These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk Megan J. Lickley, Ning Lin and Henry D://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk Megan J foreshadow a risk that is to continue and likely in- crease with a changing climate. Extensive energy

2

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure—much of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, M.J.

3

Modeling flood induced interdependencies among hydroelectricity generating infrastructures.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural-hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management. PMID:19570603

Sultana, S; Chen, Z

2009-08-01

4

Chapter 15 Flood Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods can be very damaging and costly. In order to lessen the effects, numerous practices aim to reduce flood damages. The construction of levees, dams, and reservoirs are common methods of flood damage reduction in California. Levees confine the water flows within a channel. The integrity of a levee and its maximum design flow capacity, dictate the extent of a

Lake Shasta; Sly Creek Reservoirs; Lake Oroville; French Meadows; Hell Hole Reservoirs; Folsom Lake; Lake McClure; Feather Sacramento; Ñ Export; Anderson Reservoir; Lake Perris; Castaic Lake; Diamond Valley Lake; California Aqueduct

5

Problems with Conventional Flood Control Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional engineering methods of flood control design focus narrowly on the efficient conveyance of water, with little regard for environmental resource planning and natural geomorphic processes. Conse- quently, flood control projects are often environmentally disastrous, expensive to maintain, and even inadequate to control floods. In addition, maintenance programs to improve flood conveyance and enhance levee stability, such as clearing riparian

Philip B. Williams; Mitchell L. Swanson

6

Sixty Years of River Corridor Change Induced by the Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Flood Control Infrastructure on Lower Deer Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deer Creek drains 540 km2, joining the Sacramento River near Vina, about 160 km north of the city of Sacramento. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a levee and partly straightened the lower five miles of Deer Creek in 1949. Repeated levee failures and the presence of the federally threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Deer Creek have prompted investigations on habitat restoration coordinated with more effective flood protection. The Deer Creek Watershed Conservancy (1998) identified a significant reduction in channel complexity between 1938 (pre-levee) and 1997, but did not attempt to quantify this reduction. In this study, we examined high quality aerial photographs from 1938, 1952, 1966, 1979, 1985, and 1998, and systematically quantified (in ArcGIS) changes in river corridor complexity by digitizing a range of features in each set of photos. Total active channel length in the levee reach decreased from 14.4 km to 12.6 km between 1938 and 1998. In addition, we documented a significant increase in average active channel width and a decrease in shaded riverine aquatic habitat between 1938 and 1998. Most of these changes occurred during the levee project in 1949, and the simplified channel form persisted through 1998. We also identified a significant decrease in aquatic and riparian habitat resilience (i.e. resistance to habitat damage and destruction by large floods) between 1937 and 1998. These results provide a basis for prioritizing, locating, and developing designs for alternative flood management approaches that would contribute to the enhancement and restoration of aquatic and riparian habitat along lower Deer Creek.

Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

2004-12-01

7

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

2008-12-01

8

SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN FLOOD CONTROL DAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reservoir sedimentation reduces economic value and longevity of flood control dams. Periodic sediment removal allows extension of reservoir life. An optimal control model is developed to evaluate alternative sediment management strategies for flood control dams. An illustrative empirical analysis shows that sustainable management is economically desirable for a wide range of parameter values.

Maneechit Pattanapanchai; Farhed A. Shah; George Annandale

2002-01-01

9

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... rainfall , topography, flood-control measures, river-flow and tidal-surge data, and changes due to new construction ... may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines. Flooding may have caused familiar places to ...

10

Flood control in East Pakistan  

E-print Network

the valley floor. The coarser elements were deposited by the great outwashes i'rom the melting glaciers in the Himalayan Nountain Range where the major rivers have their sources. Subsequent great and seasonal floods passing down the rivers, as they have... functions. They now serve simply as part of the overflow flood reservoirs. The Brahma utra: Originating from the glaciers of the northernmost chain of the Himalayas in southern Tibet, the Brahmaputra flows through the mountains i. n Tibet, through Assam...

Eusufzai, Mohammad Hossain Sekandar Hayat Khan

2012-06-07

11

Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

12

Basinwide flood control system by combining prediction and reservoir operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has traditionally performed flood prevention through the construction and use of dikes, storage reservoirs, and basins which are costly and time consuming options. Another non-structural option is to operate the flood control system appropriately with a view to reducing flood damage. In this paper, a flood control system combining the runoff prediction model in the whole river basin with

T. Kojiri; S. Ikebuchi; H. Yamada

1989-01-01

13

Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project  

E-print Network

DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada

US Army Corps of Engineers

14

The Controlled Flood in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural flow of almost every river in the United States has been modified to meet various socioeconomic goals—navigation, irrigation, power generation and flood control. The success of the dams and reservoirs built to achieve these goals has been accompanied by changes in the status of riverine resources downstream, a cause of growing environmental and ecological concern. For example, before Glen Canyon Dam was completed, the Colorado River transported large quantities of sediment in floods as large as 8500 m3/s. After the dam was closed in 1963, dam releases typically were less than the powerplant capacity of 890 m3/s and exhibited large daily flow fluctuations. The river carried little sediment. The daily fluctuations in flow eroded sand bars, and the smaller, controlled flow did not redeposit them. The clear, cold water resulted in increased aquatic productivity such that rainbow trout and other nonnative fishes thrived while most native species were lost or endangered.

Webb, Robert H.; Schmidt, John C.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Valdez, Richard A.

15

Joint operation and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels for mixed cascade reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoirs are one of the most efficient infrastructures for integrated water resources development and management; and play a more and more important role in flood control and conservation. Dynamic control of the reservoir flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective approach to compromise the flood control, hydropower generation and comprehensive utilization of water resources of river basins during the flood season. The dynamic control models of FLWL for a single reservoir and cascade reservoirs have been extended for a mixed reservoir system in this paper. The proposed model consists of a dynamic control operation module for a single reservoir, a dynamic control operation module for cascade reservoirs, and a joint operation module for mixed cascade reservoir systems. The Three Gorges and Qingjiang cascade reservoirs in the Yangtze River basin of China are selected for a case study. Three-hour inflow data series for representative hydrological years are used to test the model. The results indicate that the proposed model can make an effective tradeoff between flood control and hydropower generation. Joint operation and dynamic control of FLWL can generate 26.4 × 108 kW h (3.47%) more hydropower for the mixed cascade reservoir systems and increase the water resource utilization rate by 3.72% for the Three Gorges reservoir and 2.42% for the Qingjiang cascade reservoirs without reducing originally designed flood prevention standards.

Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chongyu

2014-11-01

16

Climate Proofing Infrastructure in Bangladesh: The Incremental Cost of Limiting Future Flood Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh is one of the most flood prone countries in the world. Two thirds of the country is less than 5 m above sea level. Past monsoon flood records indicate that about 21% of the country is subject to annual flooding and an additional 42% is at risk of floods with varied intensity. Although annual regular flooding has traditionally been

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; Zahirul Huq Khan; Manjur Murshed Zahid Ahmed; Nandan Mukherjee; Kiran Pandey

2011-01-01

17

Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

2014-03-01

18

Applications of ASFCM(Assessment System of Flood Control Measurement) in Typhoon Committee Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to extreme weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risks of having flood damage has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. Therefore, it became necessary to consider modifying climate change, flood damage and its scale to the previous dimension measurement evaluation system. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and integrated system to evaluate the most optimized measures for flood control through eliminating uncertainties of socio-economic impacts. Assessment System of Structural Flood Control Measures (ASFCM) was developed for determining investment priorities of the flood control measures and establishing the social infrastructure projects. ASFCM consists of three modules: 1) the initial setup and inputs module, 2) the flood and damage estimation module, and 3) the socio-economic analysis module. First, we have to construct the D/B for flood damage estimation, which is the initial and input data about the estimation unit, property, historical flood damages, and applied area's topographic & hydrological data. After that, it is important to classify local characteristic for constructing flood damage data. Five local characteristics (big city, medium size city, small city, farming area, and mountain area) are classified by criterion of application (population density). Next step is the floodplain simulation with HEC-RAS which is selected to simulate inundation. Through inputting the D/B and damage estimation, it is able to estimate the total damage (only direct damage) that is the amount of cost to recover the socio-economic activities back to the safe level before flood did occur. The last module suggests the economic analysis index (B/C ratio) with Multidimensional Flood Damage Analysis. Consequently, ASFCM suggests the reference index in constructing flood control measures and planning non-structural systems to reduce water-related damage. It is possible to encourage flood control planners and managers to consider and apply the socio-economic analysis results. ASFCM was applied in Republic of Korea, Thailand and Philippines to review efficiency and applicability. Figure 1. ASFCM Application(An-yang Stream, Republic of Korea)

Kim, C.

2013-12-01

19

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

20

Climate proofing infrastructure in Bangladesh : the incremental cost of limiting future inland monsoon flood damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-thirds of Bangladesh is less than 5 meters above sea level, making it one of the most flood prone countries in the world. Severe flooding during a monsoon causes significant damage to crops and property, with severe adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. Future climate change seems likely to increase the destructive power of monsoon floods. This paper examines the potential

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; Zahirul Huq Khan; Manjur Murshed Zahid Ahmed; Nandan Mukherjee; Kiran Pandey

2010-01-01

21

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 Characteristics of Dam  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 A-1 Characteristics of Dam Name A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 A-2 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 A-3 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Community

US Army Corps of Engineers

22

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 Characteristics of Dam  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 A-1 Characteristics of Dam Name A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 A-2 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 A-3 Characteristics of Dam Name River Basin Stream Community

US Army Corps of Engineers

23

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Development within flood control storage...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage...a) Activities involving development within the flood control...they: (1) Remain truly mobile and ready for highway...

2011-04-01

24

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205). 263...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205)....

2010-07-01

25

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

2012-05-01

26

Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project  

E-print Network

DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General Reevaluation Report Volume I � Draft Environmental Impact Statement prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District May 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood

US Army Corps of Engineers

27

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast

Scott Staley

2010-01-01

28

Origins of the 1996 controlled flood in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The March 1996 controlled flood in Grand Canyon resulted from a decade-long evolution in scientific thinking about the appropriate role of floods in management of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The flood was implemented after 5 consecutive years in which proposals to conduct a similar event were rejected; final implementation of the 1996 flood necessitated revision of the definition of the appropriate basin-wide runoff conditions that would trigger such a flood. The flood partly resulted from a multi-year effort to reform the Colorado River Storage Project Act that had culminated in passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act in 1992. The flood itself consisted of a 4-day period of steady discharge of 227 m3/s, an 11-hr period of increasing discharge to a peak of 1274 m3/s that lasted for 7 days, a 45-hr period of recession, and a 4-day period of steady discharge at 227 m3/s. This event was partly a demonstration of the potential role of floods in regulated river management and also provided an opportunity for scientists to make measurements about physical and biological processes during flood conditions.

Schmidt, John C.; Andrews, Edmund D.; Wegner, David L.; Patten, Duncan T.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Moody, Thomas O.

29

RoadRunner: Infrastructure-less vehicular congestion control  

E-print Network

RoadRunner is an in-vehicle app for traffic congestion control without costly roadside infrastructure, instead judiciously harnessing vehicle-to-vehicle communications, cellular connectivity, and onboard computation and ...

Gao, Jason Hao

30

Programmable controllers: Industrial strength aspirin for America's ailing infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable controllers (PCs) are helping to put more productivity into America's ailing infrastructure. Within the industrial control field, PCs are successfully replacing solid-state logic, analog controllers, and even minicomputers. Specific examples will illustrate how PCs have filled a niche for reliable controllers that can be used in process and discrete parts manufacturing applications.

Robert P. Collins

1984-01-01

31

Optimum Reservoir Operation for Flood Control and Conservation Purposes  

E-print Network

Rapid population and economic growth in Texas is accompanied by increased needs for water supply and flood control. Depleting groundwater reserves are resulting in an increased reliance on surface water. The rising cost of fossil fuel during...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Cabezas, L. Morris; Tibbets, Michael N.

32

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

33

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live ...

34

How to simulate a volume-controlled flooding with mathematical morphology operators?  

E-print Network

How to simulate a volume-controlled flooding with mathematical morphology operators? Serge Beucher_fichiers/frame.htm) [2] The problem The classical tool for flooding simulation is the watershed transform. However, the flooding is simply controlled by its height. This means that, when the flooding has reached

Beucher, Serge

35

Building flood control rule curves for multipurpose multireservoir systems using controllability conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building flood control rule curves (FCRC) for multipurpose multireservoir systems involves treating simultaneously the stochasticity of future inflows and the multivariate aspect of the problem. The study demonstrates how theoretical findings concerning flood control multireservoir systems regulation obtained by Marien (1984) (the so-called controllability conditions) can be used to build generalized FCRC in multipurpose multireservoir systems. These FCRC are generalized

J. L. Marien; J. M. Damázio; F. S. Costa

1994-01-01

36

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2007 Characteristics of Dam  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2007 A-1 Characteristics of Dam Name Creek Superior 960 34,500 NPP F Earth 25 978 ARKANSAS Blakely Mountain Ouachita Dam Ouachita Hot Springs,554 Narrows Dam Ouachita Little Missouri Murfreesboro 1949 407,900 2,500 FP Concrete 175 941 Nimrod Arkansas

US Army Corps of Engineers

37

The Evolution of the 1936 Flood Control Act  

E-print Network

but left flood control storage in reservoir projects as a 100 percent federal responsibility. In the years that endure to this day. Moreover, it dramatically increased the Corps' work load, forcing the agency since passage of the1936 landmark legislation, increasing pressures developed for greater nonfederal

US Army Corps of Engineers

38

BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA  

EPA Science Inventory

In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

39

Decadal variability in Floods and Extreme Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decadal variability in climate extremes associated with floods is of particular interest for infrastructure development and for insurance programs. From an analysis of US data we note that changes in insurance rates and in the construction of flood control infrastructure emerge soon after a period where there is a high incidence of regional flooding. This leads to the question of whether there is clustering in the incidence of anomalous flooding (or its absence) at decadal scales. The direct examination of this question from streamflow data is often clouded by the modification of flows by the construction of dams and other infrastructure to control floods, especially over a large river basin. Consequently, we explore the answer to this question through the analysis of both extreme rainfall and flood records. Spectral and time domain methods are used to identify the nature of decadal variability and its potential links to large scale climate.

Lall, Upmanu; Cioffi, Francesco; Devineni, Naresh; Lu, Mengqian

2014-05-01

40

Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood control in the Coatesville subbasin would provide an additional 1 to 3 percent reduction. Although flood control in the Modena subbasin would have little effect on reducing the 100-year flood peak, it would provide an additional 5 percent reduction in the peak discharge, for a total reduction of 30 percent, when combined with the three flood controls in the Coatesville subbasin.

Sloto, R.A.

1988-01-01

41

Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

2012-01-01

42

Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

2012-01-01

43

Counterpropagation fuzzy-neural network for city flood control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe counterpropagation fuzzy-neural network (CFNN) can effectively solve highly non-linear control problems and robustly tune the complicated conversion of human intelligence to logical operating system. We propose the CFNN for extracting flood control knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules to simulate a human-like operating strategy in a city flood control system through storm events. The Yu-Cheng pumping station, Taipei City, is used as a case study, where storm and operating records are used to train and verify the model's performance. Historical records contain information of rainfall amounts, inner water levels, and pump and gate operating records in torrential rain events. Input information can be classified according to its similarity and mapped into the hidden layer to form precedent if-then rules, while the output layer gradually adjusts the linked weights to obtain the optimal operating result. A model with increasing historical data can automatically increase rules and thus enhance its predicting ability. The results indicate the network has a simple basic structure with efficient learning ability to construct a human-like operating strategy and has the potential ability to automatically operating the flood control system.

Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Kai-Yao; Chang, Li-Chiu

2008-08-01

44

New Flooding Control Schemes Applied In Route Initialisation For The Ad Hoc On Demand Routing Protocols  

E-print Network

New Flooding Control Schemes Applied In Route Initialisation For The Ad Hoc On Demand Routing College London * Email: uceephu@ucl.ac.uk Abstract: This paper introduces a new route request flooding. This scheme aims to control and reduce the route request flooding. Furthermore, the scheme combines

Haddadi, Hamed

45

River Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

46

Flooding and Fragmentation: How Physical Features Structure Political Conflict Over Flood Control in California's Pajaro Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pajaro River on California's Central Coast has flooded repeat- edly over the past 40 years, causing millions of dollars of flood damages. The original levee system, expanded and rebuilt in 1949 by the U.S. Army, was designed based on insufficient hydrologic data, and local efforts to reconstruct it and maintain the flood chan- nel have been tangled up in

KEITH DOUGLASS WARNER

47

Development of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System: Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural physical conditions and the politics of flood management provide the historical context for structural flood control that underlies modern flood hazards in the Sacramento Valley. The valley is a broad, low plain with backswamp basins that were frequently inundated prior to Anglo-American settlement, continuing until the modern flood-control system was established. Early attempts to emulate the Mississippi River single-channel

L. Allan James; Michael B. Singer

2008-01-01

48

Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply  

E-print Network

the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District, for providing the lower American River channel and urbanization can have major combined effects on flood damage and optimal long-term flood management. The caseClimate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply

Lund, Jay R.

49

Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water management, including temporary lower storage basin levels and a reduction in extra investments for infrastructural measures.

van der Zwan, Rene

2013-04-01

50

Dynamic control of flood limited water level for reservoir operation by considering inflow uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAccording to the Chinese Flood Control Act, reservoir water levels generally are not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season in order to offer adequate storage for flood prevention. However, the operation rules based on the current FLWL have neglected meteorological and real-time flood forecasting information and give too much priority to low probability floods. For floodwater utilization, dynamic control of reservoir FLWL is a valuable and effective methodology to compromise between flood control and conservation for reservoir operation during the flood season. The dynamic control bound is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation. In this paper, a dynamic control operation model that considers inflow uncertainty, i.e. the inflow forecasting error and uncertainty of the flood hydrograph shape is proposed and developed. The model consists of three modules: the first one is a pre-release module, which is used to estimate the upper boundary of dynamic control bound on basis of inflow forecasting results; the second one is a refill operation module, which is used to retain recession flood, and the third one is a risk analysis module, which is used to assess flood risk. The acceptable flood control operation risk constraints and quantificational analysis methods are given, and the dynamic control bound of reservoir FLWL is estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The China's three gorges reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study. A multiple-input single-output linear systematic model is chosen for inflow forecasting of the TGR, and the future inflows are derived from gauged records by assuming that the inflow forecasting error follows a normal distribution. The application results show that the dynamic control of reservoir FLWL can effectively increase hydropower generation and the floodwater utilization rate without increasing flood control risk.

Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Chen, Guiya

2010-09-01

51

Flood Control, Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action would consist of a mixture of floodplain evacuation of approximately 130 structures on St. Friol Island, flood proofing for other property owners, continued conformance to floodplain regulations and continued availability of flood insu...

1977-01-01

52

HYDRAULICS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF LEVEES FOR FLOOD CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levees have been used as a means of structural flood protection for several thousand years. Their effect and effectiveness have been debated periodically, most recently during and after the 1993 Mississippi River flood. Based on hydraulic principles, it can be shown that for a given flood levees raise the water stage in the leveed channel and upstream of it. On

Ben Chie YEN

53

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.......................................................................6 Chapter III. Climate Change................................................................11 models...........................................................20 Climate change data

Lund, Jay R.

54

The Model Development of Real-Time Flood Control for Tsen-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer and fall, typhoons are the most frequently disasters in Taiwan. Because spare volume of reservoir can be used to reduce the peak flow, developing management models of flood operation for reservoirs becomes a good approach to reduce the impact of flooding. This study proposes a real-time flood control model which contains two major elements, an optimal flood control planning model and a real-time inflow predictor. First, the optimal flood control planning model contains the Genetic algorithms (GA), HEC-RAS and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The objective function of GA maximizes the reduction of flood damage at the downstream area and also minimizes the gap between target stage and final stage for reservoir. The HEC-RAS is used to simulate the river stage after reservoir releasing and the ANN instead of HEC-RAS simulation is used to reduce the computational burden of river routing simulation. The optimal flood control planning model can provide optimal solutions of reservoir release under pre-define of inflow data. Second, the real-time inflow predictor predicts the reservoir inflow based on the real-time inflow observations and the historical record of typhoon events. Therefore, the real-time flood control model optimizes the flood control operation of the reservoir based on the forecast inflow. This study area is at Tseng-wen Reservoir and using forty historical typhoon events to develop methodology. Six typhoon events are used to verify the proposed model. These typhoons include SEPAT (2007), KORSA (2007), KALMAEGI (2008), FUNG-WONG (2008), SINLAKU (2008) and JANGMI (2008).The results show that the developed model can reduce the duration of flood at the downstream area significantly The performance of using the proposed model for KORSA and SINLAKU can reduce the duration of flooding 4 hours and 3 hours respectively. Based on the above, the proposed model can be a useful tool for the real-time flood control of reservoirs.

Chang, H.; Chang, L.; Chang, Y.

2012-12-01

55

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS APPLICATION FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL WORK  

E-print Network

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS APPLICATION FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL WORK (Under provisions THAT THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY, ASSIST IN REPAIRING DAMAGE CAUSED BY HIGH WATER DURING 2013 AS FOLLOWS of existing Flood Control Laws) From: _______________________________ _____________________________ (Name

US Army Corps of Engineers

56

Optimized cascade reservoir operation considering ice flood control and power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice flood control is an important objective for reservoir operation in cold regions. Maintaining the reservoir outflow in a certain range is considered an effective way to remediate ice flood damage. However, this strategy may decrease the socio-economic benefit of reservoirs, for example, reduction of hydropower production. These conflicting objectives cause a dilemma for water managers when defining reservoir operation policy. This study considers seven cascade reservoirs in the upstream Yellow River, and ice flood control storage is introduced to balance the hydropower generation and ice flood control. The relation between the ice flood control storage volume of the Liujiaxia reservoir and cascade power output is analyzed. An optimization model to explore the trade-offs between hydropower generation and ice flood control requirements is developed. The model takes into account ice flood control requirements. The optimization model compared to simulation model based on the reservoir operation rule curves. The results show that the optimal operation rules are far more efficient in balancing the benefits within the power generation and ice flood control. The cascade reservoirs operation strategies proposed in this study can be effectively and suitably used in reservoir operation systems with similar conditions.

