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Sample records for floating offshore airport

  1. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  2. Experiment study of the motion of the floating offshore turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Yang; Yang, Ray-Yeng; Chen, Yang-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Recently the wind industry moved to offshore areas. The floating wind turbine combined the platform and the mooring system. This research focuses on studying the motion of the floating offshore turbine with a mooring system. The platform, which was developed by the Ship and Ocean Industries R&D Center, had been test in a wave-wind flume in the Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory by using a 1:50 Froude scaling model. In the experiment, the floating offshore turbine was placed in a water flume and exposed to periodic waves at frequencies ranging from 0.22 rad/s - 0.875 rad/s, the wave amplitude is about 2.5 meter, and with the different pretension of the mooring lines. The experiment includes the measurement of damping coefficient from the free decay test and the dynamic response in a sea state. This research compares the motion of the floating offshore turbine with the different pretension of the mooring lines, and the model provides comprehensive data for the operational, design, and survival seas states, as well as the calibration and improvement of the existing design and performance of numerical models.

  3. Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.

  4. Challenges in Simulation of Aerodynamics, Hydrodynamics, and Mooring-Line Dynamics of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.; Schlipf, M.; Cordle, A.; Pereira, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the current major modeling challenges for floating offshore wind turbine design tools and describes aerodynamic and hydrodynamic effects due to rotor and platform motions and usage of non-slender support structures.

  5. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  6. Effect of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Roald, L.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A,; Chokani, N.

    2013-07-01

    Offshore winds are generally stronger and more consistent than winds on land, making the offshore environment attractive for wind energy development. A large part of the offshore wind resource is however located in deep water, where floating turbines are the only economical way of harvesting the energy. The design of offshore floating wind turbines relies on the use of modeling tools that can simulate the entire coupled system behavior. At present, most of these tools include only first-order hydrodynamic theory. However, observations of supposed second-order hydrodynamic responses in wave-tank tests performed by the DeepCwind consortium suggest that second-order effects might be critical. In this paper, the methodology used by the oil and gas industry has been modified to apply to the analysis of floating wind turbines, and is used to assess the effect of second-order hydrodynamics on floating offshore wind turbines. The method relies on combined use of the frequency-domain tool WAMIT and the time-domain tool FAST. The proposed assessment method has been applied to two different floating wind concepts, a spar and a tension-leg-platform (TLP), both supporting the NREL 5-MW baseline wind turbine. Results showing the hydrodynamic forces and motion response for these systems are presented and analysed, and compared to aerodynamic effects.

  7. Effects of Second-Order Hydrodynamic Forces on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A. J. N. A.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-04-01

    Relative to first-order, second-order wave-excitation loads are known to cause significant motions and additional loads in offshore oil and gas platforms. The design of floating offshore wind turbines was partially inherited from the offshore oil and gas industry. Floating offshore wind concepts have been studied with powerful aero-hydro-servo-elastic tools; however, most of the existing work on floating offshore wind turbines has neglected the contribution of second-order wave-excitation loads. As a result, this paper presents a computationally efficient methodology to consider these loads within FAST, a wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The method implemented was verified against the commercial OrcaFlex tool, with good agreement, and low computational time. A reference floating offshore wind turbine was studied under several wind and wave load conditions, including the effects of second-order slow-drift and sum-frequency loads. Preliminary results revealed that these loads excite the turbine's natural frequencies, namely the surge and pitch natural frequencies.

  8. Effect of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roald, L.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-05-01

    The design of offshore floating wind turbines uses design codes that can simulate the entire coupled system behavior. At the present, most codes include only first-order hydrodynamics, which induce forces and motions varying with the same frequency as the incident waves. Effects due to second- and higher-order hydrodynamics are often ignored in the offshore industry, because the forces induced typically are smaller than the first-order forces. In this report, first- and second-order hydrodynamic analysis used in the offshore oil and gas industry is applied to two different wind turbine concepts--a spar and a tension leg platform.

  9. Grid Simulator for Testing a Wind Turbine on Offshore Floating Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.

    2012-02-01

    An important aspect of such offshore testing of a wind turbine floating platform is electrical loading of the wind turbine generator. An option of interconnecting the floating wind turbine with the onshore grid via submarine power cable is limited by many factors such as costs and associated environmental aspects (i.e., an expensive and lengthy sea floor study is needed for cable routing, burial, etc). It appears to be a more cost effective solution to implement a standalone grid simulator on a floating platform itself for electrical loading of the test wind turbine. Such a grid simulator must create a stable fault-resilient voltage and frequency bus (a micro grid) for continuous operation of the test wind turbine. In this report, several electrical topologies for an offshore grid simulator were analyzed and modeled.

  10. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  11. Effects of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on a Semisubmersible Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bayati, I.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Platt, A.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the second-order hydrodynamic effects on a semisubmersible floating offshore wind turbine. Second-order hydrodynamics induce loads and motions at the sum- and difference-frequencies of the incident waves. These effects have often been ignored in offshore wind analysis, under the assumption that they are significantly smaller than first-order effects. The sum- and difference-frequency loads can, however, excite eigenfrequencies of the system, leading to large oscillations that strain the mooring system or vibrations that cause fatigue damage to the structure. Observations of supposed second-order responses in wave-tank tests performed by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN offshore basin suggest that these effects might be more important than originally expected. These observations inspired interest in investigating how second-order excitation affects floating offshore wind turbines and whether second-order hydrodynamics should be included in offshore wind simulation tools like FAST in the future. In this work, the effects of second-order hydrodynamics on a floating semisubmersible offshore wind turbine are investigated. Because FAST is currently unable to account for second-order effects, a method to assess these effects was applied in which linearized properties of the floating wind system derived from FAST (including the 6x6 mass and stiffness matrices) are used by WAMIT to solve the first- and second-order hydrodynamics problems in the frequency domain. The method has been applied to the OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, supporting the NREL 5-MW baseline wind turbine. The loads and response of the system due to the second-order hydrodynamics are analysed and compared to first-order hydrodynamic loads and induced motions in the frequency domain. Further, the second-order loads and induced response data are compared to the loads and motions induced by aerodynamic loading as solved by FAST.

  12. Effects of wave induced motion on power generation of offshore floating wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    2014-11-01

    Wind power has been the world's fastest growing energy source for more than a decade. There is a continuous effort to study the potentials of offshore floating wind farms in producing electricity. One of the major technical challenges in studying the performance of offshore floating wind farms is the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic interactions between individual turbines. In this study, a novel approach is presented to study the hydrodynamic interaction between group of floating wind turbines and determine how wave induced motion of the platforms modifies the power generation of the farm. In particular, exact analytical models are presented to solve the hydrodynamic diffraction and radiation problem of a group of floating wind turbine platforms, to model the aerodynamic interaction between turbines, and to quantify the nonlinear dynamic of the mooring lines used to stabilize the floating platforms through connecting them to the seabed. The overall performance of the farm with different configuration and at different wind and wave conditions are investigated and the effects of the sea state condition as well as the distance between the turbines in the farm on the low frequency temporal variation of the power output are discussed.

  13. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation: Phase II Results of a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.

    2013-11-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. The Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3), which operated under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23, was established to verify the accuracy of these simulation tools [1]. This work was then extended under the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project under IEA Wind Task 30 [2]. Both of these projects sought to verify the accuracy of offshore wind turbine dynamics simulation tools (or codes) through code-to-code comparison of simulated responses of various offshore structures. This paper describes the latest findings from Phase II of the OC4 project, which involved the analysis of a 5-MW turbine supported by a floating semisubmersible. Twenty-two different organizations from 11 different countries submitted results using 24 different simulation tools. The variety of organizations contributing to the project brought together expertise from both the offshore structure and wind energy communities. Twenty-one different load cases were examined, encompassing varying levels of model complexity and a variety of metocean conditions. Differences in the results demonstrate the importance and accuracy of the various modeling approaches used. Significant findings include the importance of mooring dynamics to the mooring loads, the role nonlinear hydrodynamic terms play in calculating drift forces for the platform motions, and the difference between global (at the platform level) and local (at the member level) modeling of viscous drag. The results from this project will help guide development and improvement efforts for these tools to ensure that they are providing the accurate information needed to support the design and

  14. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F

    2015-02-28

    A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859

  15. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, B. F.; Wang, T. G.; Yuan, Y.; Cao, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859

  16. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    PubMed

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  17. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    PubMed Central

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  18. The offshore wind resources assessment application of floating LiDAR in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Wind and wave measurements of a Floating LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) Device (FLD) are performed on the site of Fuhai Offshore Wind Farm in the Taiwan Strait. The location of the deployment is situated 10 kilometers off-coast of Changhua County, and the anchored water depth is 25 meters. It is the very first time in Asia Pacific Region to use such device for tasks of offshore wind and wave measurement. Six range gate heights were set at 55m, 71m, 90m, 110m, 150m and 200m from the FLD sensor lens. Wind speeds and wind directions were measured by a remote sensing technology. Wave heights and periods were also measured by the buoy wave sensor. A validation campaign of NCKU WindSentinel has performed by a portable LiDAR (WINDCUBE v2) at Hsing-Da Harbor in the south of Taiwan from October 16th to 26th, 2013. The results showed good agreements with 10 minute averaged data of the wind speed and wind direction measured by the two LiDARs. NCKU WindSentinel data are planning comparisons with Fuhai's offshore fixed mast data when the meteorological mast is completed. The goal is to convince the wind energy community that FLD are a reliable and cost effective way of obtaining data for resource assessment. Until this moment, The FLD are observing and measuring the offshore wind farm's meteorological and oceanographic data. In September of 2014, a mild typhoon (Fung-Wong) passed through from east of Taiwan. NCKU WindSentinel continuously measured during typhoon period in the sea. The present preliminary measurements campaign presented the convenient and more cost effective option of the FLD, which may be a key tool for assessment of offshore wind resources in the near-future offshore wind farm developments.

  19. Simulation-Length Requirements in the Loads Analysis of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Haid, L.; Stewart, G.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Lackner, M.; Matha, D.

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the appropriate length of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) simulation - a fundamental question that needs to be answered to develop design requirements. To examine this issue, a loads analysis of an example FOWT was performed in FAST with varying simulation lengths. The offshore wind system used was the OC3-Hywind spar buoy, which was developed for use in the International Energy Agency Code Comparison Collaborative Project and supports NREL's offshore 5-megawatt baseline turbine. Realistic metocean data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and repeated periodic wind files were used to excite the structure. The results of the analysis clearly show that loads do not increase for longer simulations. In regards to fatigue, a sensitivity analysis shows that the procedure used for counting half cycles is more important than the simulation length itself. Based on these results, neither the simulation length nor the periodic wind files affect response statistics and loads for FOWTs (at least for the spar studied here); a result in contrast to the offshore oil and gas industry, where running simulations of at least 3 hours in length is common practice.

  20. Dynamics modeling and loads analysis of an offshore floating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkman, Jason Mark

    The vast deepwater wind resource represents a potential to use offshore floating wind turbines to power much of the world with renewable energy. Many floating wind turbine concepts have been proposed, but dynamics models, which account for the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the wind turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and platform and mooring dynamics of the floater, were needed to determine their technical and economic feasibility. This work presents the development of a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling the coupled dynamic response of offshore floating wind turbines, the verification of the simulation tool through model-to-model comparisons, and the application of the simulation tool to an integrated loads analysis for one of the promising system concepts. A fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tool was developed with enough sophistication to address the limitations of previous frequency- and time-domain studies and to have the features required to perform loads analyses for a variety of wind turbine, support platform, and mooring system configurations. The simulation capability was tested using model-to-model comparisons. The favorable results of all of the verification exercises provided confidence to perform more thorough analyses. The simulation tool was then applied in a preliminary loads analysis of a wind turbine supported by a barge with catenary moorings. A barge platform was chosen because of its simplicity in design, fabrication, and installation. The loads analysis aimed to characterize the dynamic response and to identify potential loads and instabilities resulting from the dynamic couplings between the turbine and the floating barge in the presence of combined wind and wave excitation. The coupling between the wind turbine response and the barge-pitch motion, in particular, produced larger extreme loads in the floating turbine than experienced by an equivalent land

  1. Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

  2. Model Development and Loads Analysis of a Wind Turbine on a Floating Offshore Tension Leg Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.; Fischer, T.; Kuhn, M.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. Models in this code are of greater fidelity than most of the models that have been used to analyze floating turbines in the past--which have neglected important hydrodynamic and mooring system effects. The report provides a description of the development process of a TLP model, which is a modified version of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology design derived from a parametric linear frequency-domain optimization process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the International Electrotechnical Commission offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. Response statistics, extreme event tables, fatigue lifetimes, and selected time histories of design-driving extreme events are analyzed and presented. Loads for the wind turbine on the TLP are compared to those of an equivalent land-based turbine in terms of load ratios. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  3. Applications for concrete offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The report collects and summarizes the various proposals for development offshore which have in common the use of concrete as the main structural material, and where possible, indicates their relative feasibility. A study encompassing such diverse schemes as offshore windmills, concrete LNG carriers, hydrocarbon production platforms and floating airports cannot be completely exhaustive on each subject, so references to sources of further information have been given wherever possible. Details of individual projects and proposals are included for Power plants, Hydrocarbon production platforms, Concrete ships, Storage systems and industrial plants, Subsea systems, Offshore islands, Coastal works and Other concrete structures.

  4. A comparison between the dynamics of horizontal and vertical axis offshore floating wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Borg, M; Collu, M

    2015-02-28

    The need to further exploit offshore wind resources in deeper waters has led to a re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) for floating foundation applications. However, there has been little effort to systematically compare VAWTs to the more conventional horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). This article initiates this comparison based on prime principles, focusing on the turbine aerodynamic forces and their impact on the floating wind turbine static and dynamic responses. VAWTs generate substantially different aerodynamic forces on the support structure, in particular, a potentially lower inclining moment and a substantially higher torque than HAWTs. Considering the static stability requirements, the advantages of a lower inclining moment, a lower wind turbine mass and a lower centre of gravity are illustrated, all of which are exploitable to have a less costly support structure. Floating VAWTs experience increased motion in the frequency range surrounding the turbine [number of blades]×[rotational speed] frequency. For very large VAWTs with slower rotational speeds, this frequency range may significantly overlap with the range of wave excitation forces. Quantitative considerations are undertaken comparing the reference NREL 5 MW HAWT with the NOVA 5 MW VAWT. PMID:25583856

  5. Computationally inexpensive approach for pitch control of offshore wind turbine on barge floating platform.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Y D; Wang, Lei; Song, Qing-wang

    2013-01-01

    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the "NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine" being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control. PMID:24453834

  6. Computationally Inexpensive Approach for Pitch Control of Offshore Wind Turbine on Barge Floating Platform

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Y. D.; Wang, Lei; Song, Qing-wang

    2013-01-01

    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the “NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine” being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control. PMID:24453834

  7. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, MooHyun

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  8. Floating Offshore WTG Integrated Load Analysis & Optimization Employing a Tuned Mass Damper

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Tsouroukdissian, Arturo; Lackner, Matt; Cross-Whiter, John; Ackers, Ben; Arora, Dhiraj; Park, Semiung

    2015-09-25

    Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) present complex design challenges due to the coupled dynamics of the platform motion, mooring system, and turbine control systems, in response to wind and wave loading. This can lead to higher extreme and fatigue loads than a comparable fixed bottom or onshore system. Previous research[1] has shown the potential to reduced extreme and fatigue loads on FOWT using tuned mass dampers (TMD) for structural control. This project aims to reduce maximum loads using passive TMDs located at the tower top during extreme storm events, when grid supplied power for other controls systems may not be available. The Alstom Haliade 6MW wind turbine is modelled on the Glosten Pelastar tension-leg platform (TLP). The primary objectives of this project are to provide a preliminary assessment of the load reduction potential of passive TMDs on real wind turbine and TLP designs.

