime. With these results, it appears that active control can save at least 25% in energy, but the best strategy cannot be determined because of uncertainties in luminosity degradation models.

  5. Flexibility on storage-release based distributed hydrologic modeling with object-oriented approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwangmin; Merwade, Venkatesh; Chun, Jong Ahn; Timlin, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    With the availability of advanced hydrologic data in public domain such as remote sensed and climate change scenario data, there is a need for a modeling framework that is capable of using these data to simulate and extend hydrologic processes with multidisciplinary approaches for sustainable water resources management. To address this need, a storage-release based distributed hydrologic model (STORE DHM) is developed based on an object-oriented approach. The model is tested for demonstrating model flexibility and extensibility to know how to well integrate object-oriented approach to further hydrologic research issues, e.g., reconstructing missing precipitation in this study, without changing its main frame. Moreover, the STORE DHM is applied to simulate hydrological processes with multiple classes in the Nanticoke watershed. This study also describes a conceptual and structural framework of object-oriented inheritance and aggregation characteristics under the STORE DHM. In addition, NearestMP (missing value estimation based on nearest neighborhood regression) and KernelMP (missing value estimation based on Kernel Function) are proposed for evaluating STORE DHM flexibility. And then, STORE DHM runoff hydrographs compared with NearestMP and KernelMP runoff hydrographs. Overall results from these comparisons show promising hydrograph outputs generated by the proposed two classes. Consequently, this study suggests that STORE DHM with an object-oriented approach will be a comprehensive water resources modeling tools by adding additional classes for toward developing through its flexibility and extensibility.

  6. The effect of porosity and flexibility on the hydrodynamics behind a mangrove-like root model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Amirkhosro; Parry, Samantha; van de Riet, Keith; Curet, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves play a prominent role in coastal areas in subtropics regions. Mangrove forests are of special interest to protect shorelines against storm surges, hurricane winds, sea-level rise and tsunamis. In addition, mangroves play a critical role in filtering water and providing habitat to different organisms. In this work we study the complex interaction of water flow and mangrove roots which were modeled with a circular array of cylinders with different spacing between them as well as different configurations. In addition, we modeled the flexibility of the roots by attaching rigid cylinders to torsional connectors. The models were tested in a water tunnel for a range of Reynolds number from 2200 to 12000. In a series of experiments we measured the drag force, instant and mean velocity behind the models. We also performed 2D flow visualization for the models in a flowing soap film setup. The results show that the minimum velocity of the wake is highly dependent on the porosity and flexibility of the roots. We observed that there is a small-scale turbulent region. This turbulence is recombined downstream in a larger vortex structure eventually forming a von Karman vortex street wake. We compare the results from rigid cylinder and the flexible counterpart.

  7. Development of a dynamic model for bevel-tip flexible needle insertion into soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Amir; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mechanics-based dynamic model for bevel-tip flexible needle insertion into soft tissues. We use Newton-Euler formulation to account for the effect of actuation, friction, tissue interactions, and bevel-tip forces on the needle. The soft tissue deformation is modeled by finite element analysis, whereas the mechanics-based model is used to predict needle deflections due to bevel-tip asymmetry. The proposed needle-tissue model is then experimentally evaluated by comparing the needle deflections for various insertion depths in a tissue phantom with those achieved from simulations. PMID:22256068

  8. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  9. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  10. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Mirkhalaf, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Crocodiles, armadillo, turtles, fish and many other animal species have evolved flexible armored skins in the form of hard scales or osteoderms, which can be described as hard plates of finite size embedded in softer tissues. The individual hard segments provide protection from predators, while the relative motion of these segments provides the flexibility required for efficient locomotion. In this work, we duplicated these broad concepts in a bio-inspired segmented armor. Hexagonal segments of well-defined size and shape were carved within a thin glass plate using laser engraving. The engraved plate was then placed on a soft substrate which simulated soft tissues, and then punctured with a sharp needle mounted on a miniature loading stage. The resistance of our segmented armor was significantly higher when smaller hexagons were used, and our bio-inspired segmented glass displayed an increase in puncture resistance of up to 70% compared to a continuous plate of glass of the same thickness. Detailed structural analyses aided by finite elements revealed that this extraordinary improvement is due to the reduced span of individual segments, which decreases flexural stresses and delays fracture. This effect can however only be achieved if the plates are at least 1000 stiffer than the underlying substrate, which is the case for natural armor systems. Our bio-inspired system also displayed many of the attributes of natural armors: flexible, robust with 'multi-hit' capabilities. This new segmented glass therefore suggests interesting bio-inspired strategies and mechanisms which could be systematically exploited in high-performance flexible armors. This study also provides new insights and a better understanding of the mechanics of natural armors such as scales and osteoderms. PMID:24613857