Chang, Jianxia; Meng, Xuejiao; Wang, ZongZhi; Wang, Xuebin; Huang, Qiang

2014-11-01

57

Shades of Green: Flood control study focused on Duluth, Minnesota  

EPA Science Inventory

In the aftermath of the economically and environmentally painful flood of 2012, the city of Duluth and the CSC examined ecologically based options to reduce runoff velocities and flood volume in the watershed with assistance and input of Minnesota Duluth's Natural Resources Resea...

58

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

59

76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `?ao Stream Flood Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S...Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI. This effort is being proposed under Section...CEPOH-PP-C), Building 230, Fort Shafter, HI 96858- 5440. Submit electronic...

2011-04-08

60

Video Summary - Neptus, Command and Control Infrastructure for Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This video shows a brief overview over Neptus, a command and control infrastructure for heterogeneous teams of autonomous vehicles. Having different types of vehicles at our laboratory and from our partners, there was an increasing need to create a common infrastructure to all these systems. Additionally, a tool to support the entire mission life cycle (planning, execution, review and dissemination)

Paulo Sousa Dias; Jose Pinto; Rui Goncalves; Gil Manuel Gonçalves; João Borges De Sousa; Fernando Lobo Pereira

2007-01-01

61

Identifying Effects of Forecast Uncertainty on Flood Control Decision - A Hydro-economic Hedging Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different from conventional studies developing reservoir operation models and treating forecast as input to obtain operation decisions case by case, this study issues a hydro-economic analysis framework and derives some general relationships between optimal flood control decision and streamflow forecast. By analogy with the hedging rule theory for water supply, we formulate reservoir flood control with a two-stage optimization model, in which the properties of flood damage (i.e., diminishing marginal damage) and the characteristics of forecast uncertainty (i.e., the longer the forecast horizon, the larger the forecast uncertainty) are incorporated to minimize flood risk. We define flood conveying capacity surplus (FCCS) variables to elaborate the trade-offs between the release of current stage (i.e., stage 1) and in the release of future stage (i.e., stage 2). Using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, the flood risk trade-off between the two stages is theoretically represented and illustrated by three typical situations depending on forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude. The analytical results also show some complicated effects of forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude on real-time flood control decision: 1) When there is a big flood with a small FCCS, the whole FCCS should be allocated to the current stage to hedge against the more certain and urgent flood risk in the current stage; 2) when there is a medium flood with a moderate FCCS, some FCCS should be allocated to the future stage but more FCCS still should be allocated to the current stage; and 3) when there is a small flood with a large FCCS, more FCCS should be allocated to the future stage than the current stage, as a large FCCS in the future stage can still induce some flood risk (distribution of future stage forecast uncertainty is more disperse) while a moderate FCCS in the current stage can induce a small risk. Moreover, this study also presents a hypothetical case study to analyze the flood risk under Pseudo probabilistic streamflow forecast (pPSF, deterministic forecast with variance) and Real probabilistic streamflow forecast (rPSF, ensemble forecast) forecast uncertainties, which shows ensemble forecast techniques are more efficient on mitigating flood risk.

Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

2011-12-01

62

Model driven security: From UML models to access control infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to building secure systems. In our approach, which we call model driven security, designers specify system models along with their secu- rity requirements and use tools to automatically generate system architectures from the models including complete, configured security infrastructures. Rather than fixing one particular modeling language for this process, we propose a schema for construct-

David A. Basin; Jürgen Doser; Torsten Lodderstedt

2006-01-01

63

Evaluating Green/Gray Infrastructure for CSO/Stormwater Control  

EPA Science Inventory

The NRMRL is conducting this project to evaluate the water quality and quantity benefits of a large-scale application of green infrastructure (low-impact development/best management practices) retrofits in an entire subcatchment. It will document ORD's effort to demonstrate the e...

64

Testing control of saltcedar seedlings using fall flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because germination requirements of the exotic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) and native cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizenii) are similar, efforts to establish cottonwoods often result in concurrent establishment of saltcedars. We evaluated the success\\u000a of fall flooding to reduce saltcedar seedling density in the Rio Grande floodplain of central New Mexico, USA. We also evaluated\\u000a the effects of flooding on cottonwood

Matthew D. Sprenger; Loren M. Smith; John P. Taylor

2001-01-01

65

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...storage allocated for flood control or navigation at all reservoirs constructed...case of danger from floods on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers the Tennessee Valley...operation in the interest of flood control and navigation as follows:...

2012-07-01

66

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...storage allocated for flood control or navigation at all reservoirs constructed...case of danger from floods on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers the Tennessee Valley...operation in the interest of flood control and navigation as follows:...

2011-07-01

67

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...storage allocated for flood control or navigation at all reservoirs constructed...case of danger from floods on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers the Tennessee Valley...operation in the interest of flood control and navigation as follows:...

2010-07-01

68

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...storage allocated for flood control or navigation at all reservoirs constructed...case of danger from floods on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers the Tennessee Valley...operation in the interest of flood control and navigation as follows:...

2013-07-01

69

WristQue : a personal sensor wristband for smart infrastructure and control  

E-print Network

Despite the rapid expansion of computers beyond desktop systems into devices and systems in the environment around us, the control interfaces to these systems are often basic and inadequate, particularly for infrastructure ...

Mayton, Brian D. (Brian Dean)

2013-01-01

70

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2011-07-01

71

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2013-07-01

72

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2011-07-01

73

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2012-07-01

74

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2013-07-01

75

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2010-07-01

76

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2013-07-01

77

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2010-07-01

78

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2012-07-01

79

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2012-07-01

80

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2010-07-01

81

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2011-07-01

82

Store and Haul: Improving Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Connectivity through Repeated Controlled Flooding  

E-print Network

This work investigates the benefits and drawbacks of repeating controlled flooding at different intervals in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) to overcome episodic connectivity. Specifically, the thesis examines the efficiencies ...

Thedinger, Robert Tyson

2010-06-15

83

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton in a Flood Control Reservoir and Tailwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zooplankton, when available, may be an important food source for fish fry in lotic habitats. The effects of flood control reservior operation on the downstream transport of reservior zooplankton (both microcrustaceans and rotifers) were quantified by exam...

J. R. Novotny, R. D. Hoyt

1983-01-01

84

Communal peeing: a new mode of flood control in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavioral response of the obligate bamboo-nesting ant Cataulacus muticus to nest flooding was studied in a perhumid tropical rainforest in Malaysia and in the laboratory. The hollow internodes of giant bamboo, in which C. muticus exclusively nests, are prone to flooding by heavy rains. The ants showed a two-graded response to flooding. During heavy rain workers block the nest entrances with their heads to reduce water influx. However, rainwater may still intrude into the nest chamber. The ants respond by drinking the water, leaving the nest and excreting water droplets on the outer stem surface. This cooperative 'peeing' behavior is a new survival mechanism adaptive to the ants' nesting ecology. Laboratory experiments conducted with two other Cataulacus species, C. catuvolcus colonizing small dead twigs and C. horridus inhabiting rotten wood, did not reveal any form of water-bailing behavior.

Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, J.

85

Public–private partnership as an example of flood control measures in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the old River Act of 1896, flood control measures in Japan were executed on the principle of a co-existence of the river and human activity. Until the 19th century, through the feudalistic period, the public sector did not have plans for completely controlling a large-scale flood, as it is almost impossible by only technological methods, in particular, to

Yutaka Takahasi

2004-01-01

86

Evaluating the cost of flood damage based on changes in extreme rainfall in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the cost of flood damage using numerical simulations based on digital map data and the flood control economy\\u000a investigation manual submitted by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation, and Tourism in Japan. The simulation\\u000a was carried out using a flood model incorporating representative precipitation data for all of Japan. The economic predictions,\\u000a which estimate flood damage caused by

So Kazama; Ayumu Sato; Seiki Kawagoe

2009-01-01

87

Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of the entire optimization problem. This study applies the developed methodology to Tseng-wun Reservoir. Forty typhoon events are collected as the historical database and six typhoon events are used to verify the proposed model. These typhoons include Typhoon Sepat and Typhoon Korsa in 2007 and Typhoon Kalmaegi, Typhoon Fung-Wong, Typhoon Sinlaku and Typhoon Jangmi in 2008. The results show that the proposed model can reduce the flood duration at the downstream area. For example, the real-time flood control model can reduce the flood duration by four and three hours for Typhoon Korsa and Typhoon Sinlaku respectively. This results indicate that the developed model can be a very useful tool for real-time flood control operation of reservoirs.

Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

2012-04-01

88

Self-limiting adaptive protocols for controlled flooding in ad hoc networks Larry Hughes and Ying Zhang  

E-print Network

Self-limiting adaptive protocols for controlled flooding in ad hoc networks Larry Hughes and Ying power consumption, reduce traffic, and restrict flooding, are of growing importance. In this paper-aware localized routing [9] and energy con- served routing [1]. Flooding is the most commonly used scheme in ad

Hughes, Larry

89

Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore

2012-01-01

90

Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States  

E-print Network

, including property assessment records, crop enterprise budgets, census data, etc., as well as from agencies such as FEMA. The analytical method used provides a rapid assessment of potential flood-control benefits for a single event for each of the four... requires an economic analysis of expected benefits, or losses avoided with implemented protection measures. Recent flood events along the international border, resulting in significant economic damages and loss of human life, emphasized the need for a...

Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

91

Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity  

E-print Network

-based methodology for developing emergency operation schedules (EOS). EOS are decision tools that provide guidance to reservoir operators in charge of making real-time release decisions during major flood events. A computer program named REOS was created... to perform the computations to develop risk-based EOS. The computational algorithm in REOS is divided in three major components: (1) synthetic streamflow generation, (2) mass balance computations, and (3) frequency analysis. The methodology computes...

Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

2005-02-17

92

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

2009-04-01

93

Flood information for flood-plain planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

Bue, Conrad D.

1967-01-01

94

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL] [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

95

Implementation of Vehicle to Grid Infrastructure Using Fuzzy Logic Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

With high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), stability of the electric grid becomes a challenging task. A greater penetration level would demand a proper coordination amongst the various EVs as they charge or discharge to the grid. Coordination here refers to controlling the charging and discharging patterns of different EVs depending on their individual battery states and the present grid

Mukesh Singh; Praveen Kumar; Indrani Kar

2012-01-01

96

Managing Infrastructure in the ALICE Detector Control System  

E-print Network

The main role of the ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is to ensure safe and efficient operation of one of the large high energy physics experiments at CERN. The DCS design is based on the commercial SCADA software package WinCC Open Architecture.

Lechman, M; Bond, P M; Chochula, P.Ch; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O; Rosinsky, P; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O

2014-01-01

97

System-Level Infrastructure Issues for Controlled Interactions among Autonomous Participants in Electronic Commerce Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic commerce in open large-scale distributed en- vironments presents several system-level challenges in terms of execution model, infrastructure, and management. The autonomy of providers severely restricts the scope of control by authorities other than the owner of each service, and makes the design of the distributed software architecture a challenging undertaking. In this paper we present our ongo- ing work

Manolis Marazakis; Dimitris Papadakis; Christos Nikolaou; Penelope Constanta

1999-01-01

98

The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing system composed of thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking,

Giovanna Lehmann Miotto; Luca Magnoni; John Erik Sloper

2011-01-01

99

Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

100

Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplet, P. & Yésou, P. 2000. Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment? Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 106–111.The delta of the Senegal river (320 000 ha) has been gradually dammed, mostly during the 1970–80s. From 1986, the Diama dam has stopped any backflow of salt water from the sea into most

Patrick Triplet; Pierre Yésou

2000-01-01

101

Daily Time Step Refinement of Optimized Flood Control Rule Curves for a Global Warming Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest temperatures have warmed by 0.8 °C since 1920 and are predicted to further increase in the 21st century. Simulated streamflow timing shifts associated with climate change have been found in past research to degrade water resources system performance in the Columbia River Basin when using existing system operating policies. To adapt to these hydrologic changes, optimized flood control

S. Lee; C. Fitzgerald; A. F. Hamlet; S. J. Burges

2009-01-01

102

Application of stochastic differential equation to reservoir routing with probabilistic inflow forecasting and flood control risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time flood control of a reservoir system involves various uncertainties including the prediction uncertainty of inflow flood events, uncertainties in boundary conditions such as the reservoir storage curve, release capacity curve, and the uncertainty within the reservoir flood routing model itself. In this study, the hydrologic uncertainty processor (PUB) under the framework of Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted to quantify the uncertainty of flood prediction, providing with the probabilistic forecasting for real-time flood events. A Gaussian form of distribution is used to describe uncertainty of reservoir storage or release capacity; parameters of the distribution are estimated by historical measurements. In order to route the flood hydrograph with probability feature, i.e. a probabilistic forecasting flood event, stochastic differential equation (SDE) is introduced to build the reservoir flood routing model. By introducing a Gaussian white noise term, the traditional reservoir's water balance equation is altered to a kind of Ito stochastic differential equation. The solutions of Ito equation provide a probabilistic form of forecasting for reservoir stage process and outflow hydrograph. Both the analytical and numerical approaches are applied to solve the Ito stochastic differential equation, and their applicability for reservoir stochastic flood routing is testified. By assigning a specific flood limit level or reservoir beginning water level on which a real-time flood event is started to route through using the SDE, a corresponding probabilistic reservoir stage processes can be forecasted. For a designed control water level (DCWL), the risk rate or the largest probability that the forecasted reservoir stage excesses DCWL can be computed. Setting a series of flood limit levels, for a forecasted probabilistic inflow hydrograph, there obtains the corresponding reservoir stage processes, and in turn the risk rate of flood protection. By checking if the risk rate is less than a preassigned acceptable risk or flood control standard, a reasonable flood limit water level is determined to raise the utilization ratio of flood resources. As an example, the approach is applied to Dahuofang reservoir, which is located on Hun river in Northeast China. A typical flood event occurred in the flooding season of 2005 is analyzed to demonstrate the application of proposed procedure.

Liang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Wang, J.

2012-04-01

103

Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

2009-05-01

104

Life in the balance: a signaling network controlling survival of flooding.  

PubMed

Recent reports on responses to flooding, submergence, and low-oxygen stress have connected components in an essential regulatory network that underlies plasticity in growth and metabolism essential for the survival of distinct flooding regimes. Here, we discuss growth under severe oxygen-limited conditions (anaerobic growth) and less oxygen-deficient underwater conditions (ethylene-driven underwater growth). Low-oxygen stress causes an energy and carbohydrate crisis that must be controlled through regulated consumption of carbohydrates and energy reserves. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), low-oxygen stress, energy homeostasis and growth are connected by a calcineurin B-like interacting binding kinase (CIPK) in seeds germinated under water. In shoots, two opposing adaptive strategies to submergence, elongation (escape) and inhibition of elongation (quiescence), are controlled by related ethylene response factor (ERF) DNA binding proteins that act downstream of ethylene and modulate gibberellin-mediated shoot growth. Increased resolution of the flooding signaling network will require more precise investigation of the interactions between oxygen tension and cellular energy status in regulation of anaerobic metabolism and ethylene-driven growth, both essential to survival in variable flooding environments. PMID:20813578

Bailey-Serres, Julia; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

2010-10-01

105

AstroCloud, a Cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research: Data Archiving and Quality Control  

E-print Network

AstroCloud is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences){\\url{http://astrocloud.china-vo.org}}\\citep{O8-5_Cui_adassxxiv}. To archive the astronomical data in China, we present the implementation of the astronomical data archiving system (ADAS). Data archiving and quality control are the infrastructure for the AstroCloud. Throughout the data of the entire life cycle, data archiving system standardized data, transferring data, logging observational data, archiving ambient data, And storing these data and metadata in database. Quality control covers the whole process and all aspects of data archiving.

He, Boliang; Fan, Dongwei; Li, Changhua; Xiao, Jian; Yu, Ce; Wang, Chuanjun; Cao, Zihuang; Chen, Junyi; Yi, Weimin; Li, Shanshan; Mi, Linying; Yang, Sisi

2014-01-01

106

Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Background The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. Methods A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. Results The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net migration rates, other social determinants showed significant correlation with decline in new TB cases per 100,000 population. Conclusions Social infrastructure development leads to social capital generation which engenders positive growth in TB program outcomes. Strategies which promote social infrastructure development should find adequate weightage in the overall policy framework for urban TB control in developing countries. PMID:24438431

2014-01-01

107

118 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / MAY/JUNE 2000 LINEAR PROGRAMMING FOR FLOOD CONTROL IN THE IOWA  

E-print Network

damages, surpassing all floods in the United States in modern times (U.S. Department of Commerce 1994 related to flood-control operating procedures followed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island analysis of three U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' projects on the Iowa and Des Moines rivers. A strategy

Pasternack, Gregory B.

108

Real-time control of urban flooding P. Willems*, T. Barjas Blanco**, P-K. Chiang*, K. Cauwenberghs***, J. Berlamont* and B. De Moor**  

E-print Network

Real-time control of urban flooding P. Willems*, T. Barjas Blanco**, P-K. Chiang*, K. Cauwenberghs.Cauwenberghs@vmm.be) Abstract Real-time regulation of flood control reservoirs is being researched for the case of the river regulation of the hydraulic structures that control the reservoir storage in order to minimize the flood risk

109

A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

Murch, Austin M.

2008-01-01

110

A scalable distributed security infrastructure for industrial control and sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographically remote installations can not always be connected to their parent enterprise infrastructure, making centralised security impractical. Data confidentiality at the factory's Industrial Control and Sensor Network must be preserved to prevent industrial espionage or sabotage. We propose an application-level decentralised security architecture for enterprise networks containing IEEE 802.15.4 compatible wireless ICSNs. Our design relies on Zigbee, 6LowPAN or WirelessHART

Flutra Osmani; Adriaan Slabbert

2009-01-01

111

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

Usgs

112

The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

2014-12-01

113

Measurements, patterns, and controls of nitrogen flux in a cranberry bed during the harvest flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for cranberry production but also a source of freshwater eutrophication in southeastern Massachusetts. Surface application of N fertilizer is pervasive throughout the cranberry industry, accounting for 93% of total annual N export from farms. The agricultural practice of "wet harvesting", involving the flooding of farms with ~1 ft of water, may promote the vertical transport and transformation of nitrogen in cranberry beds. A cranberry bed at the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station (East Wareham, MA) has been instrumented with a network of hydrological monitoring equipment for quantifying patterns and controls of nitrogen dynamics during the harvest flood. Here, data of (1) hydraulic head gradient between floodwater and groundwater (J), (2) hydraulic conductivity (K), and (3) N concentration in groundwater (C) collected from multiple points on the cranberry bed will be presented, and used to evaluate the patterns and controls N fluxes (f = JKC) in the cranberry bed.

Kennedy, C. D.

2012-12-01

114

Effect of multiyear drought on upland sediment yield and subsequent impacts on flood control reservoir storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1950s, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and later the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service has built over 11,000 flood control reservoirs (FCR) in 47 states. FCR built in Texas and Oklahoma in the early 1950s to mid-1950s were impounded during the most severe drought on record in the region. In this study, the

John A. Dunbar; Peter M. Allen; Sean J. Bennett

2010-01-01

115

The role of woodland in flood control: a landscape perspective T.R. Nisbet1  

E-print Network

to slow down run-off and reduce downstream flooding (McCulloch and Robinson, 1993). In fact, deforestation of opportunities to help reduce flood risk. However, the potential to assist flood defence, is highly dependent

116

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

117

CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection  

SciTech Connect

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

2012-05-14

118

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-01

119

Taming a Flood with a T-CUP - Designing Flood-Control Structures with a Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of a genetic algorithm to solve a hydrology design problem - determining an optimal prescription of Best Management Practices in a flood-prone watershed. The result is an interactive tool for hydrology engineers that can be used to explore the effects of water retention and infiltration devices as an alternative to traditional storm sewers. The model

Jeff Wallace; Sushil J. Louis

2003-01-01

120

Survey of infection control infrastructure in selected southern and eastern Mediterranean hospitals.  