  9. An Aeroelastic Perspective of Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Formation and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Steven N.; Jaworski, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    The wake formation and wake stability of floating offshore wind turbines are investigated from an aeroelastic perspective. The aeroelastic model is composed of the Sebastian-Lackner free-vortex wake aerodynamic model coupled to the nonlinear Hodges-Dowell beam equations, which are extended to include the effects of blade profile asymmetry, higher-order torsional effects, and kinetic energy components associated with periodic rigid-body motions of floating platforms. Rigid-body platform motions are also assigned to the aerodynamic model as varying inflow conditions to emulate operational rotor-wake interactions. Careful attention is given to the wake formation within operational states where the ratio of inflow velocity to induced velocity is over 50%. These states are most susceptible to aerodynamic instabilities, and provide a range of states about which a wake stability analysis can be performed. In addition, the stability analysis used for the numerical framework is implemented into a standalone free-vortex wake aerodynamic model. Both aeroelastic and standalone aerodynamic results are compared to evaluate the level of impact that flexible blades have on the wake formation and wake stability.

  10. Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations Drawn from the DeepCWind Scaled Floating Offshore Wind System Test Campaign: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.; Masciola, M. D.; Molta, P.; Goupee, A. J.; Coulling, A. J.; Prowell, I.; Browning, J.

    2013-07-01

    The DeepCwind consortium is a group of universities, national labs, and companies funded under a research initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to support the research and development of floating offshore wind power. The two main objectives of the project are to better understand the complex dynamic behavior of floating offshore wind systems and to create experimental data for use in validating the tools used in modeling these systems. In support of these objectives, the DeepCwind consortium conducted a model test campaign in 2011 of three generic floating wind systems, a tension-leg platform (TLP), a spar-buoy (spar), and a semisubmersible (semi). Each of the three platforms was designed to support a 1/50th-scale model of a 5 MW wind turbine and was tested under a variety of wind/wave conditions. The focus of this paper is to summarize the work done by consortium members in analyzing the data obtained from the test campaign and its use for validating the offshore wind modeling tool, FAST.

  11. Spatial distribution of floating marine debris in offshore continental Portuguese waters.

    PubMed

    Sá, Sara; Bastos-Santos, Jorge; Araújo, Hélder; Ferreira, Marisa; Duro, Virginia; Alves, Flávia; Panta-Ferreira, Bruno; Nicolau, Lídia; Eira, Catarina; Vingada, José

    2016-03-15

    This study presents data on abundance and density of macro-floating marine debris (FMD), including their composition, spatial distribution and potential sources off continental Portugal. FMD were assessed by shipboard visual surveys covering ±252,833 km(2) until the 220 nm limit. The FMD average density was 2.98 items/km(2) and abundance amounted to 752,740 items. Unidentified plastics constitute the major bulk of FMD (density=0.46 items/km(2); abundance=117,390 items), followed by styrofoam, derelict or lost materials from fisheries, paper/cardboard and wood material. The North sector of the area presents higher FMD diversity and abundances, probably as a result of the high number of navigation corridors and fisheries operating in that sector. Most FMD originate from local sources, namely discharges from vessels and derelict material from fisheries. Considering the identifiable items, cables and fishing lines were the only fishing related items among the top ten FMD items in Portuguese offshore waters. PMID:26778496

  12. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation within IEA Wind Task 30: Phase II Results Regarding a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.; Qvist, J.; Froyd, L.; Chen, X.; Azcona, J.; Uzungoglu, E.; Guedes Soares, C.; Luan, C.; Yutong, H.; Pengcheng, F.; Yde, A.; Larsen, T.; Nichols, J.; Buils, R.; Lei, L.; Anders Nygard, T.; et al.

    2014-03-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools (or codes) that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project, which operates under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 30. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of simulation codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating semisubmersible in 200 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants? codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  13. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Task 23: Phase IV Results Regarding Floating Wind Turbine Modeling; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Larsen, T.; Hansen, A.; Nygaard, T.; Maus, K.; Karimirad, M.; Gao, Z.; Moan, T.; Fylling, I.

    2010-04-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation codes that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 23. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating spar buoy in 320 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants' codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  14. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  15. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    High-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  16. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale inmore » a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.« less

  17. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. PMID:23608638

  18. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  19. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  20. Experimental validation of a Fluid-Structure interaction model for simulating offshore floating wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderer, Antoni; Feist, Christ; Ruehl, Kelley; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    A series of experiments reproducing a floating wind turbine in operational sea conditions, conducted in the St. Anthony Falls Lab. wave facility, are employed to validate the capabilities of the recently developed FSI-Levelset-CURVIB method of Calderer, Kang and Sotiropoulos (JCP 2014) to accurately predict turbine-wave interactions. The numerical approach is based on solving the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the level set method, which is capable of carrying out LES of two-phase flows (air and water) with complex floating structures and waves. The investigated floating turbine is a 1:100 Froude scaled version of the 13.2 MW prototype designed by Sandia National Lab; it is installed on a cylindrical barge style platform which is restricted to move with two degrees of freedom, heave and pitch in the vertical plane defined by the direction of the propagating 2D waves. The computed turbine kinematics as well as the free surface elevation results are compared with the experimental data for different free decay tests and wave conditions representative of the Maine and the Pacific North West coasts. The comparison shows promising results indicating the validity of the model for simulating operational floating turbines. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy (DE-EE0005482), the University of Minnesota IREE program, and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  1. Computation of Wave Loads under Multidirectional Sea States for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, T.; Gueydon, S.; Jonkman, J.; Sarmento, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of a floating wind turbine under multidirectional wave loading. Special attention is given to the different methods used to synthesize the multidirectional sea state. This analysis includes the double-sum and single-sum methods, as well as an equal-energy discretization of the directional spectrum. These three methods are compared in detail, including the ergodicity of the solution obtained. From the analysis, the equal-energy method proved to be the most computationally efficient while still retaining the ergodicity of the solution. This method was chosen to be implemented in the numerical code FAST. Preliminary results on the influence of these wave loads on a floating wind turbine showed significant additional roll and sway motion of the platform.

  2. WindWaveFloat

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Alla

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review includes in which principal investigator Alla Weinstein discusses project progress in development of a floating offshore wind structure - the WindFloat - and incorporation therin of a Spherical Wave Energy Device.

  3. Investigation of Response Amplitude Operators for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, G. K. V.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Masciola, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the consistency between response amplitude operators (RAOs) computed from WAMIT, a linear frequency-domain tool, to RAOs derived from time-domain computations based on white-noise wave excitation using FAST, a nonlinear aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool. The RAO comparison is first made for a rigid floating wind turbine without wind excitation. The investigation is further extended to examine how these RAOs change for a flexible and operational wind turbine. The RAOs are computed for below-rated, rated, and above-rated wind conditions. The method is applied to a floating wind system composed of the OC3-Hywind spar buoy and NREL 5-MW wind turbine. The responses are compared between FAST and WAMIT to verify the FAST model and to understand the influence of structural flexibility, aerodynamic damping, control actions, and waves on the system responses. The results show that based on the RAO computation procedure implemented, the WAMIT- and FAST-computed RAOs are similar (as expected) for a rigid turbine subjected to waves only. However, WAMIT is unable to model the excitation from a flexible turbine. Further, the presence of aerodynamic damping decreased the platform surge and pitch responses, as computed by both WAMIT and FAST when wind was included. Additionally, the influence of gyroscopic excitation increased the yaw response, which was captured by both WAMIT and FAST.

  4. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-05-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  5. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-09-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  6. Offshore space center (offshore launch site)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, D.G.

    1980-07-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit, an industrial area for HLLV maintenance, an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms, a power generation station, docks with an unloading area, two separate launch sites, and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  7. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  8. Investigation of a FAST-OrcaFlex Coupling Module for Integrating Turbine and Mooring Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Masciola, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.

    2011-10-01

    To enable offshore floating wind turbine design, the following are required: accurate modeling of the wind turbine structural dynamics, aerodynamics, platform hydrodynamics, a mooring system, and control algorithms. Mooring and anchor design can appreciably affect the dynamic response of offshore wind platforms that are subject to environmental loads. From an engineering perspective, system behavior and line loads must be studied well to ensure the overall design is fit for the intended purpose. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) is a comprehensive simulation tool used for modeling land-based and offshore wind turbines. In the case of a floating turbine, continuous cable theory is used to emulate mooring line dynamics. Higher modeling fidelity can be gained through the use of finite element mooring theory. This can be achieved through the FASTlink coupling module, which couples FAST with OrcaFlex, a commercial simulation tool used for modeling mooring line dynamics. In this application, FAST is responsible for capturing the aerodynamic loads and flexure of the wind turbine and its tower, and OrcaFlex models the mooring line and hydrodynamic effects below the water surface. This paper investigates the accuracy and stability of the FAST/OrcaFlex coupling operation.

  9. Model Development and Loads Analysis of an Offshore Wind Turbine on a Tension Leg Platform with a Comparison to Other Floating Turbine Concepts: April 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. The report also provides a description of the development process of the TLP model. The model has been verified via comparisons to frequency-domain calculations. Important differences have been identified between the frequency-domain and time-domain simulations, and have generated implications for the conceptual design process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the IEC 61400-3 offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. This report compares the loads for the wind turbine on the TLP to those of an equivalent land-based turbine. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  10. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  11. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  12. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  13. Floating platform with monolithically formed float members and platform

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterwalder, U.

    1981-06-30

    Floating platforms for various offshore facilities are formed of float members monolithically connected to a superposed platform. The float members are spherically shaped and are formed of reinforced or prestressed concrete. The platform can be a hollow planar member or it can be curved in one or two directions, and the platforms are formed of prestressed concrete. Cylindrical shafts can be used to connect the spherically shaped floats and the platform. Individual floating platforms can be connected by expansion joints and used as a runway. The float members can be constructed at the shoreline, launched into the water and held in a regular pattern while decked over with the platform. After completion of the construction procedure, the floating platform can be moved to an offshore location for use.

  14. Stabilized floating platforms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject invention is directed to a floating platform for supporting nuclear reactors and the like at selected offshore sites. The platform is provided with a stabilizer mechanism which significantly reduces the effects of wave action upon the platform and which comprises a pair of relatively small floats attached by rigid booms to the platform at locations spaced therefrom for reducing wave pitch, acceleration, and the resonance period of the wave.

  15. CONNECTICUT AIRPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer that includes all of the airports that appear on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut. It includes the perimeter of airport, heliport, and seaplane landing areas as depicted...

  16. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  17. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  18. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A. |

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  19. Stools - floating

    MedlinePlus

    ... absorption of nutrients ( malabsorption ) or too much gas (flatulence). Considerations Most causes of floating stools are harmless. ... Bailey J. FPIN's Clinical Inquiries: Effective management of flatulence. Am Fam Physician Ohge H, Levitt MD. Intestinal ...

  20. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  1. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  2. Definition of the Floating System for Phase IV of OC3

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.

    2010-05-01

    Phase IV of the IEA Annex XXIII Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) involves the modeling of an offshore floating wind turbine. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which are needed by the OC3 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  3. Drilling and producing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

  4. 78 FR 27913 - Revision of Crane Regulation Standards for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to revise regulations related to the design, certification, inspection, and testing of cranes. These regulations apply to cranes installed on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), Offshore Supply Vessels (OSVs), and floating Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) facilities. This revision would update industry standards incorporated by reference with more recent versions,......

  5. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  6. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure, This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  7. Floating Point Control Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-08-02

    Floating Point Control is a Library that allows for the manipulation of floating point unit exception masking funtions control exceptions in both the Streaming "Single Instruction, Multiple Data" Extension 2 (SSE2) unit and the floating point unit simultaneously. FPC also provides macros to set floating point rounding and precision control.

  8. Floating production unit to work off Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleo Brasileiro SA expects by early November to deploy its Petrobras XXIV floating production unit (FPU) in about 900 ft of water in Albacora field off Brazil. The FPU was scheduled to depart Galveston, Tex., this month, following completion of modifications and upgrades under a turnkey contract with Chiles Offshore International Inc. Chiles began modifying Petrobras XXIV about 1 year ago as part of a deal closed in October 1991 in which Chiles Offshore Corp. sold the vessel, then known as Intrepid, to Brasoil, the international subsidiary of Petrobras.

  9. Offshore production challenged

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, A.

    1983-10-01

    The capability to produce oil fields from under 20,000 ft of water or below the thick and treacherous Arctic icepack are 2 of the breakthroughs that have been brought about by a quietly emerging technology. A scan of announcements by designers, contractors, operators, and manufacturers reveals that substantial research and development efforts are being undertaken to ease the task of bringing to market the energy resources trapped under presently inaccessible locations. As a result, entirely new breeds of permanent or temporary drilling/production systems are evolving, some of which could be scaled down to face still another challenge: the economic exploitation of marginal offshore fields, whose meager reserves do not justify development by conventional means. New offshore systems described include the mobile Arctic drilling system, the mobile concrete island drilling system, the base and independent deck platform, the buoyant tower, the semiflex floating station, the tension leg platform, the big buoy floating cylinder, and the Sea Plex retrievable drilling/production system.

  10. Integrated Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Research activity at NASA has culminated in the development, flight test and demonstration of a prototype Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) system. A NASA led industry team and the FAA developed the system which integrated airport surface surveillance systems, aeronautical data links, DGPS navigation, automation systems, and controller and flight deck displays. The LVLASO system was demonstrated at the Hartsfield-Atlanta International Airport using a Boeing 757-200 aircraft during August, 1997. This report documents the contractors role in this testing particularly in the area of data link and DGPS navigation.

  11. Floating wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  12. Proceedings - annual offshore technology conference, 13th, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-01-01

    The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage of offshore structures, foundation performance, mooring and anchoring, and others.

  13. NREL Computer Models Integrate Wind Turbines with Floating Platforms (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    Far off the shores of energy-hungry coastal cities, powerful winds blow over the open ocean, where the water is too deep for today's seabed-mounted offshore wind turbines. For the United States to tap into these vast offshore wind energy resources, wind turbines must be mounted on floating platforms to be cost effective. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are supporting that development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of such floating wind turbines.

  14. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  15. Floating: sink or swim.

    PubMed

    Pronger, L

    1995-12-01

    Budget restrictions, fewer human resources and fluctuating patient populations have combined to increase the practice of floating general duty nurses. Floating occurs when a nurse from an overstaffed unit, based on patient load, is required to work in another unit that is understaffed. Floating is not a new practice, but it has always been an emotionally charged issue. Today, with more float pool nurses seeking the security of a permanent position in a home unit, the issue has increased in intensity. PMID:8713148

  16. The Design of Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W

    1938-01-01

    Following a summary of the multiplicity of domestic and foreign floats and a brief enumeration of the requirements of floats, the essential form parameters and their effect on the qualities of floats are detailed. On this basis a standard float design is developed which in model families with varying length/beam ratio and angle of dead rise is analyzed by an experimental method which permits its best utilization on any airplane.

  17. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  18. Topside facilities for floating production systems require new engineering thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, A.J.; Graaf, G.

    1983-05-01

    Since the oil industry moved offshore, great emphasis has been placed on the need to reduce space and weight requirements of topside facilities. For successful design of floating production systems, weight consciousness assumes an even higher level of importance, necessitating systematic attention to detail even at the feasibility study stage of a project.

  19. 78 FR 7476 - Airport Improvement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Invitation to comment on draft FAA Order 5100-38, Airport Improvement...-38D, Airport Improvement Program Handbook. When finalized, this Order will replace Order...

  20. 77 FR 63849 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... related to safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. These... Hobby Airport Hotel, 9100 Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX 77017, http://www.marriott.com/houhh . The...

  1. Requirements for construction of offshore concrete platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Pollard, N.

    1994-12-31

    For development of offshore fields, the operator must select production concepts. As several options like subsea templates, floating production and storage concepts, semisubmersibles and steel platforms etc. are available, this paper will review the specifics of one of the possible concepts, the concrete platform. The application of offshore concrete platforms is gaining renewed interest world wide. Several operators are presently carrying out comparisons between offshore concrete structures and jacket support structures. This evaluation includes considerations related to constructability incorporating studies of potential construction sites, and infrastructures as well as availability of materials. This paper summarizes requirements for carrying out an offshore concrete platform construction project and will be useful to those interested in concrete projects.

  2. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  3. General aviation approach and landing practices. [by pilots of light aircraft at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.; Goode, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics of air traffic patterns at uncontrolled airports and techniques used by a group of general aviation pilots in landing light airplanes are documented. The results of some 1,600 radar tracks taken at four uncontrolled airports and some 600 landings made by 22 pilots in two, four place, single engine light airplanes show that the uncontrolled traffic pattern is highly variable. The altitudes, distances, and piloting procedures utilized may affect the ability for pilots to see-and-avoid in this environment. Most landing approaches were conducted at an airspeed above recommended, resulting in significant floating during flare and touchdowns that were relatively flat and often nose-low.

