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1

Documentation of Flood Damage on Railway Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Floods pose a considerable risk to the infrastructure and the operation of the Austrian Federal Railway network (ÖBB) as seen\\u000a by the latest major flood event at the March River in 2006. This event, which led, amongst other things, to the shutdown of\\u000a the Austrian Northern Railway Line between Gänserndorf and B?eclav (Czech Republic) for several months and caused direct

Andrew P. Moran; Annegret H. Thieken; Andreas Schöbel; Christian Rachoy

2

Modeling flood induced interdependencies among hydroelectricity generating infrastructures.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural-hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management. PMID:19570603

Sultana, S; Chen, Z

2009-08-01

3

Sixty Years of River Corridor Change Induced by the Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Flood Control Infrastructure on Lower Deer Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deer Creek drains 540 km2, joining the Sacramento River near Vina, about 160 km north of the city of Sacramento. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a levee and partly straightened the lower five miles of Deer Creek in 1949. Repeated levee failures and the presence of the federally threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Deer Creek have prompted investigations on habitat restoration coordinated with more effective flood protection. The Deer Creek Watershed Conservancy (1998) identified a significant reduction in channel complexity between 1938 (pre-levee) and 1997, but did not attempt to quantify this reduction. In this study, we examined high quality aerial photographs from 1938, 1952, 1966, 1979, 1985, and 1998, and systematically quantified (in ArcGIS) changes in river corridor complexity by digitizing a range of features in each set of photos. Total active channel length in the levee reach decreased from 14.4 km to 12.6 km between 1938 and 1998. In addition, we documented a significant increase in average active channel width and a decrease in shaded riverine aquatic habitat between 1938 and 1998. Most of these changes occurred during the levee project in 1949, and the simplified channel form persisted through 1998. We also identified a significant decrease in aquatic and riparian habitat resilience (i.e. resistance to habitat damage and destruction by large floods) between 1937 and 1998. These results provide a basis for prioritizing, locating, and developing designs for alternative flood management approaches that would contribute to the enhancement and restoration of aquatic and riparian habitat along lower Deer Creek.

Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

2004-12-01

4

Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

1982-09-01

5

Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ... from Centers for Disease Control Alert: Boil Drinking Water If your water may not be safe, bring ...

6

Climatic controls on the flood frequency distribution  

E-print Network

Climatic controls on the flood frequency distribution V. IACOBELLIS a , P. CLAPS b & M. FIORENTINO@unibas.it ABSTRACT Statistical models for flood frequency analysis present refined estimation and validation techniques but do not provide ultimate solutions to when regional analyses are required. More than

Poggi, Davide

7

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2012-07-01

8

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2014-07-01

9

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2010-07-01

10

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2010-07-01

11

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2011-07-01

12

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2013-07-01

13

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2011-07-01

14

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. ...operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved...contained in Section 3 of the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936...chapter. These regulations cover conditions normally and...

2014-07-01

15

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. ...operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved...contained in Section 3 of the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936...chapter. These regulations cover conditions normally and...

2013-07-01

16

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. ...operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved...contained in Section 3 of the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936...chapter. These regulations cover conditions normally and...

2012-07-01

17

Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.  

PubMed

The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

2012-12-15

18

Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

19

Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project  

E-print Network

DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada

US Army Corps of Engineers

20

Historical record of data on flood control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last year (1948) during the flood period the flow at Grand Coulee fluctuated widely. 2 PM, June 8, 543000 c.f.s.; 4 AM, June 9, 568000 c.f s.; 2 PM, June 9, 543000 c.f.s.; 2 AM, June 10, 573000 c.f.s. A total instantaneous fluctuations of 37,500 c.f.s. was reported. Now there is installed a new control. This control can keep downstream

1959-01-01

21

The Controlled Flood in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural flow of almost every river in the United States has been modified to meet various socioeconomic goals—navigation, irrigation, power generation and flood control. The success of the dams and reservoirs built to achieve these goals has been accompanied by changes in the status of riverine resources downstream, a cause of growing environmental and ecological concern. For example, before Glen Canyon Dam was completed, the Colorado River transported large quantities of sediment in floods as large as 8500 m3/s. After the dam was closed in 1963, dam releases typically were less than the powerplant capacity of 890 m3/s and exhibited large daily flow fluctuations. The river carried little sediment. The daily fluctuations in flow eroded sand bars, and the smaller, controlled flow did not redeposit them. The clear, cold water resulted in increased aquatic productivity such that rainbow trout and other nonnative fishes thrived while most native species were lost or endangered.

Webb, Robert H.; Schmidt, John C.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Valdez, Richard A.

22

A reservoir flood forecasting and control system for China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reservoirs play a vital role in flood prevention and disaster relief in China. The objectives of the project described in this study were to establish a reservoir flood forecasting and control system and to design and develop corresponding application software. This paper introduces the current reservoir flood control and operation practice with this system in China. Using modern integration technologies,

SHENGLIAN GUO; HONGGANG ZHANG; HUA CHEN; DINGZHI PENG; PAN LIU; BO PANG

23

Joint operation and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels for mixed cascade reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoirs are one of the most efficient infrastructures for integrated water resources development and management; and play a more and more important role in flood control and conservation. Dynamic control of the reservoir flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective approach to compromise the flood control, hydropower generation and comprehensive utilization of water resources of river basins during the flood season. The dynamic control models of FLWL for a single reservoir and cascade reservoirs have been extended for a mixed reservoir system in this paper. The proposed model consists of a dynamic control operation module for a single reservoir, a dynamic control operation module for cascade reservoirs, and a joint operation module for mixed cascade reservoir systems. The Three Gorges and Qingjiang cascade reservoirs in the Yangtze River basin of China are selected for a case study. Three-hour inflow data series for representative hydrological years are used to test the model. The results indicate that the proposed model can make an effective tradeoff between flood control and hydropower generation. Joint operation and dynamic control of FLWL can generate 26.4 × 108 kW h (3.47%) more hydropower for the mixed cascade reservoir systems and increase the water resource utilization rate by 3.72% for the Three Gorges reservoir and 2.42% for the Qingjiang cascade reservoirs without reducing originally designed flood prevention standards.

Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chongyu

2014-11-01

24

Flood Prevention of the Demer using Model Predictive Control  

E-print Network

Flood Prevention of the Demer using Model Predictive Control Toni Barjas Blanco, ,1 Patrick Willems Abstract: In order to prevent flooding of a river system the local water administration of the Demer reduced the damage and frequency of flooding events, simulations have shown that a better usage

25

Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

2014-03-01

26

Applications of ASFCM(Assessment System of Flood Control Measurement) in Typhoon Committee Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to extreme weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risks of having flood damage has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. Therefore, it became necessary to consider modifying climate change, flood damage and its scale to the previous dimension measurement evaluation system. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and integrated system to evaluate the most optimized measures for flood control through eliminating uncertainties of socio-economic impacts. Assessment System of Structural Flood Control Measures (ASFCM) was developed for determining investment priorities of the flood control measures and establishing the social infrastructure projects. ASFCM consists of three modules: 1) the initial setup and inputs module, 2) the flood and damage estimation module, and 3) the socio-economic analysis module. First, we have to construct the D/B for flood damage estimation, which is the initial and input data about the estimation unit, property, historical flood damages, and applied area's topographic & hydrological data. After that, it is important to classify local characteristic for constructing flood damage data. Five local characteristics (big city, medium size city, small city, farming area, and mountain area) are classified by criterion of application (population density). Next step is the floodplain simulation with HEC-RAS which is selected to simulate inundation. Through inputting the D/B and damage estimation, it is able to estimate the total damage (only direct damage) that is the amount of cost to recover the socio-economic activities back to the safe level before flood did occur. The last module suggests the economic analysis index (B/C ratio) with Multidimensional Flood Damage Analysis. Consequently, ASFCM suggests the reference index in constructing flood control measures and planning non-structural systems to reduce water-related damage. It is possible to encourage flood control planners and managers to consider and apply the socio-economic analysis results. ASFCM was applied in Republic of Korea, Thailand and Philippines to review efficiency and applicability. Figure 1. ASFCM Application(An-yang Stream, Republic of Korea)

Kim, C.

2013-12-01

27

Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be executed by different resources of the Grid system. The resulting geospatial services are available in various OGC standards such as KML and WMS. Currently, the Grid infrastructure integrates the resources of several geographically distributed organizations, in particular: Space Research Institute NASU-NSAU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 (htpp://www.globus.org) and gLite 3 (http://glite.web.cern.ch) middleware, access to geospatial data and a Grid portal; Institute of Cybernetics of NASU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes (SCIT-1/2/3 clusters) based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to computational resources (approximately 500 processors); Center of Earth Observation and Digital Earth Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE-CAS, China) with deployed computational nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to geospatial data (approximately 16 processors). We are currently adding new geospatial services based on optical satellite data, namely MODIS. This work is carried out jointly with the CEODE-CAS. Using workflow patterns that were developed for SAR data processing we are building new workflows for optical data processing.

Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

2010-05-01

28

Flood control of the Demer by using Model Predictive Control Maarten Breckpot a,n  

E-print Network

Flood control of the Demer by using Model Predictive Control Maarten Breckpot a,n , Oscar Mauricio 2013 Keywords: Model Predictive Control Flood control Kalman filter Open channel flow a b s t r a c t It is shown how Model Predictive Control can be used for flood control of river systems modelled with real

29

Flood Control with Model Predictive Control for River Systems with Water Reservoirs  

E-print Network

subject headings: Floods; Kalman filters; Open channel flow; Optimization; River systems; Reservoirs consisting of multiple channels, gates, and a water reservoir. One controller is used in combination. Author keywords: Control systems; Feedback control; Floods; Kalman filters; Open-channel flow

30

Geo-Information Technology for Infrastructural Flood Risk Analysis in Unplanned Settlements: A Case Study of Informal Settlement Flood Risk in the Nyabugogo Flood Plain, Kigali City, Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The main objective of this research was to improve flood mitigation within Rwanda’s rapidly growing Kigali City using Geo-Information\\u000a Technology (GIT) to identify flood hazard zones, analyze flood exposure and vulnerability, and suggest planning interventions.\\u000a Multiple sources of data and methods were utilized including a very high resolution Quickbird image, Global Positioning Systems,\\u000a interviews and a survey that aided flood

Jean Pierre Bizimana; Michele Schilling

31

An application of a flood risk analysis system for impact analysis of a flood control plan in a river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of a flood risk analysis system is presented for the analysis on the impact of a proposed flood control plan in the Ichinomiya river basin, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The system consists of two main modules: a physically based distributed hydrological model for flood inundation and a geographical information system (GIS)-based raster model for flood loss estimation. In the

Dushmanta Dutta; Srikantha Herath; Katumi Musiake

2006-01-01

32

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Septic Systems After a Flood [EPA] Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

33

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

34

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

2010-07-01

35

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2011-07-01

36

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

2013-04-01

37

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

2011-04-01

38

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2012-07-01

39

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

2013-07-01

40

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

2014-07-01

41

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

2011-07-01

42

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

2010-07-01

43

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

2010-04-01

44

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2014-07-01

45

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

2014-04-01

46

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

2011-07-01

47

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

2014-07-01

48

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2013-07-01

49

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2010-07-01

50

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

2012-07-01

51

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

2012-04-01

52

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

2012-07-01

53

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

2013-07-01

54

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS APPLICATION FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL WORK  

E-print Network

interrelated portions of the flood control works not requiring repair or restoration such as levees, bermsU.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS APPLICATION FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL WORK (Under provisions of existing Flood Control Laws) From: _______________________________ _____________________________ (Name

US Army Corps of Engineers

55

Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits and difficulties that a migration to cloud-based computing philosophies has uncovered when compared to the legacy Mission Control Center architecture. The team consists of system and software engineers with extensive experience with the MCC infrastructure and software currently used to support the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle program (SSP).

Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

2009-01-01

56

Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project  

E-print Network

DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General Reevaluation Report Volume I ­ Draft Environmental Impact Statement prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District May 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood

US Army Corps of Engineers

57

Assessing sedimentation issues within aging of flood-control reservoirs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flood control reservoirs designed and built by federal agencies have been extremely effective in reducing the ravages of floods nationwide. Yet some structures are being removed for a variety of reasons, while other structures are aging rapidly and require either rehabilitation or decommissioning. ...

58

Flood control of rivers with nonlinear model predictive control and moving horizon estimation  

E-print Network

Flood control of rivers with nonlinear model predictive control and moving horizon estimation control (MPC) in combination with moving horizon estimation (MHE) can more effectively be used for flood into account, it uses the buffer capacity of the available flood basins in a more optimal way. Simulation

59

Fusion of Remote Sensing and Non-authoritative Data for Flood Disaster and Transportation Infrastructure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most frequently occurring natural hazard on Earth; with catastrophic, large scale floods causing immense damage to people, property, and the environment. Over the past 20 years, remote sensing has become the standard technique for flood identification because of its ability to offer synoptic coverage. Unfortunately, remote sensing data are not always available or only provide partial or incomplete information of an event due to revisit limitations, cloud cover, and vegetation canopy. The ability to produce accurate and timely flood assessments before, during, and after an event is a critical safety tool for flood disaster management. Furthermore, knowledge of road conditions and accessibility is crucial for emergency managers, first responders, and residents. This research describes a model that leverages non-authoritative data to improve flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation networks during all phases of a flood disaster. Non-authoritative data can provide real-time, on-the-ground information when traditional data sources may be incomplete or lacking. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its effective integration with established data and methods. Although this model will not replace existing flood mapping and disaster protocols, as a result of fusing heterogeneous data of varying spatial and temporal scales, it allows for increased certainty in flood assessment by "filling in the gaps" in the spatial and temporal progression of a flood event. The research model and its application are defined by four case studies of recent flood events in the United States and Canada. The model illustrates how non-authoritative, authoritative, and remote-sensing data can be integrated together during or after a flood event to provide damage assessments, temporal progressions of a flood event, and near real-time flood estimations.

Schnebele, Emily K.

60

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2011-07-01

61

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2014-07-01

62

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. 203.45 Section 203.45 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2014-07-01

63

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

64

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2012-07-01

65

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2010-07-01

66

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

67

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. 203.45 Section 203.45 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2010-07-01

68

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2014-07-01

69

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2014-07-01

70

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2014-07-01

71

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2010-07-01

72

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2012-07-01

73

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2010-07-01

74

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2012-07-01

75

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2011-07-01

76

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2011-07-01

77

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. 203.45 Section 203.45 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2011-07-01

78

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2010-07-01

79

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2012-07-01

80

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. 203.45 Section 203.45 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

81

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. 203.45 Section 203.45 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2012-07-01

82

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

83

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2011-07-01

84

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

85

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2014-07-01

86

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2011-07-01

87

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

88

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2013-07-01

89

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2010-07-01

90

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

2012-07-01

91

RoadRunner: Infrastructure-less vehicular congestion control  

E-print Network

RoadRunner is an in-vehicle app for traffic congestion control without costly roadside infrastructure, instead judiciously harnessing vehicle-to-vehicle communications, cellular connectivity, and onboard computation and ...

Gao, Jason Hao

92

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and multiple states. Flash floods can occur ... flooding event typically occurs when waterways such as rivers or streams overflow their banks as a result ...

93

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

94

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while viability of the vehicle requires an expected level of cost, comfort, safety and operation, especially driving range, that consumers require. This presents a classic 'chicken and egg' problem, which Ford believes can be solved with thoughtful implementation plans. The eighteen Ford Focus FCV vehicles that were operated for this demonstration project provided the desired real world experience. Some things worked better than expected. Most notable was the robustness and life of the fuel cell. This is thought to be the result of the full hybrid configuration of the drive system where the battery helps to overcome the performance reduction associated with time related fuel cell degradation. In addition, customer satisfaction surveys indicated that people like the cars and the concept and operated them with little hesitation. Although the demonstrated range of the cars was near 200 miles, operators felt constrained because of the lack of a number of conveniently located fueling stations. Overcoming this major concern requires overcoming a key roadblock, fuel storage, in a manner that permits sufficient quantity of fuel without sacrificing passenger or cargo capability. Fueling infrastructure, on the other hand, has been problematic. Only three of a planned seven stations were opened. The difficulty in obtaining public approval and local government support for hydrogen fuel, based largely on the fear of hydrogen that grew from past disasters and atomic weaponry, has inhibited progress and presents a major roadblock to implementation. In addition the cost of hydrogen production, in any of the methodologies used in this program, does not show a rapid reduction to commercially viable rates. On the positive side of this issue was the demonstrated safety of the fueling station, equipment and process. In the Ford program, there were no reported safety incidents.

Dr. Scott Staley

2010-03-31

95

Controlled Flooding of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The controlled flood of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon can be monitored in real time on the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Web site. Starting on March 26 and continuing for seven days, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) is releasing approximately 45,000 cubic feet of water per second from Glen Canyon Dam. Line graphs of provisional stream flow data at 15 sites in Arizona are being made available in real time on the Internet via satellite telemetry technology. "This controlled flood will provide an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the usefulness of the real-time network during flooding conditions." Historical stream flow data is also available, as are calculated hydrographs, channel sand data, and detailed fact sheets on the rationale of the study and data collection methods. http://wwwdaztcn.wr.usgs.gov/flood.html

1997-01-01

96

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood site is an experiment with a stream table to see what happens during a flood. It was originally a joint project between a 6th grade class and the Bureau of Economic Geography. There are explanations and photographs of the experimental set up and of students and their observation of rivers forming and the creation of a flood. There is also a worksheet for experimental notes and a sheet containing the experimental method and instructions.

97

Development of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System: Historical Perspective  

E-print Network

James1 and Michael B. Singer2 Abstract: Natural physical conditions and the politics of flood managementDevelopment of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System: Historical Perspective L. Allan provide the historical context for structural flood control that underlies modern flood hazards

Singer, Michael

98

Automatic regulator for channel flow control on flooded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low efficiency water control provided by sluice gates and weirs used in the flooded rice tillage system in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, have caused significant water losses. Such devices are utilized to control the water flow from the main to the secondary channels. The water flow through the gates is highly influenced by the water depth fluctuation in

Luís G. H. do Amaral; Afranio A. Righes; Paulo da S. e Souza Filho; Rafael Dalla Costa

2005-01-01

99

Decadal variability in Floods and Extreme Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decadal variability in climate extremes associated with floods is of particular interest for infrastructure development and for insurance programs. From an analysis of US data we note that changes in insurance rates and in the construction of flood control infrastructure emerge soon after a period where there is a high incidence of regional flooding. This leads to the question of whether there is clustering in the incidence of anomalous flooding (or its absence) at decadal scales. The direct examination of this question from streamflow data is often clouded by the modification of flows by the construction of dams and other infrastructure to control floods, especially over a large river basin. Consequently, we explore the answer to this question through the analysis of both extreme rainfall and flood records. Spectral and time domain methods are used to identify the nature of decadal variability and its potential links to large scale climate.

Lall, Upmanu; Cioffi, Francesco; Devineni, Naresh; Lu, Mengqian

2014-05-01

100

Optimal control of flood diversion in watershed using nonlinear optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to develop a simulation-based optimization model applicable to mitigate hazardous floods in storm events in a watershed which consists of a complex channel network and irregular topography. A well-established model, CCHE1D, is used as the simulation model to predict water stages and discharges of unsteady flood flows in a channel network, in which irregular (i.e. non-rectangular and non-prismatic) cross-sections are taken into account. Based on the variational principle, the adjoint equations are derived from the nonlinear hydrodynamic equations of CCHE1D, which are to establish a unique relationship between flood control variables and hydrodynamic variables. The internal conditions at the confluence in channel network for solving the adjoint equations in a watershed are obtained. An implicit numerical scheme (i.e. Preissman's scheme) is implemented for discretizing and solving the adjoint equations with the derived internal conditions and boundary conditions. The applicability of this integrated optimization model is demonstrated by searching for the optimal diversion hydrographs for withdrawing flood waters through a single floodgate and multiple floodgates into detention basins. Numerical optimization results show that this integrated model is efficient and robust. It is found that the single-floodgate control leads to an unfavorable speed-up in river flow which may create extra erosions in the channel bed; and multiple-floodgates diversion control diverts less flood waters, therefore can be a cost-effective control action. This simulation-based optimization model is capable of determining the optimal schedules of diversion discharge, optimal floodgate locations, minimum capacities of flood water detention basins in rivers and watersheds.

Ding, Yan; Wang, Sam S. Y.