PubMed

A structured questionnaire concerning hospital infection control (IC) organisation and initiatives was sent to 45 hospitals in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Hospitals bordering the eastern Mediterranean appeared to have more established IC infrastructures than southern Mediterranean hospitals. However, there were no significant differences among hospitals in the two regions in surveillance activities, the presence of an antibiotic policy or feedback of resistance data to prescribers, all of which were at a low level. Only a minority of hospitals had published antimicrobial treatment guidelines or gave feedback on antimicrobial resistance data to prescribers. PMID:17391397

Borg, M A; Cookson, B D; Scicluna, E

2007-03-01

121

Multiscale control of flooding and riparian-forest composition in Lower Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

Despite general agreement that river-valley hydrology shapes riparian ecosystems, relevant processes are difficult to distinguish and often inadequately specified in riparian studies. We hypothesize that physical constraints imposed by broad-scale watershed characteristics and river valleys modify local site conditions in a predictable and probabilistic fashion. To test this hypothesis, we employ a series of structural equations that decompose occurrence of riparian ecotypes into regional temperature, catchment storm response, valley hydraulics, and local site wetness via a priori specification of factor structure and ask (1) Is there evidence for multiscale hydrologic control of riparian diversity across Lower Michigan? (2) Do representations of key constraints on flood dynamics distinguish regional patterns of riparian vegetation? (3) How important are these effects? Cross-correlation among geospatial predictors initially obscured much of the variation revealed through analysis of semipartial variance. Causal relationships implied by our model fit with observed variation in riparian conditions (chi-square P = 0.43) and accounted for between 84% and 99% of the occurrence probability of five riparian ecotypes at 94 locations. Results suggest strong variation in the effects of regional climate, and both the relative importance and spatial scale of hydrologic factors influencing riparian vegetation through explicit quantification of relative flood frequency, duration, intensity, and relative overall inundation. Although climate and hydrology are not the only determinants of riparian conditions, interactions of hydrologic sourcing and flood dynamics described by our spatial models drive a significant portion of the variation in riparian ecosystem character throughout Lower Michigan, USA. PMID:19294921

Baker, Matthew E; Wiley, Michael J

2009-01-01

122

Model-controlled flooding with applications to image reconstruction and segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss improved image reconstruction and segmentation in a framework we term model-controlled flooding (MCF). This extends the watershed transform for segmentation by allowing the integration of a priori information about image objects into flooding simulation processes. Modeling the initial seeding, region growing, and stopping rules of the watershed flooding process allows users to customize the simulation with user-defined or default model functions incorporating prior information. It also extends a more general class of transforms based on connected attribute filters by allowing the modification of connected components of a grayscale image, thus providing more flexibility in image reconstruction. MCF reconstruction defines images with desirable features for further segmentation using existing methods and can lead to substantial improvements. We demonstrate the MCF framework using a size transform that extends grayscale area opening and attribute thickening/thinning, and give examples from several areas: concealed object detection, speckle counting in biological single cell studies, and analyses of benchmark microscopic image data sets. MCF achieves benchmark error rates well below those reported in the recent literature and in comparison with other algorithms, while being easily adapted to new imaging contexts.

Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

2012-04-01

123

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the salt marsh radiation budget, surface energy balance, and CO2 flux. Analysis contrasted flooded and nonflooded and day and night effects. The salt marsh surface energy balance was similar to that of a heating-dominated sparse crop during nonflooded periods but similar to that of an evaporative cooling-dominated, well-watered grassy lawn during flooding. Observed increases in latent heat flux and decreases in net ecosystem exchange during flooding were proportional to flood depth and duration, with complete CO2 flux suppression occurring above some flood height less than the canopy height. Flood-induced changes in the salt marsh energy balance were dominated by changes in sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, and surface water heat storage. Parameters suitable for predicting the salt marsh surface energy balance were obtained by calibrating common models (e.g., Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and pan coefficient). Biophysical controls on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange were identified following calibration of models describing the coupling of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the salt marsh. The effects of flooding on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange are temporary but strongly affect the marsh water, carbon, and energy balance despite their short duration.

Moffett, Kevan B.; Wolf, Adam; Berry, Joe A.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2010-10-01

124

Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

2006-05-01

125

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

126

Use of Green Infrastructure Integrated with Conventional Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control: Kansas City, MO  

EPA Science Inventory

Advanced design concepts such as Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Solutions (or upland runoff control techniques) are currently being encouraged by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a management practice to contain and control stormwater at the lot ...

127

Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding  

SciTech Connect

The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicol, David M [UNIV OF IL; Jin, Dong [UNIV OF IL

2010-12-16

128

Flood Plain Management.  

E-print Network

or a major part of flood protection works and subsidized the use of the flood plain. Boulding (2) suggests that we need an entirely new philosophy for flood control, which may involve treating the river not as an enemy to be conquered but as a... of a more intensive utilization of flood lain acre- age. Studies indicate that flood plain encroachment oc- curs because of 1) ignorance of the flood hazard, 2) an- ticipation of further Federal protection, and 3) profitabil- ity to the private...

McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

1976-01-01

129

Software and cyber-infrastructure development to control the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys with two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55m telescope of 3deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83cm telescope of 2deg field of view. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and maintain all the observatory systems including not only astronomical subsystems but also infrastructure and other facilities. In order to provide quality, reliability and efficiency, the OAJ control system (OCS) design is based on CIA (Control Integrated Architecture) and OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) as a key to improve day and night operation processes. The OCS goes from low level hardware layer including IOs connected directly to sensors and actuators deployed around the whole observatory systems, including telescopes and astronomical instrumentation, up to the high level software layer as a tool to perform efficiently observatory operations. We will give an overview of the OAJ control system design and implementation from an engineering point of view, giving details of the design criteria, technology, architecture, standards, functional blocks, model structure, development, deployment, goals, report about the actual status and next steps.

Yanes-Díaz, A.; Antón, J. L.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Guillén-Civera, L.; Bello, R.; Jiménez-Mejías, D.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Suárez, O.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Marin-Franch, A.; Luis-Simoes, R.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez-Hernández, M. A. C.; Moles, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Vazquez Ramió, H.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Maicas, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Lopez-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Penteado, P.; Schoenell, W.; Kanaan, A.

2014-07-01

130

Modeling the effect of transmission errors on TCP controlled transfers over infrastructure 802.11 wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several studies on the performance of TCP controlled transfers over an infrastructure IEEE 802.11 WLAN, assuming perfect channel conditions. In this paper, we develop an analytical model for the throughput of TCP controlled file transfers over the IEEE 802.11 DCF with different packet error probabilities for the stations, accounting for the effect of packet drops on the

Subhashini Krishnasamy; Anurag Kumar

2011-01-01

131

Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. Section 2 of this report includes the results for capillary desaturation experiments for low tension fluids in Berea. These results show that some residual brine remains during microemulsion flooding even at the highest capillary number obtained in this experiment. Section 2 also includes more extensive results from the dispersion and relative permeability experiments. This section also includes data which extends the dispersion and relative permeability results from the case of two-phase flow to include initial results of three-phase flow at steady state. Section 3 is a complete description of our updated simulator. Section 4 describes and gives the results of an oil recovery experiment. Section 5 compares the results of this oil recovery experiment with our simulator. The agreement is the best obtained so far. Section 6 compares our simulator with a Sloss experiment reported by Gupta. Again, the agreement is good and demonstrates the capability of the improved simulator to account for the separation of alcohol and surfactant. Section 7 contains the results of several 2-D areal simulations involving new features of the 2-D simulator reported last year. Section 8 is a list of some of the major conclusions of this simulation research. Section 9 is an SPE paper combining the results of Senol with Walsh, a Ph.D. student of Lake and Schechter. Her polymer experiments were interpreted using Walsh's geochemical simulator. 133 references, 118 figures, 21 tables.

Pope, G.A.

1984-11-01

132

Flow Focusing as a Control on the Width of Canyons Formed by Outburst Floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectacular canyons exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars that were carved by ancient outburst megafloods. These canyons often have steep headwalls and were eroded into jointed rock. This suggests that canyon formation is driven by upstream retreat of waterfalls through toppling failure. Discharge reconstructions remain difficult, however, because we do not understand quantitatively the links between canyon formation and canyon morphology. Here we propose that the width of canyon headwalls is set by the shear stress distribution around the rim of the canyon, which governs the propensity for toppling failure, and that this distribution is controlled by focusing of flood water into the canyon head. To test this hypothesis, we performed a series of numerical simulations of 2-D, depth-averaged, turbulent flow using the hydraulic numerical modeling suite ANUGA Hydro and mapped the shear stresses along the rim of canyons of various geometries. The numerical simulations were designed to explore three dimensionless variables: the aspect ratio of the canyon (length normalized by width), the canyon width relative to the normal flow depth, and the Froude number. Preliminary results show that flow focusing at the head of a canyon can lead to heightened shear stresses there compared to the sides of the canyon. Flow focusing is most efficient for subcritical flows with large canyon aspect ratios, suggesting that canyons grow in all directions until they reach a critical length which depends on the Froude number only. Canyons longer than this critical length maintain a uniform width during canyon formation. Earth-analog canyons, where flood depths were constrained from previous paleo-hydraulic studies, show good agreement with our numerical predictions, suggesting that flow focusing may set the width of canyons during megafloods. Model results allow a link between process and form that will enable us to constrain better flood discharges on Earth and Mars, where other robust paleo-hydraulic tools are not available.

Lapotre, M. G.; Lamb, M. P.; Halliday, C. K.

2012-12-01

133

Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

Comet

2011-10-18

134

Evaluating the Cost of Flood Damage Based on Changes in Extreme Rainfall in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fourth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provoked a significant amount of controversy, as\\u000a experts have sought to apply it to climate change in Japan. In particular, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation,\\u000a and Tourism (MLIT) organized a committee of experts responsible for implementing flood control policies (MLIT 2008). Japan\\u000a is particularly vulnerable to flooding because

So Kazama; Ayumu Sato; Seiki Kawagoe

135

Parcel-scale urban coastal flood mapping: Leveraging the multi-scale CoSMoS model for coastal flood forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California coastal sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century and evidence suggests mean tidal range, and consequently, mean high water (MHW) is increasing along portions of Southern California Bight. Furthermore, emerging research indicates wind stress patterns associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) have suppressed sea level rise rates along the West Coast since 1980, and a reversal in this pattern would result in the resumption of regional sea level rise rates equivalent to or exceeding global mean sea level rise rates, thereby enhancing coastal flooding. Newport Beach is a highly developed, densely populated lowland along the Southern California coast currently subject to episodic flooding from coincident high tides and waves, and the frequency and intensity of flooding is expected to increase with projected future sea levels. Adaptation to elevated sea levels will require flood mapping and forecasting tools that are sensitive to the dominant factors affecting flooding including extreme high tides, waves and flood control infrastructure. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of nowcast and forecast systems including Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) and the USGS Multi-hazard model, the Southern California Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS). However, fine scale local embayment dynamics and overtopping flows are needed to map unsteady flooding effects in coastal lowlands protected by dunes, levees and seawalls. Here, a recently developed two dimensional Godunov non-linear shallow water solver is coupled to water level and wave forecasts from the CoSMoS model to investigate the roles of tides, waves, sea level changes and flood control infrastructure in accurate flood mapping and forecasting. The results of this study highlight the important roles of topographic data, embayment hydrodynamics, water level uncertainties and critical flood processes required for meaningful prediction of sea level rise impacts and coastal flood forecasting.

Gallien, T.; Barnard, P. L.; Sanders, B. F.

2011-12-01

136

Living on the edge of stagnant water: An assessment of environmental impacts of construction-phase drainage congestion along Dhaka city flood control embankment, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impacts of the construction-phase drainage congestion along the Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment were assessed\\u000a by a pilot questionnaire survey (in 1991) among the target population adjacent to the embankment. The results of the survey\\u000a indicated that, despite significant alleviation of river flooding, the majority of the respondents experienced a new type\\u000a of flood problem in the form of

Harun Rasid; Azim U. Mallsk

1996-01-01

137

Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

2013-05-01

138

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

139

Toward sustainable stormwater management : overcoming barriers to green infrastructure  

E-print Network

With their high concentrations of impervious surface, urban areas generate stormwater runoff that overwhelms existing infrastructure causing flooding, sewer overflows, water pollution, and habitat degradation. Under pressure ...

Hammitt, Sarah A. (Sarah Ann)

2010-01-01

140

Flood Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

2010-08-02

141

A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

142

The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing system composed of thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify the correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed of two main entities that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The first is the engine, a Java service that performs aggregation, processing and filtering of real time data stream and computes statistical correlation on sliding windows of time. The results are made available to clients via a simple web interface supporting SQL-like query syntax. The second is the visualization, provided by an Ajax-based web application that runs on client's browser. The dashboard approach allows to present information in a clear and customizable structure. Several types of interactive graphs are proposed as widgets that can be dynamically added and removed from visualization panels. Each widget acts as a client for the engine, querying the web interface to retrieve data with desired criteria. In this paper we present the design, development and evolution of the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard. We also present the statistical analysis computed by the application in this first period of high energy data taking operations for the ATLAS experiment.

Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Magnoni, Luca; Sloper, John Erik

2011-12-01

143

The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-20

144

Status of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System within the Context of Its Natural  

E-print Network

, potentially causing backwater effects that could limit diversion of flood discharge into the bypass system levees along the main channels and on dams that reside on the basin periphery. Much less focus is put

California at Santa Barbara, University of

145

Flood protection and management: quo vadimus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, there have been many destructive floods in various parts of the world. Despite the extensive investment in flood control works, neither flood occurrences nor damages are decreasing. A possible consequence of climate change is an increased frequency of extreme meteorological events that may cause floods. Discussion is offered of some recent large floods in the world

ZBIGNIEW W. KUNDZEWICZ; KUNIYOSHI TAKEUCHI

1999-01-01

146

Flood Control with Model Predictive Control for River Systems with Water Reservoirs  

E-print Network

- ature for controlling channels, such as proportional-integral, heu- ristic, predictive, and optimal on these equations, to- gether with the dynamics of hydraulic structures and junctions, a mathematical model can the nonlinearities of gates and hydraulic structures into account (Thai 2005), and none of them have water reservoirs

147

Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed,\\u000a i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the\\u000a polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted

Valérie Bert; Piet Seuntjens; Winnie Dejonghe; Sophie Lacherez; Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Bart Vandecasteele

2009-01-01

148

Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

2014-06-01

149

Green Infrastructure  

E-print Network

SWM, Green Buildings, Energy Forum, Texas Smartscape) ? Deteriorating Roadways ? ASCE Report Card on Texas Infrastructure for 2008 identified roads as the #1 infrastructure concern ? Congestion ? DFW congestion is growing over 45% faster than...SWM, Green Buildings, Energy Forum, Texas Smartscape) ? Deteriorating Roadways ? ASCE Report Card on Texas Infrastructure for 2008 identified roads as the #1 infrastructure concern ? Congestion ? DFW congestion is growing over 45% faster than...

Tildwell, J.

2011-01-01

150

Evaluation method to floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season for hyperconcentration rivers and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The severe soil erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau has resulted in high sediment concentration in runoff, which can cause tremendous pressure to the development and utilization of regional floodwater resources as well as the regional flood control and disaster mitigation. The floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season (FADCUFS) is an important part of the available amount of surface water resources. It also has a critical role in the sustainable development of water resources, especially for those hyperconcentration rivers (HRs) in the Loess Plateau. The evaluation of FADCUFS for HRs is an important issue in the field of hydrology and water resources. However, the understandings of its connotation, evaluation method, and nature are limited. Combined engineering measures with non-engineering ones, the evaluation method of FADCUFS for HRs was presented based on the angles of water quantity and quality. The method divides the FADCUFS into two parts in terms of the flood control operation characteristics of reservoir in HR and the relationship between water resources utilization and sediment in runoff, respectively. One is the amount of difficult regulation-control floodwater (DRCF), and the other is the volume of difficult utilization floodwater (DUF). A case study of the Bajiazui Reservoir, located in the typical Jinghe River (the second tributary of the Chinese Yellow River with high sediment concentration) was performed. Three typical years, wet year (1988), average year (1986), and dry years (1995 and 2000), were employed. According to the daily optimal operation model of Bajiazui Reservoir, the DRCF occurs for only the wet year instead of the average and the dry years. There are four times of DRCF with the amount of 26.74 m3/s (July 14), 14.58 m3/s (August 5), 10.27 m3/s (August 9), and 1.23 m3/s (August 12) in 1988, respectively, with a total amount of 4.56 million m3. A certain close relationship exists between the amount of DRCF and the flood inflows to Bajiazui. When the events of DRCF occur, there must be big flood inflows several days ago. And the outflows from the daily optimal operation model exceed their permitted limits of discharges. In addition, they are close to the measured runoffs from the Bajiazui Hydrological Station downstream the dam. It indicates that the presented daily optimal operation model has a high accuracy and can achieve credible results. On the other hand, the maximum grade approach is used to achieve the coefficients of surplus floodwater in flood season in terms of the daily outflows from the daily optimal operation model and the corresponding sediment concentration in runoffs. When the water resources utilization limit of sediment concentration in runoff is set as 10%, the volume of DUF in flood season of 1988 is then calculated as 108.29 million m3. So the value of FADCUFS can be determined as 112.85 (=4.56+108.29) million m3, accounting for 78.06% of the total discharge of reservoir in flood season. The study deepens the understandings of the connotation and the evaluation method of FADCUFS. It offers a new and reliable approach to assess the FADCUFS for HRs. The results are beneficial to the sustainable development of regional water resources.

Li, X.

2013-05-01

151

In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvac?k Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by taking inflow, elevation, precipitation and snow water equivalent into consideration to propose alternative simulations as a decision support system. After that, the releases are subjected to user-defined rules. Thus, previous year reservoir simulations are compared with observed reservoir levels and releases. Hypothetical flood scenarios are tested in case of different storm event timing and sizing. Numerical weather prediction data of Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) can be used for temperature and precipitation forecasts that will form the inputs for a hydrological model. The estimated flows can be used for real time short term decisions for reservoir simulation based on variable guide curve and user defined rules.

Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

2012-04-01

152

Feedbacks among Floods, Pioneer Woody Vegetation, and Channel Change in Sand-Bed Rivers: Insights from Field Studies of Controlled Flood Releases and Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate feedbacks between flow, geomorphic processes, and pioneer riparian vegetation in sand-bed rivers, we are combining field, hydraulic modeling, and laboratory simulations. Field studies have examined the response of woody riparian seedlings and channel morphology to prescribed dam-released floods that have been designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Through monitoring of floods over a 7-year period, we have observed temporal and spatial variations in channel response. Floods have produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach with greater sediment supply. We also have observed that as vegetation grows beyond the seedling stage, its stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increases, such that floods of similar sizes but at different times may produce markedly different downstream responses as a function of vegetation characteristics. We also observed greater mortality among nonnative Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) seedlings than among native Salix gooddingii (Goodding's willow) seedlings, likely as a result of the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. Combining field observations with modeling predictions of local hydraulics for the flood events we have studied is being used to draw linkages between hydraulics, channel change, and plant response at the patch and bar scale. In addition, mechanistic linkages are being examined using a field-scale laboratory stream channel, where seedlings of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) and Populus fremontii (cottonwood) were planted and subjected to floods with varying sediment feed rate and plant configurations. The floods conveyed by our model channel were generally insufficient to scour the woody seedlings we planted, but changes in bar size and hydraulics were observed as a function of sediment feed and vegetation density and architecture.

Wilcox, A. C.; Shafroth, P. B.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; Kiu, L.; Skorko, K.

2012-04-01

153

Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan ranging from governmental organizations, for-profit to and non-profit entities. All vehicles were equipped with a data acquisition system that automatically collected statistically relevant data for submission to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which monitored the progress of the fuel cell vehicles against the DOE technology validation milestones. The Mercedes Team also provided data from Gen-II vehicles under the similar operations as Gen I vehicles to compare technology maturity during program duration.

Ronald Grasman

2011-12-31

154

Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In particular, after the atmospheric events of the April, 1992, November 1998 and September 2000, which caused vast damages, it could be shown that the causes determining the flash flooding, as well as the occurrence of floods with return times of less than 20 years (flow rate of the order of 120 m3/sec) and which are increasing in the last decade, were attributable to four main causes: · deviations and artificial banks along the lower valley, dating from 1400 to 1500, for land reclamation and agriculture; · 15th century alterations and destruction due to anthropic settlements and more extensive agricultural cultivation; · beginning from the year 1900, the building of transversal works to deviate the water for hydroelectric and agricultural purposes with a hydraulic profile rate incompatible with that of the existent hydraulic defenses such as to cause flash floods due to breaking of the banks; · underestimation in measuring the fluvial discharge due to indiscriminate and strong exploitations of the aquifers for agriculture during arid periods.

Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

155

Decomposing the rainfall control on flash flood hydrograph shape into spatial, temporal and storm motion components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-time variability of rainfall, drainage network structure and local runoff generation properties, including land use/cover and geologic characteristics, shape the catchment response to storms. A way to describe the complexity of the interaction between these factors is to quantify their relative contribution on flood hydrograph shape. Quantifying the contribution of each factor is of great importance because this can identify which sources of variability are crucial for understanding and predicting catchment response. In this work we focus our analysis on the role of space-time variability of rainfall and drainage structure on flash flood hydrographs. An extended version of the concept of "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" which accounts for hillslope/channel velocity differentiation forms the basis of the analytical framework used in our analysis. The framework is used to quantify the contribution of each source of variability in flood response for eight extreme flash flood-inducing storms occurred in Europe in the period 2002 to 2008. The storms were selected from the HYDRATE project database, where high resolution radar rainfall data were integrated with post event surveys. The location of the events covers a range of climatic regions (Mediterranean, Alpine, Continental). Comparison between scenarios of uniform and variable (spatially) rainfall, showed that the effect of spatial variability of rainfall on mean runoff time is apparent only for basin scales > 100km2 . The difference in mean runoff time, relative to original rainfall, ranges from -5 to +10%. Corresponding investigation on the effect of rainfall spatial variability on variance of runoff time showed no apparent scale dependence and a relative difference of +/- 20%. Regarding the effect of drainage structure, an interesting result is that event-wise the importance of drainage network follows a well-defined scale dependence. Finally, examination on the relative importance of storm motion shows that its contribution is generally low (<10%) suggesting that storm velocity had a minor effect on the hydrograph shape for the cases examined.

Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Anagnostou, Emmanouil

2013-04-01

156

Diamon2- Improved Monitoring of CERN’s Accelerator Controls Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Monitoring of heterogeneous systems in large organizations like CERN is always challenging. CERN's accelerators infrastructure includes large number of equipment (servers, consoles, FECs, PLCs), some still running legacy software like LynxOS 4 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 on older hardware with very limited resources. DIAMON2 is based on CERN Common Monitoring platform. Using Java industry standards, notably Spring, Ehcache and the Java Message Service, together with a small footprint C++ -based monitoring agent for real time systems and wide variety of additional data acquisition components (SNMP, JMS, JMX etc.), DIAMON2 targets CERN’s environment, providing easily extensible, dynamically reconfigurable, reliable and scalable monitoring solution. This article explains the evolution of the CERN diagnostics and monitoring environment until DIAMON2, describes the overall system’s architecture, main components and their functionality as well as the first operational experiences with the new system, observed...

Buczak, W; Ehm, F; Jurcso, P; Mitev, M

2014-01-01

157

Evaluation of the Relative Influence of Climate Variability and Human Activities on Flood Risk in Moderately Impaired Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard procedures for forecasting flood risk involve estimating the recurrence interval associated with observed annual maximum flood (AMF) events using an assumed theoretical probability distribution. The magnitude of a needed design event (i.e., the 100-year event) is then determined for use in floodplain delineation, land-use planning and management, design and operation of water-use and water-control structures, and design of transportation infrastructure such as bridges and roads. These procedures assume annual maximum flood series are stationary, meaning the distribution of flood flows is not significantly affected by climatic trends or cycles. Historical flood events are thus considered to be representative of future flood occurrences, and the flood risk associated with a given magnitude of flow is modeled as constant over time. This represents a significant limitation of current flood frequency models as results of previous studies indicate AMF series are non-stationary even in unimpaired watersheds. Moreover, as the majority of streams are located in areas of increasing human activity, relative and coupled impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors need to be considered such that non-stationary flood frequency models can be developed for flood risk forecasting over relevant planning horizons for large scale water resources planning and management. Large-scale climate patterns -- El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) - have been identified as influencing factors on annual maximum flood series for a number of unimpaired watersheds throughout the US. In addition, strong correlation exists between the magnitude and timing of annual maximum flood peaks and leading precipitation and temperature series, respectively, for unimpaired sites within the Upper Midwest and Northeastern US. In this study, similar analyses are conducted to identify possible climatic/meteorological sources of nonstationarity in the flood series observed at moderately impaired sites throughout the Upper Midwest and Northeastern US. Efforts are also made to distinguish the effects of human activities on flood response from the influence of natural climatic variation.

Griffis, V. W.; Salvadori, N.

2013-12-01

158

Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre) and an increase in anxiety in the control group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre). Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285 PMID:20193089

2010-01-01

159

Teaching Floods and Flooding Quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

Baer, Eric M.

2008-08-18

160

By Michael Timm hen heavy rains and flooding  

E-print Network

9 9 By Michael Timm W hen heavy rains and flooding collapsed an East Side manhole, turning an urban agreement about a pre- cipitation increase in late winter and spring. "Most of flooding takes place- creases in stormwater runoff could overwhelm existing infrastructure, resulting in greater flood risk

Sheridan, Jennifer

161

An assessment of the importance of water stress in seasonally flooded C. dactylon on the Pongolo River floodplain in the formulation of guidelines for controlled flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily variation in water potential was measured inCynodon dactylon in seasonally flooded areas of the Pongolo river floodplain. Soil moisture declined during the dry winter season when the plants were exposed, causing them to experience increasing water stress. Fog and mist appeared to relieve stress but it is concluded that water stress is sufficient to reduce production during exposure. The

H. D. Furness; C. M. Breen

1986-01-01

162

Flood magnitude frequency and lithologic control on bedrock river incision in post-orogenic terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers-bedrock channels lined with a discontinuous alluvial cover-are key agents in the shaping of mountain belt topography by bedrock fluvial incision. Whereas much research focuses upon the erosional dynamics of such rivers in the context of rapidly uplifting orogenic landscapes, the present study investigates river incision processes in a post-orogenic (cratonic) landscape undergoing extremely low rates of incision (< 5 m/Ma). River incision processes are examined as a function of substrate lithology and the magnitude and frequency of formative flows along Sandy Creek gorge, a mixed bedrock-alluvial stream in arid SE-central Australia. Incision is focused along a bedrock channel with a partial alluvial cover arranged into riffle-pool macrobedforms that reflect interactions between rock structure and large-flood hydraulics. Variations in channel width and gradient determine longitudinal trends in mean shear stress ( ?b) and therefore also patterns of sediment transport and deposition. A steep and narrow, non-propagating knickzone (with 5% alluvial cover) coincides with a resistant quartzite unit that subdivides the gorge into three reaches according to different rock erodibility and channel morphology. The three reaches also separate distinct erosional styles: bedrock plucking (i.e. detachment-limited erosion) prevails along the knickzone, whereas along the upper and lower gorge rock incision is dependent upon large formative floods exceeding critical erosion thresholds ( ?c) for coarse boulder deposits that line 70% of the channel thalweg (i.e. transport-limited erosion). The mobility of coarse bed materials (up to 2 m diameter) during late Holocene palaeofloods of known magnitude and age is evaluated using step-backwater flow modelling in conjunction with two selective entrainment equations. A new approach for quantifying the formative flood magnitude in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers is described here based on the mobility of a key coarse fraction of the bed materials; in this case the d84 size fraction. A 350 m 3/s formative flood fully mobilises the coarse alluvial cover with ?b˜200-300 N/m 2 across the upper and lower gorge riffles, peaking over 500 N/m 2 in the knickzone. Such floods have an annual exceedance probability much less than 10 - 2 and possibly as low as 10 - 3. The role of coarse alluvial cover in the gorge is discussed at two scales: (1) modulation of bedrock exposure at the reach-scale, coupled with adjustment to channel width and gradient, accommodates uniform incision across rocks of different erodibility in steady-state fashion; and (2) at the sub-reach scale where coarse boulder deposits (corresponding to ?b minima) cap topographic convexities in the rock floor, thereby restricting bedrock incision to rare large floods. While recent studies postulate that decreasing uplift rates during post-orogenic topographic decay might drive a shift to transport-limited conditions in river networks, observations here and elsewhere in post-orogenic settings suggest, to the contrary, that extremely low erosion rates are maintained with substantial bedrock channel exposure. Although bed material mobility is known to be rate-limiting for bedrock river incision under low sediment flux conditions, exactly how a partial alluvial cover might be spatially distributed to either optimise or impede the rate of bedrock incision is open to speculation. Observations here suggest that the small volume of very stable bed materials lining Sandy Creek gorge is distributed so as to minimise the rate of bedrock fluvial incision over time.

Jansen, John D.

2006-12-01

163

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain: 1. Hydraulic controls on water elevation, inundation extent, and river-floodplain discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the routing of flood waters across large floodplains is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls from complex geomorphology, vegetation, and multiple water sources. In this study, we analyzed the topographic and hydrologic controls of inundation dynamics of a large floodplain unit (2440 km2) along the lower Amazon River. We combined land topography derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with underwater topography derived from an extensive echo-sounding survey to generate a seamless digital elevation model (DEM). Floodplain inundation was simulated using LISFLOOD-FP, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. For the first time, accurate simulation of filling and drainage of an Amazon floodplain was achieved with quantification of changes in water elevation, flooding extent, and river-floodplain exchange. We examined the role of diffuse overbank versus channelized flows on river-floodplain exchange. Diffuse overbank flows represent 93% of total river to floodplain discharge and 54% of floodplain to river discharge. Floodplain discharge during high-water was four times higher than field observation values when the SRTM v.4 DEM with no correction was used for simulation because of a -4.4 m elevation bias originating from residual motion errors of the SRTM interferometric baseline.

Rudorff, Conrado M.; Melack, John M.; Bates, Paul D.

2014-01-01

164

The Research of Information Security Management System for Critical Infrastructure Industrial Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of Information Technology (IT), manufacturing greatly introduces general purpose equipment into the process control system to replace specialized control devices. While enjoying the convenience and benefits of IT, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) encounter the security problems of configuration change, virus, and hacker intrusion, etc. To counteract security problem of IT, it is necessary to develop and apply

Yuni Lin; Kwo-Jean Farn; Chung-Huang Yang

165

Controls on flash flood magnitude and hydrograph shape, Upper Blue Hills badlands, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many arid badland channels erode rapidly, channel flows appear to be rare, raising the issue of the character and frequency of flows responsible for channel erosion. Using an acoustic stream gauge, we recorded nine flash flood hydrographs over a 3 yr period from the Upper Blue Hills badlands, Utah, with maximum discharges up to ˜ 9 m3/s. Flow hydrographs reveal bores and rapid depth changes that are similar to flash floods observed elsewhere. Bore and hydrograph peak translation velocities are greatest in narrow channel segments. Rapid runoff generation during short-duration thunderstorms produced complex hydrographs whose shapes appear to reflect channel network geometry. Storm runoff response is highly sensitive to antecedent moisture, which greatly reduces the regolith infiltration capacity. High antecedent moisture coupled with a relatively low intensity, long-duration rainstorm produced the largest flow event. Estimating flow frequency in this landscape therefore requires knowledge of the distributions of both storm sizes and temporal spacing relative to the short time required for the regolith infiltration capacity to recover following wetting, here roughly 24 hr. Landscape changes can be produced not only by rare, large rainfall events, but by a broad range of storm size and frequency under optimal antecedent moisture conditions.

Dick, Gregory S.; Anderson, Robert S.; Sampson, Daniel E.

1997-01-01

166

Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

167

Social infrastructure  

E-print Network

Current urbanization patterns and aging transportation infrastructures have marginalized millions of US citizens. The result is that 4 .5 million US residents live within 100 meters of a four-lane highway' and have become ...

Kurlbaum, Ryan E. (Ryan Edward)

2013-01-01

168

Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

2011-01-01

169

The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In both systems, controlled floods are generally effective at enhancing channel relief through fine sediment redistribution. Yet, controlled floods may also exacerbate the fine sediment deficit, and their long-term efficacy thus requires a detailed understanding of sediment mass balance.

Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

2013-12-01

170

An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

2012-12-01

171

Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from\\u000a flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian\\u000a vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might\\u000a appear to be at odds,

Edward P. Glenn; Kate Hucklebridge; Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Pamela L. Nagler; Jennifer Pitt

2008-01-01

172

Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests. This proved to be a major challenge for the project and was ultimately abandoned in favor of a directly wired solution for collecting sensor data at the building. The primary reason for this was the relatively short ranges at which we were able to effectively place the sensor nodes from the central receiving unit. Several different mesh technologies were attempted with similar results. Two hardware devices were created during the original performance period of the project. The first device, the WEB-MC, is a master control unit that has two radios, a CPU, memory, and serves as the central communications device for the WEB-MC System (Currently called the 'BEST Wireless HVAC Maintenance System' as a tentative commercial product name). The WEB-MC communicates with the local mesh network system via one of its antennas. Communication with the mesh network enables the WEB-MC to configure the network, send/receive data from individual motes, and serves as the primary mechanism for collecting sensor data at remote locations. The second antenna enables the WEB-MC to connect to a cellular network ('Long-Haul Communications') to transfer data to and from the NorthWrite Network Operations Center (NOC). A third 'all-in-one' hardware solution was created after the project was extended (Phase 2) and additional resources were provided. The project team leveraged a project funded by the State of Washington to develop a hardware solution that integrated the functionality of the original two devices. The primary reason for this approach was to eliminate the mesh network technical difficulties that severely limited the functionality of the original hardware approach. There were five separate software developments required to deliver the functionality needed for this project. These include the Data Server (or Network Operations Center), Web Application, Diagnostic Software, WEB-MC Embedded Software, Mote Embedded Software. Each of these developments was necessarily dependent on the others. This resulted in a challenging management task - requiring high bandwidth communications among

Patrick O'Neill

2009-06-30

173

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Tingle, Alex; Nasa; Maps, Google; Self-Published

174

Polymer flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past,

Littmann

1988-01-01

175

Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including ? OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, ? Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, ? Control plane software release, ? Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, ? Network Virtualization architecture, ? Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Lehman, Tom [USC] [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM] [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID] [UCAID

2010-08-31

176

Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Summerhill, Richard

2009-08-14

177

Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

Heidari, A.

2009-01-01

178

Salt marsh–atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh–atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the

Kevan B. Moffett; Adam Wolf; Joe A. Berry; Steven M. Gorelick

2010-01-01

179

Lynn E. KatzpH Sensitive Polymers for Novel Conformance Control and Polymer Flooding Applications  

E-print Network

To my wife, Kun Sook Na, and my daughter, Hee Seung Choi, who both patiently supported me in my studies and To my mother, Kwang Young Lee, my father, Sang Soon Choi, and all my other family, for their devoted and endless love. Acknowledgements I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Mukul M. Sharma, for his continuous guidance and support throughout all these years. As a truly talented supervisor and professor, he allowed me to explore my academic potential and exposed me to the exciting world of research. I also would like to acknowledge Drs. Steven L. Bryant and Huh Chun, as my co-supervisors, for their warm-hearted guidance and sincere advice. Their supervision over the last 4 years truly guided me to a right path, and encouraged me, especially during the difficult process of research. Dr. Gary A. Pope must also be acknowledged for his invaluable contribution to the understanding of polymer flooding, which is major part of my dissertation. Dr. Lynn E. Katz is also acknowledged for her constructive comments on geochemical reactions

unknown authors

180

Hydrometeorological network for flood monitoring and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its highly fragmented geomorphology, Greece comprises hundreds of small- to medium-size hydrological basins, in which often the terrain is fairly steep and the streamflow regime ephemeral. These are typically affected by flash floods, occasionally causing severe damages. Yet, the vast majority of them lack flow-gauging infrastructure providing systematic hydrometric data at fine time scales. This has obvious impacts on the quality and reliability of flood studies, which typically use simplistic approaches for ungauged basins that do not consider local peculiarities in sufficient detail. In order to provide a consistent framework for flood design and to ensure realistic predictions of the flood risk -a key issue of the 2007/60/EC Directive- it is essential to improve the monitoring infrastructures by taking advantage of modern technologies for remote control and data management. In this context and in the research project DEUCALION, we have recently installed and are operating, in four pilot river basins, a telemetry-based hydro-meteorological network that comprises automatic stations and is linked to and supported by relevant software. The hydrometric stations measure stage, using 50-kHz ultrasonic pulses or piezometric sensors, or both stage (piezometric) and velocity via acoustic Doppler radar; all measurements are being temperature-corrected. The meteorological stations record air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. Data transfer is made via GPRS or mobile telephony modems. The monitoring network is supported by a web-based application for storage, visualization and management of geographical and hydro-meteorological data (ENHYDRIS), a software tool for data analysis and processing (HYDROGNOMON), as well as an advanced model for flood simulation (HYDROGEIOS). The recorded hydro-meteorological observations are accessible over the Internet through the www-application. The system is operational and its functionality has been implemented as open-source software for use in a wide range of applications in the field of water resources monitoring and management, such as the demonstration case study outlined in this work.

Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koussis, Antonis D.; Lykoudis, Spyros; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Kappos, Nikos; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

2013-08-01

181

Master-slave control scheme in electric vehicle smart charging infrastructure.  

PubMed

WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

2014-01-01

182

Infrastructure Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by Scranton Gillette Communications, contains information on various types of infrastructures. It contains searchable archives of selected articles from four of SGC's publications (Roads & Bridges, Water & Waste Digest, Water Engineering & Management, and Water Quality Products). In addition, a supplier and product directory (unfortunately not searchable) are available.

1998-01-01

183

IT Infrastructure  

Cancer.gov

Overview The CGR IT infrastructure exists as a fully functional data and high performance computing (HPC) center running on a secure 1/10 GB network. The CGR maintains a 5-node Network Accessed Storage (NAS) system consisting of approximately 500 TB of

184

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

2001-01-01

185

Conditional Reliability, Sub-Monthly Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP  

E-print Network

WRAP is a generalized river/reservoir system simulation model providing flexible capabilities for analyzing water resources development, management, control, allocation, and use. This supplemental reference and users manual documents expanded WRAP...

Salazar, A.A.; Olmos, H.E.; Hoffpauir, R.J.; Wurbs, R.A.

186

From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

2012-04-01

187

Scanning the Technology Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems  

E-print Network

Scanning the Technology Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems MASSOUD AMIN, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE by natural disasters, equipment failures, human errors, or deliberate sabotage and attacks. With dramatic control, infrastructure defense plans, protection against rare events and extreme contingencies. I

Amin, S. Massoud

188

Flood mapping with multitemporal MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most devastating and frequent disasters resulting in loss of human life and serve damage to infrastructure and agricultural production. Flood is phenomenal in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam. It annually lasts from July to November. Information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics is thus important for planners to devise successful strategies for flood monitoring and mitigation of its negative effects. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for weekly mapping flood dynamics with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data in MRD using the water fraction model (WFM). The data processed for 2009 comprises three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time series of the difference in the values (DVLE) between land surface water index (LSWI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) flood derivation using WFM, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data, which were constructed from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. As several error sources, including mixed-pixel problems and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, could lower the level of classification accuracy, the comparisons indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracy of 80.5% and Kappa coefficient of 0.61, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived flood area and that of the ground reference map at the provincial level, with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93. Considering the importance of remote sensing for monitoring floods and mitigating the damage caused by floods to crops and infrastructure, this study eventually leads to the realization of the value of using time-series MODIS DVLE data for weekly flood monitoring in MRD with the aid of EMD and WFM. Such an approach that could provide quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics for monitoring purposes was completely transferable to other regions in the world.

Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru

2014-05-01

189

Effects of Controlled Release Urea on the Yield and Nitrogen Nutrition of Flooded Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) loss is one of the key problems faced by rice farmers, and Nitrogen-use efficiency in rice is often poor as a result of high N loss through volatilization, leaching, and denitrification. One of the ways to improve N efficiency is by using controlled-release urea (CRU). The CRU generally outperformed granular urea fertilizer in reducing N losses, stimulating plant

J. K. Kiran; Y. M. Khanif; H. Amminuddin; A. R. Anuar

2010-01-01

190

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

191

Multi-objective sustainable river management: balancing flood control, bio-pysical restoration and socio-economic factors in a Scottish river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of river corridors requires an understanding of the linkages between geomorphic, hydrologic, ecologic and socio-economic factors across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, in order to be genuinely sustainable, management must ideally be set within a catchment/watershed context. However, in practice, this rarely occurs due to obstacles imposed by fragmented land ownership/governance and an incomplete understanding of bio-physical process linkages. We present our experience on a project with the goal of optimising physical objectives at the catchment scale within a framework influenced by environmental legislation and conflicting land-use pressures. The project was carried out on the Eddleston Water in the Scottish Borders and had the primary objective of providing sustainable flood risk management to settlements on the water course while also providing ecological benefit to the river corridor. These co-objectives had to be met while considering the constraints imposed by land-use (predominantly arable agriculture) and transport infrastructure on the floodplain. The Eddleston Water has been heavily impacted by many human activities for over 200 years although a modified upland drainage, markedly canalised main-stem channel and floodplain disconnection are most significant to present-day physical and ecological processes. Catchment-scale restoration plans aim to restore broad-scale hydrological processes in conjunction with re-naturalisation of the river corridor at the reach-scale (including floodbank set-back, floodplain reconnection, regeneration of riparian vegetation, large wood placement). In addition, these measures also had to accommodate the objective of sustainable flood risk management, through the combination of a re-naturalised run-off regime and the encouragement of floodplain water storage. We present the output from 1D and 2D hydraulic models of a 1km stretch of the Eddleston Water that jointly assesses the benefit to flood hydrograph attenuation and bio-physical processes of a suite of restoration designs within the floodplain. Although the models produced an optimised design based on these environmental objectives, the ‘real world’ situation of constraints imposed by ‘socio-economic’ factors (particularly agricultural and urban infrastructure pressures) subsequently modified this. In this way the project demonstrated the compromises that have to be made in implementing these type of idealised physical objectives.

Moir, H.; Bowles, C.; Campbell, C.; Sawyer, A.; Comins, L.; Werritty, A.

2010-12-01

192

Manual on Conditional Reliability, Daily Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP (Draft)  

E-print Network

Resources Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2118 December 2005 Draft All interested persons are welcome to use the WRAP model. The software and documentation may be freely copied. However, the model must... development, management, control, allocation, and use. This supplemental reference and users manual documents expanded WRAP modeling capabilities that are not covered in the following basic reference and users manuals. Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP...

Wurbs, Ralph

193

Rivers and Flooding Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

Senft, Laurel

194

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

2002-01-01

195

1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.

Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

2014-05-01

196

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

197

Flooding and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Massachusetts: A Case-Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Floods and other severe weather events are anticipated to increase as a result of global climate change. Floods can lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases due to disruption of sewage and water infrastructure and impacts on sanitation and hygiene. Floods have also been indirectly associated with outbreaks through population displacement and crowding. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study to investigate the association between flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness (ER-GI) in Massachusetts for the years 2003 through 2007. We obtained ER-GI visits from the State of Massachusetts and records of floods from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association’s Storm Events Database. ER-GI visits were considered exposed if a flood occurred in the town of residence within three hazard periods of the visit: 0–4 days; 5–9 days; and 10–14 days. A time-stratified bi-directional design was used for control selection, matching on day of the week with two weeks lead or lag time from the ER-GI visit. Fixed effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of ER-GI visits following the flood. Results and Conclusions A total of 270,457 ER-GI visits and 129 floods occurred in Massachusetts over the study period. Across all counties, flooding was associated with an increased risk for ER-GI in the 0–4 day period after flooding (Odds Ratio: 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03–1.12); but not the 5–9 days (Odds Ratio: 0.995; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.955–1.04) or the 10–14 days after (Odds Ratio: 0.966, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.927–1.01). Similar results were observed for different definitions of ER-GI. The effect differed across counties, suggesting local differences in the risk and impact of flooding. Statewide, across the study period, an estimated 7% of ER-GI visits in the 0–4 days after a flood event were attributable to flooding. PMID:25329916

Wade, Timothy J.; Lin, Cynthia J.; Jagai, Jyotsna S.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

2014-01-01

198

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

199

Floods: Too Much of a Good Thing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on flooding and the natural and man-made factors that influence floods. Students will learn the properties of soils that may influence flooding, describe factors that affect the flow of rivers, research factors that result in floods, describe the effects of land-use practices on flood control, and learn to identify their own watersheds on a map. The module consists of seven lessons in which the students will learn vocabulary, perform internet-based activities, and see a video on flooding. They will also perform historical research on flooding, use modeling software to model a flood, and perform a lab activity in which they test different types of soil for water-retaining capacity. (works best in the firefox browser)

200

Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods  

SciTech Connect

The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

2013-12-31

201

Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106 m3 over an area of 1.2 km2 surrounded by about 4 km of artificial levees and closed downstream by a concrete dam 15 m high, equipped with 3 movable floodgates. The structure has the purpose to store the excess water in the case of high return period flood events, releasing it downstream at a controlled rate. A stilling basin is located downstream the dam in order to dissipate the kinetic energy of the discharged flow. The stilling basin is made up of 2 m thick concrete slabs, on which 3 dissipating blocks are located. The deposits below the stilling basin are surrounded by a grout wall (20 m deep) with the aim of realizing a confined "box". Groundwater levels inside the box are controlled by a 110 m long drainage trench located upstream the stilling basin, 3 m below its floor. In the perspective of a long-term management of the reservoir, after the completion of the works, a phase of investigation, control and monitoring of the efficiency of the entire system has been carried out, mainly to highlight the interactions between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer. This task was accomplished filling the reservoir at the maximum retaining level by means of capturing the tails of spring 2008 flood events. The aquifer beneath and surrounding the structure has been investigated by means of several tests, such analysis. Moreover, a groundwater monitoring system made up by 44 piezometers with dataloggers and real- time data transmission to a dedicated website has been set up. Monitoring data before, during, and after the infilling of the reservoir show that the aquifer below the structure is multilayered, with prevailing silty gravels and relatively thin silty and clayey strata. The aquifer can be simplified in three layers: a phreatic aquifer (from 0 to 20 m depth), a thin clayey layer (20 to 25 m) and a regional semi-confined aquifer (beneath 25 m), whose level tend to respond to the reservoir levels. The multidisciplinary database collected so far is the basis of a numerical model that is going to be developed to understand the interactions between the reservoir and the aquifer, in different scenarios.

Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Chiapponi, L.; D'Oria, M.; Giuffredi, F.; Lancellotta, R.; Mignosa, P.; Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Remitti, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

2008-12-01

202

Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.

2007-01-01

203

GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from

DAVID JUDI; ALFRED KALYANAPU; TIMOTHY MCPHERSON; ALAN BERSCHEID

2007-01-01

204

Integrating Flooding Control with Sediment Reduction in the Real-Time Operation Model for Tseng-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons are kind of natural hazards happened most frequently during summer in Taiwan. Typhoons induce the risk of instant damages such as dam break or floods caused by the overflow in downstream area. Besides, high turbidity inflow of reservoirs caused by erosions and mudslides in upstream area during typhoons brings a huge volume of sediments which highly decreases the storage volume of reservoir. Therefore, applying flooding management of reservoirs to increase the release quantities of sediments and to maintain the storage volumes of reservoirs becomes an important issue today. In this study, an optimal flooding operation model with considering sediment reduction which integrates the genetic algorithm (GA), HEC-RAS simulation, artificial neural network (ANN) and reservoir watershed sediment modeling is proposed. The objective function of the proposed model deals with four sub-objects includes water resource, flooding hazard reduction, peak release flow reduction and sediment reduction. The operation results are applied on Tseng-Wen Reservoir during five typhoon events include Typhoon TALIM (2005), SEPAT (2007), KORSA (2007), KALMAEGI (2008), SINLAKU (2008) and JANGMI (2008). Comparison between the results of models with and without sediment reduction, the increase amounts of sediment release for the model with sediment reduction respectively are 27 and 39 tons during Typhoon JANGMI and SINLAKU. Based on the comparison, the proposed model has ability to increase the release quantity of sediment.

chou, Y.; Chang, L.; Hsu, C.

2012-12-01

205

77 FR 76494 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Division, Flood Control Supervisors, 105 and Water Conservation East Anapamu District, 123 East Street, Santa...of Division, Flood Control Supervisors, 105 and Water Conservation East Anapamu District, 123 East Street,...

2012-12-28

206

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, other inorganic and polymeric species is being studied. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro and nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the second year of this three year contract, adsorption/desorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures on alumina and silica was studied. Surfactants studied include the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), nonionic pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) of varying hydrocarbon chain length. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer in terms of micropolarity and aggregation numbers was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed aggregate led to shielding of the charge of the ionic surfactant which in-turn promoted aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution upon adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentrations in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

Somasundaran, P.

1995-06-01

207

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project is to investigate mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy will be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability; is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the first year of this three year contract, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Surfactants studied include alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amount of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed.

Somasundaran, P.

1994-07-01

208

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30 1995  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project was to investigate mechanisms governing adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy have been determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the three years contract period, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride were the surfactants studied. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes in interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amounts of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactants in mixed aggregate leads to shielding of the charge of ionic surfactants which in turn promotes aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution on adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentration in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

Casteel, J. [Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

1996-07-01

209

INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY  

E-print Network

INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY DELIVERY & ENERGY RELIABILITY Delivery and Energy Reliability #12;INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY ­ Automated analysis and modeling #12;INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY

Schrijver, Karel

210

Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

2012-04-01

211

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web.  

PubMed

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS's newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders. PMID:24303773

Hearn, Paul P; Longenecker, Herbert E; Aguinaldo, John J; Rahav, Ami N

2013-01-01

212

Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve water quality and protect the aquatic habitat of the Roanoke River.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

213

Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

2013-06-01

214

Water management controls net carbon exchange in drained and flooded agricultural peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Draining peatlands for agricultural cultivation creates an ecosystem shift with some of the fastest rates and largest magnitudes of carbon loss attributable to land-use change, yet peatland drainage is practiced around the world due to the high economic benefit of fertile soil. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained at the end of the 19th century for agriculture and human settlement, and as a result, has lost 5-8m of peat soil due to oxidation. To reverse subsidence and capture carbon, there is increasing interest in converting drained agricultural land-uses back to flooded conditions to inhibit further peat oxidation. However, this method remains relatively untested at the landscape-scale. This study analyzed the short-term effects of drained to flooded land-use conversion on the balance of carbon, water, and energy over two years at two landscapes in the Delta. We used the eddy covariance method to compare CO2, CH4, H2O, and energy fluxes under the same meteorological conditions in two different land-use types: a drained pasture grazed by cattle, and a flooded newly-converted rice paddy. By analyzing differences in the fluxes from these two land-use types we determined that water management and differences in the plant canopy both play a fundamental role in governing the seasonal pattern and the annual budgets of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at these two sites. While the pasture was a source of carbon to the atmosphere in both years, the rice paddy captured carbon through NEE, even after considering losses from CH4. Especially during the fallow winter months, flooding the soil at the rice paddy inhibited loss of CO2 through ecosystem respiration when compared with the carbon exchange from the drained pasture.

Hatala, J.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2011-12-01

215

Flood Frequency Curves - Use of information on the likelihood of extreme floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investment in the infrastructure that reduces flood risk for flood-prone communities must incorporate information on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in that area. Traditionally, that information has been a probability distribution of annual maximum streamflows developed from the historical gaged record at a stream site. Practice in the United States fits a Log-Pearson type3 distribution to the annual maximum flows of an unimpaired streamflow record, using the method of moments to estimate distribution parameters. The procedure makes the assumptions that annual peak streamflow events are (1) independent, (2) identically distributed, and (3) form a representative sample of the overall probability distribution. Each of these assumptions can be challenged. We rarely have enough data to form a representative sample, and therefore must compute and display the uncertainty in the estimated flood distribution. But, is there a wet/dry cycle that makes precipitation less than independent between successive years? Are the peak flows caused by different types of events from different statistical populations? How does the watershed or climate changing over time (non-stationarity) affect the probability distribution floods? Potential approaches to avoid these assumptions vary from estimating trend and shift and removing them from early data (and so forming a homogeneous data set), to methods that estimate statistical parameters that vary with time. A further issue in estimating a probability distribution of flood magnitude (the flood frequency curve) is whether a purely statistical approach can accurately capture the range and frequency of floods that are of interest. A meteorologically-based analysis produces "probable maximum precipitation" (PMP) and subsequently a "probable maximum flood" (PMF) that attempts to describe an upper bound on flood magnitude in a particular watershed. This analysis can help constrain the upper tail of the probability distribution, well beyond the range of gaged data or even historical or paleo-flood data, which can be very important in risk analyses performed for flood risk management and dam and levee safety studies.

Faber, B.

2011-12-01

216

TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE  

SciTech Connect

This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

2005-12-01

217

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES Roadmap 2008  

E-print Network

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES FOR FRANCE Roadmap 2008 #12;INTRODUCTION European research infrastructures and development, benefiting to Europe's economy and competitiveness. This roadmap for the research infrastructures of the European Research Area. These infrastructures, at the forefront of knowledge, are also flagships that shed

Horn, David

218

Flood modelling in complex hydrologic systems with sparsely resolved data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Directive on Assessment and Management of Flood Risks places significant emphasis on establishing tools suitable for simulating the relevant hydrologic processes in areas of high flood risk. Because flood modelling requires relatively detailed spatial and temporal resolutions, the model selection is controlled by the available distributed hydrologic information. The value of data (mainly stage/discharge records) is indisputable, since the quality of calibration and, consequently, the model predictive capacity, depends on the availability of reliable observations at multiple sites. On the other hand, data scarcity is a global problem in hydrologic engineering that is getting increasingly severe as the monitoring infrastructure is shrinking and degraded. It is therefore crucial to build reliable models that are parsimonious. In this vein, we have adapted the HYDROGEIOS model (Efstratiadis et al., 2008), initially developed as a conjunctive surface-groundwater simulation and water management tool at the monthly time scale, to run in daily time steps. In typical flood simulation packages inputs are time series of precipitation, which are resolved in hourly or finer increment, and detailed hydro-morphologic properties of the stream network. In contrast, the enhanced version of HYDROGEIOS only uses daily rainfall depths and a limited number of parameters that are estimated or calibrated on the basis of once-a-day discharge data. The character of HYDROGEIOS as a conjunctive model enables to represent simultaneously the interactions among the surface and sub-surface processes and the human interventions, and to route the runoff across the stream network. Lacking finely resolved precipitation data and for the purpose of flood routing, we have applied a disaggregation technique to analyse the simulated daily hydrographs in finer time steps. Flood routing is implemented via either a kinematic-wave or a Muskingum diffusive-wave scheme, introducing only one or two parameters per stream reach, respectively. The new version of HYDROGEIOS is being tested on the Boeotikos Kephisos River Basin for flood forecasting in real-time, using as input precipitation forecasts from numerical weather prediction simulations (European project FLASH). The basin is heavily modified, with strong physical heterogeneities, involving multiple peculiarities such as significant karst springs, which rapidly contribute to the streamflow, thus reflecting a strong interaction between surface and ground water processes, and a drainage canal and network in the lower basin with extremely small slopes. Reference Efstratiadis, A., I. Nalbantis, A. Koukouvinos, E. Rozos, and D. Koutsoyiannis, HYDROGEIOS: a semi-distributed GIS-based hydrological model for modified river basins, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 989-1006, 2008.

Efstratiadis, A.; Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2009-04-01

219

Engineering Brochure on Infrastructure  

NSF Publications Database

Title : NSF 93-4 - Engineering Brochure on Infrastructure Type : Letter NSF Org: ENG Date : March 19, 1993 File : nsf934 CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS RESEARCH: STRATEGIC ISSUES Executive Summary of a Report by the Civil Infrastructure Systems Task Group National Science Foundation In January 1992, the NSF Civil Infrastructure Systems Task Group was established by the Engineering Directorate's Strategic Planning Committee. In April 1992, NSF organized a workshop on Civil Infrastructure Systems...

220

Some new perspectives on the probabilistic modeling of floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of a flood control system a flood hydrograph realization, corresponding to a stated risk is taken as the hydrograph to be routed through the system. In general, floods come in groups and form multipeaked hydrographs. A multipeaked flood hydrograph (or a group of floods) when routed through a reservoir-levee-wall flood control system may yield a more critical result than routing a single-peaked flood hydrograph even if each of the peaks in the multipeaked hydrograph is smaller than the peak of the single-peaked hydrograph. This is due to the fact that while the earlier floods within a flood group may not be critical for the system, they may still fill the reservoir to a critical level so that the later floods in the flood group are passed by the reservoir directly downstream and, thereby, cause damage downstream. Similar arguments also follow for the flood levees and flood walls on the river reach downstream of a reservoir, since there is a channel storage during the passage of a flood wave through the river channel. Also due to storage in the system, not only the peak discharge stochasticity but the stochasticity of the complete flood hydrograph shape needs to be described. Instead of basing the probabilistic description of flood realizations on a single peak discharge, this paper presents in a mostly graphical fashion some new stochastic models for the complete shapes of generally multipeaked continuous-time flood realizations. First, a point stochastic model of the multistation precipitation process is presented. Using precipitation as the driving process of floods, a three-dimensional point stochastic (3-DPS) model for flood starting times, times to peaks and peak magnitudes is presented. Then a stochastic model for the continuous-time flood realizations, as an extension of the previous 3-DPS model, is discussed.

Kavvas, M. Levent

1987-07-01

221

Controlling factors of environmental flooding, soil pH and Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil feeding in citrus: Larval survival and larval growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying influences of soil flooding, pH level and soil-inhabiting Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil larval feeding in citrus were examined in two separate greenhouse studies, rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (RFD) and liming×rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (LRFD). Our objectives were to determine the combined effects of soil flooding and pH level on survival and growth of Diaprepes root weevil larvae to gain insights of insect-environmental relations

Hong Li; Clay W. McCoy; James P. Syvertsen

2007-01-01

222

Flooding and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

2011-01-01

223

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species and solids of relevant mineralogy will also be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption/desorption of tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) surfactant mixtures at the kaolinite-water and alumina-water interfaces was studied during this quarter. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Effect of the hydrocarbon chain length of octaethylene glycol mono n-alkyl ether (C{sub n}EO{sub 8}) type nonionic surfactants on the adsorption of 1:1 mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/C{sub n}EO{sub 8} at the kaolinite/water interface was studied. The adsorption of SDS was enhanced by the presence of C{sub 10}EO{sub 8} but this effect was not as significant as those by C{sub 12--16}EO{sub 8}. Interestingly, once the hydrocarbon chain length of the nonionic surfactant exceeded that of the SDS (12) there was no further enhancement of SDS adsorption.

Somasundaran, P.

1994-02-22

224

10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ON THE PRESSURE CULVERT, LOOKING NORTH. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

225

11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

226

The vulnerability of U.S. coastal energy infrastructure under climate change  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure -much of it a result of flooding from storm surges during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, Megan Jeramaz

2012-01-01

227

Mitigation of Flooding Disruption Attacks in Hierarchical OLSR Networks Gimer Cervera, Michel Barbeau, Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro and Evangelos Kranakis  

E-print Network

Mitigation of Flooding Disruption Attacks in Hierarchical OLSR Networks Gimer Cervera, Michel (MPR) nodes as a flooding mechanism for distributing control information. Unlike OLSR, nodes affect the topol- ogy map acquisition process by interrupting the flooding of control information

Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

228

Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park through use of controlled floods in conjunction with typical amounts and grain sizes of sand supplied by the tributaries that enter the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam.

Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

2010-01-01

229

Strategically placing green infrastructure: cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain.  

PubMed

Green infrastructure approaches have attracted increased attention from local governments as a way to lower flood risk and provide an array of other environmental services. The peer-reviewed literature, however, offers few estimates of the economic impacts of such approaches at the watershed scale. We estimate the avoided flood damages and the costs of preventing development of floodplain parcels in the East River Watershed of Wisconsin's Lower Fox River Basin. Results suggest that the costs of preventing conversion of all projected floodplain development would exceed the flood damage mitigation benefits by a substantial margin. However, targeting of investments to high-benefit, low-cost parcels can reverse this equation, generating net benefits. The analysis demonstrates how any flood-prone community can use a geographic-information-based model to estimate the flood damage reduction benefits of green infrastructure, compare them to the costs, and target investments to design cost-effective nonstructural flood damage mitigation policies. PMID:23544743

Kousky, Carolyn; Olmstead, Sheila M; Walls, Margaret A; Macauley, Molly

2013-04-16

230

Financing infrastructure projects  

E-print Network

Infrastructure is of great importance to the development and economic growth of communities. Due to the increased demand on sophisticated infrastructure, governments' budgets are not anymore able to satisfy this growing ...

Eid, Serge Emile

2008-01-01

231

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

232

Critical infrastructure protection.  

PubMed

Current government policies for protecting the nation's critical infrastructure are described in this article which focuses on hospital disaster planning and incident management and the significant role of Security in infrastructure protection PMID:22970630

Deitz, Kim M

2012-01-01

233

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security  

E-print Network

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST Sandia, and reactorsystemoverviews. Training in Action: Gulf Nuclear Energy InfrastructureInstitute In2011,SandiateamedwiththeNuclearSecurity energy safety, security,safeguards,andnonproliferation. Training Sandia National Laboratories experts

234

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAAâs National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The âFlash Flood Processesâ module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

Comet

2006-11-08

235

Decision-Support Software for Grid Operators: Transmission Topology Control for Infrastructure Resilience to the Integration of Renewable Generation  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: The CRA team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning on and off entire power lines in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.

None

2012-03-16

236

Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel.

Glenn, Edward P.; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Pitt, Jennifer

2008-03-01

237

A Large-Scale Experiment to Determine the Effectiveness of Controlled Floods and Tamarisk Removal in Rehabilitating the Green River, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale field experiment is underway on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore to evaluate the effectiveness of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) removal and increased magnitude and duration of floods released from Flaming Gorge Dam (FGD) for the purpose of increasing active channel width and increasing entrainment rates on gravel bars where there are large proportions of fines. Results to date demonstrate that effectiveness varies with small scale geomorphic setting, and that channel widening in some parts of the river may be impossible without regular removal, which is unlikely. Our approach is important in channel rehabilitation planning, yet the difficulties of conducting such experiments are apparent in the first 2 yrs of the project. All tamarisk are being removed in 3, 0.8 to 1.6 km long study reaches. Three control reaches, immediately upstream or downstream from removal reaches, are also being monitored. We are making detailed measurements of scour and fill, substrate, and composition of riparian vegetation communities in removal and control reaches, and in response to high flood releases from FGD. Difficulties in implementation of the experiment include the multi-year process of tamarisk removal. Tamarisk immediately reestablishes itself on moist substrate following removal; thus, some parts of removal reaches have young tamarisk seedlings and other parts have tamarisk not yet removed. Experimental dam releases have not yet occurred due to drought in the watershed and other water delivery imperatives. We have also compared the distribution of tamarisk on the nearby Yampa River, where an unregulated flow regime exists and where tamarisk are absent or in low densities. The comparison between the distribution, density, and age characteristics of tamarisk on the 2 streams will lead to recommendations as to the sites on the Green River where eradication efforts are best directed. Despite the difficulties of experiment implementation, such large-scale efforts are an essential component of developing a long-term plan for dam releases, because they will lead to definition of a schedule of floods, or repeated removal activities, necessary to achieve project goals.

Schmidt, J. C.; Cooper, D. J.; Larson, G. P.

2002-12-01

238

IT infrastructure monitoring and management: Doing more with less  

E-print Network

IT infrastructure outages. That means you must quickly respond to problems, identifying issues in a patchworkIT infrastructure monitoring and management: Doing more with less Highlights Remote managed infrastructure services keep control in the CIO's hands Controlling costs has always been a key factor in making

239

Developing a distributed system for infrastructure protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Your business increasingly relies on computer-controlled systems vulnerable to intrusion and destruction. The recent distributed denial of service attacks against e-commerce companies showed that this vulnerability extends beyond your own corporate networks: the very infrastructure of the Internet is at risk. When infoterrorists use the networks' high connectivity and low security to launch attacks against critical information infrastructure systems, they

G. Cybenko; Guofei Jiang

2000-01-01

240

Design for Resilience of Networked Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any critical infrastructure is controlled and managed by networked information and communication technologies (ICT) systems. Tremendous progress in the emerging area of ubiquitous, pervasive and tangible computing enables hardware and software to be integrated to a degree that makes possible a technological revolution in which ICT systems merged with physical infrastructure will be transformed together into a vast intelligence network,

Mihaela Ulieru

2007-01-01

241

Reconstruction of the 1945 Wieringermeer Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state-of-the-art in flood risk assessment focuses on breach models, flood propagation models, and economic modelling of flood damage. However, models need to be validated with real data to avoid erroneous conclusions. Such reference data can either be historic data, or can be obtained from controlled experiments. The inundation of the Wieringermeer polder in the Netherlands in April 1945 is one of the few examples for which sufficient historical information is available. The objective of this article is to compare the flood simulation with flood data from 1945. The context, the breach growth process and the flood propagation are explained. Key findings for current flood risk management addresses the importance of the drainage canal network during the inundation of a polder, and the uncertainty that follows from not knowing the breach growth parameters. This case study shows that historical floods provide valuable data for the validation of models and reveal lessons that are applicable in current day flood risk management.

Hoes, O. A. C.; Hut, R. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Boomgaard, M.