  4. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  5. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described. PMID:26961729

  6. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  7. Auctioning Airport Slots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Lenoir, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    The current allocation of slots on congested European airports constitutes an obstacle to the effective liberalisation of air transportation undertaken in Europe. With a view to favouring effluent slot utilisation and competition, as is the goal of the Euopean commission, we propose to use a market mechanism, based on temporary" utilisation licences. In order to allocate those licences, we propose and describe an iterated combinatorial auction mechanism where a percentage of licences would be reallocated each season. A secondary market would also be set up in order to reallocate slots during a season. Since a combinatorial auction involve a complex optimisation procedure, we describe how it can be made to work in the case of auctions.

  8. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  9. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  10. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  11. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  12. Floating emitter solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chih, Sah (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

  13. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property (75 FR 54946..., Safety Management System for Certificated Airports (75 FR 62008, October 7, 2010). However, the...

  14. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  15. Float-in powerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    Makela, G.A.

    1983-06-01

    The nation's inland waterway system affords a means of transporting large objects limited only by channel depth, size of locks and bridge clearances. The concept of prefabricating standardized, hydroelectric powerhouses at shipyards, transporting them along the inland waterways and installing them at navigation dams without powerhouses was examined for the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation system. It was found that construction costs for the float-in design was very close to those of conventional sitebuilt design. Experience at Greenup Dam on the Ohio River where a float-in powerhouse has been installed indicated that construction time could be reduced if the float-in design was used. This time saving, use of standardized designs and construction of the float-in module at a shipyard may offer advantages that should be examined in more detailed when the power potential of the nation's low navigation dams is assessed.

  16. Concrete production floating platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Letourneur, O.; Falcimaigne, J.

    1981-01-01

    The floating production platforms operating in the North Sea are adapted from drilling semisubmersibles which allow only a limited payload capacity. Experience of concrete production platforms constructed for the North Sea has led Sea Tank Co. to propose a floating platform which offers large payload and oil storage capacities similar to those of existing fixed platforms. Sea Tank Co. and Institut Francais du Petrole joined forces in early 1976 to study the feasibility of a concrete floating production platform incorporating the structure and the production riser together. The results of this 3-yr program show that the concrete floating structure is economically attractive for permanent utilization on a production site. Furthermore, concrete has definite advantages over other materials, in its long term behavior.

  17. Micromechanisms with floating pivot

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-03-06

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use floating pivot structures to relieve some of the problems encountered in the use of solid flexible pivots.

  18. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  19. Surveillance of ground vehicles for airport security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Wang, Zhonghai; Shen, Dan; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2014-06-01

    Future surveillance systems will work in complex and cluttered environments which require systems engineering solutions for such applications such as airport ground surface management. In this paper, we highlight the use of a L1 video tracker for monitoring activities at an airport. We present methods of information fusion, entity detection, and activity analysis using airport videos for runway detection and airport terminal events. For coordinated airport security, automated ground surveillance enhances efficient and safe maneuvers for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) operating within airport environments.

  20. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  1. Quantitative Comparison of the Responses of Three Floating Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Matha, D.

    2010-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive dynamic-response analysis of three offshore floating wind turbine concepts. Models were composed of one 5-MW turbine supported on land and three 5-MW turbines located offshore on a tension leg platform, a spar buoy, and a barge. A loads and stability analysis adhering to the procedures of international design standards was performed for each model using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. The concepts are compared based on the calculated ultimate loads, fatigue loads, and instabilities. The results of this analysis will help resolve the fundamental design trade-offs between the floating-system concepts.

  2. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  3. 77 FR 4394 - Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL AGENCY... provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 12.4 acres at the Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL from the conditions, release certain properties from all terms, conditions, reservations...

  4. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2010-09-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays a more and more critical role in today’s world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN has remained steady during the past few years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which have changed the relative importance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic continues to grow in an exponential form and has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.

  5. Noise monitoring in airport communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, W. K.

    Current noise monitoring practices at airports are surveyed, with emphasis placed on extent, implementation, and rationale. It is noted that contemporary aircraft monitoring systems can perform a wide variety of functions in support of an airport noise abatement program. In establishing a system, the importance of developing the program before locating the stations and specifying functions is stressed. Among the basic design considerations are the location and type of the central station, the number and locations of the remote stations, the type of data output, the amount of data to be stored, and the operating costs.

  6. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  7. Planning, Management, and Economics of Airport Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the role of the airport in the transportation complex and in the community is presented. The establishment of the airport including its requirements in regional planning and the operation of the airport as a social and economic force are discussed.

  8. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C....

  9. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  10. English for Airport Ground Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  11. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  12. WindFloat Feasibility Study Support. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-419

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, Senu

    2015-05-07

    This shared resource CRADA defines research collaborations between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Principle Power, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“Principle Power”). Under the terms and conditions described in this CRADA agreement, NREL and Principle Power will collaborate on the DEMOWFLOAT project, a full-scale 2-MW demonstration project of a novel floating support structure for large offshore wind turbines, called WindFloat. The purpose of the project is to demonstrate the longterm field performance of the WindFloat design, thus enabling the future commercialized deployment of floating deepwater offshore wind power plants. NREL is the leading U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory for the development and advancement of renewable energy and has a strong interest in offshore wind and the development of deepwater offshore wind systems. NREL will provide expertise and resources to the DEMOWFLOAT project in assessing the environmental impacts, independent technical performance validation, and engineering analysis. Principle Power is a Seattle, Washington-based renewable energy company that owns all the intellectual property associated with the WindFloat. In return for NREL’s support of the DEMOWFLOAT project, Principle Power will provide NREL with valuable test data from the project that will be used to validate the numerical tools developed by NREL for analyzing offshore wind turbines. In addition, NREL will gain experience and knowledge in offshore wind designs and testing methods through this collaboration. 2 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. NREL and Principle Power will work together to advance floating offshore wind technology, and demonstrate its viability for supplying the world with a new clean energy source.

  13. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  14. 19 CFR 122.153 - Limitations on airport of entry or departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Airport. Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. Chicago... International Airport. Houston, Texas George Bush Intercontinental Airport. Jamaica, New York John F....

  15. 19 CFR 122.153 - Limitations on airport of entry or departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Airport. Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. Chicago... International Airport. Houston, Texas George Bush Intercontinental Airport. Jamaica, New York John F....

  16. Tailored fog climatology for Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leander, R.

    2010-07-01

    Like many airports, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is vulnerable to climate change. The airport is situated in a complex and fragile urban area where fundamental changes take place in design and use of the region. To maintain its competitive position, the airport is beginning to respond to changes in weather and climate by formulating adaptation strategies, based on tailored climate information. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS) and Air Trafic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) are working together to provide just that type of information. Due to safety regulations, reduced horizontal visibility on airports can have an immediate impact on the availability of runways and hence the airport capacity. Fog is therefore one of the most relevant meteorological phenomena to airport operations. A study has started in which the statistics of fog occurrence and visibility at Amsterdam Airport are assessed. The aim is describing the current climate (from 1970 onward) as well as making projections into the future (up to 2040). For the latter, the identification and attribution of trends is relevant. Another point of interrest is the spatial pattern of fog potential over the airport, in particular the related questions whether some runways are more prone to fog occurrence than others and whether these runways require a separate forecast. To answer these questions it is crucial to distinguish between large-scale and local influences. The preliminary results of this study are presented here.

  17. LH2 airport requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  18. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152....109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master planning is not approved unless— (1) The location of the existing or proposed airport is...

  19. Teaching at Logan International Airport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Although Terminal C at Logan airport does not look like a classroom, for about fifty minutes on this author's way back from Boston it was for him. Like many public spaces, Logan now has a very robust Wi-Fi wireless network and this enabled him to take advantage of a departure delay to "teach" his class. In 1970 when the author started teaching,…

  20. Freely floating smectic films.

    PubMed

    May, Kathrin; Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf

    2014-05-19

    We have investigated the dynamics of freely floating smectic bubbles using high-speed optical imaging. Bubbles in the size range from a few hundred micrometers to several centimeters were prepared from collapsing catenoids. They represent ideal model systems for the study of thin-film fluid dynamics under well-controlled conditions. Owing to the internal smectic layer structure, the bubbles combine features of both soap films and vesicles in their unique shape dynamics. From a strongly elongated initial shape after pinch-off, they relax towards the spherical equilibrium, first by a slow redistribution of the smectic layers, and finally by weak, damped shape oscillations. In addition, we describe the rupture of freely floating smectic bubbles, and the formation and stability of smectic filaments. PMID:24692347

  1. Deep water riser system for offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, H.L.

    1984-05-15

    A buoyant riser system for use in a deep water offshore drilling environment is anchored by a system of compliant guys below the active weather zone of the sea. A controllably buoyant housing of the system is submerged at a depth that is readily accessible to divers and includes a blow-out preventer (BOP) from which a suspended sub-riser leads to a well bore to which the sub-riser is coupled. Above the housing, a riser suspended from a floating drill rig is coupled to the BOP thereby communicating the drill rig directly with the well bore for drilling and well completion operations.

  2. Airport noise complaint patterns and interviews of frequent complainers at two major air carrier airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggers, Nicholas; Eiff, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The complex and highly sensitive topic of aircraft noise and population annoyance continues to be a major inhibitor to airport development plans. The projected growth of air travel necessitates expanded capacity at many existing airports and the development and construction of new airports in order to accommodate burgeoning traveler needs. Concerns by citizens near major airports about their economic, health, and social welfare continue to generate community and individual declarations of annoyance and concern which threaten timely solutions to airport expansion plans. A deeper understanding of the nature of these concerns is important to more effectively cope with airport expansion concerns among adjacent communities and surrounding neighbors. This study analyzed existing noise complaints registered at Denver International Airport (DEN) and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport (FLL) in an attempt to gain greater understanding of noise complaint drivers and public annoyance. Interviews of frequent complainers were utilized in order to gain richer data concerning individual annoyance issues.

  3. 78 FR 22024 - Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL), Oakley, Kansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...), Oakley, Kansas, under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47107(h)(2). DATES: Comments must be received on or... 2.5 acres of airport property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL) under the provisions of 49...

  4. Offshore hydraulics: tough, reliable, and failsafe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoock, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Offshore Comet is a modern offshore drilling rig with a hydraulic-cylinder-actuated jacking (raising and lowering) system. Hydraulic-cylinder jacking provides a safe and efficient method for placing the rig at the desired height above the water and insuring that it can withstand the expected heavy loads imposed by machinery, supplies, and the ocean environment. The drilling rig consists of a steel-hulled barge that is floated to the site and then supported during drilling operations by four steel triangular-cross-section lattice legs. The legs are planted firmly on the ocean bottom by a procedure called preloading. Each leg with its integral footing weighs 657 tons. The barge with its deck load can weigh up to 9200 tons.

  5. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-12-31

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program.

  6. 76 FR 31823 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport, Dallas, TX AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... revising the list of user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Dallas Love... of user fee status for Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport. This document updates the list of...

  7. Airport electrotechnology resource guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Geba, V.; Nesbit, M.

    1998-06-01

    Electrotechnologies offer utilities a cutting edge marketing tool to work with airport customers to increase passenger comfort, and achieve environmental and economic goals. At the same time, utility objectives such as customer retention, and revenue and sales goals can be enhanced. This guide provides electric utility marketing staff with the necessary information to market electrotechnologies in airport applications. The airport industry is profiled and an overview of airport building, infrastructure technologies and electric vehicles is provided. In addition, the guide offers market strategies for customer targeting, market research, market plan development and development of trade ally partnerships.

  8. Components of the airport access system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The organizations and agencies which make up or influence the airport access system are examined. These include the airport, the airline industry, the public and private transit agencies which provide ground access to the airport, and the regulatory agencies which affect all of these organizations and their actions. Each component, with the exception of the regulatory agencies is described in terms of its legal status, its sources of funds, and the nature of its relationship with the other components. Conclusions regarding the system components' effects on airport access and recommendations for changes which appear practical are presented.

  9. FAA Airport Design Competition for Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Raise awareness of the importance of airports to the National Airspace System infrastructure. Increase the involvement of the academic community in addressing airport operations and infrastructure issues and needs. Engage U.S. students in the conceptualization of applications, systems and equipment capable of addressing related challenges in a robust, reliable and comprehensive manner. Encourage U.S. undergraduate and graduate students to contribute innovative ideas and solutions to airport and runway safety issues. Provide the framework and incentives for quality educational experiences for university students. d Develop an awareness of and an interest in airports as a vital and interesting area for engineering and technology careers.

  10. 76 FR 54287 - Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ..., and the FAA Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822... Manager, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822-5024. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports...

  11. 61 FR 25729 - Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-22

    ... Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece Summary The Secretary of Transportation has now determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, maintains and carries out... that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did not maintain and carry out...

  12. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... real property for airport purposes pursuant to Section 16 of the Federal Airport Act (60 Stat. 179)...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport..., and may be subject to civil penalties for failing to protect sensitive security information....

  14. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport..., and may be subject to civil penalties for failing to protect sensitive security information....

  15. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport..., and may be subject to civil penalties for failing to protect sensitive security information....

  16. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport..., and may be subject to civil penalties for failing to protect sensitive security information....

  17. Does size and buoyancy affect the long-distance transport of floating debris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Peter G.

    2015-08-01

    Floating persistent debris, primarily made from plastic, disperses long distances from source areas and accumulates in oceanic gyres. However, biofouling can increase the density of debris items to the point where they sink. Buoyancy is related to item volume, whereas fouling is related to surface area, so small items (which have high surface area to volume ratios) should start to sink sooner than large items. Empirical observations off South Africa support this prediction: moving offshore from coastal source areas there is an increase in the size of floating debris, an increase in the proportion of highly buoyant items (e.g. sealed bottles, floats and foamed plastics), and a decrease in the proportion of thin items such as plastic bags and flexible packaging which have high surface area to volume ratios. Size-specific sedimentation rates may be one reason for the apparent paucity of small plastic items floating in the world’s oceans.

  18. The Floating Ball Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wente, Henry C.

    2008-11-01

    In capillary theory there are two kinds of surface tension. There is the surface tension at the interface between two immiscible fluids. Thomas Young [9] also allowed for there to be a surface tension associated with a liquid-solid interface. He proceeded to use a balance of forces argument to derive the well-known contact angle condition along a liquid-liquid-solid intersection. The validity of this argument has recently been called into question by R. Finn [6]. A floating ball experiment discussed in that paper leads to an apparent paradox. We address this issue.

  19. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Program (62 FR 48693). A request for participation in the Pilot Program must be initiated by the filing of... Mu oz Mar n International Airport (SJU), San Juan, Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... December 1, 2009. The Puerto Rico Ports Authority, the airport sponsor, may select a private...

  20. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new MSWLF units, existing MSWLF units,...

  1. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of...

  2. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of new MSWLF units, existing MSWLF units,...

  3. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An applicant for a pilot...

  4. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An applicant for a pilot...

  5. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An applicant for a pilot...

  6. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of...

  7. 40 CFR 258.10 - Airport safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Airport safety. 258.10 Section 258.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.10 Airport safety. (a) Owners or operators of...

  8. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  9. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An applicant for a pilot...

  10. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135.229 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder...

  11. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135.229 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder...

  12. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135.229 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder...

  13. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135.229 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder...

  14. 14 CFR 135.229 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport requirements. 135.229 Section 135.229 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.229 Airport requirements. (a) No certificate holder...

  15. Career Unit. Careers at an Airport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Billie

    This career exploration instructional unit on airport careers is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). This unit is designed to help students become aware of the different types of jobs connected with running an airport (e.g., ticket agent, pilot, skycap, traffic…

  16. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  17. World-wide precision airports for SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Lugsch, Bill; Launer, Marc; Baca, Diana

    2004-08-01

    Future cockpit and aviation applications require high quality airport databases. Accuracy, resolution, integrity, completeness, traceability, and timeliness [1] are key requirements. For most aviation applications, attributed vector databases are needed. The geometry is based on points, lines, and closed polygons. To document the needs for aviation industry RTCA and EUROCAE developed in a joint committee, the DO-272/ED-99 document. It states industry needs for data features, attributes, coding, and capture rules for Airport Mapping Databases (AMDB). This paper describes the technical approach Jeppesen has taken to generate a world-wide set of three-hundred AMDB airports. All AMDB airports are DO-200A/ED-76 [1] and DO-272/ED-99 [2] compliant. Jeppesen airports have a 5m (CE90) accuracy and an 10-3 integrity. World-wide all AMDB data is delivered in WGS84 coordinates. Jeppesen continually updates the databases.