2012-08-01

101

Monitoring, control and diagnostics using RFID infrastructure.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the developed application for disinfection control by the sensing of chemical agents. The objective was to develop an Automatic Disinfectant Tracker (ADT) that would verify the disinfection of the hands of nurses, doctors, staff, patients, and visitors in hospitals within a required time frame. We have successfully investigated the development of hand disinfection control mechanisms and demonstrated two approaches, both based on the wireless Ultra-High-Frequency-based Radio-Frequency Identification (UHF-RFID) technology. The 100 % efficacy of detecting propanol and ethanol concentration was achieved by using the static disinfectant control (SDC-ADT) method. The time domain response provides an accurate determination of their performance in practice simply by measuring the applied disinfectant concentration and the duration of application. The present paper resulted from the measurements of a capacitive chemical sensor fabricated in the Laboratory for Microelectronics, (LMFE) and on measurements, based on a commercially available resistive type of sensor. A graphic user interface (IDS-GUI) is designed to successfully set the logger parameters and display the results. PMID:22438102

Pleteršek, Anton; Sok, Miha; Trontelj, Janez

2012-12-01

102

Pan-European flood frequency distributions and hydrological controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of an adequate frequency distribution is a crucial step in flood regionalisation studies. In some cases it is even based on traditional practice or familiarity to some kind of function and not on the comparison of the statistical properties of the theoretical curve and the flood peaks sample. This study reports the analysis of a new database of higher order L moment ratios from more than 4000 individual annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flow, compiled by joining national datasets among 15 European countries. The position of this dataset on an L-moment-ratio diagram together with other recommended flood frequency distributions is discussed, resulting the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution the closest one to the sample Weighted Moving Average (WMA). This suggested its potential use as a pan-European flood frequency distribution. However, a more detailed investigation of a subset of the database (Austria, Italy and Slovakia) with catchment area and mean annual precipitation (MAP) as hydrologic controls was conducted through a novel representation on L-moment-ratio diagrams. This investigation confirmed the usefulness of the GEV distribution, but also showed that for dry (low MAP) medium sized catchments, the three parameter log normal (LN3) distribution is a more appropriate choice. Two parameter distributions were found not to provide a representation of the dataset as good as the three parameter ones. In this study, lower L-Cv and L-Cs for bigger catchments was found due to the smoothing effect of non-linearities in flood generation with increasing catchment area. Also, for drier catchments (lower MAP), bigger L-Cv and L-Cs was reported due to the higher variability of annual flood peaks in more arid regions; both of these results are coherent with previous data-based studies on a country scale, which extracted similar relationships of catchment size and precipitation with product moments.

Salinas, Jose Luis; Castellarin, Attilio; Kohnová, Silvia; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.

2013-04-01

103

Failure of infrastructure embankments induced by flooding and seepage: a neglected source of hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk of failure of transportation embankments due to seepage induced by temporary and occasional impoundments taking place on the upstream side as a consequence of exceptional rainfalls is frequently underestimated. These failure events result from a combination of three main factors, i.e. the flooding event, the hydraulic weakness and the geotechnical weakness of the embankment. Based on the case study of a railway embankment in Southern Italy that collapsed in 2005 due to an upstream impoundment that occurred after few hours of a very intense rainfall, the paper describes a methodological approach aimed at assessing hazard of failure of transportation embankments induced by flooding and seepage. In particular, according to hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical studies performed to define the factors affecting the process of the embankment failure, three subsequent activities are proposed: the historical analysis of flood damages at the watershed scale; and the assessment of the upstream peak impoundment based on hydrological analysis and the embankment stability analysis, these latter to be carried out at the site specific scale. The approach here proposed is planned to be further validated and improved by means of the application to other case studies, characterised by different contexts and embankment structures.

Polemio, M.; Lollino, P.

2011-12-01

104

76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ]...

2011-07-05

105

BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA  

EPA Science Inventory

In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

106

Climatic control on the peak discharge of glacier outburst floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes impounded by natural ice dams occur in many glacier regions. Their sudden emptying along subglacial paths can unleash ~1 km3 of floodwater, but predicting the peak discharge of these subglacial outburst floods (`jökulhlaups') is notoriously difficult. To study how environmental factors control jökulhlaup magnitude, we use thermo-mechanical modelling to interpret a 40-year flood record from Merzbacher Lake in the Tian Shan. We show that the mean air temperature during each flood modulates its peak discharge, by influencing both the rate of meltwater input to the lake as it drains, and the lake-water temperature. The flood devastation potential thus depends sensitively on weather, and this dependence explains how regional climatic warming drives the rising trend of peak discharges in our dataset. For other subaerial ice-dammed lakes worldwide, regional warming will also promote higher-impact jökulhlaups by raising the likelihood of warm weather during their occurrence, unless other factors reduce lake volumes at flood initiation to outweigh this effect.

Ng, Felix; Liu, Shiyin; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Wang, Yanguo

2007-11-01

107

The 1996 Controlled Flood in Grand Canyon: Flow, Sediment Transport, and Geomorphic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 controlled flood released from Glen Canyon Dam into the Colorado River was a small magnitude, short duration event compared to pre-dam floods. The con- trolled flood was of lesser magnitude than a 1.25-yr recurrence, and only 10% of the pre- dam spring snowmelt floods during the period 1922-1962 were of lower magnitude. The flood occurred unusually early: 36-38

John C. Schmidt; Roderic A. Parnell; Paul E. Grams; Joseph E. Hazel; Matthew A. Kaplinski; Lawrence E. Stevens; Timothy L. Hoffnagle

2001-01-01

108

Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood control in the Coatesville subbasin would provide an additional 1 to 3 percent reduction. Although flood control in the Modena subbasin would have little effect on reducing the 100-year flood peak, it would provide an additional 5 percent reduction in the peak discharge, for a total reduction of 30 percent, when combined with the three flood controls in the Coatesville subbasin.

Sloto, R.A.

1988-01-01

109

New Flooding Control Schemes Applied In Route Initialisation For The Ad Hoc On Demand Routing Protocols  

E-print Network

New Flooding Control Schemes Applied In Route Initialisation For The Ad Hoc On Demand Routing College London * Email: uceephu@ucl.ac.uk Abstract: This paper introduces a new route request flooding. This scheme aims to control and reduce the route request flooding. Furthermore, the scheme combines

Haddadi, Hamed

110

Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

2012-01-01

111

Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

2012-01-01

112

Hydrologic control of litter decomposition in seasonally flooded prairie marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of seasonal inundation on the decomposition of emergent macrophyte litter (Scolochloa festucacea) was examined under experimental flooding regimes in a northern prairie marsh. Stem and leaf litter was subjected to six aboveground inundation treatments (ranging from never flooded to flooded April through October) and two belowground treatments (nonflooded and flooded April to August). Flooding increased the rate of

Hilary A. Neckles; Christopher Neill

1994-01-01

113

River Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

Smoothstone

114

Risk based adaptation of infrastructures to floods and storm surges induced by climate change.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal natural hazards are changing in frequency and intensity associated to climate change. These extreme events combined with an increase in the extent of vulnerable societies will lead to an increase of substantial monetary losses. For this reason, adaptive measures are required to identify the effective and adequate measures to withstand the impacts of climate change. Decision strategies are needed for the timing of investments and for the allocation of resources to safeguard the future in a sustainable manner. Adapting structures to climate change requires decision making under uncertainties. Therefore, it is vital that risk assessments are generated on a reliable and appropriate evaluation of the involved uncertainties. Linking a Bayesian network (BN) to a Geographic Information System (GIS) for a risk assessment enables to model all the relevant parameters, their causal relations and the involved uncertainties. The integration of the probabilistic approach into a GIS allows quantifying and visualizing uncertainties in a spatial manner. By addressing these uncertainties, the Bayesian Network approach allows quantifying their effects; and facilitates the identification of future model improvements and where other efforts should be concentrated. The final results can be applied as a supportive tool for presenting reliable risk assessments to decision-makers. Based on this premises, a case study was performed to assess how the storm surge magnitude and flooding extent of an event with similar characteristics to the Sandy Super storm will occur in 2050 and 2090.

Luna, Byron Quan; Garrè, Luca; Hansen, Peter Friis

2014-05-01

115

Optimum Reservoir Operation for Flood Control and Conservation Purposes  

E-print Network

operation change over time as well. Watershed and flood plain conditions are dynamic. Construction of numerous small flood retarding dams by the Soil Conservation Service and other entities in the watersheds of major reservoirs have reduced flood inflows...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Cabezas, L. Morris; Tibbets, Michael N.

116

Integrating industrial control systems into the control environment of the technical infrastructure at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

At CERN, more and more of the technical infrastructure is controlled by industrial systems, using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) supplied by different manufacturers. The systems are also increasingly being installed and configured by our industrial partners. These diverse systems need to be integrated into the existing control environmen t, which itself is part of the accelerator control system, so th

P. Sollander; D. Blanc; A. Swift

1995-01-01

117

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10749 Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10749 Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial dikes during the SCR­ Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts

Liu, Lijun

118

Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water management, including temporary lower storage basin levels and a reduction in extra investments for infrastructural measures.

van der Zwan, Rene

2013-04-01

119

Climatic and geomorphic controls on flash flood response in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution data enabling identification and analysis of the hydrometeorological causative processes of flash floods have been collected and analysed for 25 extreme flash floods (60 drainage basins) across Europe. Criteria for flood selection were high intensity of triggering rainfall and flood response and availability of reliable high-resolution data. Hydrometeorological data collected for each event were checked by using a hydrological

Lorenzo Marchi; Marco Borga; Emanuele Preciso; Eric Gaume

2010-01-01

120

Integrated modelling of cost-effective siting and operation of flow-control infrastructure for river ecosystem conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland and floodplain ecosystems along many regulated rivers are highly stressed, primarily due to a lack of environmental flows of appropriate magnitude, frequency, duration, and timing to support ecological functions. In the absence of increased environmental flows, the ecological health of river ecosystems can be enhanced by the operation of existing and new flow-control infrastructure (weirs and regulators) to return more natural environmental flow regimes to specific areas. However, determining the optimal investment and operation strategies over time is a complex task due to several factors including the multiple environmental values attached to wetlands, spatial and temporal heterogeneity and dependencies, nonlinearity, and time-dependent decisions. This makes for a very large number of decision variables over a long planning horizon. The focus of this paper is the development of a nonlinear integer programming model that accommodates these complexities. The mathematical objective aims to return the natural flow regime of key components of river ecosystems in terms of flood timing, flood duration, and interflood period. We applied a 2-stage recursive heuristic using tabu search to solve the model and tested it on the entire South Australian River Murray floodplain. We conclude that modern meta-heuristics can be used to solve the very complex nonlinear problems with spatial and temporal dependencies typical of environmental flow allocation in regulated river ecosystems. The model has been used to inform the investment in, and operation of, flow-control infrastructure in the South Australian River Murray.