2013-03-01

242

Swinburne University of Technology Centre for Sustainable Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Swinburne University of Technology Centre for Sustainable Infrastructure CSI Seminar Thursday of pervious surfaces on flash flood frequency, hydrological flow-regimes and groundwater recharge in urban surface implementation as a sustainable urban water management strategy. This will be accomplished through

Liley, David

243

Research opportunities in search of federal flood policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing increases in flood losses raise a variety of issues, and suggest numerous important research opportunities, from: (1) evidence of persistently incorrect economic analysis of structural flood control; (2) lack of understanding of how subsidies (for navigation, structural versus non-structural mitigation, and parts of agriculture) have defeated or subverted flood policies; and (3) lack of understanding of the distortions of

John D. Wiener

1996-01-01

244

Taming IP Packet Flooding Attacks Karthik Lakshminarayanan Daniel Adkins  

E-print Network

Taming IP Packet Flooding Attacks Karthik Lakshminarayanan Daniel Adkins ¡ Adrian Perrig Ion hosts is denial- of-service (DoS) caused by IP packet floods. Hosts in the Internet are unable to stop ­ not the net- work ­ should be given control to respond to packet floods and overload. Ideally, hosts should

245

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

246

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study  

E-print Network

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study #12;Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Background: · Currently, funding

Minnesota, University of

247

Cost of Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... Simulator About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial Coverage PolicyHolder Resources Preparation & Recovery Agent Site Agent ... devastating testimonials about flooding to our Home Personified commercials. Watch Now Flood Risk Scenarios There are many ...

248

77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control...SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP (SRIFNA LP), and Patriot Funding...Texas Railway, Inc.; (7) Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc.; (8) Columbia &...

2012-05-23

249

Amazon flood wave hydraulics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

2009-07-01

250

The “Maya Express”: Floods in the U.S. Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 floods in the U.S. Midwest culminated in severe river flooding, with many rivers in the region cresting at record levels during May and particularly June. Twenty-four people were killed and more than 140 were injured as a result of the floods. Nine states were affected: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, 83 of the state's 99 counties were declared disaster areas. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, was among the cities hardest hit by flooding. At one point, water covered 1300 city blocks across 24 square kilometers, inundating 3900 homes and most of the city's infrastructure and municipal facilities. The flood, which also damaged the Midwest's corn and soybean crops, was presaged by unusually heavy snowpack the preceding winter and by anomalously heavy rainfall during the spring.

Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.

2009-03-01

251

Steam-flooding  

SciTech Connect

Steam-flooding has become an established recovery technique within the last 20 years. This overview discusses its evolution, methods for selecting and designing steam-floods, constraints, and possible improvements. The term steam-flooding is used here in a general sense. The discussion includes steam soak (cyclic steam injection) and steam drive.

Matthews, C.S.

1983-03-01

252

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Johnstone River in flood

Greenslade, Diana

253

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Daintree River in flood

Greenslade, Diana

254

Flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in Massachusetts: A case-crossover study.  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Floods and other severe weather events are anticipated to increase as a result of global climate change. Floods can lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases due to disruption of sewage and water infrastructure and impacts on san...

255

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

256

How should flood risk assessments be done in a changing climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing consensus on climate and land use change means that it is reasonable to assume, at the very least, that flood levels in a region may change. Then why, ask Rosner et al. in a new study, do the dominant risk assessment techniques used to decide whether to build new flood protection infrastructure nearly always start with an assumption of "no trend" in flood behavior?

Schultz, Colin

2014-09-01

257

Irrigation and Flooding Problems in Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irrigation and flood control as they relate to agricultural and rural land use in Michigan are studied. Also included is the influence of urban areas on rural areas in watershed management. The components of watershed management considered include: irriga...

D. Freshwater

1976-01-01

258

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

259

Future trends in flood risk in Indonesia - A probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is one of the 10 most populous countries in the world and is highly vulnerable to (river) flooding. Catastrophic floods occur on a regular basis; total estimated damages were US 0.8 bn in 2010 and US 3 bn in 2013. Large parts of Greater Jakarta, the capital city, are annually subject to flooding. Flood risks (i.e. the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability) are increasing due to rapid increases in exposure, such as strong population growth and ongoing economic development. The increase in risk may also be amplified by increasing flood hazards, such as increasing flood frequency and intensity due to climate change and land subsidence. The implementation of adaptation measures, such as the construction of dykes and strategic urban planning, may counteract these increasing trends. However, despite its importance for adaptation planning, a comprehensive assessment of current and future flood risk in Indonesia is lacking. This contribution addresses this issue and aims to provide insight into how socio-economic trends and climate change projections may shape future flood risks in Indonesia. Flood risk were calculated using an adapted version of the GLOFRIS global flood risk assessment model. Using this approach, we produced probabilistic maps of flood risks (i.e. annual expected damage) at a resolution of 30"x30" (ca. 1km x 1km at the equator). To represent flood exposure, we produced probabilistic projections of urban growth in a Monte-Carlo fashion based on probability density functions of projected population and GDP values for 2030. To represent flood hazard, inundation maps were computed using the hydrological-hydraulic component of GLOFRIS. These maps show flood inundation extent and depth for several return periods and were produced for several combinations of GCMs and future socioeconomic scenarios. Finally, the implementation of different adaptation strategies was incorporated into the model to explore to what extent adaptation may be able to decrease future risks. Preliminary results show that the urban extent in Indonesia is projected to increase within 211 to 351% over the period 2000-2030 (5 and 95 percentile). Mainly driven by this rapid urbanization, potential flood losses in Indonesia increase rapidly and are primarily concentrated on the island of Java. The results reveal the large risk-reducing potential of adaptation measures. Since much of the urban development between 2000 and 2030 takes place in flood-prone areas, strategic urban planning (i.e. building in safe areas) may significantly reduce the urban population and infrastructure exposed to flooding. We conclude that a probabilistic risk approach in future flood risk assessment is vital; the drivers behind risk trends (exposure, hazard, vulnerability) should be understood to develop robust and efficient adaptation pathways.

Muis, Sanne; Guneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

260

Multivariate flood risk assessment: reinsurance perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For insurance and re-insurance purposes the knowledge of the spatial characteristics of fluvial flooding is fundamental. The probability of simultaneous flooding at different locations during one event and the associated severity and losses have to be estimated in order to assess premiums and for accumulation control (Probable Maximum Losses calculation). Therefore, the identification of a statistical model able to describe the multivariate joint distribution of flood events in multiple location is necessary. In this context, copulas can be viewed as alternative tools for dealing with multivariate simulations as they allow to formalize dependence structures of random vectors. An application of copula function for flood scenario generation is presented for Australia (Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria) where 100.000 possible flood scenarios covering approximately 15.000 years were simulated.

Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Ellenrieder, Tobias

2013-04-01

261

Using the infrastructure of a conditional cash transfer program to deliver a scalable integrated early child development program in Colombia: cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effectiveness of an integrated early child development intervention, combining stimulation and micronutrient supplementation and delivered on a large scale in Colombia, for children’s development, growth, and hemoglobin levels. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial, using a 2×2 factorial design, with municipalities assigned to one of four groups: psychosocial stimulation, micronutrient supplementation, combined intervention, or control. Setting 96 municipalities in Colombia, located across eight of its 32 departments. Participants 1420 children aged 12-24 months and their primary carers. Intervention Psychosocial stimulation (weekly home visits with play demonstrations), micronutrient sprinkles given daily, and both combined. All delivered by female community leaders for 18 months. Main outcome measures Cognitive, receptive and expressive language, and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley scales of infant development-III; height, weight, and hemoglobin levels measured at the baseline and end of intervention. Results Stimulation improved cognitive scores (adjusted for age, sex, testers, and baseline levels of outcomes) by 0.26 of a standard deviation (P=0.002). Stimulation also increased receptive language by 0.22 of a standard deviation (P=0.032). Micronutrient supplementation had no significant effect on any outcome and there was no interaction between the interventions. No intervention affected height, weight, or hemoglobin levels. Conclusions Using the infrastructure of a national welfare program we implemented the integrated early child development intervention on a large scale and showed its potential for improving children’s cognitive development. We found no effect of supplementation on developmental or health outcomes. Moreover, supplementation did not interact with stimulation. The implementation model for delivering stimulation suggests that it may serve as a promising blueprint for future policy on early childhood development. Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN18991160. PMID:25266222

Attanasio, Orazio P; Fernandez, Camila; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Meghir, Costas; Rubio-Codina, Marta

2014-01-01

262

Severe Flooding in India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

2002-01-01

263

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Comet

2006-10-10

264

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

265

Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we measured CH4 ebullition and diffusion with funnels and floating chambers in the footprint of an eddy-covariance system measuring CH4 emissions at high frequency (30 mn) in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (in 2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in Lao PDR, southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked-up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. The EC system permitted to evidence a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1) whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emission was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice higher than during nighttime. A total of 4811 measurements of CH4 ebullition with submerged funnels at a weekly/fortnightly frequency were performed. The data set covers a water depth ranging from 0.4 to 16 m, and all types of flooded ecosystems. This dataset allowed to determine that ebullition depends mostly on water level change among many other variables tested. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 (10-90 percentile range: 0.03-21.5 mmol m-2 d-1) and ranged from 0-201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network model could explain up to 45% of variability of ebullition using total static pressure (sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the water level and atmospheric pressure, and bottom temperature as inputs. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition at the reservoir scale and performing gap-filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the reservoir (disregarding downstream emissions) suggesting that ebullition is a major pathway in young hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics.

Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

2014-02-01

266

Hydrogen Distribution Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether produced from fossil or non-fossil sources, the widespread use of hydrogen will require a new and extensive infrastructure to produce, distribute, store and dispense it as a vehicular fuel or for electric generation. Depending on the source from which hydrogen is produced and the form in which it is delivered, many alternative infrastructures can be envisioned. Tradeoffs in scale economies between process and distribution technologies, and such issues as operating cost, safety, materials, etc. can also favor alternative forms of infrastructure. This paper discusses several infrastructure alternatives and the associated "well-to-pump" or "fuel cycle" cost of delivered hydrogen.

Mintz, Marianne; Molburg, John; Folga, Stephen; Gillette, Jerry

2003-07-01

267

Creating Incentives for Private Infrastructure Companies to Become More Efficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

March 1997Certain factors can maximize the pressure on privatized infrastructure companies to be more efficient: the threat of bankruptcy, internal controls imposed by shareholders, and external disciplines (such as the threat of hostile takeover).The privatization of infrastructure companies is expected to bring about gains for customers by increasing the efficiency of the privatized company. Because many infrastructure industries are not

Ian Alexander; Colin Mayer

1999-01-01

268

Hydrology and Hydrometeorology of Extreme Floods in the Menomonee River Basin, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated hydrologic and hydrometeorological processes that control flash flooding are examined through analyses of space-time rainfall variability and flood response in the Milwaukee metropolitan region. The analyses focus on four flood events in the Menomonee River basin that occurred 21 June 1997, 2 July 1997, 6-7 August 1998 and 21 July 1999. The June 1997 and August 1998 flood

Y. Zhang; J. A. Smith

2001-01-01

269

CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

270

Aggradation in response to extreme flooding and watershed management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998, the San Marcos River, located along the Balcones Escarpment in Central Texas, experienced the largest flood in its recorded history. The San Marcos is a heavily managed watershed containing flood control dams, reaches of channelized flow, and a man made lake. This study examines changes to the fluvial system as a result of the combination of an extreme flow event and watershed management practices. The flood caused mass wasting and channel bed aggradation. Since the flood, watershed management practices and flood retention structures have reduced the ability of the flows to transport sediment through the channel. Results indicate that since flood control measures were implemented, only two flood events could have produced any significant transport of material in the study reach. The lasting effect has been an increase in the width to depth ratio in the downstream portion of the river and the creation of a large sediment bar in the upstream channel reach.

Engel, F. L.; Curran, J. C.

2006-12-01

271

Smart Valley Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

Maule, R. William

1994-01-01

272

Infrastructure Survey 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

273

Infrastructure management: new challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new perspective in infrastructure management is put forward whereby institutional arrangements and physical facilities, as well as parts of the natural environment, are systematically coordinated to serve the common needs of different stakeholders in society in a sustainable fashion. Moreover, it is explained how emerging issues in infrastructure management can be properly addressed within this novel framework. One pressing

Norio Okada; Liping Fang; Keith W. Hipel

2001-01-01

274

ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE AND SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about safeguarding key infrastructures (such as energy, communications, banking, and roads) from deliberate attack are long-standing, but since the end to the cold war, emphasis has turned to the possible impacts of terrorism. Activities to address these concerns are sometimes called critical infrastructure protection (CIP), a concept that is somewhat different from the one of \\

Alexander E. Farrell; Hisham Zerriffi; Hadi Dowlatabadi

2004-01-01

275

The Ethnography of Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article asks methodological questions about studying infrastructure with some of the tools and perspectives of ethnography. Infrastructure is both relational and ecological—it means different things to different groups and it is part of the balance of action, tools, and the built environment, inseparable from them. It also is frequently mundane to the point of bore - dom, involving things

SUSAN LEIGH STAR

1999-01-01

276

Lab 12 : Flooding II --Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Lab 12 : Flooding II -- Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction Knowledge of the timing of flooding events is important for a variety of planning purposes. The time between floods Efforts to planning for flooding along a particular stream requires a historical record of how the stream

Chen, Po

277

Mapping Coastal Flood Zones for the National Flood Insurance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created by Congress in 1968, and significantly amended in 1973 to reduce loss of life and property caused by flooding, reduce disaster relief costs caused by flooding and make Federally backed flood insurance available to property owners. These goals were to be achieved by requiring building to be built to resist flood damages,

D. Carlton; C. L. Cook; J. Weber

2004-01-01

278

Critical Infrastructure and Cyber Security  

E-print Network

to the nation's economy. The report cited highways, public transit systems, wastewater treatment works, water resources, air traffic control, airports, and municipal water supply as examples of infrastructure1. This vague definition obviously could not be used... to provide for its area jurisdiction five basic survival needs: air, water, food, clothing, and shelter. This includes: #1; Access to open and functioning grocery stores, #1; Clean, running water, #1; Clean, breathable air, #1; Sound structures...

Doll, Abby; Pirrong, Renee; Jennings, Matthew; Stasny, George; Giblin, Andy; Shaffer, Steph; Anderson, Aimee

2011-01-01

279

Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms  

PubMed Central

There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years. PMID:21845165

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2011-01-01

280

Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.  

PubMed

Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change. PMID:24067733

Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

2013-01-01

281

Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years  

PubMed Central

Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change. PMID:24067733

Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B.; Buntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H.; Schar, Christoph; Beer, Jurg; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

2013-01-01

282

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

283

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

284

Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel  

E-print Network

recovery of hydrocarbons and premature well or field abandonment. Water production can be more problematic during waterflooding in a highly heterogeneous reservoir with vertical communication between layers leading to unevenness in the flood front, cross...

Okeke, Tobenna

2012-07-16

285

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Automatic rainfall station at Brinsmead Contained

Greenslade, Diana

286

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Peter Faust Dam

Greenslade, Diana

287

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

288

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Kolan River at Monduran Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

289

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Maroochy River at Picnic

Greenslade, Diana

290

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bulloo River at Thargomindah Contained

Greenslade, Diana

291

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bundilla Alert Station 2007

Greenslade, Diana

292

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Haughton River at Hustons

Greenslade, Diana

293

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. March 2012 - Rockhampton

Greenslade, Diana

294

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Moonie River at Flinton Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

295

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Lawn Hill Creek at Lawn Hill

Greenslade, Diana

296

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Cloncurry River at Cloncurry

Greenslade, Diana

297

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Einasleigh River at Van Lee

Greenslade, Diana

298

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Burdekin Falls Dam Contained

Greenslade, Diana

299

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Lake Cooroibah Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

300

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Binna Burra ALERT Station Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

301

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Norman River at Normanton Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

302

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Paroo River at Eulo Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

303

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Center during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Diamantina

Greenslade, Diana

304

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Burnett River at Mundubbera

Greenslade, Diana

305

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Julius Dam

Greenslade, Diana

306

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier  

E-print Network

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier 4.1. Various floods Usually, various kinds of floods are distinguished based on the origin or on the main processes. Basically, the cause of the flood can be overflow floods are typical of steep beds and / or high intensity rainfalls. In mountain areas, they can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Nive River at Biddenham

Greenslade, Diana

308

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Herbert River at Halifax

Greenslade, Diana

309

Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

2012-04-01

310

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area ( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Météo France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommières, famous for it's flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it's method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. After more than 100 events observed and analysed in South of France, the experience gained, allowed PREDICT Services to better anticipate phenomena and also to better manage them. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned on risk management.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

311

Flash Flood Case Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

Comet

2007-06-26

312

[Attributes of forest infrastructure].  

PubMed

This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management. PMID:17763742

Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

2007-06-01

313

Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

2008-03-31

314

infrastructure Report by Forest Research  

E-print Network

Benefits of green infrastructure Report by Forest Research Promoting sustainable greenspace #12;Promoting sustainable greenspace #12;Defra research contract number WC0807 October2010 Promoting sustainable greenspace Benefits of green infrastructure Report by Forest Research #12;Benefits of green infrastructure

315

A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

Buntinas, Darius [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Watson, Gregory R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2008-01-01

316

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security  

E-print Network

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST Sandia Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND 2012-1670P Thermal thermal environments different from regulatory standards. Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security

317

INSC Security Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The INSC project was an international collaborative research and development activity established under an MOU among eight NATO nations to investigate and demonstrate a secure IPv6 network infrastructure capable of supporting a multi-national military coa...

S. Zeber

2004-01-01

318

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

319

Smarter Physical Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Smarter Physical Infrastructure Unleashing Information Technology in the Built Environment David Bartlett, IBM Vice President, Smarter Physical Infrastructure ESL-IC-13-10-57 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced... for Enhanced Building Operations, Montreal, Quebec, October 8-11, 2013 Thank you! ESL-IC-13-10-57 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Montreal, Quebec, October 8-11, 2013 ...

Bartlett, D.

2013-01-01

320

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Météo France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommières, famous for it’s flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it’s method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

321

Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which began on 1 October 1996 and ended on 31 January 1997. In addition, it provides a summary of the entire project.

Romanowski, Gregory J.

1997-01-01

322

MFC Communications Infrastructure Study  

SciTech Connect

Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

2012-01-01

323

Public perception of the risks of floods: implications for communication.  

PubMed

Floods in the U.S. kill an average of 162 people each year and cause $3.4 billion in property damage. Flood control programs have been successful in lowering, but not eliminating, the risks to lives and property. Since the late 1960s, the federal government has emphasized flood insurance as a primary tool for improving location and flood-proofing decisions, as well as for reimbursing flood losses. Since only 12.7% of houses in flood plain areas are covered by flood insurance, the program has been ineffective. We interviewed people living in three communities that had recently been flooded. Most people had little knowledge of the cause of floods or what could be done to prevent damage. People who work and who are better educated know more and are more likely to have flood insurance. Current government publications about flood risks are not likely to be understood by those at risk. There is little effective communication about the nature and magnitude of the risks and what individuals can do to protect their lives and property and lower their financial risks. The risk management program should both emphasize communication and enforcement of the current law requiring people at risk who hold federally funded loans to be insured. PMID:1876725

Lave, T R; Lave, L B

1991-06-01

324

RouterMulticast .Source sends a flooding  

E-print Network

#12;Router RouterMulticast . . . Source Router Router . . .Source sends a flooding in periodic time One router is receiving multicast data service flooding Router Router Router Router Router RouterSource flooding flooding RouterRouter Router RouterSource flooding flooding flooding flooding prune Router

Jang, Ju-Wook

325

Iowa Flood Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods. This presentation provides an overview of the tools and interfaces in the IFIS developed to date to provide a platform for one-stop access to flood related data, visualizations, flood conditions, and forecast.

Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

2011-12-01

326

A flood-free period combined with early planting is required to sustain yield of pre-rice sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the responses of sweet sorghum to flooding and the characters associated with flooding tolerance may be a useful strategy for pre-rice production and help meet demand for biofuel feedstock. Three sweet sorghum genotypes (Bailey, Keller and Wray) and five flooding treatments including non-flooding control, continuous flooding extended from 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after emergence to harvest were

A. Promkhambut; A. Polthanee; C. Akkasaeng; A. Younger

2011-01-01

327

Using FEMA FIS, HAZUS and WMOST to Evaluate Effectiveness of GI in Moderating Flood-Related Risks  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability to accurately assess flood-related risks and costs as well as the effectiveness of green infrastructure on moderating those risks is critical for both emergency management and long-term planning. Potential flooding depths, land use and building conditions are needed ...

328

IT Infrastructure Management and Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information system development is often connected to functional requirements and business processes in an organization. The development of the basic information technology infrastructure (IT infrastructure) is therefore easily forgotten. However, a reliable infrastructure is the key to successful operations. As business requirements, the flexibility of the IT infrastructure becomes important. We argue that standards play a key role in development

Seppo Sirkemaa

2002-01-01

329

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the  

E-print Network

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the United Kingdom Floods cause great loss of property, not to mention human misery when they destroy rain or rapid melting of snow will cause the exact same situation again as the flood waters take

Anderson, Jim

330

Seasonal Flood Forecasts and Dynamic Flood Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in predicting seasonal flood peaks\\/volumes conditioned on ocean, atmospheric and land surface conditions offer the scope for dynamic flood risk management. We address a deficiency of the traditional assumption that flood series are stationary, independent and identically distributed (iid). In this study, we evaluate a semi-parametric methodology based on local likelihood estimation for estimating the flood quantiles based

S. Arumugam; U. Lall

2004-01-01

331

LNG infrastructure and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

Forgash, D.J.