  18. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  19. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is comprised of a system of computer programs which is capable of quantifying airport community noise impact in terms of noise level, population distribution, and human subjective response to noise. The ALAMO can be used to compare the noise impact of an airport's current operating scenario with the noise impact which would result from some proposed change in airport operations. The relative effectiveness of number of noise-impact reduction alternatives is assessed for a major midwest airport. Significant reductions in noise impact are predicted for certain noise abatement strategies while others are shown to result in relatively little noise relief.

  20. Airport cleanup rises above problems

    SciTech Connect

    Pressly, N.; Lucas, B.; Frumer, B.; Roth, R.

    1996-07-01

    Engineers used a treatment combination to improve the in-situ bioremediation system`s efficiency in removing underground fuel leaks at JFK Airport. John F. Kennedy International Airport, in New York City, on Jamaica Bay, has an above-ground storage capacity of about 32 million gallons of jet fuel, which flow through about 50 miles of high-pressure underground pipe to the central terminal area. EAch terminal`s fuel hydrant system was the major source os subsurface contamination at the site. The site is covered by 1 to 1.5 feet of reinforced concrete pavement. Liquid phase jet fuel (free product) was measured on the water table with true thickness ranging from less than 1 inch to 1 foot. After analysis of core samples, contamination was found adsorbed to the soil with maximum levels at the water table. This article describes the clean up, covering the following topics: microbial conditions during system operation; above-ground treatment challenges: free product emulsification, presence of biomass; evaluation of enhancements: dissolved air floatation, coagulation and flocculation, retention time adjustments; conclusions.

  1. Does It Sink or Float?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith Richards

    2012-01-01

    This activity is designed to teach prekindergarten to second grade students about the concept of sink or float through an inquiry activity. Students will use familiar objects to predict and test the properties of sink and float. Background information is offered to teachers to assist them with this activity. This lesson begins with an engaging…

  2. Tracing floating green algae blooms in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea using Lagrangian transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Son, Young Baek; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Lagrangian particle tracking experiments were conducted to understand the pathway of the floating green algae patches observed in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) in summer 2011. The numerical simulation results indicated that dominant southerly winds during June and July 2011 were related to offshore movement of the floating green algae, especially their eastward extension in the YS/ECS. An infrequent and unusual event occurred in June 2011: a severe Tropical Strom MEARI, caused the green algae to detach from the coast and initiated movement to the east. After the typhoon event, sea surface temperature recovered rapidly enough to grow the floating green algae, and wind and local current controlled the movement of the massive floating algae patches (coastal accumulation or offshore advection in the area). Analysis of the floating green algae movement using satellite images during passage of Typhoon MAON in July 2011 revealed that the floating green algae patches were significantly controlled by both ocean currents and enhanced winds. These findings suggest that the floating green algae bloom off Qingdao, China and in the middle of the YS and ECS in the summer of 2011 occurred due to the combined effects of recent rapid expansion of seaweed aquaculture, strong winds, and the wind patterns in blooming regions. Our combined approach, using satellite data and numerical simulations, provides a robust estimate for tracing and monitoring changes in green algae blooms on a regional scale.

  3. Seasat and floating ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Data collected by SEASAT would be useful in developing predictive physical models for the drift and deformation of sea ice, for estimating the heat budget of the polar seas, for the optimum routing of shipping through pack ice areas, for the design of both offshore structures and shipping capable of surviving in heavy pack ice, and for the tracking of large icebergs and ice islands. The instrument package for SEASAT-A is particularly useful for studying sea ice in that the Coherent Imaging Radar (CIR), the Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Compressed Pulse Radar Altimeter (CPRA) are not limited by the presence of clouds.

  4. Floating mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, D.E.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a floating mirror mount for a mirror of a laser is described consisting of: a mirror having a front surface and a back surface, a keeper encircling the mirror and having a peripheral flange engaging the front surface of the mirror when the mirror is not installed in a laser, a retainer positioned rearwardly of the back surface of the mirror and connected to the keeper and having a spring seating surface, spring means engageable with the spring seating surface of the retainer for exerting a resilient biasing force on the mirror, and fastening means for connecting the retainer to the mirror positioning structure of the laser on installation of the mirror mount in the laser.

  5. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  6. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regional Airport (EAR), Kearney, Nebraska. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on... request to release approximately 67.72 acres of airport property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR... property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR) submitted by the Sponsor meets the procedural...

  7. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  8. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  9. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  10. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  11. 14 CFR 139.325 - Airport emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water or marsh lands adjacent to the airport that are crossed by the approach and departure flight paths... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airport emergency plan. 139.325 Section 139... AIRPORTS Operations § 139.325 Airport emergency plan. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator,...

  12. 14 CFR 139.325 - Airport emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water or marsh lands adjacent to the airport that are crossed by the approach and departure flight paths... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airport emergency plan. 139.325 Section 139... AIRPORTS Operations § 139.325 Airport emergency plan. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator,...

  13. 14 CFR 139.325 - Airport emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... water or marsh lands adjacent to the airport that are crossed by the approach and departure flight paths... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airport emergency plan. 139.325 Section 139... AIRPORTS Operations § 139.325 Airport emergency plan. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator,...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.113 - Airport tenant security programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport tenant security programs. 1542.113 Section 1542.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Airport Security Program § 1542.113 Airport...

  15. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development....107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage development, each project for airport development must provide for— (1) Development of an airport or unit of...

  16. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development....107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage development, each project for airport development must provide for— (1) Development of an airport or unit of...

  17. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  18. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  19. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  20. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  1. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  2. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  3. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  4. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  5. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  6. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  7. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  8. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  9. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  10. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  11. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  12. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  13. 78 FR 9770 - Notice of Request to Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... at the Colonel James Jabara Airport (AAO), Wichita, KS. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at the Colonel James Jabara Airport (AAO), Wichita, Kansas, under... D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division,...

  14. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  15. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  16. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  17. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  18. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  19. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  20. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  1. 14 CFR 121.625 - Alternate Airport weather minima.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate Airport weather minima. 121.625... Alternate Airport weather minima. Except as provided in § 121.624 for ETOPS Alternate Airports, no person may list an airport as an alternate in the dispatch or flight release unless the appropriate...

  2. 14 CFR 125.369 - Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate airport weather minimums. 125.369... § 125.369 Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in the flight release unless the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination...

  3. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325 Financial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... agency conducting a project for airport system planning shall submit a financial status report on a...

  4. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development....107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage development, each project for airport development must provide for— (1) Development of an airport or unit of...

  5. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development....107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage development, each project for airport development must provide for— (1) Development of an airport or unit of...

  6. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport development....107 Project eligibility: Airport development. (a) Except in the case of approved stage development, each project for airport development must provide for— (1) Development of an airport or unit of...

  7. 14 CFR 139.325 - Airport emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport emergency plan. 139.325 Section 139... AIRPORTS Operations § 139.325 Airport emergency plan. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder must develop and maintain an airport emergency plan designed to minimize the...

  8. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  9. Building and Calibration of a FAST Model of the SWAY Prototype Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.; Ng, E. Y. K.

    2013-09-01

    Present efforts to verify and validate aero-hydro-servo-elastic numerical simulation tools that predict the dynamic response of a floating offshore wind turbine are primarily limited to code-to-code comparisons or code-to-data comparisons using data from wind-wave basin tests. In partnership with SWAY AS, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed scientific wind, wave, and motion measurement equipment on the 1/6.5th-scale prototype SWAY floating wind system to collect data to validate a FAST model of the SWAY design in an open-water condition. Nanyang Technological University (NTU), through a collaboration with NREL, assisted in this validation.

  10. On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, FuPing; Li, JinHui; Qi, WenGang; Hu, Cun

    2015-12-01

    As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

  11. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  12. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  13. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  14. 75 FR 9017 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... CFR Sec. 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 74 FR 51653... Airport, LaGuardia Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan National... Density Rule and orders limiting scheduled operations at the airports, slots must be used at least...

  15. Spatial distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, S; Ajisaka, T; Lahbib, S; Kokubu, Y; Alabsi, M N; Komatsu, T

    2014-01-01

    Floating seaweeds play an important role as a habitat for many animals accompanying or attaching to them in offshore waters. It was in 2000 that the first report described abundant distributions of floating seaweeds in offshore waters in the East China Sea in spring. Young individuals of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata are captured for aquaculture purposes from floating seaweeds in the East China Sea. Therefore, a sound understanding of the distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea is needed. Detailed information is especially important during the late winter to early spring, which corresponds to the juvenile period of the yellowtail. Thus, field surveys using R/V Tansei-Maru were conducted in the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring in 2010 and 2011. We obtained positions of the vessel by GPS and transversal distances from the vessel to a raft by visual observation. Distance sampling method (Thomas et al. 2010) was applied to estimation of floating seaweed densities (rafts km(-2)). Seaweed rafts were also randomly sampled using nets during the research cruises. In the East China Sea, seaweed rafts were distributed mainly on the continental shelf west of the Kuroshio, especially in waters between 26° N and 30° N. Collected rafts consisted of only one species, Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh. Taking into account surface currents and geographical distribution of S. horneri, it is estimated that these floating seaweeds originated from natural beds along the coast between mid and south China. Considering the approximate travel times, it is suggested that floating patches are colonized by yellowtails early on during their trips, i.e., close to the Chinese coast. PMID:24771973

  16. Ipsilateral Floating Hip and Floating Knee - A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Yashavantha Kumar, C; Nalini, K B; Nagaraj, Prashanth; Jawali, Abhijith

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ipsilateral floating hip and floating knee are very rare injuries. These injuries so uncommon that only three cases of similar kind have been reported. These injuries are due to high velocity injuries following motor vehicle accidents. Management of such complex injuries is a challenging task even in experienced hands as there are no standard treatment guidelines for such fractures. Case Report: We hereby report a 20 yr old male who sustained ipsilateral floating hip and ipsilateral floating knee injuries following motor vehicle accident. Patient was stabilized initially and later taken up for surgery. Patient was treated with interlocking nail for femur and tibia in the same sitting whereas acetabulam fracture was managed conservatively. At five months all the fractures united well with restoration of good range of motion in both hip and knee Conclusion: Ipsilateral floating knee and floating hip are very rare injuries seen following high velocity motor vehicle accidents. There are no standard guidelines for treatment of those fractures as only a few cases of similar kind have been reported in literature. Early fixation and aggressive mobilization ensures fracture union and fewer complications. PMID:27298908

  17. 14 CFR 125.49 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) No pilot of an airplane carrying passengers at night may take off from, or land on, an airport unless...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000...

  18. 14 CFR 125.49 - Airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) No pilot of an airplane carrying passengers at night may take off from, or land on, an airport unless...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000...

  19. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR 48693... public review at http://www.regulations.gov . The docket number is FAA Docket Number 2010-1052....

  20. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  1. Pilot preference and procedures at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of a pilot questionnaire utilized at the 1974 Reading, Pennsylvania Air Show to obtain data on pilot procedures and preference in the terminal airspace of uncontrolled airports.

  2. Floating orbital molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Perlt, Eva; Brüssel, Marc; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-04-21

    We introduce an alternative ab initio molecular dynamics simulation as a unification of Hartree-Fock molecular dynamics and the floating orbital approach. The general scheme of the floating orbital molecular dynamics method is presented. Moreover, a simple but sophisticated guess for the orbital centers is provided to reduce the number of electronic structure optimization steps at each molecular dynamics step. The conservation of total energy and angular momentum is investigated in order to validate the floating orbital molecular dynamics approach with and without application of the initial guess. Finally, a water monomer and a water dimer are simulated, and the influence of the orbital floating on certain properties like the dipole moment is investigated. PMID:24600690

  3. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    PubMed

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation. PMID:25879069

  4. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation. PMID:25879069

  5. 76 FR 21420 - Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Policy Regarding Airport Rates and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...This notice requests comments on a petition to accept an air service incentive program at McCarran International Airport (Airport) as consistent with Federal law and policies on the use of airport revenue and on airport rates and charges. The petitioner Clark County Department of Aviation is the owner and operator of the Airport. The petitioner is the recipient of Federal grants under the......

  6. Proceedings of the ninth international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K. ); Maeda, H. ); Aage, C. ); Nielsen, F.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The Offshore Technology Symposium covers the following subjects: ocean waves, hydrodynamic forces, nonlinear hydrodynamics, fluid structure interaction, motions of floating structures, compliant structures, risers/moorings/cables, structural mechanics/analysis, design methods of structures, prototype structures, and computer technology/expert systems. The session on ocean waves includes numerical simulation, irregular and hurricane waves, laboratory data on nonlinear wave groups, and measurement techniques, as well as offshore field data. There are numerous papers on hydrodynamics and nonlinear hydrodynamics. They include analytical, numerical, and experimental research on fixed and moving offshore structures. The sessions of the fluid structure interaction and motions of floating structures mainly deal with the dynamics of floating offshore structures. These papers are followed by compliant structures and risers and mooring lines. There is one session on structural mechanics dealing with structural member loading effect and structure/soil interaction problems. Design methods of different offshore structures including jackets, concrete platforms, and articulated and guyed towers have been included. Also, several prototype structures have been discussed here. Finally, the session on computer technology includes such topics as automation, computer modeling, and expert systems.

  7. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  8. Skylab floating ice experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Ramseier, R. O.; Weaver, R. J.; Weeks, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.

  9. Impact on floating membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Duchemin, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    When impacted by a rigid body, a thin elastic membrane with negligible bending rigidity floating on a liquid pool deforms. Two axisymmetric waves radiating from the impact point propagate. First, a longitudinal wave front, associated with in-plane deformation of the membrane and traveling at constant speed, separates an outward stress-free domain from a stretched domain. Then, in the stretched domain a dispersive transverse wave travels at a speed that depends on the local stretching rate. The dynamics is found to be self-similar in time. Using this property, we show that the wave dynamics is similar to the capillary waves that propagate at a liquid-gas interface but with a surface tension coefficient that depends on impact speed. During wave propagation, we observe the development of a buckling instability that gives rise to radial wrinkles. We address the dynamics of this fluid-body system, including the rapid deceleration of an impactor of finite mass, an issue that may have applications in the domain of absorption of impact energy.

  10. Floating into Thin Air

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    On May 18, 2005, a giant helium balloon carrying the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) sailed into the spring sky over the deserts of New Mexico. The spindly steel and aluminum gondola that houses the optics, detectors, and other components of the telescope floated for 25 hours after its launch from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. For 21 of those hours, the balloon was nearly 40 kilometers above Earth's surface--almost four times higher than the altitude routinely flown by commercial jet aircraft. In the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere, HEFT searched the universe for x-ray sources from highly energetic objects such as binary stars, galaxy clusters, and supermassive black holes. Before landing in Arizona, the telescope observed and imaged a dozen scientific targets by capturing photons emitted from these objects in the high-energy (hard) x-ray range (above 10 kiloelectronvolts). Among these targets were the Crab synchrotron nebula, the black hole Cygnus X-1 (one of the brightest x-ray sources in the sky), and the blazar 3C454.3. The scientific data gathered from these targets are among the first focused hard x-ray images returned from high altitudes.

  11. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming

  12. Floating junk bonnet protects liner top from debris

    SciTech Connect

    Telfer, G. ); Sweeney, D. )

    1994-09-12

    A new design of debris protection system, the floating junk bonnet, for liner tops prevents well debris from entering the liner top polished bore receptacle (PBR) and sticking the setting tools. The floating junk bonnet improves the recovery of liner setting tools from the well no matter how severe the debris problem is. Well debris (formation cuttings, fines, mud solids, cement solids, foreign bodies, etc) entering the linear top PBR during cementing operations has been a serious problem for many operators. In some cases, this problem has led to liner hanger setting tools sticking in the liner top PBR. The setting tool could then become cemented in place, resulting in an expensive fishing job or sidetrack. A prototype debris protection system was developed and tested prior to offshore application. The liner protection tool was subsequently successfully used on Nelson project development wells in the U.K. North Sea. The paper discusses debris accumulation, the junket basket, the floating junk bonnet design, test procedures, and field test results.