Higgins, A. J.; Bryan, B. A.; Overton, I. C.; Holland, K.; Lester, R. E.; King, D.; Nolan, M.; Connor, J. D.

2011-05-01

121

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2 Fstocoll Table of Contents Mark Roupas to Flood Risk Management, Emergency Management, and Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Framework, the National Disaster Recovery Framework, and Public Law 84-99, Flood Control and Coastal

US Army Corps of Engineers

122

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.A. (University of Southern California) 2002 THESIS Submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements to affect flood control operations in the Sacramento Valley. Snowpack storage will decrease and the fraction

Lund, Jay R.

123

Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply University, China) 2001 DISSERTATION Submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree focuses on flood control and water supply adaptations to climate change. For water supply, potential

Lund, Jay R.

124

Reworking of Aggraded Debris Fans by the 1996 Controlled Flood on the Colorado  

E-print Network

Reworking of Aggraded Debris Fans by the 1996 Controlled Flood on the Colorado River in Grand with the BUREAU OF RECLAMATION #12;Reworking of Aggraded Debris Fans by the 1996 Controlled Flood on the Colorado ...................................... 14 Areas and volumes of debris fans

125

The Paradoxes of Change and Control in Digital Infrastructures: The Mobile Operating Systems Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the smartphone as a highly complex technology has been accompanied by mobile operating systems, large communities of developers, diverse content providers, and increasingly complex networks, jointly forming digital infrastructures. The multi-faceted and relational character of such digital infrastructures raises issues around how change and control can be conceptualized and understood. We discuss how change and control are

David Tilson; Carsten Sorensen; Kalle Lyytinen

2011-01-01

126

Optimized cascade reservoir operation considering ice flood control and power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice flood control is an important objective for reservoir operation in cold regions. Maintaining the reservoir outflow in a certain range is considered an effective way to remediate ice flood damage. However, this strategy may decrease the socio-economic benefit of reservoirs, for example, reduction of hydropower production. These conflicting objectives cause a dilemma for water managers when defining reservoir operation policy. This study considers seven cascade reservoirs in the upstream Yellow River, and ice flood control storage is introduced to balance the hydropower generation and ice flood control. The relation between the ice flood control storage volume of the Liujiaxia reservoir and cascade power output is analyzed. An optimization model to explore the trade-offs between hydropower generation and ice flood control requirements is developed. The model takes into account ice flood control requirements. The optimization model compared to simulation model based on the reservoir operation rule curves. The results show that the optimal operation rules are far more efficient in balancing the benefits within the power generation and ice flood control. The cascade reservoirs operation strategies proposed in this study can be effectively and suitably used in reservoir operation systems with similar conditions.

Chang, Jianxia; Meng, Xuejiao; Wang, ZongZhi; Wang, Xuebin; Huang, Qiang

2014-11-01

127

Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States  

E-print Network

A&M University System Texas Water Resources Institute Report: TR-275 Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States Texas Water Resources Institute Report: TR-275 This research was supported by a cooperative..., with the use of high-resolution map imagery, used in extrapolating representative damage values to a flood plain area based on the Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) 100-year flood area along the Rio Grande. The data used were assimilated from several sources...

Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

128

76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `?ao Stream Flood Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S...Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI. This effort is being proposed under Section...CEPOH-PP-C), Building 230, Fort Shafter, HI 96858- 5440. Submit electronic...

2011-04-08

129

Shades of Green: Flood control study focused on Duluth, Minnesota  

EPA Science Inventory

In the aftermath of the economically and environmentally painful flood of 2012, the city of Duluth and the CSC examined ecologically based options to reduce runoff velocities and flood volume in the watershed with assistance and input of Minnesota Duluth's Natural Resources Resea...

130

Assessing and Affording the Control of Flood Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood is a most serious hazard to life and property. Dams, dikes and levees are often designed to a fuzzy quantity (PMF). Probabilistic design is preferable but requires that hydrological data be translated into a local monoscopic flood probability distribution. This process introduces information that goes beyond the facts. The method of relative entropy with quantile constraints minimizes this information

Niels Lind; Mahesh Pandey; Jatin Nathwani

2007-01-01

131

Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Final report, October 1983September 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar\\/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar\\/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. This final report is

Pope

1986-01-01

132

HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON  

E-print Network

: 0976-6219J F E JOURNAL OF FLOOD ENGINEERING 4(1) January ­June. 2013; pp. 87­102 #12;88 / JOURNALHYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON HIGHLANDS, Malaysia 4 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, USA ABSTRACT: Hydropower

Julien, Pierre Y.

133

Application of Mixed-Integer Programming for Flood Control in the Sacramento Valley: Insights & Limitations  

E-print Network

i Application of Mixed-Integer Programming for Flood Control in the Sacramento Valley: Insights fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in Engineering in the OFFICE OF GRADUATE............................................................................................................ 3 1.3 DESCRIPTION OF FLOOD EVENTS

Lund, Jay R.

134

The need for a distributed algorithm for control of the electrical power infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move towards renewable energy and the deregulation of the market changes the infrastructure for power transport and distribution from centralised to distributed. This requires a new algorithm for control of the electrical power infrastructure. This paper describes a possible new algorithm: a distributed, emergent algorithm that provides additional dependability and resilience to failures. The trade-offs of this algorithm, faults

Jan Van de Vyver; Geert Deconinck; Ronnie Belmans

2003-01-01

135

Identifying Effects of Forecast Uncertainty on Flood Control Decision - A Hydro-economic Hedging Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different from conventional studies developing reservoir operation models and treating forecast as input to obtain operation decisions case by case, this study issues a hydro-economic analysis framework and derives some general relationships between optimal flood control decision and streamflow forecast. By analogy with the hedging rule theory for water supply, we formulate reservoir flood control with a two-stage optimization model, in which the properties of flood damage (i.e., diminishing marginal damage) and the characteristics of forecast uncertainty (i.e., the longer the forecast horizon, the larger the forecast uncertainty) are incorporated to minimize flood risk. We define flood conveying capacity surplus (FCCS) variables to elaborate the trade-offs between the release of current stage (i.e., stage 1) and in the release of future stage (i.e., stage 2). Using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, the flood risk trade-off between the two stages is theoretically represented and illustrated by three typical situations depending on forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude. The analytical results also show some complicated effects of forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude on real-time flood control decision: 1) When there is a big flood with a small FCCS, the whole FCCS should be allocated to the current stage to hedge against the more certain and urgent flood risk in the current stage; 2) when there is a medium flood with a moderate FCCS, some FCCS should be allocated to the future stage but more FCCS still should be allocated to the current stage; and 3) when there is a small flood with a large FCCS, more FCCS should be allocated to the future stage than the current stage, as a large FCCS in the future stage can still induce some flood risk (distribution of future stage forecast uncertainty is more disperse) while a moderate FCCS in the current stage can induce a small risk. Moreover, this study also presents a hypothetical case study to analyze the flood risk under Pseudo probabilistic streamflow forecast (pPSF, deterministic forecast with variance) and Real probabilistic streamflow forecast (rPSF, ensemble forecast) forecast uncertainties, which shows ensemble forecast techniques are more efficient on mitigating flood risk.

Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

2011-12-01

136

WristQue : a personal sensor wristband for smart infrastructure and control  

E-print Network

Despite the rapid expansion of computers beyond desktop systems into devices and systems in the environment around us, the control interfaces to these systems are often basic and inadequate, particularly for infrastructure ...

Mayton, Brian D. (Brian Dean)

2013-01-01

137

Evaluating Green/Gray Infrastructure for CSO/Stormwater Control  

EPA Science Inventory

The NRMRL is conducting this project to evaluate the water quality and quantity benefits of a large-scale application of green infrastructure (low-impact development/best management practices) retrofits in an entire subcatchment. It will document ORD's effort to demonstrate the e...

138

Model driven security: From UML models to access control infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to building secure systems. In our approach, which we call model driven security, designers specify system models along with their secu- rity requirements and use tools to automatically generate system architectures from the models including complete, configured security infrastructures. Rather than fixing one particular modeling language for this process, we propose a schema for construct-

David A. Basin; Jürgen Doser; Torsten Lodderstedt

2006-01-01

139

Store and Haul: Improving Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Connectivity through Repeated Controlled Flooding  

E-print Network

This work investigates the benefits and drawbacks of repeating controlled flooding at different intervals in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) to overcome episodic connectivity. Specifically, the thesis examines the efficiencies ...

Thedinger, Robert Tyson

2010-06-15

140

75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-04-09

141

Public–private partnership as an example of flood control measures in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the old River Act of 1896, flood control measures in Japan were executed on the principle of a co-existence of the river and human activity. Until the 19th century, through the feudalistic period, the public sector did not have plans for completely controlling a large-scale flood, as it is almost impossible by only technological methods, in particular, to

Yutaka Takahasi

2004-01-01

142

Update of Estimated Agricultural Benefits Attributable to Drainage and Flood Control in Willacy County, Texas  

E-print Network

benefits for drainage and flood control as related to the Raymondville Drain in Willacy County required that The Corps of Engineers digitize the soils maps for the area. Utilizing the digitized data, the incidence of each soil in the Raymondville Drain...TR- 294 2006 Update of Estimated Agricultural Benefits Attributable to Drainage and Flood Control in Willacy County, Texas Raymondville Drain Static and Stochastic Implications Prepared for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers...

Lacewell, Ronald D.; Freeman, Roger; Petit, David; Rister, Ed; Sturdivant, Allan; Ribera, Luis; Zinn, Michele

2006-01-01

143

Newton's Apple: Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

144

Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore

2012-01-01

145

Model for real-time optimal flood control operation of a reservoir system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology and model have been developed for the real-time optimal flood operation of river-reservoir systems. This methodology is based upon combining a nonlinear programming model with a flood-routing simulation model within an optimal control framework. The generalized reduced gradient code GRG2 is used to perform the nonlinear optimization and the simulator is the U.S. National Wheather Service DWOPER code.