1995-12-31

332

Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines flood risk perceptions of individuals in the Netherlands using a survey of approximately 1000 homeowners. Perceptions of a range of aspects of flood risk are elicited. Various statistical models are used to estimate the influence of socioeconomic and geographical characteristics, personal experience with flooding, knowledge of flood threats, and individual risk attitudes on shaping risk belief. The study shows that in general, perceptions of flood risk are low. An analysis of the factors determining risk perceptions provides four main insights relevant for policy makers and insurers. First, differences in expected risk are consistently related to actual risk levels, since individuals in the vicinity of a main river and low-lying areas generally have elevated risk perceptions. Second, individuals in areas unprotected by dikes tend to underestimate their risk of flooding. Third, individuals with little knowledge of the causes of flood events have lower perceptions of flood risk. Fourth, there is some evidence that older and more highly educated individuals have a lower flood risk perception. The findings indicate that increasing knowledge of citizens about the causes of flooding may increase flood risk awareness. It is especially important to target individuals who live in areas unprotected by dike infrastructure, since they tend to be unaware of or ignore the high risk exposure faced.

Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.

2009-10-01

333

Flooding could follow wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summertime wildfires that have already burned about 2.7 million hectares in the United States may cause a double-whammy for property owners by greatly increasing the risk of flooding, according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA.FEMA director Joe Allbaugh said, “The loss of trees, ground cover, and other vegetation has greatly increased the possibility of flash floods and mudflows.” Allbaugh said that land scorched and barren from the loss of natural forest barriers can take decades to recover and result in erosion and devastating floods.

Showstack, Randy

334

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-28

335

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

336

Road assessment after flood events using non-authoritative data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research proposes a methodology that leverages non-authoritative data to augment flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation infrastructure. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its integration with established data and methods. Crowdsourced photos and volunteered geographic data are fused together using a geostatistical interpolation to create an estimation of flood damage in New York City following Hurricane Sandy. This damage assessment is utilized to augment an authoritative storm surge map as well as to create a road damage map for the affected region.

Schnebele, E.; Cervone, G.; Waters, N.

2013-08-01

337

Global Floods 1985�2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

Observatory, Dartmouth F.; College, Dartmouth

338

TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT,  

E-print Network

opportunities for fish passage improvements; and (5) identifies a tentatively selected plan. The tentatively Experiment Station (also known as UNR Farms), and levees along Steamboat Creek and Boynton Slough includes riparian habitat plantings as compensatory fish and wildlife mitigation. Fish and wildlife

US Army Corps of Engineers

339

Coastal Flooding Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eric B. Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are introduced to Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, and use these tools to perform a flooding analysis for the Long Beach area of California. Context Type and level ...

Grosfils, Eric

340

Repairing Your Flooded Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the American Red Cross to help flooded property owners. It is designed to be easily copied. Permission to reproduce all or any section of this material is hereby granted and encouraged. ...

341

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

2011-12-30

342

National Flood Insurance Program: Flood Hazard Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created this helpful set of resources for policymakers, elected officials, journalists, and members of the general public who would like to know more about the world of flood hazard mapping. On this site, visitors can find a host of resources and over a dozen thematic links, such as Coastal Projects, Change My Flood Zone Designation, and User Groups. Each link is preceded by a brief introduction to the resource, along with a description of the various items within each link. Visitors shouldn't miss the Online Tutorials offered here, as they include several multimedia instructional resources designed to provide in-depth training on different facets on these programs.

343

Historical Floods in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site reviews major flooding in the Northeastern United States, as reported by the Northeast River Forecast Center (NERFC), a division of the National Weather Service. It includes photos, rainfall maps, and descriptions of record-breaking floods that occured between the years 1927 and 1996. Descriptions include specific causes of flooding, weather patterns leading up to flooding, as well as results and actions taken due to flooding in the regions discussed.

344

Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

Comet

2010-08-31

345

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

1999-10-15

346

The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.  

PubMed

Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

2014-08-01

347

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security  

E-print Network

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST Sandia Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND 2012-0987P Uncertaintyin Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2012-0987P Building Confidence

348

WOLTZ SYMPOSIUM ADAPTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE  

E-print Network

afternoon session 1.30 pm to 6.30 pm Campbell Hall 153 Michael Pace, University of Virginia, EnvironmentalWOLTZ SYMPOSIUM ADAPTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 8-10 OCTOBER 2009 CAMPBELL HALL Research on climate change has already revealed impacts in the United States

Whittle, Mark

349

Infrastructure analysis system (IAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Senior Policy Group, advisors to managers of the National Capital Region (DC, MD, VA) needs a decision aid tool to help in appropriating critical infrastructure protection funds. The proposed system is designed to work with data from energy, water, and healthcare sectors. The system addresses the combined problem of network degradation, and analysis. The system will also provide planning

Y. M. Ashparie; Oluwaseyi Pius Bashorun; Greg Joseph Koch; G. R. Siegel; Petko Traoumir Stoyanov

2005-01-01

350

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Infrastructure  

E-print Network

a few of the incredible College of Engineering faculty and students who are conducting research related support to our students and the College of Engineering through gifts and the establishment of scholarshipsCOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Infrastructure #12;2 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING This publication focuses on just

351

An Infrastructure Roadmap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

Furgeson, Steven P.

2002-01-01

352

CERN printing infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (~1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration.

Otto, R.; Sucik, J.

2008-07-01

353

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security  

E-print Network

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST Sandia Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

354

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security  

E-print Network

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST Sandia owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND 2012-1670P Ensuring the Safe Containment

355

Infrastructure Survey 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

356

An assessment of derived flood frequency distributions  

E-print Network

Flood Frequency Curve - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 9. Statistical Flood Frequency Curve - Halls Bayou . . . . . . 51 . . . 51 FIG. 10. Derived Flood Frequency Curves ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 53 FIG. 11. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Briar Creek... . . FIG. 12, Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 13. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Halls Bayou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIG. 14. Simulation Flood Frequency Curve ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 54 . . . 56 FIG. 15. Simulation...

Raines, Timothy Howard

2012-06-07

357

On the Protection and Technologies of Critical Information Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical Infrastructures are complex and highly interconnected systems that are crucial for the well-being of the society.\\u000a Any type of failure can cause significant damage, affecting one or more sectors due to their inherent interdependency. Not\\u000a only the infrastructures are critical, but also the information infrastructures that manage, control and supervise them. Due\\u000a to the seriousness of the consequences, the

Javier Lopez; Cristina Alcaraz; Rodrigo Roman

2007-01-01

358

Utilizing Climate Based Flood Forecasting for Operational Rule Curve Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delaying the date of maximum flood control drawdown at large storage reservoirs will provide benefits to ecosystem health, power generation, and water supply reliability. This project focuses on using climate-based information to extend predictions of spring runoff to lead times greater than 10 days. Current operation within the Columbia River storage system relies on static rule curves for flood management.

D. A. Raff

2005-01-01

359

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years....

360

EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research  

EPA Science Inventory

Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

361

Streamflow and sediment data collected to determine the effects of a controlled flood in March and April 1996 on the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An 8-day period of planned release of water at 1,275 cubic meters per second from Glen Canyon Dam in March and April 1996 provided an opportunity to collect data on river stage, streamflow, water chemistry, and sediment transport at discharges above powerplant releases. The U.S. Geological Survey collected data at five streamflow-gaging stations on the mainstem of the Colorado River and four on tributaries during the controlled flood. River-stage data were collected at an additional 29 locations, and suspended-sediment data were collected at 4 of the 5 mainstem streamflow-gaging stations. In addition, measurements of reach-average flow velocity were made using a dye tracer, and water-surface slope was measured in reaches adjacent to three of the streamflow-gaging stations. Sand-storage changes caused by the controlled flood were documented by measuring bed elevation of the channel at cross sections before and after the controlled releases at the network of 120 monumented locations. This report presents selected data in tabular and graphical form. The data presented in the report are available in electronic form.

Konieczki, Alice D.; Graf, Julia B.; Carpenter, Michael C.

1997-01-01

362

Externality Effects Associated with Floods and Flood Plain Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of externalities, where social and private costs and benefits differ, on flood plain management is discussed. The primary externality is the concern that occupation of the flood plain leads to greater social costs than benefits. Information is ...

D. Freshwater

1976-01-01

363

Internet indirection infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to generalize the Internet's point-to-point communication abstraction to provide services like multicast, anycast, and mobility have faced challenging technical problems and deployment barriers. To ease the deployment of such services, this paper proposes an overlay-based Internet Indirection Infrastructure ( I3) that offers a rendezvous-based communication abstraction. Instead of explicitly sending a packet to a destination, each packet is associated

Ion Stoica; Daniel Adkins; Shelley Zhuang; Scott Shenker; Sonesh Surana

2002-01-01

364

Internet Indirection Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to generalize the Internet's point-to-point communication abstraction to provide services like multicast, anycast, and mobility have faced challenging technical problems and deployment barriers. To ease the deployment of such services, this paper proposes an overlay-based Internet Indirection Infrastructure ( I3) that offers a rendezvous-based communication abstraction. Instead of explicitly sending a packet to a destination, each packet is associated

Ion Stoica; Daniel Adkins; Sylvia Ratnasamy; Scott Shenker; Sonesh Surana; Shelley Zhuang

2002-01-01

365

Openness as Infrastructure  

E-print Network

infrastructure, from the fiber across which bits flow to the server farms and compute clusters and clouds where processing now takes place, all connected by yet another crucial element - the standard protocols by which data and documents and music files... for networking, for document sharing, for software, and are beginning to win for culture and education. It is, in the end, the better way to do science, one in which there is less duplication of effort, less fraud, more reproducibility, more return...

Wilbanks, John

2011-07-04

366

In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

2011-11-01

367

Infrastructure tradeoffs for sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sensor network, the infrastructure (in terms of the sensor capabilities, number of sensors, and deployment strategy) plays a significant role in determining the performance of the network. In this paper, we study the effect of infrastructure decisions on the performance of a sensor network. We study the effect of the infrastructure for two types of network delivery models

Sameer Tilak; Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh; Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman

2002-01-01

368

Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, four scenarios were used to quantify the balance between the benefits of levees for flood protection\\u000a and their potential to increase flood risk using Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard flood-loss software and hydraulic modeling of the\\u000a Middle Mississippi River (MMR). The goals of this study were (1) to quantify the flood exposure under different flood-control\\u000a configurations and (2) to

Jonathan W. F. RemoMegan; Megan Carlson; Nicholas Pinter

369

Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

1997-01-01

370

ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

Macduff, M; Egan, D

2004-12-01

371

Seeking Equity in the National Information Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposals for shaping the National Information Infrastructure (NII) lack sufficient provision for supporting locally controlled information delivery systems, which could serve all the people, regardless of class or community environment. A system of federally sponsored National and Regional Institutes for Information Democracy could help meet this…

Doctor, Ronald D.

1994-01-01

372

Flood monitoring over the Mackenzie River Basin using passive microwave data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding over the Mackenzie River Basin, which is situated in northwestern Canada, is a complex and rapid process. This process is mainly controlled by the occurrence of ice jams. Flood forecasting is of very important in mitigating social and economic damage. This study investigates the potential of a rating curve model for flood forecasting. The proposed approach is based on

Marouane Temimi; Robert Leconte; Francois Brissette; Naira Chaouch

2005-01-01

373

Taming IP Packet Flooding Attacks Karthik Lakshminarayanan Daniel Adkins y Adrian Perrig Ion Stoica  

E-print Network

Taming IP Packet Flooding Attacks #3; Karthik Lakshminarayanan Daniel Adkins y Adrian Perrig Ion hosts is denial­ of­service (DoS) caused by IP packet floods. Hosts in the Internet are unable to stop -- not the net­ work -- should be given control to respond to packet floods and overload. Ideally, hosts should

Perrig, Adrian

374

CFlood: A Constrained Flooding Protocol for Real-Time Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

CFlood: A Constrained Flooding Protocol for Real-Time Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks Bo networks. We present a constrained flooding protocol, called CFlood that enhances the deadline satisfaction-time perfor- mance by flooding, but effectively constrains energy consumption by controlling the scale

Ravindran, Binoy

375

FLOOD! Emergency Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

376

Flood risks and the willingness to purchase flood insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated here is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to flood risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed

M. R. Karlinger; E. D. Attanasi

1980-01-01

377

DIRECT FLOOD DAMAGE MODELING TOWARDS URBAN FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of losses from future floods is essential to prepare for a disaster and facilitating good decision making at the local, regional, state, and national levels of government. Flood loss estimates provide public and private sector agencies with a basis for planning, zoning, and development regulations, and policy that would reduce the risk posed by hazards. Flood loss estimates

DUSHMANTA DUTTA; SRIKANTHA HERATH; KATUMI MUSIAKE

378

Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

2013-04-01

379

Research on Submarine Maneuverability of Flooded Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper establishes the emergency recovery maneuver motion model. According to the characteristic of hydrodynamics coefficients on flooded submarine, attaining hydrodynamics coefficients of different angle of attack by limited ship model hydrodynamics experiment of large angle of attack. A sensitivity index is introduced to evaluate submarine's controllability. The experiment results are regressed to two kinds of hydrodynamic coefficients for big

Liu Hui; Pu Jinyun; Jin Tao

2009-01-01

380

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2010-01-01

381

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2012-01-01

382

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2014-01-01

383

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2013-01-01

384

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2013-01-01

385

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2011-01-01

386

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2014-01-01

387

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2011-01-01

388

Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Flooding is an environmental stress for many natural and man-made ecosystems worldwide. Genetic diversity in the plant response to flooding includes alterations in architecture, metabolism, and elongation growth associated with a low O(2) escape strategy and an antithetical quiescence scheme that allows endurance of prolonged submergence. Flooding is frequently accompanied with a reduction of cellular O(2) content that is particularly severe when photosynthesis is limited or absent. This necessitates the production of ATP and regeneration of NAD(+) through anaerobic respiration. The examination of gene regulation and function in model systems provides insight into low-O(2)-sensing mechanisms and metabolic adjustments associated with controlled use of carbohydrate and ATP. At the developmental level, plants can escape the low-O(2) stress caused by flooding through multifaceted alterations in cellular and organ structure that promote access to and diffusion of O(2). These processes are driven by phytohormones, including ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. This exploration of natural variation in strategies that improve O(2) and carbohydrate status during flooding provides valuable resources for the improvement of crop endurance of an environmental adversity that is enhanced by global warming. PMID:18444902

Bailey-Serres, J; Voesenek, L A C J

2008-01-01

389

Building green infrastructure via citizen participation - a six-year study in the Shepherd Creek  

EPA Science Inventory

Green infrastructure at the parcel scale provides critical ecosystem goods and services when these services (such as flood mitigation) must be provided locally. Here we report on an approach that encourages suburban landowners to mitigate impervious surfaces on their properties t...

390

Integration of SRTM DEM and Hydraulic Analysis for Flood Response Planning.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to delineate potential flood inundation areas is one of the most important requirements for flood response planning. Historical hydrologic records and high-resolution topographic data are essential to model flood inundation and to map areas at risk of inundation. For Afghanistan, historical hydrologic data enable the analysis of flood frequency, but the accurate delineation of flood inundation zones is limited by the lack of high- resolution elevation data. This study has developed a method for coupling hydraulic analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to delineate flood risk maps of the Helmand and Kabul drainage basins in Afghanistan. Land surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) were used to create an area-elevation profile with respect to the rivers that flow into these two basins. Using the profile, we computed cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter for each 1-m increment in elevation. Manning's equation was applied to compute river discharge for each 1-m increment in water level using cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and slope of the respective river reach. Results for the gauged river reaches were compared with 25, 50, and 100-year return period floods based on a flood frequency from the historical stream flow data, and associated depths of water were estimated for each return period flood. Peak flows at gauge stations were extrapolated to ungauged river reaches based on upstream drainage area. The estimated depths of water for each river reach were used as thresholds to identify areas subject to flood inundation, using the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with respect to the rivers. The resulting flood inundation polygons were combined in a GIS with roads, infrastructure, settlements, and higher resolution satellite imagery to identify potential hazards due to flooding, and provide detailed information for flood response planning.

Pervez, M.; Asante, K. O.; Smith, J. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

2006-12-01

391

78 FR 49409 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infrastructure Requirements for the 2010 Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality...infrastructure requirements for the 2010 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) NAAQS. DATES...control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Reporting and...

2013-08-14

392

Local Legal Infrastructure and Population Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored the association between the legal infrastructure of local public health, as expressed in the exercise of local fiscal and legislative authority, and local population health outcomes. Methods. Our unit of analysis was public health jurisdictions with at least 100?000 residents. The dependent variable was jurisdiction premature mortality rates obtained from the Mobilize Action Toward Community Health (MATCH) database. Our primary independent variables represented local public health’s legal infrastructure: home rule status, board of health power, county government structure, and type of public health delivery system. Several control variables were included. We used a regression model to test the relationship between the varieties of local public health legal infrastructure identified and population health status. Results. The analyses suggested that public health legal infrastructure, particularly reformed county government, had a significant effect on population health status as a mediator of social determinants of health. Conclusions. Because states shape the legal infrastructure of local public health through power-sharing arrangements, our findings suggested recommendations for state legislation that positions local public health systems for optimal impact. Much more research is needed to elucidate the complex relationships among law, social capital, and population health status. PMID:22897523

Patton, Dana J.

2012-01-01

393

The costs of uncoordinated infrastructure management in multi-reservoir river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though there are surprisingly few estimates of the economic benefits of coordinated infrastructure development and operations in international river basins, there is a widespread belief that improved cooperation is beneficial for managing water scarcity and variability. Hydro-economic optimization models are commonly-used for identifying efficient allocation of water across time and space, but such models typically assume full coordination. In the real world, investment and operational decisions for specific projects are often made without full consideration of potential downstream impacts. This paper describes a tractable methodology for evaluating the economic benefits of infrastructure coordination. We demonstrate its application over a range of water availability scenarios in a catchment of the Mekong located in Lao PDR, the Nam Ngum River Basin. Results from this basin suggest that coordination improves system net benefits from irrigation and hydropower by approximately 3–12% (or US12-53 million/yr) assuming moderate levels of flood control, and that the magnitude of coordination benefits generally increases with the level of water availability and with inflow variability. Similar analyses would be useful for developing a systematic understanding of the factors that increase the costs of non-cooperation in river basin systems worldwide, and would likely help to improve targeting of efforts to stimulate complicated negotiations over water resources.

Jeuland, Marc; Baker, Justin; Bartlett, Ryan; Lacombe, Guillaume

2014-10-01

394

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods  

E-print Network

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

395

BUILDING STRONG Flood Protection Structure  

E-print Network

Community/sponsor has decision whether to participate in National Flood Insurance Program. Has a key roleBUILDING STRONG® Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force March 2013 #12;BUILDING STRONG® FEMA's Role in Levees Present flood hazard and risk information Establish appropriate risk zone

US Army Corps of Engineers

396

Surfactant flooding solution  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous treating solution is disclosed for surfactant flooding operations to increase oil recovery. The treating solution comprises water, one or more surfactants, one or more solubilizers and a sulfonated dicyclopentadiene compound which permits a reduction in the needed quantities of surfactant and solubilizer without loss of surfactant stability and activity or oil recovery efficiency.

Schievelbein, V.H.; Zabczuk, P.

1984-03-20

397

Flooding on Elbe River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

398

Fast Flooding over Manhattan  

E-print Network

We consider a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) formed by n agents that move at speed V according to the Manhattan Random-Way Point model over a square region of side length L. The resulting stationary (agent) spatial probability distribution is far to be uniform: the average density over the "central zone" is asymptotically higher than that over the "suburb". Agents exchange data iff they are at distance at most R within each other. We study the flooding time of this MANET: the number of time steps required to broadcast a message from one source agent to all agents of the network in the stationary phase. We prove the first asymptotical upper bound on the flooding time. This bound holds with high probability, it is a decreasing function of R and V, and it is tight for a wide and relevant range of the network parameters (i.e. L, R and V). A consequence of our result is that flooding over the sparse and highly-disconnected suburb can be as fast as flooding over the dense and connected central zone. Rather surprisin...

Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

2010-01-01

399

Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

Guilin, L. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Defu, L. [Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Huajun, L. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Fengqing, W. [Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Ocean Univ. of China, Songling Road No.238, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tao, Z. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. of China, Songling Road No.238, Qingdao 266100 (China)

2012-07-01

400

Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino-Alto Adige and Campania, and societal flood risk is highest in Piedmont and Sicily.

Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

2010-03-01

401

Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.  

PubMed

Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. PMID:24530580

Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

2014-04-15

402

Variation in flooding-induced morphological traits in natural populations of white clover (Trifolium repens) and their effects on plant performance during soil flooding  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Soil flooding leads to low soil oxygen concentrations and thereby negatively affects plant growth. Differences in flooding tolerance have been explained by the variation among species in the extent to which traits related to acclimation were expressed. However, our knowledge of variation within natural species (i.e. among individual genotypes) in traits related to flooding tolerance is very limited. Such data could tell us on which traits selection might have taken place, and will take place in future. The aim of the present study was to show that variation in flooding-tolerance-related traits is present among genotypes of the same species, and that both the constitutive variation and the plastic variation in flooding-induced changes in trait expression affect the performance of genotypes during soil flooding. Methods Clones of Trifolium repens originating from a river foreland were subjected to either drained, control conditions or to soil flooding. Constitutive expression of morphological traits was recorded on control plants, and flooding-induced changes in expression were compared with these constitutive expression levels. Moreover, the effect of both constitutive and flooding-induced trait expression on plant performance was determined. Key Results Constitutive and plastic variation of several morphological traits significantly affected plant performance. Even relatively small increases in root porosity and petiole length contributed to better performance during soil flooding. High specific leaf area, by contrast, was negatively correlated with performance during flooding. Conclusions The data show that different genotypes responded differently to soil flooding, which could be linked to variation in morphological trait expression. As flooded and drained conditions exerted different selection pressures on trait expression, the optimal value for constitutive and plastic traits will depend on the frequency and duration of flooding. These data will help us understanding the mechanisms affecting short- and long-term dynamics in flooding-prone ecosystems. PMID:18713824

Huber, Heidrun; Jacobs, Elke; Visser, Eric J. W.