  13. Verification of New Floating Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, F.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the latest release of NREL's wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation software, FAST v8, several new capabilities and major changes were introduced. FAST has been significantly altered to improve the simulator's modularity and to include new functionalities in the form of modules in the FAST v8 framework. This paper is focused on the improvements made for the modeling of floating offshore wind systems. The most significant change was to the hydrodynamic load calculation algorithms, which are embedded in the HydroDyn module. HydroDyn is now capable of applying strip-theory (via an extension of Morison's equation) at the member level for user-defined geometries. Users may now use a strip-theory-only approach for applying the hydrodynamic loads, as well as the previous potential-flow (radiation/diffraction) approach and a hybrid combination of both methods (radiation/diffraction and the drag component of Morison's equation). Second-order hydrodynamic implementations in both the wave kinematics used by the strip-theory solution and the wave-excitation loads in the potential-flow solution were also added to HydroDyn. The new floating capabilities were verified through a direct code-to-code comparison. We conducted a series of simulations of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) floating semisubmersible model and compared the wind turbine response predicted by FAST v8, the corresponding FAST v7 results, and results from other participants in the OC4 project. We found good agreement between FAST v7 and FAST v8 when using the linear radiation/diffraction modeling approach. The strip-theory-based approach inherently differs from the radiation/diffraction approach used in FAST v7 and we identified and characterized the differences. Enabling the second-order effects significantly improved the agreement between FAST v8 and the other OC4 participants.

  14. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  15. Multilateral installation from a floating rig

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Troll Olje gas province is approximately 100 km northwest of Bergen, Norway, in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea at a water depth of approximately 315 to 340 m. Troll Olje is part of the Troll gas field, where Norsk Hydro is responsible for developing two areas with thin oil rims. Before spudding the multilateral well described in this paper, 17 wells had been drilled and completed in the Troll Olje oil province. The multilateral-well concept was introduced in the gas province primarily to increase the drainage area for each well. When producing from two separate laterals, a lower drawdown pressure exists throughout the horizontal section. Therefore, gas coning is less likely to occur, and higher production rates can be sustained for a longer period of time. In addition, cost savings are substantial because of reduced well-construction time for each horizontal reservoir-drainage section and because of the reduced number of completion strings, subsea wellheads, and pipelines required for total field development. The full-length paper details design, development, testing, and installation of the first successful multilateral well installed from a floating rig offshore Norway. The paper gives a synopsis.

  16. 78 FR 42419 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...This action adopts a Policy Statement, based on Federal law, concerning through-the-fence access to a federally-obligated airport from an adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a residence. This Policy Statement replaces FAA's previously published Interim Policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) with regard to commercial service airports, and establishes how FAA will implement......

  17. Prehospital care at a major international airport.

    PubMed

    Cwinn, A A; Dinerman, N; Pons, P T; Marlin, R

    1988-10-01

    Medical emergencies at a major metropolitan airport have a significant impact on prehospital care capabilities for the rest of the community in which the airport is located. Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado, is a facility that in 1985 had 14.4 million passengers and a static employee population of 12,000 to 15,000. In 1981, there were 1,182 ambulance trips to the airport, 40.4% of which did not result in the transport of a patient. The expense of sending an ambulance and fire engine out on such calls was great, and paramedics were out of service for approximately 300 hours on these nontransport cases. In order to improve prehospital services to the airport and the city, a paramedic has been stationed in the concourse at the airport 16 hours a day since 1982. The records for airport paramedic services for the 12 months ending September 1985 were reviewed. Paramedic services were requested for 1,952 patients. Of these, 696 (35.7%) were transported to hospital by ambulance; 115 (5.9%) went by private car; 284 (14.6%) refused any paramedic care or transport; and 857 (43.9%) were released, after base station contact, with instructions to seek definitive care at the final destination. Presenting complaints were classified into 55 categories and the frequencies and dispositions are described. The most common presentations resulting in transport were chest pain, 110 (5.6%); syncope, 60 (3.1%); psychiatric, 57 (2.9%); abdominal pain, 49 (2.5%); seizure, 36 (1.8%); fracture, 31 (1.6%); and cardiac arrest, 29 (1.5%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3177992

  18. Comparison of Second-Order Loads on a Semisubmersible Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gueydon, S.; Duarte, T.; Jonkman, J.; Bayati, I.; Sarmento, A.

    2014-03-01

    As offshore wind projects move to deeper waters, floating platforms become the most feasible solution for supporting the turbines. The oil and gas industry has gained experience with floating platforms that can be applied to offshore wind projects. This paper focuses on the analysis of second-order wave loading on semisubmersible platforms. Semisubmersibles, which are being chosen for different floating offshore wind concepts, are particularly prone to slow-drift motions. The slack catenary moorings usually result in large natural periods for surge and sway motions (more than 100 s), which are in the range of the second-order difference-frequency excitation force. Modeling these complex structures requires coupled design codes. Codes have been developed that include turbine aerodynamics, hydrodynamic forces on the platform, restoring forces from the mooring lines, flexibility of the turbine, and the influence of the turbine control system. In this paper two different codes are employed: FAST, which was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and aNySIM, which was developed by the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands. The hydrodynamic loads are based on potential-flow theory, up to the second order. Hydrodynamic coefficients for wave excitation, radiation, and hydrostatic forces are obtained with two different panel codes, WAMIT (developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and DIFFRAC (developed by MARIN). The semisubmersible platform, developed for the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation project is used as a reference platform. Irregular waves are used to compare the behavior of this platform under slow-drift excitation loads. The results from this paper highlight the effects of these loads on semisubmersible-type platforms, which represent a promising solution for the commercial development of the offshore deepwater wind resource.

  19. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  20. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Baltimore Washington International Airport) Boston, MA (General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport) Chantilly, VA (Washington Dulles International Airport) Charlotte, NC (Charlotte/Douglas International...) Honolulu, HI (Honolulu International Airport) Houston, TX (George Bush Intercontinental...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 91 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Baltimore Washington International Airport) Boston, MA (General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport) Chantilly, VA (Washington Dulles International Airport) Charlotte, NC (Charlotte/Douglas International...) Honolulu, HI (Honolulu International Airport) Houston, TX (George Bush Intercontinental...

  2. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. ICAO's anti-SARS airport activities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Silvio; Curdt-Christiansen, Claus M

    2003-11-01

    To prevent SARS from spreading through air travel and in order to rebuild the confidence of the traveling public in the safety of air travel, ICAO has set up an "Anti-SARS Airport Evaluation Project." The first phase of this project was to develop a set of protective measures for international airports in affected areas to adopt and implement and then to send out, on the request of Contracting States, a team of inspectors to evaluate and assess airports and issue a "statement of evaluation" that the airport inspected complies with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. In cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the first part of phase 1 was completed in early June this year, and the second part of phase 1 followed soon after. By mid-July, five international airports in Southeast Asia had been inspected and found to be in full compliance with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. The success of this ICAO project is believed to have contributed significantly to the recovery of international air travel and related industries now taking place. Phase 2 of the project is now being developed. It is aimed at preventing a resurgence of SARS, but it also contains elements to make the methodology developed applicable to future outbreaks of any other communicable disease in which the mode of transmission could involve aviation and/or the need to prevent the spread of the disease by air travel. PMID:14620481

  4. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Williams

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  5. Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest - Denver International Airport Site, Between Fifty-sixth & 128th Avenues, Buckley Road & Box Elder Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  6. 77 FR 28667 - Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Plattsburgh International Airport AGENCY: Federal... Secretary may waive a Sponsor's Federal obligation to use certain airport land for aeronautical use....

  7. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  8. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 122.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... Airport. Orlando, Florida Orlando Executive Airport. Palm Springs, California Palm Springs...

  9. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 122.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... Airport. Orlando, Florida Orlando Executive Airport. Palm Springs, California Palm Springs...

  10. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 122.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... Municipal Airport. Orlando, Florida Orlando Executive Airport. Palm Springs, California Palm...

  11. Role of helicopters in airport access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Snyder, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the role of helicopter systems in the provision of airport access services and evaluates the potential for the future development of such services in major metropolitan areas in the United States. The evaluation is based on a computer simulation of potential helicopter system proposed for 20 metropolitan areas. The simulation provides two indicators that are used to gage the extent of the feasibility of developing successful systems in these areas: (1) the cost per seat mile, and (2) the break-even number of passengers, expressed as a percentage of total air travelers. It is found that a few metropolitan areas presently have the potential of marginally supporting intra-urban helicopter airport access service. The access systems offer a viable alternative for air passengers placing a high value on their time, and provides the opportunity for better integrating the air transportation service of multiple airports in a given urban region.

  12. TRIZ Tool for Optimization of Airport Runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Selladurai, V.; Saravanan, R.

    TRIZ tool is used for conceptual design and layout of the novel ascending and descending runway model for the effective utilization of short length airports. Handling bigger aircrafts at smaller airports become the necessity for economic consideration and for the benefit of vast airliners and the aspiring air travelers of the region. The authors’ proposal of ascending and descending runway would enable the operational need of wide body aircrafts such as Boeing 747 and Airbus A380-800. Negotiating take-off and landing of bigger aircrafts at less than 10000 feet runway is an optimization solution. This conceptual model and the theoretical design with its layout is dealt in this paper as Part - I. The computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB with Simulink tool box to confirm the adequacy of the runway length for the bigger aircrafts at smaller airports is however dealt in subsequent papers.

  13. Structural evolution of the Brazilian airport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Luis E. C.

    2009-04-01

    The aviation sector is profitable, but sensitive to economic fluctuations, geopolitical constraints and governmental regulations. As for other means of transportation, the relation between origin and destination results in a complex map of routes, which can be complemented with information associated with the routes themselves, for instance, frequency, traffic load and distance. The theory of networks provides a natural framework for investigating the dynamics on the resulting structure. Here, we investigate the structure and evolution of the Brazilian airport network (BAN) as regards several quantities: routes, connections, passengers and cargo. Some structural features are in accordance with previous results for other airport networks. The analysis of the evolution of the BAN shows that its structure is dynamic, with changes in the relative relevance of some airports and routes. The results indicate that the connections converge to specific routes. The network shrinks at the route level but grows in number of passengers and amount of cargo, which more than doubled during the period studied.

  14. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  15. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  16. The noise impact of proposed runway alternatives at Craig Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1982-01-01

    Four proposed runway expansion alternatives at Craig Airport in Jacksonville, Florida have been assessed with respect to their forecasted noise impact in the year 2005. The assessment accounts for population distributions around the airport and human subjective response to noise, as well as the distribution of noise levels in the surrounding community (footprints). The impact analysis was performed using the Airport-noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO), an airport community response model recently developd at Langley Research Center.

  17. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  18. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  19. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  20. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  1. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  2. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of the two concepts

  3. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  4. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  5. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  6. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  7. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  8. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  9. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... provide a system of public airports adequate to anticipate and meet the needs of civil aeronautics. (b)...

  10. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... provide a system of public airports adequate to anticipate and meet the needs of civil aeronautics. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... provide a system of public airports adequate to anticipate and meet the needs of civil aeronautics. (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... provide a system of public airports adequate to anticipate and meet the needs of civil aeronautics. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... provide a system of public airports adequate to anticipate and meet the needs of civil aeronautics. (b)...

  14. 76 FR 78967 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent To Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Liberal Mid-America Regional Airport & Airport Industrial Park Liberal, KS. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at the Liberal Mid-America Regional...

  15. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... systems operated by public airport operators, which provide designated public transportation and connect.... Public airports which operate fixed route transportation systems are subject to the requirements of this... part. (b) Fixed-route transportation systems operated by public airport operators between the...

  16. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  17. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  18. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  19. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  20. 14 CFR 137.45 - Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.45 Nonobservance of airport traffic pattern. Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, the pilot in command of an aircraft may deviate from an airport...

  1. Airports, Hotel, and Ground Transportation Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Airports in and near Washington, DC Reagan National Approximate 30 minute drive from Rockville* Has its own Metro stop on the blue and yellow lines in Virginia NOTE: This airport may be the closest and easiest option if not renting a car or do not want to pay for an airport cab/shuttle.   Dulles International Approximate 1 hour drive from Rockville* |

  2. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3 Airport security coordinator. (a) Each...

  3. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  4. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  5. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  6. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  7. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  8. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  9. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  10. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  11. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  12. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  13. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  14. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S.... This document announces the expansion of the program to include four additional airports. DATES:...

  15. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  16. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  17. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development...

  18. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... landing. Permission to land is not required for an emergency or forced landing (covered under § 122.35... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landing rights airport. 122.14 Section 122.14... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.14 Landing rights airport. (a) Permission...

  19. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to... not apply if part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach procedure for the first... airport is forecast to be at least three miles, or two miles more than the lowest applicable...

  20. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to... not apply if part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach procedure for the first... airport is forecast to be at least three miles, or two miles more than the lowest applicable...

  1. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to... not apply if part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach procedure for the first... airport is forecast to be at least three miles, or two miles more than the lowest applicable...

  2. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to... not apply if part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach procedure for the first... airport is forecast to be at least three miles, or two miles more than the lowest applicable...

  3. 14 CFR 135.223 - IFR: Alternate airport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) to— (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Fly from that airport to... not apply if part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach procedure for the first... airport is forecast to be at least three miles, or two miles more than the lowest applicable...

  4. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit,

    1926-01-01

    Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

  5. Flinking: Neither Floating nor Sinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity that challenges students to make an object that, when released under water, does not float up or sink down. The main concept this activity investigates is the density of ordinary objects in comparison to the density of water. (PR)

  6. 77 FR 16891 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Tulsa International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Tulsa International Airport, Tulsa, OK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request... release of land at the Tulsa International Airport under the provision of Section 817 of the...

  7. 75 FR 23841 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Reading Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Reading Regional Airport, Reading, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of... release of land at the Reading Regional Airport, Reading, Pennsylvania under the provisions of Section...: Terry P. Sroka, Manager, Reading Regional Airport Authority, 2501 Bernville Road, Reading, PA 19605,...

  8. 76 FR 19517 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ....\\1\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 9017 (Feb. 26, 2010). ATA also stated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...\\ 14 CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 74 FR 51653... Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan...

  9. 75 FR 41922 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Fort Smith Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Smith Regional Airport, Fort Smith, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... comment on the release of land at Fort Smith Regional Airport under the provisions of Title 49, U.S.C... comments submitted to the FM must be mailed or delivered to Mr. John Parker, Airport Director, Fort...

  10. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... FR 5058) that amended the CBP regulations to establish such procedures and airport eligibility..., 1594, 1623, 1624, 1644, 1644a, 2071 note. * * * * * ] 0 2. In Sec. 122.153, revise paragraph (c)...

  11. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52524). Comments were due on March 31, 2010. Comments on the... the airport in local politics. Response: Owners of residential lots with through-the-fence...

  12. A review of smoking policies in airports around the world

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Kleb, Cerise; Grant, Ashley; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review smoking policies of major international airports, to compare these policies with corresponding incountry tobacco control legislation and to identify areas of improvement for advancing smoke-free policy in airports. Methods We reviewed smoking policies of 34 major international airports in five world regions, and collected data on current national and subnational legislation on smoke-free indoor places in the corresponding airport locations. We then compared airport smoking policies with local legislation. Additionally, we collected anecdotal information concerning smoking rules and practices in specific airports from an online traveller website. Results We found that 52.9% of the airports reviewed had indoor smoking rooms or smoking areas; smoking policy was unknown or unstated for two airports. 55.9% of the airports were located in countries where national legislation allowed designated smoking rooms and areas, while 35.3% were in smoke-free countries. Subnational legislation restricted smoking in 60% of the airport locations, while 40% were smoke-free. 71.4% of the airport locations had subnational legislation that allowed smoke-free laws to be more stringent than at the national level, but only half of these places had enacted such laws. Conclusions Despite the increasing presence of smoke-free places and legal capacity to enact stricter legislation at the local level, airports represent a public and occupational space that is often overlooked in national or subnational smoke-free policies. Secondhand smoke exposure in airports can be reduced among travellers and workers by implementing and enforcing smoke-free policies in airports. Additionally, existing information on smoke-free legislation lacks consistent terminology and definitions, which are needed to inform future tobacco control policy within airports and in the law. PMID:24638966

  13. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  14. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  15. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  16. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Federal Register 48693-48708 (September 16, 1997) (Notice) (as modified, 62 FR 63211, Nov. 26, 1997). A... application from the Puerto Rico Ports Authority and Puerto Rico Public-Private Partnerships Authority for the participation of Luis Mu oz Mar n International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the...