Olcay I. Unver; Larry W. Mays

1990-01-01

146

Functional Requirements and Deployment Analysis for Multi-Reservoir-Based Flood Control and Management Software System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reservoirs together with river channels constitute a complex network system for storing, regulating and conveying flows. In\\u000a such systems, the operation of reservoirs is essential for the control and management of floods and the protection of people\\u000a and interests in the relevant regions. The real-time analysis and decision making process are of utmost importance as a flood\\u000a with a limited

Shengyang LiArthur; Arthur E. Mynett

147

Spatio-temporal clustering of cholera: The impact of flood control in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1983–2003  

PubMed Central

Introducing flood control to an area of endemic waterborne diseases could have significant impacts on spatio-temporal occurrence of cholera. Using 21-years of data from Bangladesh, we conducted cluster analysis to explore changes in spatial and temporal distribution of cholera incidence since construction of flood control structures. Striking changes in temporal cluster patterns emerged, including a shift from dry season to rainy season clusters following flood protection and delayed clustering inside the protected areas. Spatial differences in pre-flood protection and post-protection cholera clusters are weaker. Changes in spatio-temporal cholera clustering, associated with implementation of flood protection strategies, could affect local cholera prevention efforts. PMID:19217821

Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael; Streatfield, Peter K.; Yunus, Mohammad

2009-01-01

148

Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity  

E-print Network

-based methodology for developing emergency operation schedules (EOS). EOS are decision tools that provide guidance to reservoir operators in charge of making real-time release decisions during major flood events. A computer program named REOS was created... the required releases to limit storage to the capacity available based on the probabilistic properties of future flows, conditional to current streamflow conditions. The final product is a series of alternative risk-based EOS in which releases, specified...

Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

2005-02-17

149

Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

2014-05-01

150

Three-dimensional mapping of geomorphic controls on flood-plain hydrology and connectivity from aerial photos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nyack flood plain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, MT, USA is a 9-km anastomosed alluvial montane flood plain. Upstream from the flood plain, the river is unregulated and the catchment virtually pristine. A patchy mosaic of vegetation and channels exists on the flood-plain surface. The surface and subsurface geomorphic structures of the flood plain facilitate high hydrologic connectivity (water flux between the channel and flood plain) marked by complex seasonal patterns of flood-plain inundation, extensive penetration of channel water laterally into the alluvial aquifer, and springbrooks formed by ground water erupting onto the flood-plain surface. After delineating and classifying flood-plain "elements" (vegetation patches and channel reaches) on the flood plain, we analyzed field-based elevation survey data to identify expected relationships among flood-plain element type, surface scour frequency, and flood-plain elevation. Data analyses show that scour frequency was inversely proportional to the elevation of the flood plain above river stage, except when localized geomorphic controls such as natural levees prevent normal high flows from inundating and scouring relatively low flood-plain elements. Further, while different flood-plain element types occupy distinct elevation zones on the flood plain, the elevation of each zone above the river channel varies with localized channel entrenchment. We found that topographic variation among flood-plain elements is greater than the variation within elements, suggesting that coarse-scale flood-plain topography can be characterized by delineating flood-plain elements. Field data document strong associations between specific classes of flood-plain elements and preferential ground-water flow paths in the upper alluvial aquifer. Combined with preexisting ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) surveys, these data intimate a sinuous lattice of preferential ground-water flow paths (buried abandoned streambeds) in the upper alluvial aquifer at approximately the same elevation as the main channel's streambed. Using aerial photo interpretation and the identified relationships among element-types, elevation, and preferential ground-water flow paths, we developed a quantitative, three-dimensional characterization of surface and subsurface geomorphology across the entire flood plain to support a heuristic modeling effort investigating the influence of flood-plain geomorphology on spatio-temporal patterns of surface and ground-water flow and exchange under dynamic hydrologic regimes.

Poole, Geoffrey C.; Stanford, Jack A.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Running, Steven W.

2002-12-01

151

The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic changes have occurred at and downstream from ephemeral tributaries that contribute large volumes of sediment.

Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-01-01

152

Guidelines for Industrial Ethernet infrastructure implementation: A control engineer's guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a continuing effort to make their organizations more efficient and flexible, manufacturers are rapidly migrating to Industrial Ethernet technology to network their industrial automation and control systems. The use of standard Ethernet technology enables organizations to control costs by moving from costly plant-optimized networks to a proven technology that is simpler to integrate, requires widely available skills,

C. Rojas; P. Morell

2010-01-01

153

System-Level Infrastructure Issues for Controlled Interactions among Autonomous Participants in Electronic Commerce Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic commerce in open large-scale distributed en- vironments presents several system-level challenges in terms of execution model, infrastructure, and management. The autonomy of providers severely restricts the scope of control by authorities other than the owner of each service, and makes the design of the distributed software architecture a challenging undertaking. In this paper we present our ongo- ing work

Manolis Marazakis; Dimitris Papadakis; Christos Nikolaou; Penelope Constanta

1999-01-01

154

Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example. The project will have a major in...

155

Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

156

Impacts of hydraulics and sediment transport in river training works and flood control schemes (Case study: Shahroud river)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of hydraulics and sediment transport interactions with river training works and flood control projects is one of the challenging aspects of engineering disciplines. In the course of systematic studies for integrated river training, flood control and zoning master plan preparation for Shahroud river located in the northern part of Iran, the hydraulics of flow and sediment transport phenomena were

Sajad Ahmad Hamidi; Firouz Bahadori Khosrowshahy

2005-01-01

157

Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

2014-01-01

158

Using field data and HSR imagery to downscale vulnerability assessment of buildings and local infrastructure facing hazards from floods and hyperconcentrated flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study is the analysis of post-flood conditions along the Venezuela channel in the large city of Arequipa, south Peru, in order to identify the parameters determining vulnerability of buildings and infrastructure. Two tributaries draining a c. 11.9 km2 large catchment feed the Venezuela channel. Before joining the main Rio Chili valley to the West, it crosses the city from NE to SW. Over a total length of 5.2 km, channel depth ranges from 1.3 to 6.3 m and c. 40% of the channel sections do not exceed 5 m in width. On 8 February 2013, 123 mm of rainfall within 3 hours (monthly mean: 29.3 mm) triggered a flashflood inundating at least 0.4 km2 of urban settlements along the channel. The flood damaged 14 buildings, 23 among 53 bridges, and led to the partial collapse of main road sections paralyzing central parts of the city for at least one week. This research relies on (1) analyzing post-flood conditions and assessing damage types caused by the 8 February 2013 flood; (2) mapping of the channel characteristics (slope, wetted section, sinuosity, type of river banks, bed roughness, etc.) and buildings, bridges, and contention walls potentially exposed to inundation. Data collection and analysis have been based on high spatial resolution (HSR) images (SPOT5 2007, Google Earth Pro and BINGMAP 2012, PLEIADES 2012-2013). Field measurements (GPS, laser and geomorphologic mapping) were used to ground truth channel width, depth, as well as building outlines, contention walls and bridge characteristics (construction material, opening size, etc.). An inventory of 25 city blocks (1500 to 20000 m2; 6 to 157 houses per block) has been created in a GIS database in order to estimate their physical vulnerability. As many as 717 buildings have been surveyed along the affected drainage and classified according to four building types based on their structural characteristics. Output vulnerability maps show that the varying channel characteristics, i.e. bank type, bed roughness, and the variable width-depth ratio of rectangular or trapezoidal channel sections determine in great part site-specific vulnerability. The sub-metric spatial resolution and GIS data analysis using PLEIADES imagery has enabled vulnerability assessment of individual features of few meters in size. However, this study shows that fieldwork remains essential for (1) completing measurements in areas where channel is < 5 m in width or partially hidden by 2-5-storey buildings; (2) assessing the type and construction material of contention walls and thus their susceptibility to fail after they are scoured; and (3) determining the opening height of bridges potentially obstructing flow and leading to inundation as a consequence of overspill.

Ettinger, Susanne; Manrique Llerena, Nélida Victoria; Thouret, Jean-Claude

2014-05-01

159

Application of stochastic differential equation to reservoir routing with probabilistic inflow forecasting and flood control risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time flood control of a reservoir system involves various uncertainties including the prediction uncertainty of inflow flood events, uncertainties in boundary conditions such as the reservoir storage curve, release capacity curve, and the uncertainty within the reservoir flood routing model itself. In this study, the hydrologic uncertainty processor (PUB) under the framework of Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted to quantify the uncertainty of flood prediction, providing with the probabilistic forecasting for real-time flood events. A Gaussian form of distribution is used to describe uncertainty of reservoir storage or release capacity; parameters of the distribution are estimated by historical measurements. In order to route the flood hydrograph with probability feature, i.e. a probabilistic forecasting flood event, stochastic differential equation (SDE) is introduced to build the reservoir flood routing model. By introducing a Gaussian white noise term, the traditional reservoir's water balance equation is altered to a kind of Ito stochastic differential equation. The solutions of Ito equation provide a probabilistic form of forecasting for reservoir stage process and outflow hydrograph. Both the analytical and numerical approaches are applied to solve the Ito stochastic differential equation, and their applicability for reservoir stochastic flood routing is testified. By assigning a specific flood limit level or reservoir beginning water level on which a real-time flood event is started to route through using the SDE, a corresponding probabilistic reservoir stage processes can be forecasted. For a designed control water level (DCWL), the risk rate or the largest probability that the forecasted reservoir stage excesses DCWL can be computed. Setting a series of flood limit levels, for a forecasted probabilistic inflow hydrograph, there obtains the corresponding reservoir stage processes, and in turn the risk rate of flood protection. By checking if the risk rate is less than a preassigned acceptable risk or flood control standard, a reasonable flood limit water level is determined to raise the utilization ratio of flood resources. As an example, the approach is applied to Dahuofang reservoir, which is located on Hun river in Northeast China. A typical flood event occurred in the flooding season of 2005 is analyzed to demonstrate the application of proposed procedure.

Liang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Wang, J.

2012-04-01

160

ACOUSTIC IMAGING OF SEDIMENT IMPOUNDED WITHIN USDA-NRCS FLOOD CONTROL DAMS, WISCONSIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 1948, the USDA-NRCS has constructed nearly 11,000 upstream flood control dams in 2000 watersheds in 47 states, most with a design life of 50 years. But many of these reservoirs are filling with sediment. At the direct request of the USDA-NRCS in Wisconsin, two reservoirs, White Mound Lake an...