2009-01-01

403

Applications of ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS) in the Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site (ARETS). [water management, streamflow rates, flood control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The DCS water-stage data from the USGS streamflow gaging station on the Verde River near Camp Verde furnished information sufficient for the accurate computation of daily mean streamflow rates during the first 2 months of operation. Daily mean flow rates computed from the DCS data agreed with those computed from the digital recorder data within + or - 5% during periods of stable or slowly changing flow and within + or - 10% during periods of rapidly changing high flow. The SRP was furnished near-real time DCS information on snow moisture content and streamflow rates for use in the management and operation of the multiple-use reservoir system. The SRP, by prudent water management and the use of near-real time hydrologic data furnished by microwave and ERTS DCS telemetry, was successful in anticipating the amount of flow into the Salt and Verde Rivers and in the subsequent release of water at rates that did not create flooding in metropolitan Phoenix. Only minor flooding occurred along the Gila River west of Phoenix. According to the Maricopa County Civil Defense agency, wage and salary losses of about $11,400,000 resulted from closing of roads across the Salt River in the winter and spring of 1972-73; however, the number and duration of the closing were minimized by use of DCS data.

Schumann, H. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

404

Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.

Kreibich, H.; Piroth, K.; Seifert, I.; Maiwald, H.; Kunert, U.; Schwarz, J.; Merz, B.; Thieken, A. H.

2009-10-01

405

Floods of November 12, 1974 in the Charlotte Amalie area, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flood on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, of November 12, 1974, was the largest recorded flood in the area from Fort Christian through Charlotte Amalie and Frenchtown to the end of Crown Bay. This flood has a recurrence interval of about 60 years. With the exception of a few narrow beaches, very little flooding occurred outside of the Charlotte Amalie area. The flood boundaries are controlled to a large extent by the prevailing channel and flood-plain conditions. Inundation from future floods may be affected by changes in channel conditions, alteration of waterway openings at roads, changes in runoff characteristics of the stream caused by increased urbanization, and other cultural developments. The areas inundated by the 1974 flood are shown on 2 maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Haire, W.J.; Johnson, K.G.

1977-01-01

406

California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ���¢��������real-world���¢������� retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation���¢��������s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products���¢�������� Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user���¢��������s fueling experience.

Edward C. Heydorn

2013-03-12

407

A process flood typology along an Alpine transect: analysis based on observations and modelling approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of climate changes on river floods requires a better understanding of the control of climate variability on flood regimes. The aim of this work is to identify the process types of causative mechanisms of floods along a longitudinal Alpine transect spanning 200 km from Verona in Italy to lower Germany. The investigation is focused on the analysis of the statistical properties of the various flood typologies, their spatial organization and their relation with the topography of the transect. Along the transect, 34 basins were selected following criteria of basin size (between 50 and 500 km2), amount of hydrometeorological data available and impact of hydraulic structures on runoff regime. Around 20 years of hourly data of discharge, precipitation and temperature were collected for each basin. The three most intense floods occurred each year are considered in the work. Precipitation and temperature follow a sharp gradient across the transect, with both precipitation and temperature low around the main alpine ridge. Four flood types are considered: long-rain floods, flash floods, rain-on-snow floods, and snowmelt floods. For the classification we use a combination of a number of process indicators, including the timing of the floods, storm duration, rainfall depths, snowmelt contribution to runoff, initial catchment state and runoff response dynamics, using a procedure similar to what described in Merz and Blöschl (2003). The indicators for flood classification are derived based on either observed discharge data and model results. Comparison between the two derived flood classifications allows one to analyse the viability of using a model approach to build flood typologies in basins characterized by varying data availability. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by imposing step changes to the precipitation and temperature pattern. The resulting distribution of flood types gives an insight on the possible change in floods distribution as a result to a change in climate properties. Merz, R. and G. Bloschl (2003). A process typology of regional floods. Water Resources Research 39(12): 1340.

Zoccatelli, Davide; Parajka, Juraj; Gaál, Ladislav; Blöschl, Günter; Borga, Marco

2014-05-01

408

Child malnutrition and recurrent flooding in rural eastern India: a community-based survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between exposure to floods and malnutrition in children aged 6–59?months in rural India. Research has focused exclusively on Bangladeshi children, and few controlled epidemiological studies are available. Method A community-based cross-sectional study of child nutritional status was carried out in 14 flooded and 18 non-flooded villages of Jagatsinghpur district (Orissa) within one month of the September 2008 floods, and similarly affected by flooding in August 2006. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 757 households in the flooded villages and 816 in the non-flooded communities. Data used in this study were from those households with children aged 6–59?months. In total, 191 and 161 children were measured, respectively. The association between various malnutrition indicators and the exposure to floods was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Adjusted analyses revealed that children in flooded households were more likely stunted compared with those in non-flooded ones (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.60; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.44). The prevalence of underweight was also higher in children living in the flooded communities (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.86; 95% CI 1.04 to 3.30). Further analyses found that the 26–36-month flooded cohort, thus those children younger than 1?year during the precedent flood in August 2006, attained the largest difference in levels of stunting compared with the unexposed group of the same age. Conclusion Exposure to floods is associated with long-term malnutrition in these rural communities of Orissa, India. Children exposed to floods during their first year of life presented higher levels of chronic malnutrition. Long-term malnutrition prevention programmes after floods should be implemented in flood-prone areas. PMID:22080535

Ranjan-Dash, Shisir; Degomme, Olivier; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2011-01-01

409

Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers  

E-print Network

or FAST uses stream level sensors attached to cell phones to notify Fort Hood Range Control of flooding at six low water crossings. The sensors are part of Blackland Research and Extension Center?s Fort Hood Water Quality Monitoring project, designed... monitor stream depth, are programmed to issue alerts when the streams reach certain depths. These alerts are transmitted by cell phones to a Blackberry located in Fort Hood?s Range Control office. The Blackberry delivers a text message, describing...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

410

Wireless intelligent network: infrastructure before services?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriers' deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. This paper points out WIN characteristics in architecture, flexibility, deployment, and value to customers. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN will contain elements that are foreign to the wireline network. The deployment process is expected to seed with the revenue generated services. Standardization will be achieved by simplifying and incorporating the IS-41C, AIN, and Intelligent Network CS-1 recommendations. Integration of the existing and future systems impose the biggest challenge of all. Service creation has to be complemented with service deployment process which heavily impact the carriers' infrastructure. WIN deployment will likely start from an Intelligent Peripheral, a Service Control Point and migrate to a Service Node when sufficient triggers are implemented in the mobile switch for distributed call control. The struggle to move forward will not be based on technology, but rather on the impact to existing infrastructure.

Chu, Narisa N.

1996-01-01

411

Coastal Flooding of Jakarta (Indonesia): Causes and Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and large coastal city located in the northern coast of Java island, with a population of about 9.6 million. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. Coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. In general, based on the Levelling, GPS surveys, and InSAR surveys, conducted since 1982 up to 2011, it is obtained that land subsidence in Jakarta exhibits spatial and temporal variations, with the rates of about 1 to 15 cm/year, and a few locations can have the subsidence rates up to about 20-25 cm/year. Largest subsidence occurred at several areas along the coast. This subsidence is mainly due to natural consolidation of alluvial, excessive groundwater extraction, and load of constructions. During the high tide periods, these subsiding areas used to experience flooding. The sea level rise phenomena in Java sea and high sedimentation rates in 13 rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta have worsen this coastal flooding phenomenon of Jakarta. Based on the linear-term of sea level change for period of 1993 to 2009 as derived from satellite altimetry data, the sea level rise around Jakarta coastal area is about 4-5 mm/year.The impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta are numerous and resulted economic losses are quite significant. Besides causing coastal erosion, the frequent and severe coastal flooding is deteriorating the function of building and infrastructures and decreasing the quality of living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition) in the affected areas. This paper analyzes and discusses the causes and impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta, and proposes the potential mechanism to overcome the problems.

Abidin, H. Z.; Hadi, S.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Nurmaulia, S. L.; Fukuda, Y.

2012-04-01

412

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-08-01

413

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-04-01

414

Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

2012-08-01

415

Flooding in Central China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

416

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

417

Flooding tolerance in halophytes.  

PubMed

Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes. PMID:18482227

Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

2008-01-01

418

National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Biological Infrastructure Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering ... --- Computer and Information Science and Engineering 47.076 --- Education and Human Resources 47.041 ...

419

Loss Reduction Catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods kill thousands of people  

E-print Network

Loss Reduction Catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods kill thousands of people and destroy Research · Addresses damage related to wind, snow, ice, earthquakes, mould and a range of other hazards of disasters Research Priorities · Reduce wind and earthquake damage to housing and infrastructure · Understand

Denham, Graham

420

Short-term physiological responses to flooding in Quercus rubra Joshua Sloan* Anisul Islam and Douglass JacobsJoshua Sloan*, Anisul Islam, and Douglass Jacobs  

E-print Network

Short-term physiological responses to flooding in Quercus rubra Joshua Sloan* Anisul Islam maintained in a greenhouse and assigned to either a flooding treatment or a non-flooded control Results and Discussion Short-term flooding was found to exert an negative influence on net photosynthesisbeen planted

421

Influence of theYesa reservoir on floods of the Aragn River, central Spanish Pyrenees Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(4), 753762 (2002) EGS  

E-print Network

the safety of the dam. Keywords: reservoir, flood control, flood seasonality, flood frequency, river regime). Sometimes, reservoirs are managed to reduce the effect of floods downstream of the dams, by avoiding, deposition and sediment transport downstream. The study area The Yesa reservoir drains an area of 2,181 km2

Boyer, Edmond

422

Large-scale simulator for global data infrastructure optimization  

E-print Network

Companies depend on information systems to control their operations. During the last decade, Information Technology (IT) infrastructures have grown in scale and complexity. Any large company runs many enterprise applications ...

Herrero-López, Sergio

2012-01-01

423

Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed; what can we conclude and what is the way forward? • The project has evaluated relevant existing interoperable infrastructures revealing a typology of infrastructures that may be useful models for the EGDI; • Planning for the EGDI also need to be integrated with other relevant international initiatives and programs such as GMES, GEO and EPOS, and with legally binding regulations like INSPIRE. The outcomes of these relevant evaluations and activities will contribute to the implementation plan for the EGDI including the prioritization of relevant datasets and the most important functional, technical (design, use of standards), legal and organizational requirements.

van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

2013-04-01

424

MOEMS industrial infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the numbers they want (several millions per year). The crossover point where building a dedicated facility becomes a realistic option, can differ very much depending on technology complexity, numbers and market value. Also history plays a role, companies with past experience in the production of a product and the necessary facilities and equipment will tend to achieve captive production. Companies not having a microtechnology history will tend to outsource, offering business opportunities for foundries. The number of foundries shows a steady growth over the years. The total availability of foundries, however, and their flexibility will, undoubtedly, rely on market potential and its size. Unlike design houses, foundries need to realise a substantial return on the "large" investments they make in terms of capital and infrastructure. These returns will be maximised through mass-produced products aimed at "killer" applications (accelerometers are only one example). The existence of professional suppliers of MOEMS packaging and assembly is an essential element in the supply chain and critical for the manufacturing and commercialisation of MOEMS products. In addition, the incorporation of packaging and assembly techniques at the front-end of the engineering cycle will pay back in terms of financial savings and shorter timescales to market. Packaging and assembly for MOEMS are, in general, more costly than their equivalents for standard integrated circuits. This is, primarily, due to the diversity of the interconnections (which are multi-functional and may incorporate: electrical, optical, fluidic etc). In addition, the high levels of accuracy and the potential sensitivity of the devices to mechanical and external influences play a major role in the cost aspects of the final MNT product. This article will give an overview of the package/assembly providers and foundry business models and analyse their contribution to the MOEMS supply chain illustrated with some typical examples. As we believe that commercial services are the main basis for the break

van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

2004-08-01

425

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

426

The dependence of educational infrastructure on clinical infrastructure.  

PubMed Central

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine needed to assess the growth of its infrastructure for educational computing as a first step to determining if student needs were being met. Included in computing infrastructure are space, equipment, software, and computing services. The infrastructure was assessed by reviewing purchasing and support logs for a six year period from 1992 to 1998. This included equipment, software, and e-mail accounts provided to students and to faculty for educational purposes. Student space has grown at a constant rate (averaging 14% increase each year respectively). Student equipment on campus has grown by a constant amount each year (average 8.3 computers each year). Student infrastructure off campus and educational support of faculty has not kept pace. It has either declined or remained level over the six year period. The availability of electronic mail clearly demonstrates this with accounts being used by 99% of students, 78% of Basic Science Course Leaders, 38% of Clerkship Directors, 18% of Clerkship Site Directors, and 8% of Clinical Elective Directors. The collection of the initial descriptive infrastructure data has revealed problems that may generalize to other medical schools. The discrepancy between infrastructure available to students and faculty on campus and students and faculty off campus creates a setting where students perceive a paradoxical declining support for computer use as they progress through medical school. While clinical infrastructure may be growing, it is at the expense of educational infrastructure at affiliate hospitals. PMID:9929262

Cimino, C.

1998-01-01

427

Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

2012-12-01

428

Modeling Flood Perils and Flood Insurance Program in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan had approximately 3,000 buildings damaged by floods with an economic loss of NT$12.8 billion annually, a figure 4.5 times more than economic losses due to fire damages. Many insurers become extremely cautious when underwriting their flood policies for people living in areas that are frequently struck by floods. The rising damages also trigger the demand for a mandatory national

Ching-Cheng Chang; Wenko Hsu; Ming-Daw Su

2008-01-01

429

78 FR 59666 - Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and Request...hereby announces updates to its Transmission Infrastructure Program (``the...

2013-09-27

430

Super-heated flooding fronts on tidal flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flooding tide over a tidal flat is a thin fluid flow with complex dynamics and relation to benthic activity. Temperature observations (Figure 1) on the Skagit Bay, WA, USA tidal flats during the summer suggest that the leading edge of the flooding front is up to 5 °C warmer than the exposed sediment and 15 °C warmer than the bulk tide water. Using a numerical model, we evaluate the thermodynamic budget of this thin layer in a Lagrangian frame following the flood tide. Both local and flux heating terms are significant. The local heating is modulated by the turbidity of the flooding front, which controls the uptake of solar radiation, and by the exchange of heat between the flooding front and the sediment. The flux mechanisms include horizontal diffusion and advection due to net circulation within the frontal control volume. Due to the no-slip condition at the bed, circulation of warmer water near the surface moves toward the front while cooler water leaves the volume near the bed.Airborne infrared imagery taken during the flood tide at Skagit Bay, WA, USA on 23 June 2009 starting at 3:00 PM PDT. Cooler surface temperatures are darker The exposed tidal flats are warmer than the Skagit Bay water due to solar heating while exposed. The leading edge of the flood front is indicated and is up to 5 °C warmer than the exposed sediment. The airborne imagery was taken over 50 minutes and mosaicked together.

Rinehimer, J. P.; Thomson, J. M.; Chickadel, C.

2012-12-01

431

Quantifying groundwater recharge from floods in semi-arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods represent an important aquifer recharge component in semi-arid environment. Changes in land use and the creation of artificial barriers to protect land from inundation can considerably influence the amount of aquifer recharge. Despite their importance, mechanisms that control flood recharge are poorly understood. Moreover, groundwater flow models rarely incorporate these processes with an appropriate physics based approach. In this study, we use a fully integrated surface subsurface fluid flow model to quantify changes in flood recharge induced by changes in land use. First, the flow simulations are performed on a synthetic aquifer to understand first order controls on flood recharge. Later, the simulations are extended to a real aquifer located in the lower Namoi aquifer, New South Wales, Australia. The long term groundwater monitoring hydrographs are used to calibrate the aquifer model. Satellite and aero-photographic surveys available both before and after changes in land use enable the comparison of flood extent to groundwater hydrograph response. The results show that the volume of water provided by the floods can represent a significant fraction of the aquifer water balance, and that changes in land use have a considerable effect on it. In addition, the results highlight the importance of treating flood recharge as a non-linear process.

Comunian, A.; Ajami, H.; Kelly, B. F.

2013-12-01

432

M. Amin/ Automation, Control, and Complexity: An Integrated Approach, Samad & Weyrauch (Eds.), John Wiley and Sons, pp. 263-286,2000 National Infrastructures as Complex  

E-print Network

M. Amin/ Automation, Control, and Complexity: An Integrated Approach, Samad & Weyrauch (Eds.), John is fundamental to our economy, security and quality of life, as was noted in the "Critical Foundations

Amin, S. Massoud

433

Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

2008-09-01

434

Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation?s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

435

Benchmarking Higher Education ICT Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper benchmarks ICT infrastructure in the context of academic computing implementation at Malaysian higher education institutions. Three research questions are central to this study. What are the indicators for benchmarking ICT infrastructure? What is the general performance of higher education institutions in Malaysia? In order to answer these questions, a nationwide survey was conducted involving 90 higher education institutions

Shamsul Anuar Mokhtar; Rose Alinda Alias; Azizah Abdul Rahman

436

INFRASTRUCTURE Engineering and Physical Sciences  

E-print Network

these goals and has led to innovation in infrastructure, in policy, industry, and the provision of evidence and resilient infrastructure supplying water, energy, communications, transport systems and waste systems companies, large and small businesses, local authorities, town planners, policy makers and charities

Berzins, M.

437

Internet infrastructure security: a taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive and ubiquitous nature of the Internet coupled with growing concerns about cyber terrorism demand immediate solutions for securing the Internet infrastructure. So far, the research in Internet security primarily focused on. securing the information rather than securing the infrastructure itself. Given the prevailing threat situation, there is a compelling need to develop architectures, algorithms, and protocols to realize

Anirban Chakrabarti; G. Manimaran

2002-01-01

438

Data Updating Methods for Spatial Data Infrastructure that Maintain Infrastructure Quality and Enable its Sustainable Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese government, local governments and businesses are working closely together to establish spatial data infrastructures in accordance with the Basic Act on the Advancement of Utilizing Geospatial Information (NSDI Act established in August 2007). Spatial data infrastructures are urgently required not only to accelerate computerization of the public administration, but also to help restoration and reconstruction of the areas struck by the East Japan Great Earthquake and future disaster prevention and reduction. For construction of a spatial data infrastructure, various guidelines have been formulated. But after an infrastructure is constructed, there is a problem of maintaining it. In one case, an organization updates its spatial data only once every several years because of budget problems. Departments and sections update the data on their own without careful consideration. That upsets the quality control of the entire data system and the system loses integrity, which is crucial to a spatial data infrastructure. To ensure quality, ideally, it is desirable to update data of the entire area every year. But, that is virtually impossible, considering the recent budget crunch. The method we suggest is to update spatial data items of higher importance only in order to maintain quality, not updating all the items across the board. We have explored a method of partially updating the data of these two geographical features while ensuring the accuracy of locations. Using this method, data on roads and buildings that greatly change with time can be updated almost in real time or at least within a year. The method will help increase the availability of a spatial data infrastructure. We have conducted an experiment on the spatial data infrastructure of a municipality using those data. As a result, we have found that it is possible to update data of both features almost in real time.

Murakami, S.; Takemoto, T.; Ito, Y.

2012-07-01

439

Epiphytic diatoms as flood indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydroecology of floodplain lakes is strongly regulated by flood events. The threat of climate warming and increasing human\\u000a activities requires development of scientific methods to quantify changes in the frequency of short-lived flood events, because\\u000a they remain difficult to identify using conventional paleolimnological and monitoring approaches. We developed an approach\\u000a to detect floods in sediment records by comparing the

Johan A. Wiklund; Natalie Bozinovski; Roland I. Hall; Brent B. Wolfe

2010-01-01

440

Bayesian Non-Stationary Flood Frequency Estimation at Ungauged Basins Using Climate Information and a Scaling Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood frequency statistical analysis most often relies on stationary assumptions, where distribution moments (e.g. mean, standard deviation) and associated flood quantiles do not change over time. In this sense, one expects that flood magnitudes and their frequency of occurrence will remain constant as observed in the historical information. However, evidence of inter-annual and decadal climate variability and anthropogenic change as well as an apparent increase in the number and magnitude of flood events across the globe have made the stationary assumption questionable. Here, we show how to estimate flood quantiles (e.g. 100-year flood) at ungauged basins without needing to consider stationarity. A statistical model based on the well known flow-area scaling law is proposed to estimate flood flows at ungauged basins. The slope and intercept scaling law coefficients are assumed time varying and a hierarchical Bayesian model is used to include climate information and reduce parameter uncertainties. Cross-validated results from 34 streamflow gauges located in a nested Basin in Brazil show that the proposed model is able to estimate flood quantiles at ungauged basins with remarkable skills compared with data based estimates using the full record. The model as developed in this work is also able to simulate sequences of flood flows considering global climate changes provided an appropriate climate index developed from the General Circulation Model is used as a predictor. The time varying flood frequency estimates can be used for pricing insurance models, and in a forecast mode for preparations for flooding, and finally, for timing infrastructure investments and location. Non-stationary 95% interval estimation for the 100-year Flood (shaded gray region) and 95% interval for the 100-year flood estimated from data (horizontal dashed and solid lines). The average distribution of the 100-year flood is shown in green in the right side.

Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01