  17. 32 CFR 644.428 - Airport property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Airport property. 644.428 Section 644.428 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.428...

  18. Airport Surface Movement Technologies: Atlanta Demonstrations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted in August 1997 at the Hartsfield Atlanta (ATL) International Airport as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. This research was aimed at investigating technology to improve the safety and efficiency of aircraft movements on the surface during the operational phases of roll-out, turnoff, and taxi in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system tested at ATL was composed of airborne and ground-based components that were integrated to provide both the flight crew and controllers with supplemental information to enable safe, expedient surface operations. Experimental displays were installed on a Boeing 757-200 research aircraft in both headup and head-down formats. On the ground, an integrated system maintained surveillance of the airport surface and a controller interface provided routing and control instructions. While at ATL, the research aircraft performed a series of flight and taxi operations to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. The concept was demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the LVLASO system and ATL test activities.

  19. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 21)—nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs of the Department of Transportation... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... development. (a) Authority. 49 U.S.C. 1723 provides that (a) . . . whenever the Secretary of...

  20. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 21)—nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs of the Department of Transportation... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... development. (a) Authority. 49 U.S.C. 1723 provides that (a) . . . whenever the Secretary of...

  1. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of various aeronautical, operational, and land-use noise impact reduction alternatives are assessed for a major midwestern airport. Specifically, the relative effectiveness of adding sound absorbing material to aircraft engines, imposing curfews, and treating houses with acoustic insulation are examined.

  2. 49 CFR 27.71 - Airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Access Act rules (49 CFR part 382) for carriers. (g) If an airport operator who receives Federal... 305 of the U.S. Department of Justice's 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, 28 CFR 35.104 (defining the “2010 Standards” for title II as the requirements set forth in appendices B and D to 36...

  3. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 21)—nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs of the Department of Transportation... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... development. (a) Authority. 49 U.S.C. 1723 provides that (a) . . . whenever the Secretary of...

  4. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 21)—nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs of the Department of Transportation... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... development. (a) Authority. 49 U.S.C. 1723 provides that (a) . . . whenever the Secretary of...

  5. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 21)—nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs of the Department of Transportation... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... development. (a) Authority. 49 U.S.C. 1723 provides that (a) . . . whenever the Secretary of...

  6. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  7. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  8. Spatio-temporal distribution of floating objects in the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Martin; Hinojosa, Iván A.; Joschko, Tanja; Gutow, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Floating objects facilitate the dispersal of marine and terrestrial species but also represent a major environmental hazard in the case of anthropogenic plastic litter. They can be found throughout the world's oceans but information on their abundance and the spatio-temporal dynamics is scarce for many regions of the world. This information, however, is essential to evaluate the ecological role of floating objects. Herein, we report the results from a ship-based visual survey on the abundance and composition of flotsam in the German Bight (North Sea) during the years 2006 to 2008. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of floating objects and to relate spatio-temporal density variations to environmental conditions. Three major flotsam categories were identified: buoyant seaweed (mainly fucoid brown algae), natural wood and anthropogenic debris. Densities of these floating objects in the German Bight were similar to those reported from other coastal regions of the world. Temporal variations in flotsam densities are probably the result of seasonal growth cycles of seaweeds and fluctuating river runoff (wood). Higher abundances were often found in areas where coastal fronts and eddies develop during calm weather conditions. Accordingly, flotsam densities were often higher in the inner German Bight than in areas farther offshore. Import of floating objects and retention times in the German Bight are influenced by wind force and direction. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of floating objects is of coastal origin or introduced into the German Bight from western source areas such as the British Channel. Rapid transport of floating objects through the German Bight is driven by strong westerly winds and likely facilitates dispersal of associated organisms and gene flow among distant populations.

  9. Mooring line damping estimation for a floating wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design. PMID:25243231

  10. Mooring Line Damping Estimation for a Floating Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design. PMID:25243231

  11. A novel wireless local positioning system for airport (indoor) security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekavat, Seyed A.; Tong, Hui; Tan, Jindong

    2004-09-01

    A novel wireless local positioning system (WLPS) for airport (or indoor) security is introduced. This system is used by airport (indoor) security guards to locate all of, or a group of airport employees or passengers within the airport area. WLPS consists of two main parts: (1) a base station that is carried by security personnel; hence, introducing dynamic base station (DBS), and (2) a transponder (TRX) that is mounted on all people (including security personnel) present at the airport; thus, introducing them as active targets. In this paper, we (a) draw a futuristic view of the airport security systems, and the flow of information at the airports, (b) investigate the techniques of extending WLPS coverage area beyond the line-of-sight (LoS), and (c) study the performance of this system via standard transceivers, and direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems with and without antenna arrays and conventional beamforming (BF).

  12. Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the offshore renewable energy R&D efforts at NREL's NWTC. As the United States increases its efforts to tap the domestic energy sources needed to diversify its energy portfolio and secure its energy supply, more attention is being focused on the rich renewable resources located offshore. Offshore renewable energy sources include offshore wind, waves, tidal currents, ocean and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010,1 U.S. offshore wind resources have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity, and the Electric Power Research Institute estimates that the nation's ocean energy resources could ultimately supply at least 10% of its electric supply. For more than 30 years, NREL has advanced the science of renewable energy while building the capabilities to guide rapid deployment of commercial applications. Since 1993, NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been the nation's premier wind energy research facility, specializing in the advancement of wind technologies that range in size from a kilowatt to several megawatts. For more than 8 years, the NWTC has been an international leader in the field of offshore floating wind system analysis. Today, researchers at the NWTC are taking their decades of experience and extensive capabilities and applying them to help industry develop cost-effective hydrokinetic systems that convert the kinetic energy in water to provide power for our nation's heavily populated coastal regions. The center's capabilities and experience cover a wide spectrum of wind and water energy engineering disciplines, including atmospheric and ocean fluid mechanics, aerodynamics; aeroacoustics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, control systems, electrical systems, and testing.

  13. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  14. Effects of Offshore Wind Turbines on Ocean Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimer, Nicholas; Churchfield, Matthew; Hamlington, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Wakes from horizontal axis wind turbines create large downstream velocity deficits, thus reducing the available energy for downstream turbines while simultaneously increasing turbulent loading. Along with this deficit, however, comes a local increase in the velocity around the turbine rotor, resulting in increased surface wind speeds. For offshore turbines, these increased speeds can result in changes to the properties of wind-induced waves at the ocean surface. In this study, the characteristics and implications of such waves are explored by coupling a wave simulation code to the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The wave simulator and SOWFA are bi-directionally coupled using the surface wind field produced by an offshore wind farm to drive an ocean wave field, which is used to calculate a wave-dependent surface roughness that is fed back into SOWFA. The details of this combined framework are outlined. The potential for using the wave field created at offshore wind farms as an additional energy resource through the installation of on-site wave converters is discussed. Potential negative impacts of the turbine-induced wave field are also discussed, including increased oscillation of floating turbines.

  15. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  16. 76 FR 18622 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, John F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the... Airport (ORD), New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International... Management Rule for LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark...

  17. Feasibility of Floating Platform Systems for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Boone, A.

    2003-11-01

    This paper provides a general technical description of several types of floating platforms for wind turbines. Platform topologies are classified into multiple- or single-turbine floaters and by mooring method. Platforms using catenary mooring systems are contrasted to vertical mooring systems and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Specific anchor types are described in detail. A rough cost comparison is performed for two different platform architectures using a generic 5-MW wind turbine. One platform is a Dutch study of a tri-floater platform using a catenary mooring system, and the other is a mono-column tension-leg platform developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Cost estimates showed that single unit production cost is $7.1 M for the Dutch tri-floater, and $6.5 M for the NREL TLP concept. However, value engineering, multiple unit series production, and platform/turbine system optimization can lower the unit platform costs to $4.26 M and $2.88 M, respectively, with significant potential to reduce cost further with system optimization. These foundation costs are within the range necessary to bring the cost of energy down to the DOE target range of $0.05/kWh for large-scale deployment of offshore floating wind turbines.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a floating structure in focused waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei-feng; Zhao, Xi-zeng

    2015-12-01

    Floating structures are commonly seen in coastal and offshore engineering. They are often subjected to extreme waves and, therefore, their nonlinear dynamic behaviors are of great concern. In this paper, an in-house CFD code is developed to investigate the accurate prediction of nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a two-dimensional (2-D) box-shaped floating structure in focused waves. Computations are performed by an enhanced Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP)-based Cartesian grid model, in which a more accurate VOF (Volume of Fluid) method, the THINC/SW scheme (THINC: tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing; SW: Slope Weighting), is used for interface capturing. A focusing wave theory is used for the focused wave generation. The wave component of constant steepness is chosen. Comparisons between predictions and physical measurements show good agreement including body motions and free surface profiles. Although the overall agreement is good, some discrepancies are observed for impact pressure on the superstructure due to water on deck. The effect of grid resolution on the results is checked. With a fine grid, no obvious improvement is seen in the global body motions and impact pressures due to water on deck. It is concluded that highly nonlinear phenomena, such as distorted free surface, large-amplitude body motions, and violent impact flow, have been predicted successfully.

  19. Some New Caves under Airport in Dubrovnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2013-04-01

    Till today six speleological sites are known to exist at the premises of the Dubrovnik Airport in Croatia. This is a highly weathered area that has been in the focus of attention of speleologists ever since the airport was built in 1961/62. Two vertical caves measuring 31 m and 10.5 m in depth were discovered at that time. These two caves are now situated right underneath the new control tower of the Dubrovnik Airport. A tunnel entrance to the cave that has been known to local population for a long time is situated in the immediate vicinity of the control tower. In late 1950's the entrance to the cave was closed with concrete because of a military airport construction, but a tunnel was built so as to enable access to the cave. The cave is about 200 meters long and it fully occupies the space underneath the concrete runways of the Dubrovnik Airport. Thanks to efforts made by speleologists in 2006-2010 the cave was adapted to enable tourist visits, and it is now the world's only tourist cave underneath an operating airport. During apron extension activities in May 2012, three additional speleological sites were discovered and examined, together with other previously discovered caves, from the standpoint of geophysics, geology and speleology. Results of exploration shows that there are several faults zones in karstified limestones. The water flow in the caverns varies depending on climatic conditions on the ground surface. Water reaches the caverns via joints directly from the ground surface (to a lesser extent) or in deeper parts via joints and paraclases from other parts of Cretaceous carbonate formations (in most cases). The weathering zone depth in the area of these speleological features, are estimated at 300 to 500 meters (included under sea levels) , and the zone of vertical circulation varies from 50 to 150 m. It is followed by the zone of horizontal circulation in which the ground water is carried via Cretaceous limestones toward submarine springs in the

  20. Can flexibility help you float?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, L. J.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2012-10-01

    We consider the role of flexibility in the weight-bearing characteristics of bodies floating at an interface. Specifically, we develop a theoretical model for a two-dimensional thin floating plate that yields the maximum stable plate load and optimal stiffness for weight support. Plates small relative to the capillary length are primarily supported by surface tension, and their weight-bearing potential does not benefit from flexibility. Above a critical size comparable to the capillary length, flexibility assists interfacial flotation. For plates on the order of and larger than the capillary length, deflection from an initially flat shape increases the force resulting from hydrostatic pressure, allowing the plate to support a greater load. In this large plate limit, the shape that bears the most weight is a semicircle, which displaces the most fluid above the plate for a fixed plate length. Exact results for maximum weight-bearing plate shapes are compared to analytic approximations made in the limits of large and small plate sizes. The value of flexibility for floating to a number of biological organisms is discussed in light of our study.

  1. Instability of floating extensional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayag, Roiy; Worster, Grae

    2015-11-01

    We study the propagation of a viscous fluid over a thin layer of a denser and inviscid fluid. The viscous fluid is released axisymmetrially at constant flux, and is driven by gravity. Near the origin, where the viscous layer is thick, the flow is dominated by vertical shear. In the outer region where the viscous layer is thinner, it floats over the inviscid layer and the dominant stress is extensional. The floating region of such flows remains axisymmetric when the viscous fluid is Newtonian. In contrast, when the viscous fluid is non Newtonian, the floating region can be distributed in an array of extensional tongues. We use experimental and theoretical analysis to study the symmetry breaking of the extensional region. Experiments using polymeric fluids show that the characteristic wavelength of the tongues increases with flux. Theoretically, we model the symmetry breaking as flow instability of a power-law fluid that becomes Newtonian at low strain rates. Our model predicts unstable modes at the strongly non-Newtonian limit, and stable, axisymmetric mode in the Newtonian limit.

  2. Dragging a floating horizontal cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duck-Gyu; Kim, Ho-Young

    2010-11-01

    A cylinder immersed in a fluid stream experiences a drag, and it is well known that the drag coefficient is a function of the Reynolds number only. Here we study the force exerted on a long horizontal cylinder that is dragged perpendicular to its axis while floating on an air-water interface with a high Reynolds number. In addition to the flow-induced drag, the floating body is subjected to capillary forces along the contact line where the three phases of liquid/solid/gas meet. We first theoretically predict the meniscus profile around the horizontally moving cylinder assuming the potential flow, and show that the profile is in good agreement with that obtained experimentally. Then we compare our theoretical predictions and experimental measurement results for the drag coefficient of a floating horizontal cylinder that is given by a function of the Weber number and the Bond number. This study can help us to understand the horizontal motion of partially submerged objects at air-liquid interface, such as semi-aquatic insects and marine plants.

  3. Float zone experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Noack, M. A.; Gill, W. N.; Hau, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    The molten zone/freezing crystal interface system and all the mechanisms were examined. If Marangoni convection produces oscillatory flows in the float zone of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, then it is unlikely that superior quality crystals can be grown in space using this process. The major goals were: (1) to determine the conditions for the onset of Marangoni flows in molten tin, a model system for low Prandtl number molten semiconductor materials; (2) to determine whether the flows can be suppressed by a thin oxide layer; and (3) based on experimental and mathematical analysis, to predict whether oscillatory flows will occur in the float zone silicon geometry in space, and if so, could it be suppressed by thin oxide or nitride films. Techniques were developed to analyze molten tin surfaces in a UHV system in a disk float zone geometry to minimize buoyancy flows. The critical Marangoni number for onset of oscillatory flows was determined to be greater than 4300 on atomically clean molten tin surfaces.

  4. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  5. The integration of constructed wetlands into a treatment system for airport runoff.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D M; Worral, P; Brewer, D

    2001-01-01

    A new surface runoff treatment system has been designed for London Heathrow Airport, which incorporates separate floating constructed wetlands or reedbeds and sub-surface flow constructed wetlands as major pollutant removal systems. The primary requirement of the newly developed treatment system is to control the concentrations of glycols following their use as de-icers and anti-icers within the airport. The ability of reedbeds to contribute to this treatment role was fully tested through pilot scale, on-site experiments over a 2 year period. The average reductions in runoff BOD concentrations achieved by pilot scale surface flow and sub-surface flow reedbeds were 30.9% and 32.9%, respectively. The corresponding average glycol removal efficiencies were 54.2% and 78.3%, following shock dosing inputs. These treatment performances are used to predict the required full scale constructed wetland surface areas needed to attain the desired effluent water quality. The treatment system also incorporates aeration, storage and, combined with reedbed technology, has been designed to reduce a mixed inlet BOD concentration of 240 mg/l to less than 40 mg/l for water temperatures varying between 6 degrees C and 20 degrees C. PMID:11804136

  6. Experimental study on influence of pitch motion on the wake of a floating wind turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockel, Stanislav; Cal, Raul Bayoan; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Wind energy has become a major contributor to energy from renewable sources and is still demanded to increase its portion to the overall energy supply. Offshore wind energy was found to have the highest potential to fulfill these demands, due to better and steadier wind conditions found on seas. Offshore wind turbines which have been installed lately use monopiles as foundations and are feasible in shallow water up to a depth of 50m. Such shallow areas are rare and often exploited, so floating support structures for offshore wind turbines in deep water are possible solutions. The additional degrees of freedom of a floating support structure will influence the aerodynamics at the rotor and its wake. Wind tunnel experiments were performed using a classical fixed turbine model and a streamwise oscillating turbine in free pitch motion. For both cases the turbines were operated under same inflow conditions and wakes up to 7 rotor diameters were measured using 2D-3C stereographic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). The obtained data was statistically analyzed and a direct comparison of the wake of the fixed and oscillating turbine was performed. Our results show that inclinations and oscillations of the turbine have a strong impact on the structure of the wake and its development.