161

RIPARIAN AND RELATED VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT ALTERNATIVES AT WILDCAT AND SAN  

E-print Network

RIPARIAN AND RELATED VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT ALTERNATIVES AT WILDCAT AND SAN PABLO CREEKS1 Philip A. Meyer 2 1 Presented at the California Riparian Systems Conference; September 22 will consider Riparian benefits from alternative project designs at Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks. Particular

Standiford, Richard B.

162

Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

163

Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplet, P. & Yésou, P. 2000. Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment? Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 106–111.The delta of the Senegal river (320 000 ha) has been gradually dammed, mostly during the 1970–80s. From 1986, the Diama dam has stopped any backflow of salt water from the sea into most

Patrick Triplet; Pierre Yésou

2000-01-01

164

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL] [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

165

Green Infrastructure for CSO Control in Kansas City, Missouri  

EPA Science Inventory

Kansas City Water Services Department (WSD) conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system over the last 5 years, for submittal of its long term control plan to EPA. These studies and recent funding opportunities have provided the impetus for sele...

166

Bristol Floods 1968. Controlled Survey of Effects on Health of Local Community Disaster  

PubMed Central

An investigation into the health of people in Bristol flooded in July 1968 was made by means of a controlled survey and a study of mortality rates. There was a 50% increase in the number of deaths among those whose homes had been flooded, with a conspicuous rise in deaths from cancer. Surgery attendances rose by 53%, referrals to hospital and hospital admissions more than doubled. In all respects the men appeared less well able to cope with the experience of disaster than the women. PMID:5454327

Bennet, Glin

1970-01-01

167

Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

168

Flood inundation simulation in Ajoy River using MIKE-FLOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and risk management of floods using non-structural measures such as flood forecasting and flood warning, flood hazard mapping and flood risk zoning are quite effective. Of these, preparation of flood hazard maps and flood plain zoning require flood inundation simulation, for which various numerical models are available, for example, one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and 1D-2D-coupled models. In the present

Prashant Kadam; Dhrubajyoti Sen

2012-01-01

169

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or...Secretary of the Army in the interest of flood control and navigation....

2013-07-01

170

A Modular Software Infrastructure for Distributed Control of Collaborating UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborating unmanned aerial vehicles can e-ciently perform surveillance, mapping, and other tasks without human risk. Currently deployed unmanned aerial vehicles demon- strate a need for increased autonomy and cooperation. We present a software architecture and UAV hardware platform that have demonstrated single-user control of a ?eet of air- craft, distributed task assignment, and vision-based navigation. This is the only such

Allison Ryan; Xiao Xiao; Sivakumar Rathinam; John Tisdale; Marco Zennaro; Derek Caveney; Raja Sengupta; J. Karl Hedrick

171

[Technical features and roles of cobalt-57 flood sources for daily quality control of gamma cameras].  

PubMed

Quality control (QC) detects changes in the performance of gamma cameras that could adversely affect interpretations of clinical studies. We used plate and sheet (57)Co flood sources to measure extrinsic uniformity during daily QC. Each source, when placed on the top of a collimated detector, allowed the acquisition of uniform images from both detectors, thus reducing the amount of time needed to perform daily QC. No serious problems with the gamma camera system were revealed by visual checks, and changes in detector sensitivity were rapidly determined by observing daily variations in the measured values of extrinsic uniformity. Furthermore, (57)Co flood sources confer advantages in that they shorten the time required for preparation of flood sources and reduce the consequent exposure of medical staff to radiation. PMID:24573229

Wagatsuma, Kei; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Miyaji, Noriaki; Umeda, Takuro; Murata, Taisuke; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Mitsuru

2014-02-01

172

Flood control projects in Bangladesh: reasons for failure and recommendations for improvement.  

PubMed

Flood control and drainage projects in Bangladesh are intended to give protection from main river floods, flash floods in the east and northeast of the country, and saline intrusion in the lower delta and to improve drainage in order to avoid crop damage. While in some cases such projects have had positive results, in many others their benefits have fallen well below expectations. One of the major reasons for the poor performance of projects is embankment failure, brought about by poor planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance. Recommended measures to improve the efficiency of projects include the involvement of local people in the planning and operation of projects, better training of management staff and the allocation of adequate funds for maintenance. PMID:7552114

Hoque, M M; Siddique, M A

1995-09-01

173

Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

2009-05-01

174

IDENTIFICATION OF QTL'S CONTROLLING ADVENTITIOUS ROOT FORMATION DURING FLOODING CONDITIONS IN TEOSINTE (ZEA MAYS SSP. HUEHUETENANGENSIS) SEEDLINGS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The generation of adventitious roots at the soil surface is an important plant adaptation mechanism for coping with periods of soil flooding. Quantitative trait loci controlling adventitious root formation under flooding conditions were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing Zea ma...

175

Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

2005-01-01

176

Flood control embankments contribute to the improvement of the health status of children in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed Central

Every year, Bangladesh experiences major floods that inundate about one-third of the country. Therefore, flood control projects that comprise earthen dikes and irrigation/drainage systems are built along the major rivers to protect the people living in low-lying areas, stabilize the river banks and improve agricultural productivity. However, the adverse effects of these projects are regularly emphasized, such as environmental degradation and reduction of fishing supplies. The Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) was used to assess the effect of a flood control programme on the mortality of 0-4-year-old children residing in the Matlab study area. Adjusted mortality rates were used in comparing four adjacent child populations residing either inside or outside a flood-control embankment and according to the type of health services provided in this area. Between the periods 1983-86 and 1989-92, the crude child mortality in the total study area decreased by 37%, from 185.9 per 1000 live births to 117.9 per 1000 live births. Following the construction of the embankment, death rates outside were up to 29% higher in 1-4-year-old children and 9% higher for 0-4-year age group compared to the flood-protected area (P < 0.001). Simultaneously, in the same study area, health interventions contributed to a 40% reduction in mortality among children less than 5 years of age in all causes of deaths (P < 0.001). Migration patterns and the effect of distances to the hospital are discussed. PMID:9509625

Myaux, J. A.; Ali, M.; Chakraborty, J.; de Francisco, A.

1997-01-01

177

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

USGS

178

A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

Murch, Austin M.

2008-01-01

179

Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Background The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. Methods A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. Results The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net migration rates, other social determinants showed significant correlation with decline in new TB cases per 100,000 population. Conclusions Social infrastructure development leads to social capital generation which engenders positive growth in TB program outcomes. Strategies which promote social infrastructure development should find adequate weightage in the overall policy framework for urban TB control in developing countries. PMID:24438431

2014-01-01

180

Access Control Meets Public Key Infrastructure, Or: Assigning Roles to Strangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A new approach to the deployment of public key infrastructure is presented, based on a separation between,the issuing of certificates and the usage of certificates.Certificates are signed assertions by the issuer about the subject of the certificate (holder of correspondingsecret key), not necessarily identifying the subject. Typical use of certificate is for access control decisions, to determine whether,the subject

Amir Herzberg; Yosi Mass; Joris Mihaeli; Dalit Naor; Yiftach Ravid

2000-01-01

181

The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

2014-01-01

182

Flooding and Flood Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Risk Scenarios The Cost of Flooding The Levee Simulator About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial ... flash floods and tropical storms. Learn More Levee Simulator The FloodSmart Levee Simulator shows different ways a ...

183

Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

1967-01-01

184

Incorporating daily flood control objectives into a monthly stochastic dynamic programming model for a hydroelectric complex  

SciTech Connect

A monthly stochastic dynamic programing model was recently developed and implemented at British Columbia (B.C.) Hydro to provide decision support for short-term energy exports and, if necessary, for flood control on the Peace River in northern British Columbia. The model established the marginal cost of supplying energy from the B.C. Hydro system, as well as a monthly operating policy for the G.M. Shrum and Peace Canyon hydroelectric plants and the Williston Lake storage reservoir. A simulation model capable of following the operating policy then determines the probability of refilling Williston Lake and possible spill rates and volumes. Reservoir inflows are input to both models in daily and monthly formats. The results indicate that flood control can be accommodated without sacrificing significant export revenue.

Druce, D.J. (British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada))

1990-01-01

185

Measurements, patterns, and controls of nitrogen flux in a cranberry bed during the harvest flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for cranberry production but also a source of freshwater eutrophication in southeastern Massachusetts. Surface application of N fertilizer is pervasive throughout the cranberry industry, accounting for 93% of total annual N export from farms. The agricultural practice of "wet harvesting", involving the flooding of farms with ~1 ft of water, may promote the vertical transport and transformation of nitrogen in cranberry beds. A cranberry bed at the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station (East Wareham, MA) has been instrumented with a network of hydrological monitoring equipment for quantifying patterns and controls of nitrogen dynamics during the harvest flood. Here, data of (1) hydraulic head gradient between floodwater and groundwater (J), (2) hydraulic conductivity (K), and (3) N concentration in groundwater (C) collected from multiple points on the cranberry bed will be presented, and used to evaluate the patterns and controls N fluxes (f = JKC) in the cranberry bed.

Kennedy, C. D.

2012-12-01

186

Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106

L. Borgatti; A. Corsini; L. Chiapponi; M. D'Oria; F. Giuffredi; R. Lancellotta; P. Mignosa; G. Moretti; S. Orlandini; M. Pellegrini; F. Remitti; F. Ronchetti; M. Tanda; A. Zanini

2008-01-01

187

A reservoir flood forecasting and control system for China \\/ Un système chinois de prévision et de contrôle de crue en barrage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reservoirs play a vital role in flood prevention and disaster relief in China. The objectives of the project described in this study were to establish a reservoir flood forecasting and control system and to design and develop corresponding application software. This paper introduces the current reservoir flood control and operation practice with this system in China. Using modern integration technologies,

Shenglian Guo; Honggang Zhang; Hua Chen; Dingzhi Peng; Pan Liu; Bo Pang

2004-01-01

188

Conditional Reliability, Sub-Monthly Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP  

E-print Network

as both reference and users manuals for WRAP features providing capabilities for conditional reliability modeling, salinity tracking, simulation of flood control reservoir system operations, and use of options related to sub-monthly time steps... to investigations of river basins with hundreds of water users and hundreds of reservoirs operated for an array of purposes. Conditional reliability modeling, flow disaggregation/forecasting/routing methods related to sub-monthly time steps, simulation...

Salazar, A.A.; Olmos, H.E.; Hoffpauir, R.J.; Wurbs, R.A.

189

Manual on Conditional Reliability, Daily Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP (Draft)  

E-print Network

as both reference and users manuals for WRAP features providing capabilities for conditional reliability modeling, salinity tracking, simulation of flood control reservoir system operations, and use of options related to sub-monthly time steps... to investigations of river basins with hundreds of water users and hundreds of reservoirs operated for an array of purposes. Conditional reliability modeling, flow disaggregation/forecasting/routing methods related to sub-monthly time steps, simulation...

Wurbs, Ralph

190

Geomorphic Impacts of a Flood Control Reservoir on the Green River of Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green River is a tributary of the Ohio River draining approximately 24,000 km2 in south-central and western Kentucky. Green River is also one of the most biologically diverse waterways in the United States, supporting several threatened and endangered species. Green River Lake is a flood control reservoir receiving runoff from the upper 7% (1766 km2 of the watershed. Reduction

S. T. Kenworthy

2004-01-01

191

The DARHTAcquisition, Archival, Analysis, And Instrument Control System (DAAAC), And Network Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the world's most advanced weapons test facility. DARHT contains two linear accelerators for producing flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. High-speed electronics and optical instrumentation are used for triggering the accelerators and collecting accelerator data. Efficient and effective diagnostics provide basic information needed to routinely tune the accelerators for peak radiographic performance, and to successfully monitor the accelerators performance. DARHT's server and network infrastructure is a key element in providing shot related data storage and retrieval for successfully executing radiographic experiments. This paper will outline the elaborate Data Acquisition, Archival, Analysis, and Instrument Control System (DAAAC), as well as the server and network infrastructure for both accelerators.

Archuleta, Rita Denise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

192

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

193

CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection  

SciTech Connect

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

2012-05-14

194

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-01

195

Multiscale control of flooding and riparian-forest composition in Lower Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

Despite general agreement that river-valley hydrology shapes riparian ecosystems, relevant processes are difficult to distinguish and often inadequately specified in riparian studies. We hypothesize that physical constraints imposed by broad-scale watershed characteristics and river valleys modify local site conditions in a predictable and probabilistic fashion. To test this hypothesis, we employ a series of structural equations that decompose occurrence of riparian ecotypes into regional temperature, catchment storm response, valley hydraulics, and local site wetness via a priori specification of factor structure and ask (1) Is there evidence for multiscale hydrologic control of riparian diversity across Lower Michigan? (2) Do representations of key constraints on flood dynamics distinguish regional patterns of riparian vegetation? (3) How important are these effects? Cross-correlation among geospatial predictors initially obscured much of the variation revealed through analysis of semipartial variance. Causal relationships implied by our model fit with observed variation in riparian conditions (chi-square P = 0.43) and accounted for between 84% and 99% of the occurrence probability of five riparian ecotypes at 94 locations. Results suggest strong variation in the effects of regional climate, and both the relative importance and spatial scale of hydrologic factors influencing riparian vegetation through explicit quantification of relative flood frequency, duration, intensity, and relative overall inundation. Although climate and hydrology are not the only determinants of riparian conditions, interactions of hydrologic sourcing and flood dynamics described by our spatial models drive a significant portion of the variation in riparian ecosystem character throughout Lower Michigan, USA. PMID:19294921

Baker, Matthew E; Wiley, Michael J

2009-01-01

196

Model-controlled flooding with applications to image reconstruction and segmentation  

PubMed Central

We discuss improved image reconstruction and segmentation in a framework we term model-controlled flooding (MCF). This extends the watershed transform for segmentation by allowing the integration of a priori information about image objects into flooding simulation processes. Modeling the initial seeding, region growing, and stopping rules of the watershed flooding process allows users to customize the simulation with user-defined or default model functions incorporating prior information. It also extends a more general class of transforms based on connected attribute filters by allowing the modification of connected components of a grayscale image, thus providing more flexibility in image reconstruction. MCF reconstruction defines images with desirable features for further segmentation using existing methods and can lead to substantial improvements. We demonstrate the MCF framework using a size transform that extends grayscale area opening and attribute thickening/thinning, and give examples from several areas: concealed object detection, speckle counting in biological single cell studies, and analyses of benchmark microscopic image data sets. MCF achieves benchmark error rates well below those reported in the recent literature and in comparison with other algorithms, while being easily adapted to new imaging contexts. PMID:23049229

Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

2012-01-01

197

Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

2006-05-01

198

Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

2012-04-01

199

Flood Cleanup  

MedlinePLUS

... here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Flood Cleanup Flood Cleanup During a flood cleanup, the indoor air ... flood and how to prevent indoor air problems: Flood Cleanup and the Air In Your Home Booklet ...

200

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

201

Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wright, S.A.; Kaplinski, M.

2011-01-01

202

Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented.

Wright, Scott A.; Kaplinski, Matt

2011-03-01

203

Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding  

SciTech Connect

The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicol, David M [UNIV OF IL; Jin, Dong [UNIV OF IL

2010-12-16

204

Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators

Patrick ONeill

2009-01-01

205

Development of novel EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Foams for mobility control in surfactant flooding  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam as a novel method for mobility control in surfactant flooding was investigated. This report presents an initial evaluation of the potential application of foam as a mobility control agent behind a low concentration surfactant flood. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process involves the injection of alternate slugs of gas and surfactant solution as drive fluids behind the active surfactant slug front as an alternative to the use of polymers in order to eliminate unfavorable surfactant-polymer interactions. Experiments were performed to determine in situ foam generation and propagation using varying concentrations of surfactants in a Berea sandstone core. An apparatus was designed and built to accurately measure differential pressures along sections of the core. Bottle or shake tests using the various concentrations of surfactants and experiments to determine the effect of foam flow on reducing mobility and involved steady-state measurement of differential pressures in the presence of foam were performed. Coreflood displacement experiments in the presence of oil were performed using varying concentrations of surfactants to compare various injection modes and oil recovery efficiency. 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Llave, F.M.; Sturm, J.M.; Olsen, D.K.

1989-01-01

206

TERRITORIAL FLOOD DEFENSE: A ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods, especially those occurring on large rivers, occur over areas which are greater than those controlled by a single administrative territorial unit. The flood hydraulic regime is influenced by the extent and quality of flood defence structures. All the adopted measures influence the forming and evolution of the flood wave during the flood situation. This requires that the flood protection

MARCEL LUCACIU

207

Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. Section 2 of this report includes the results for capillary desaturation experiments for low tension fluids in Berea. These results show that some residual brine remains during microemulsion flooding even at the highest capillary number obtained in this experiment. Section 2 also includes more extensive results from the dispersion and relative permeability experiments. This section also includes data which extends the dispersion and relative permeability results from the case of two-phase flow to include initial results of three-phase flow at steady state. Section 3 is a complete description of our updated simulator. Section 4 describes and gives the results of an oil recovery experiment. Section 5 compares the results of this oil recovery experiment with our simulator. The agreement is the best obtained so far. Section 6 compares our simulator with a Sloss experiment reported by Gupta. Again, the agreement is good and demonstrates the capability of the improved simulator to account for the separation of alcohol and surfactant. Section 7 contains the results of several 2-D areal simulations involving new features of the 2-D simulator reported last year. Section 8 is a list of some of the major conclusions of this simulation research. Section 9 is an SPE paper combining the results of Senol with Walsh, a Ph.D. student of Lake and Schechter. Her polymer experiments were interpreted using Walsh's geochemical simulator. 133 references, 118 figures, 21 tables.

Pope, G.A.

1984-11-01

208

Geomorphic Impacts of a Flood Control Reservoir on the Green River of Kentucky.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green River is a tributary of the Ohio River draining approximately 24,000 km2 in south-central and western Kentucky. Green River is also one of the most biologically diverse waterways in the United States, supporting several threatened and endangered species. Green River Lake is a flood control reservoir receiving runoff from the upper 7% (1766 km2 of the watershed. Reduction in flood peaks since the mid-1960's have eliminated overbank inundation and floodplain sediment deposition along much of the 197 km reach below the dam. The impact of flow regulation is greatest along the tailwater reach between Green River dam and Russell Creek, the first of four major surface tributaries entering along a reach extending from 47 to 90 km below the dam. In the tailwater reach, the reduction in flood peaks and fine sediment supply has altered patterns of in-channel sediment storage and mobilization. Widespread channel bed armoring has not occurred, presumably due to continued fine sediment input from small tributaries, floodplain gullying, and bank erosion. There is little evidence of encroachment of riparian vegetation and related channel narrowing in the tailwater reach. Inputs of water and sediment from the four large, unregulated tributaries modify the impacts of the reservoir on in-channel sediment dynamics downstream of Russell Creek. During intermediate magnitude events, particularly those associated with localized storms, flow and sediment dynamics on the Green R. are likely similar to those of the pre-regulated system. However, reduction in peak flows during large storm events has decreased sediment transport capacity and thereby altered seasonal patterns of fine sediment deposition and storage. In addition, the frequency and spatial extent of streambed gravel mobilization have been reduced. River islands provide most of the remaining areas for vertical accretion of fine sediment during flow events, although the dynamics of accretion and erosion of islands and island-bar complexes are also affected by flow regulation.

Kenworthy, S. T.

2004-12-01

209

Software and cyber-infrastructure development to control the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys with two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55m telescope of 3deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83cm telescope of 2deg field of view. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and maintain all the observatory systems including not only astronomical subsystems but also infrastructure and other facilities. In order to provide quality, reliability and efficiency, the OAJ control system (OCS) design is based on CIA (Control Integrated Architecture) and OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) as a key to improve day and night operation processes. The OCS goes from low level hardware layer including IOs connected directly to sensors and actuators deployed around the whole observatory systems, including telescopes and astronomical instrumentation, up to the high level software layer as a tool to perform efficiently observatory operations. We will give an overview of the OAJ control system design and implementation from an engineering point of view, giving details of the design criteria, technology, architecture, standards, functional blocks, model structure, development, deployment, goals, report about the actual status and next steps.

Yanes-Díaz, A.; Antón, J. L.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Guillén-Civera, L.; Bello, R.; Jiménez-Mejías, D.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Suárez, O.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Marin-Franch, A.; Luis-Simoes, R.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez-Hernández, M. A. C.; Moles, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Vazquez Ramió, H.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Maicas, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Lopez-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Penteado, P.; Schoenell, W.; Kanaan, A.