  7. The airport gate assignment problem: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bouras, Abdelghani; Ghaleb, Mageed A; Suryahatmaja, Umar S; Salem, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  8. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  9. 78 FR 19356 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... International Airport, 73 FR 3510 (Jan. 18, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18620 (Apr. 4, 2011); Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport, 73 FR 29550 (May 21, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18618 (Apr. 4... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and...

  10. 77 FR 16552 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Maryland-Three Airports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... an individual to serve as an airport security coordinator at one of these three airports. DATES: Send... Maryland airports, or to serve as an airport security coordinator at one of these three airports. Abstract..., of the following collection of information on January 5, 2012, 77 FR 513. This collection...

  11. 77 FR 73310 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Belgrade, MT AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Bozeman Yellowstone... approving the designation of user fee status for Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport was signed...

  12. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Under Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, or Miami International Airport. This document amends current DHS regulations to allow additional U.S. airports that are able to process international......

  13. The annoyance caused by noise around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JOSSE

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive study of noise around selected airports in France was performed. By use of questionnaires, the degree of annoyance caused by aircraft noise was determined. Three approaches used in the study were: (1) analytical study on the influence of noise on sleep; (2) sociological study on the satisfaction of occupants of buildings which conform to laws which are supposed to guarantee sufficient comfort; and (3) statistical study of correlations between external noises and psychological and pathological disturbances in residences.

  14. Miami International Airport stormwater NPDES plan

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, A.I.; Goldman, J.Z.; Schmidt, M.F.; Clark, E.E.

    1994-12-31

    Miami International Airport (MIA) is endeavoring to essentially double its traffic volume by the turn of the century. This is a great challenge since the site is already highly developed. Space, safety and other constraints make it difficult to implement conventional detention/retention stormwater practices. Other practices were evaluated to control stormwater quantity/quality, since some of the downstream bodies of water are flood-prone or environmentally sensitive.

  15. Improved low visibility forecasts at Amsterdam Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijngaard, J.; Vogelezang, D.; Maat, N.; van Bruggen, H.

    2009-09-01

    Accurate, reliable and unambiguous information concerning the actual and expected (low) visibility conditions at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is very important for the available operational flow capacity. Therefore visibility forecast errors can have a negative impact on safety and operational expenses. KNMI has performed an update of the visibility forecast system in close collaboration with the main users of the forecasts (Air Traffic Control, the airport authorities and KLM airlines). This automatic forecasting system consists of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (Hirlam) with a statistical post processing module on top of it. Output of both components is supplied to a human forecaster who issues a special probabilistic forecast bulletin. This bulletin is tailored to the specific requirements of the airport community. The improvements made to the forecast system are twofold: 1) In addition to the Meteorological Optical Range (MOR) values, RVR (Runway Visual Range) is forecasted. Since RVR depends on both MOR and the local Background Luminance, a (deterministic) statistical forecast for the latter has been developed. 2) Another improvement was achieved by calculating joint probabilities for specific combinations of visibility and cloud base height for thresholds which have direct impact on the flow capacity at the airport. The development of this new visibility forecast will be presented briefly. Also a few verification results will be shown to demonstrate the improvements made. Finally, the importance of explaining the user the use of the forecast information, in relation to their decision making process, will be discussed. For that reason, a simple guideline model to make a cost-optimal choice will be introduced.

  16. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  17. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  18. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  19. 14 CFR 27.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 27.753 Section 27.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure...

  20. 14 CFR 29.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 29.753 Section 29.753... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure...

  1. 14 CFR 29.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 29.753 Section 29.753 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float...

  2. 14 CFR 27.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 27.753 Section 27.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure...

  3. Tank Tests of Twin Seaplane Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrman, H; Kempf, G; Kloess, H

    1928-01-01

    The following report contains the most essential data for the hydrodynamic portion of the twin-float problem. The following points were successfully investigated: 1) difference between stationary and nonstationary flow; 2) effect of the shape of the step; 3) effect of distance between floats; 4) effect of nose-heavy and tail-heavy moments; 5) effect of the shape of floats; 6) maneuverability.

  4. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  5. Expanding Regional Airport Usage to Accommodate Increased Air Traffic Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Small regional airports present an underutilized source of capacity in the national air transportation system. This study sought to determine whether a 50 percent increase in national operations could be achieved by limiting demand growth at large hub airports and instead growing traffic levels at the surrounding regional airports. This demand scenario for future air traffic in the United States was generated and used as input to a 24-hour simulation of the national airspace system. Results of the demand generation process and metrics predicting the simulation results are presented, in addition to the actual simulation results. The demand generation process showed that sufficient runway capacity exists at regional airports to offload a significant portion of traffic from hub airports. Predictive metrics forecast a large reduction of delays at most major airports when demand is shifted. The simulation results then show that offloading hub traffic can significantly reduce nationwide delays.

  6. Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

  7. Amsterdam's Airport Library Serves Passengers in 30 Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam started offering the world's first library in an airport. This article describes Airport Library which is no ordinary library. It holds more than 1,200 items, but it lends nothing. It operates 24/7, yet it's only staffed by volunteers for 2 or 3 hours a day. It offers just nine public-access…

  8. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  9. Floating patella associated with lymphoedema

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Shen Hwa; Bayam, Levent; Drampalos, Efstathios; Jesry, Mohammed; Fadel, George

    2015-01-01

    Ipsilateral injury of more than one component of the knee extensor apparatus is rare. It is mostly associated with previous trauma, surgery, immunosuppression therapy and systemic disease. We present the first documented case of a spontaneous bifocal disruption of the knee extensor apparatus (i.e. floating patella) associated with lymphoedema. This case highlights the importance of considering lymphoedema as another risk factor for rupture of the knee extensor apparatus. It also highlights the importance of assessing all components of the knee extensor apparatus in patients presenting with acute knee injuries. PMID:25802253

  10. Wave drag on floating bodies

    PubMed Central

    Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David; Raphaël, Élie; Chevy, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We measure the deceleration of liquid nitrogen drops floating at the surface of a liquid bath. On water, the friction force is found to be about 10 to 100 times larger than on a solid substrate, which is shown to arise from wave resistance. We investigate the influence of the bath viscosity and show that the dissipation decreases as the viscosity is increased, owing to wave damping. The measured resistance is well predicted by a model imposing a vertical force (i.e., the drop weight) on a finite area, as long as the wake can be considered stationary. PMID:21876186

  11. Floating platform well production apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nobileau, P.C.

    1980-10-21

    A plurality of wells are clustered around a central riser which is maintained under tension from a floating platform. A plurality of spiders on the riser carry funnels in vertical alignment with the wells. The funnels are sufficiently large to permit the passage of wellhead connectors and master block valves, and the production risers include centralizers which brace the production riser from the funnels through a limited vertical range. Tensioning of the production riser is with a lower force and through a limited range which precludes disengagement of the centralizers from the funnel. Some centralizers are located to facilitate entry and attachment to the wellhead.

  12. Christchurch International Airport Personnel and Local Media Visit SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Eric Becklin, SOFIA chief science advisor, briefs airport personnel and media on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program and the reasons for infrared astronomy missions in ...

  13. Integrated Analysis of Airport Capacity and Environmental Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Shahab; Long, Dou; Hart, George; Eckhause, Jeremy; Hemm, Robert; Busick, Andrew; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Murphy, Charles; Poage, James

    2010-01-01

    LMI conducted an integrated analysis of airport capacity and environmental constraints. identifying and ranking the key factors limiting achievement of NextGen capacity goals. The primary metric used was projected throughput, which was estimated for the years 2015 and 2025 based on the unconstrained demand forecast from the Federal Aviation Administration, and planned improvements including those proposed in the NextGen plan. A set of 310 critical airports was identified.. collectively accounting for more than 99 percent of domestic air traffic volume; a one-off analytical approach was used to isolate the constraint being assessed. The study considered three capacity constraints (runway.. taxiway, and gate) and three environmental constraints (fuel, NO(x) emissions, and noise). For the ten busiest airports, runway and noise are the primary and secondary constraints in both 2015 and 2025. For the OEP 35 airports and overall for the remaining airports, the most binding constraint is noise. Six of the 10 busiest airports, will face runway constraints in 2025, and 95 will face gate constraints. Nearly every airport will be subject to constraints due to emissions and NOx. Runway and taxi constraints are more concentrated in the large airports: environmental constraints are present at almost every airport regardless of size.

  14. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Power Generation Performance of Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y.; Epler, J.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01

    The extraction of energy from ocean waves has gained interest in recent years. The floating-point absorber (FPA) is one of the most promising devices among a wide variety of wave energy conversion technologies. Early theoretical studies mainly focused on understanding the hydrodynamics of the system and on predicting the maximum power that could be extracted by a heaving body. These studies evolve from the investigation of floating-body interactions in offshore engineering and naval architecture disciplines. To our best knowledge, no systematic study has been reported about the investigation of the power generation performance of an FPA with a close-to-commercial design. A series of experimental tests was conducted to investigate the power extraction performance of an FPA system.

  16. Physical environment. [environmental impact statement required for general aviation airport construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental legislation affecting airports and the more common environmental effects resulting from airport construction are discussed with special emphasis on general aviation airports. The discussion is focused on the regulation of noise, pollution, and water quality.

  17. 76 FR 61135 - Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport, in Warwick, Rhode... Theodore Francis Green Airport, in Warwick, Rhode Island. The ROD documents the final Agency...

  18. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... Contractor. The maximum speed allowed at the airport shall be established by airport management....

  19. 75 FR 61173 - Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... National Park Service Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Grand... of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jackson Hole Airport Agreement... Impact Statement for the Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Grand Teton National Park,...

  20. MIT/Marine Industry Collegium Opportunity Brief: Advanced composites for offshore structures. Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on October 30-31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.

    1991-01-01

    Synopses of Presentations: An Overview of Advanced Structural Composites for Offshore Structures; High-Performance Composites for Deepwater Risers; Failure and Damage Mechanisms in Composites; Environmental Degradation of Composites; Composites Manufacturing; Steel-Concrete-Steel Sandwich Composite Construction for Permanently Floating Platforms; High-Strength Cement Composites for Marine Applications; Minimum Weight Design of Foam Core Sandwich Panels; Design of Fiber Reinforced Brittle and Quasi-Brittle Matrix Composites for Marine Applications; Offshore Applications and Requirements for Use of Advanced Composites; Polymer Composites in Structures; Non-Conventional Profiles of Composites for Structural Applications; Composite in Construction Require a Structural Design System; Economic Evaluation of Composites for Offshore Use.

  1. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  2. English-Spanish glossary: offshore exploration and production, gas processing, and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This series of articles contains 3 different English-Spanish glossaries of related terms used in the oil industry. The glossary of the offshore exploration and production involves a summary of terms used in the offshore oil activity. It also includes names of singular equipment used in offshore drilling, as well as several navigation terms in relation to the floating oil structures. With the help of the Gas Processors Association it was possible to compile a glossary of gas processing with a concise selection of common terms of the industry of gas processing. The glossary of valves includes more than 200 terms of the industry of valves in a specialized glossary, and several explanations about the application and operation of valves.

  3. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  4. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or...

  5. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  6. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or...

  7. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or...

  8. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or...

  9. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or...

  10. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  11. 77 FR 35104 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Merrill Field Airport, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... proposal to authorize the release of approximately 3.37 acres of Merrill Field Airport (MRI) property... MRI and other Municipal lands along with a proposal to provide for a ``Functional Replacement'' of MRI... additional right of way to construct improvements to the Glenn Highway adjacent to MRI in conjunction...

  12. 77 FR 30350 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Use of Mineral Revenue at Certain Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... modifications to this assurance at 77 FR 22376. Specifically, paragraph (a)(3) of Sponsor Assurance 25 permits... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Use of Mineral Revenue at Certain... (FAA) to declare certain revenue derived from or generated by mineral extraction, production, lease,...

  13. Synthetic aperture radar imagery of airports and surrounding areas: Philadelphia Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area is addressed. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data were collected at the Philadelphia Airport. These data and the results of the clutter study are described. This 13 km x 10 km scene was imaged at 9.38 GHz and HH-polarization and contained airport grounds and facilities (6 percent), industrial (14 percent), residential (14 percent), fields (10 percent), forest (8 percent), and water (33 percent). Incidence angles ranged from 40 to 84 deg. Even at the smallest incidence angles, the distributed targets such as forest, fields, water, and residential rarely had mean scattering coefficients greater than -10 dB. Eighty-seven percent of the image had scattering coefficients less than -17.5 dB. About 1 percent of the scattering coefficients exceeded 0 dB, with about 0.1 percent above 10 dB. Sources which produced the largest cross sections were largely confined to the airport grounds and areas highly industrialized. The largest cross sections were produced by observing broadside large buildings surrounded by smooth surfaces.

  14. 77 FR 51948 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... 14, 2012. DATES: The comment period for the proposed policy document published July 30, 2012 (77 FR... Proposed Policy in the Federal Register at 77 FR 44515 proposing an FAA policy, based on Federal law... previously published interim policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) to commercial service airports...

  15. 76 FR 74843 - Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822. Written comments on the Sponsor's request must be delivered or mailed to: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822-5024. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  16. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3324] [FR Doc... Airports District Office Southern Region. R [FR Doc. 2012-1064 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-13... District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822. Written comments on...

  17. 76 FR 70532 - Release of Airport Property: Melbourne International Airport, Melbourne, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... 400, Orlando, FL 32822. Written comments on the Sponsor's request must be delivered or mailed to: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822-5024. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca R. Henry, Program...

  18. 77 FR 3031 - Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822. Written comments on the Sponsor's request must be delivered or mailed to: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822-5024. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca R. Henry, Program...

  19. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery of Airports and Surrounding Areas: Denver Stapleton International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.

    1990-01-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports which address the statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were collected at the Denver Stapleton Airport using a set of parameters which closely match those which are anticipated to be utilized by an aircraft on approach to an airport. These data and the results of the clutter study are described. Scenes of 13 x 10 km were imaged at 9.38 GHz and HH-, VV-, and HV-polarizations, and contain airport grounds and facilities (up to 14 percent), cultural areas (more than 50 percent), and rural areas (up to 6 percent). Incidence angles range from 40 to 84 deg. At the largest depression angles the distributed targets, such as forest, fields, water, and residential, rarely had mean scattering coefficients greater than -10 dB. From 30 to 80 percent of an image had scattering coefficients less than -20 dB. About 1 to 10 percent of the scattering coefficients exceeded 0 dB, and from 0 to 1 percent above 10 dB. In examining the average backscatter coefficients at large angles, the clutter types cluster according to the following groups: (1) terminals (-3 dB), (2) city and industrial (-7 dB), (3) warehouse (-10 dB), (4) urban and residential (-14 dB), and (5) grass (-24 dB).

  20. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Marten; Szabó, Sándor; Gragnani, Alessandra; van Nes, Egbert H.; Rinaldi, Sergio; Kautsky, Nils; Norberg, Jon; Roijackers, Rudi M. M.; Franken, Rob J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Invasion by mats of free-floating plants is among the most important threats to the functioning and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems ranging from temperate ponds and ditches to tropical lakes. Dark, anoxic conditions under thick floating-plant cover leave little opportunity for animal or plant life, and they can have large negative impacts on fisheries and navigation in tropical lakes. Here, we demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Our results, based on experiments, field data, and models, represent evidence for alternative domains of attraction in ecosystems. An implication of our findings is that nutrient enrichment reduces the resilience of freshwater systems against a shift to floating-plant dominance. On the other hand, our results also suggest that a single drastic harvest of floating plants can induce a permanent shift to an alternative state dominated by rooted, submerged growth forms. PMID:12634429

  1. Reinforced concrete offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Martyshenko, J.P.; Martyshenko, S.J.; Kotelnikov, J.S.; Kutukhtin, E.G.; Petrosian, M.S.; Ilyasova, N.I.; Volkov, J.S.; Vardanian, A.M.

    1987-10-20

    A reinforced concrete offshore platform is described comprising a honeycomb foundation (A), a supporting structure (B) and an above-surface section (C) carrying appropriate equipment. The honeycomb foundation (A) and the supporting structure (B) are made of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements which are polyhedral hollow prisms arranged with gaps between the external sides thereof and joined by a system of prestressed vertical diaphragm walls and horizontal diaphragm walls formed by pre-tensioning reinforcing bars placed in the gaps between the faces of the prisms and casting in-situ the gaps later on.

  2. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  3. Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system of portable illuminated signs, electronic monitoring equipment, and radio-communication equipment for preventing (or taking corrective action in response to) improper entry of aircraft, pedestrians, or ground vehicles onto active airport runways is described. The main overall functions of the proposed system would be to automatically monitor aircraft ground traffic on or approaching runways and to generate visible and/or audible warnings to affected pilots, ground-vehicle drivers, and control-tower personnel when runway incursions take place.

  4. Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermott, William J.; Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Tran, Peter; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will improve the safety of Air Transportation. In 2001, using simulation and information management software running over a distributed network of super-computers, researchers at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers developed a working prototype of a virtual airspace. This VNAS prototype modeled daily operations of the Atlanta airport by integrating measured operational data and simulation data on up to 2,000 flights a day. The concepts and architecture developed by NASA for this prototype are integral to the National Airspace Simulation to support the development of strategies improving aviation safety, identifying precursors to component failure.

  5. Optical design of airport control tower cabs.

    PubMed

    Carman, P D; Budde, H W

    1980-02-15

    A study has been made of optical aspects of airport control towers as part of a planned general optimization of control towers by Transport Canada. Problems found were reflections, glare, visual obstructions, identification of distant objects, and excessive solar heat. The study makes recommendations on cab shape, tower height, glazing, shades, sunglasses, binoculars, and internal lighting. Proper choice of cab shape (e.g., 30 degrees window inclination and 12-28 sides) provided effective control of reflections. Some plastic shades werefound to increase the risk of eye damage. Two tower cabs incorporating the recommendations have been built and were found to be satisfactory. PMID:20216882

  6. Airport expansion requires major wetlands mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the steps taken to mitigate the impact to existing wetlands by creating new wetlands in an airport expansion project. The project addressed maintaining suitable amounts of wetlands to accommodate peak waterfowl populations, moving of high voltage power transmission towers, and maintaining agricultural and hunting interests. This project involved recreating of open water areas, marsh habitat, mud flat habitat, saline meadow habitat, maintaining two existing wetlands in the area of the new wetlands without disturbing them, and improving upland habitat surrounding the new wetlands.

  7. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  8. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  9. Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

  10. 78 FR 48926 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION: Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the... Room 364, Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release...

  11. 78 FR 49790 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa..., MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed,...

  12. 78 FR 48926 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Ottumwa..., MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed,...

  13. 76 FR 66352 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Halifax... Park, GA 30337. The request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this...

  14. 78 FR 44188 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at Sioux..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  15. 78 FR 48217 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa..., (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed, by...

  16. 78 FR 16911 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ankeny..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.3 - Airport security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport security coordinator. 1542.3 Section 1542.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.3...

  1. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152.323 Section 152.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  2. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152.323 Section 152.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  3. 14 CFR 77.28 - Military airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military airport imaginary surfaces. 77.28 Section 77.28 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE (Eff. until 1-18-11) Obstruction Standards § 77.28 Military airport imaginary surfaces....

  4. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  5. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  6. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  7. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  8. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  9. 78 FR 53184 - Land Release for Penn Yan Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Penn Yan Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... consists of 0.069 +/- acres of land and it is currently vacant. The requested release is for the purpose of... boat storage and maintenance facility to be constructed by Land and Sea Properties on airports...

  10. 77 FR 58438 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Meade..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  11. 49 CFR 1560.111 - Covered airport operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered airport operators. 1560.111 Section 1560.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY... Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.111 Covered airport operators....

  12. 49 CFR 1560.111 - Covered airport operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Covered airport operators. 1560.111 Section 1560.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY... Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.111 Covered airport operators....

  13. Nature of the annoyance and noise annoyance relation around airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francois, J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of 5,000 individuals living around Orly Airport is described. The psobic index was used as the noise index which indicated the intensity of the annoyance experienced by people living around the airport. The results indicate that sensitivity to noise is related to certain personal factors.

  14. Ethnic and Cultural Focus in Airport Driver Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, John; Rankin, William

    2009-01-01

    A series of linked relationships is advanced which together suggest changes should be made to training programs for airside drivers at major airports in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom. Overall, the links suggest a relationship between the number of airside incidents such as collisions at airports, the ethnic diversity evident…

  15. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  16. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  17. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  18. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  19. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...) on Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports (76 FR 5510). In the NPRM, the FAA... period until May 13, 2011, (76 FR 20570) because we learned that a number of airport operators were not... again reopened the comment period until July 5, 2011, (76 FR 32105) because several industry...

  20. 75 FR 62008 - Safety Management System for Certificated Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... commensurate with its class of Airport Operating Certificate (AOC). DATES: Send your comments on or before... development at smaller airports with a Class II, III, or IV AOC.\\9\\ \\9\\ For definitions of classes of...

  1. 75 FR 61612 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...The FAA is amending its airports and locations special operating restrictions regulation to clarify a minor discrepancy in terminology. This amendment standardizes the language used to describe the altitude at which aircraft operating within 30 nautical miles of the listed airports are required to be equipped with an altitude encoding transponder. This action is not making any substantive......

  2. 78 FR 55330 - Policy Regarding Airport Rates and Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... airport proprietors and aeronautical users to include alternative dispute resolution procedures in their... resolution of these disputes is always desirable since extensive delay can lead to uncertainty for the public... a Policy Regarding Airport Rates and Charges in the Federal Register on June 21, 1996 (61 FR...

  3. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  4. 14 CFR 135.219 - IFR: Destination airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Destination airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.219 IFR: Destination airport weather... latest weather reports or forecasts, or any combination of them, indicate that weather conditions at...

  5. 14 CFR 121.617 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 121.617 Section 121.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... purpose of paragraph (a) of this section, the alternate airport weather conditions must meet...

  6. 14 CFR 125.365 - Alternate airport for departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate airport for departure. 125.365 Section 125.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... this section, the alternate airport weather conditions must meet the requirements of the...

  7. 14 CFR 77.25 - Civil airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil airport imaginary surfaces. 77.25 Section 77.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE Obstruction Standards § 77.25 Civil airport imaginary surfaces. The following civil...

  8. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  9. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  13. Power generation for offshore oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1997-01-01

    French industry has played a major role in supplying surface equipment for the exploitation of the N`Kossa oil field, located in deep waters (150-300 m) some 60 km offshore the Congo Coast. This immense reservoir (7 km long, 4 km wide, 3000 m under the seabed) was discovered in 1984, and production of oil and LPG started recently. Production of crude oil, which will peak 5 million tons in 1998, and LPG, reaching 300000 tons in 1999, is expected to continue for a period of 30 years. The NKP floating barge used for production is considered a world first in many aspects. It was designed by CTIP Geoproduction (TPG) for the operator, ELF Congo, and was constructed in Marseilles. The barge, which features a prestressed concrete hull, has a bearing capacity of 330000 tons. It is 220 long and 46 m wide, providing a deck area of one hectare. All production facilities as well as living quarters for 160 people are housed on the barge which, for construction purposes, was subdivided into six modules. This paper describes the design of the power generation module. 3 figs.

  14. Importance of Second-Order Difference-Frequency Wave-Diffraction Forces in the Validation of a Fast Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Couling, A. J.; Goupee, A. J.; Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    To better access the abundant offshore wind resource, efforts across the world are being undertaken to develop and improve floating offshore wind turbine technologies. A critical aspect of creating reliable, mature floating wind turbine technology is the development, verification, and validation of efficient computer-aided-engineering (CAE) tools that can be relied upon in the design process. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created a comprehensive, coupled analysis CAE tool for floating wind turbines, FAST, which has been verified and utilized in numerous floating wind turbine studies. Several efforts are currently underway that leverage the extensive 1/50th-scale DeepCwind wind/wave basin model test dataset, obtained at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) in 2011, to validate the floating platform functionality of FAST to complement its already validated aerodynamic and structural simulation capabilities. In this paper, further work is undertaken to continue this validation. In particular, the ability of FAST to replicate global response behaviors associated with dynamic wind forces, second-order difference-frequency wave-diffraction forces and their interaction with one another are investigated.

  15. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father

  16. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  17. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  18. Semi-submersible floating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterwalder, K.

    1981-06-23

    A semi-submersible floating structure includes a horizontal platform with a symmetrical arrangement of buoyant bodies extending vertically downwardly from the platform. The buoyant bodies consist of a tubular column secured by a bending-resistant connection to the platform with a closed container secured to and extending downwardly from the lower end of the tubular column. The horizontal cross-sectional area of the closed container is for most of its vertical height greater than the transverse cross -sectional area of the tubular column. At least the lower portion of the closed container has a curvilinear surface. An annular wall extends around and is spaced radially outwardly from each of the closed containers and the wall, in combination with the enclosed container, forms an annular chamber therebetween open at the bottom and closed at the top. The platform and the buoyant bodies are formed of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete.

  19. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  20. Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors

    PubMed Central

    Dancey, A; Titley, OG

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes. Methods A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples. Results No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions. Conclusions Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination. PMID:23827294

  1. Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.

  2. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  3. 75 FR 58019 - Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Kearney Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the... of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment...-2642. The request to release property may be reviewed in person at this same location....

  4. 77 FR 59035 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... comment on the release of land at St. George Airport under the provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H... request to release property at the St. George Airport under the provisions of the AIR 21 (49 U.S.C....

  5. 14 CFR 382.105 - What is the responsibility of carriers at foreign airports at which airport operators have...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the responsibility of carriers at foreign airports at which airport operators have responsibility for enplaning, deplaning, and connecting assistance? 382.105 Section 382.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS)...

  6. 77 FR 68196 - Orders Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 77 FR 30585 (May...Guardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan Washington National... operations took several days after the storm. FAA Analysis Under the FAA's High Density Rule at DCA...

  7. 76 FR 12408 - Notice of Intent to Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Ellington Field Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Ellington Field Airport, Houston, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice..., Aviation Director, at the following address: Mr. Mario C. Diaz, Aviation Director, Houston Airport System, 16930 John F. Kennedy Blvd., Houston, Texas 77032. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ben...

  8. Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher M.

    Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the

  9. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  10. Floating electron states in covalent semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yu-ichiro; Furuya, Shinnosuke; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2012-06-15

    We report first-principles electronic-structure calculations that clarify the floating nature of electron states in covalent semiconductors. It is found that wave functions of several conduction- and valence-band states, including the conduction-band minima, do not distribute near atomic sites, as was taken for granted, but float in interstitial channels in most semiconductors. The directions and shapes of the interstitial channels depend on the crystal symmetry so that mysterious variation of the energy gaps in SiC polymorphs is naturally explained by considering the floating nature. PMID:23004300

  11. Floating-gated memory based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with Si floating dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seike, Kohei; Fujii, Yusuke; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET)-based nonvolatile memory device with Si floating dots. The electrical characteristics of this memory device were compared with those of devices with a HfO2 charge storage layer or Au floating dots. For a sweep width of 6 V, the memory window of the devices with the Si floating dots increased twofold as compared with that of the devices with the HfO2 layer. Moreover, the retention characteristics revealed that, for the device with the Au floating dots, the off-state had almost the same current as the on-state at the 400th s. However, the devices with the Si floating dots had longer-retention characteristics. The results indicate that CNTFET-based devices with Si floating dots are promising candidates for low-power consumption nonvolatile memory devices.

  12. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  13. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  14. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  15. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  16. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  17. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521....

  18. 14 CFR 27.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 27.751 Section 27.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the...

  19. 14 CFR 29.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 29.751 Section 29.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats,...

  20. 14 CFR 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 25.751 Section 25.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.751 Main float buoyancy. Each main float must have— (a)...

  1. Program Converts VAX Floating-Point Data To UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alves, Marcos; Chapman, Bruce; Chu, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    VAX Floating Point to Host Floating Point Conversion (VAXFC) software converts non-ASCII files to unformatted floating-point representation of UNIX machine. This is done by reading bytes bit by bit, converting them to floating-point numbers, then writing results to another file. Useful when data files created by VAX computer must be used on other machines. Written in C language.

  2. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521....

  3. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  4. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  5. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  6. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  7. Surface tension supported floating of heavy objects: Why elongated bodies float better?

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2016-02-01

    Floating of bodies heavier than the supporting liquid is discussed. Floating of cylindrical, ellipsoidal bodies and rectangular plates possessing lateral dimensions smaller than the capillary length is treated. It is demonstrated that more elongated bodies of a fixed volume are better supported by capillary forces, due to the increase in the perimeter of the triple line. Thus, floating of metallic needles obtains reasonable explanation. PMID:26513731

  8. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  9. Coarse-to-fine wavelet-based airport detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Shuigen; Pang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-10-01

    Airport detection on optical remote sensing images has attracted great interest in the applications of military optics scout and traffic control. However, most of the popular techniques for airport detection from optical remote sensing images have three weaknesses: 1) Due to the characteristics of optical images, the detection results are often affected by imaging conditions, like weather situation and imaging distortion; and 2) optical images contain comprehensive information of targets, so that it is difficult for extracting robust features (e.g., intensity and textural information) to represent airport area; 3) the high resolution results in large data volume, which makes real-time processing limited. Most of the previous works mainly focus on solving one of those problems, and thus, the previous methods cannot achieve the balance of performance and complexity. In this paper, we propose a novel coarse-to-fine airport detection framework to solve aforementioned three issues using wavelet coefficients. The framework includes two stages: 1) an efficient wavelet-based feature extraction is adopted for multi-scale textural feature representation, and support vector machine(SVM) is exploited for classifying and coarsely deciding airport candidate region; and then 2) refined line segment detection is used to obtain runway and landing field of airport. Finally, airport recognition is achieved by applying the fine runway positioning to the candidate regions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of detection accuracy and processing efficiency.

  10. Toxicity and chemical analyses of airport runoff waters in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sulej, Anna Maria; Polkowska, Zaneta; Wolska, Lidia; Cieszynska, Monika; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicological effects of various compounds in complex airport effluents using a chemical and ecotoxicological integrated strategy. The present work deals with the determination of sum of PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, cations, anions, phenols, anionic, cationic, non-ionic detergents, formaldehyde and metals--as well as TOC and conductivity--in runoff water samples collected from 2009 to 2011 at several locations on two Polish international airports. Two microbiotests (Vibrio fischeri bacteria and the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus) have been used to determine the ecotoxicity of airport runoff waters. The levels of many compounds exceeded several or even several tens of times the maximum permissible levels. Analysis of the obtained data shows that samples that displayed maximum toxicity towards the bioindicators Vibrio fischeri were not toxic towards Thamnocephalus platyurus. Levels of toxicity towards T. platyurus are strongly correlated with pollutants that originate from the technological operations related to the maintenance of airport infrastructure. The integrated (chemical-ecotoxicological) approach to environmental contamination assessment in and around airports yields extensive information on the quality of the environment. These methodologies can be then used as tools for tracking the environmental fate of these compounds and for assessing the environmental effect of airports. Subsequently, these data will provide a basis for airport infrastructure management. PMID:24668023

  11. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  12. Achieving Recognition as a World Class Airport through Education and Training. Sorenson Best Paper Award Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization has standards for airport certification that require education and training of personnel. The American Association of Airport Executives offers accreditation and certification in airport operations and safety that can meet the needs of world-class airports. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  13. An Evaluation of the Importance of Military Associations at Civil Airports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patti J.

    2010-01-01

    Today there are over 1,500 public-use airports in the United States. Each of these airports provides a service to the surrounding community, whether in the form of a general aviation or commercial air service facility. An airport is dependent on many facets of the local government infrastructure for support services. Also, the airports have ties…

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  18. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  19. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Release Effecting Federal Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Due to Airport Layout Plan Revision at Mather Airport, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Administration (FAA) proposes to rule and invites public comment on the application for an Airport Layout Plan... Force to the County. As a result, the existing Airport Layout Plan will be revised to delete the...

  20. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. The setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The regional setting for the three San Franscisco Bay area airports is described. The general role of the airports in the national air transportation system, the demand for air transportation, and the relationship of airport location to the demand for air transportation are examined. The problem of airport access is also considered. Various access modes, their destination, frequency, and cost are presented.