2014-07-01

210

Regional parent flood frequency distributions in Europe - Part 2: Climate and scale controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to better understand the effect of catchment scale and climate on the statistical properties of regional flood frequency distributions. A database of L-moment ratios of annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges from Austria, Italy and Slovakia, involving a total of 813 catchments with more than 25 yr of record length is presented, together with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and basin area as catchment descriptors surrogates of climate and scale controls. A purely data-based investigation performed on the database shows that the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution provides a better representation of the averaged sample L-moment ratios compared to the other distributions considered, for catchments with medium to higher values of MAP independently of catchment area, while the three-parameter lognormal distribution is probably a more appropriate choice for drier (lower MAP) intermediate-sized catchments, which presented higher skewness values. Sample L-moment ratios do not follow systematically any of the theoretical two-parameter distributions. In particular, the averaged values of L-coefficient of skewness (L-Cs) are always larger than Gumbel's fixed L-Cs. The results presented in this paper contribute to the progress in defining a set of "process-driven" pan-European flood frequency distributions and to assess possible effects of environmental change on its properties.

Salinas, J. L.; Castellarin, A.; Kohnová, S.; Kjeldsen, T. R.

2014-11-01

211

Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

COMET

2011-10-18

212

Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, USA, in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer—resource interactions were not necessarily congruent with the dominant organic matter flows. Our study illustrates the value of detailed food web analysis for elucidating pathways by which dam management may alter production and strengths of species interactions in river food webs. We suggest that controlled floods may increase production of nonnative rainbow trout, and this information can be used to help guide future dam management decisions.

Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Donner, Kevin C.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rogers, R. Scott

2011-01-01

213

Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon.  

PubMed

Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, U.S.A., in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer-resource interactions were not necessarily congruent with the dominant organic matter flows. Our study illustrates the value of detailed food web analysis for elucidating pathways by which dam management may alter production and strengths of species interactions in river food webs. We suggest that controlled floods may increase production of nonnative rainbow trout, and this information can be used to help guide future dam management decisions. PMID:21939041

Cross, Wyatt F; Baxter, Colden V; Donner, Kevin C; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kennedy, Theodore A; Hall, Robert O; Kelly, Holly A Wellard; Rogers, R Scott

2011-09-01

214

Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to create an environment for innovation in FRe technology, using new approaches that will reduce the risks involved in function, deployment, performance. The paper will describe how alliances of manufacturers, test houses and research organizations can bring about innovation. (Reference; Zevenbergen C, et al, C22 Book, Urban Flood Management, 2010)

Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

2012-04-01

215

Mobility Controlled Flooding (MCF) Technology for Enhanced Sweeping and NAPL Remediation in Heterogeneous Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are bypassed when remedial fluid is injected into heterogeneous systems. The contaminant in the bypassed areas is therefore untouched by the remedial fluid, which can prolong the remediation operations significantly. Methods of forcing fluids into low-permeability flow paths have been developed and widely implemented to solve the heterogeneity-induced bypassing problem encountered during oil recovery in the petroleum industry over the past 40 years. Since the intent of the petroleum reservoir engineers is to control the mobility of the injected fluid in the high-permeable zones so that the fluid can be pushed through the low-permeable zones to contact and mobilize the remaining oil in these zones, this method are referred as mobility controlled flooding (MCF) technology in the petroleum engineering literature. Two methods of mobility control have been developed. One method is to use a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injectate so that the in situ pore pressure is raised, and cross-flow between layers with different permeability occurs. The other method is to use surfactant-foam flood to generate foam in high permeable zones in situ; therefore, the injected fluid is forced into the low-permeable areas. A water-soluble polymer, xanthan gum, and surfactant MA-80 was used to formulate MCF remedial fluids to remediate nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated heterogonous systems in two-dimensional (2-D) flow-cell (40 by 50 by 5 cm) experiments. It was demonstrated that the MCF technology is capable of sweeping the low-permeability flow paths. The bypassing of low-permeable zones was significantly reduced. The removal of NAPL trapped in the low-perm zones was remarkable enhanced attributed to more efficient NAPL mobilization. The results also indicate that the MCF technology is able to manage the fluid density effects. The unfavorable irregular displacing front observed during the plain surfactant solution remediation flood due to the density difference between the resident and remedial fluids disappeared when the MCF surfactant-polymer solution was used.

Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T.

2005-12-01

216

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Army in river and harbor and flood control property. 211...Army in river and harbor and flood control property. (a...lessees and upon such terms and conditions as in his judgment will...include, among other terms and conditions in the lease, a...

2012-07-01

217

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Army in river and harbor and flood control property. 211...Army in river and harbor and flood control property. (a...lessees and upon such terms and conditions as in his judgment will...include, among other terms and conditions in the lease, a...

2013-07-01

218

[The dilemma of data flood - reducing costs and increasing quality control].  

PubMed

Digitization is found everywhere in sonography. Printing of ultrasound images using the videoprinter with special paper will be done in single cases. The documentation of sonography procedures is more and more done by saving image sequences instead of still frames. Echocardiography is routinely recorded in between with so called R-R-loops. Doing contrast enhanced ultrasound recording of sequences is necessary to get a deep impression of the vascular structure of interest. Working with this data flood in daily practice a specialized software is required. Comparison in follow up of stored and recent images/sequences is very helpful. Nevertheless quality control of the ultrasound system and the transducers is simple and safe - using a phantom for detail resolution and general image quality the stored images/sequences are comparable over the life cycle of the system. The comparison in follow up is showing decreased image quality and transducer defects immediately. PMID:22945822

Gassmann, B

2012-09-01

219

Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential

Donald R. Baer; Mark H. Engelhard; Dan J. Gaspar; Alan S. Lea; Charles F. Windisch

2002-01-01

220

Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

2014-05-01

221

Toward sustainable stormwater management : overcoming barriers to green infrastructure  

E-print Network

With their high concentrations of impervious surface, urban areas generate stormwater runoff that overwhelms existing infrastructure causing flooding, sewer overflows, water pollution, and habitat degradation. Under pressure ...

Hammitt, Sarah A. (Sarah Ann)

2010-01-01

222

Reducing combined sewer overflows by using outlet controls for Green Stormwater Infrastructure: Case study in Richmond, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a major problem in many cities. This paper assesses two Low Impact Development (LID) Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) alternatives applied within a 7.05 ha catchment of the Shockoe Creek tributary of the James River in Richmond, Virginia. The LID alternatives were the 'Green-Free' (typical free discharge underdrains) and the 'Green-Control' (underdrains with flow controlled outlets). These alternatives were compared to two non-LID alternatives: 'Existing' (existing conditions) and 'Gray' (tunnel storage). A normal year scenario with average rainfall depths and intensities was compared to a scenario with anticipated higher intensity rainfall due to climate change (CC). In the normal year, the Green-Control alternative performed substantially better than both the Green-Free and the Gray alternatives in terms of volume control. However it experienced slightly more CSO events than Grey. The relative performance of both green alternatives improved with the CC climate year, indicating that GSI is more resilient than gray infrastructure. In particular, Green-Control exhibited much better performance. While the gray infrastructure solution reduced CSOs to the fewest number of occurrences, the smallest overflow volumes, lowest peak flows and the most resilient system was obtained by the Green-Control alternative. Since CSO volume is strongly related to the negative ecological impacts from overflows, and CSO occurrences are not, GSI provides a more sustainable solution than gray. These results find that hydraulic control of discharges should be the preferred option when considering GSI in CSO mitigation.

Lucas, William C.; Sample, David J.

2015-01-01

223

Rainfall organization control on the flood response of mild-slope basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study uses a long-term (8 years) dataset of radar-rainfall and runoff observations for the Tar River Basin in North Carolina, to explore the rainfall space-time organization control on the flood response of mild-slope (max slope <32 degrees) basins. We employ the concepts of “spatial moments of catchment rainfall” and “catchment scale storm velocity” to quantify the effect of spatial rainfall variability and basin geomorphology on flood response. A calibrated distributed hydrologic model is employed to assess the relevance of these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organization, which is important for runoff modeling. Furthermore, the Tar River Basin is divided into four nested sub-basins ranging from 1106 km2 to 5654 km2, in order to investigate the scale dependence of results. The rainfall spatiotemporal distribution represented in the analytical framework is shown to describe well the differences in hydrograph timing (less so in terms of magnitude of the simulated hydrographs) determined from forcing the hydrologic model with lumped vs. distributed rainfall. Specifically, the first moment exhibits a linear relationship with the difference in timing between lumped and distributed rainfall forcing. The analysis shows that the catchment scale storm velocity is scale dependent in terms of variability and rainfall dependent in terms of its value, assuming typically small values. Accordingly, the error in dispersion of simulated hydrographs between lumped and distributed rainfall forcing is relatively insensitive to the catchment scale storm velocity, which is attributed to the spatial variability of routing and hillslope velocities that is not accounted by the conceptual framework used in this study.

Mei, Yiwen; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Borga, Marco; Vegara, Humberto J.

2014-03-01

224

Quantification of increased flood risk due to global climate change for urban river management planning.  

PubMed

Global climate change is expected to affect future rainfall patterns. These changes should be taken into account when assessing future flooding risks. This study presents a method for quantifying the increase in flood risk caused by global climate change for use in urban flood risk management. Flood risk in this context is defined as the product of flood damage potential and the probability of its occurrence. The study uses a geographic information system-based flood damage prediction model to calculate the flood damage caused by design storms with different return periods. Estimation of the monetary damages these storms produce and their return periods are precursors to flood risk calculations. The design storms are developed from modified intensity-duration-frequency relationships generated by simulations of global climate change scenarios (e.g. CGCM2A2). The risk assessment method is applied to the Kanda River basin in Tokyo, Japan. The assessment provides insights not only into the flood risk cost increase due to global warming, and the impact that increase may have on flood control infrastructure planning. PMID:22049726

Morita, M

2011-01-01

225

Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

2013-01-01

226

Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

2013-05-01

227

Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding  

E-print Network

of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial waterImproving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after

Fisher, Andrew

228

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

229

Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America. PMID:21143865

2010-01-01

230

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country's infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams. Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch in diameter. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corrosion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is working with the California Department of Water Resources to develop advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructively inspecting their tendons. A unique transducer was designed and fabricated to interrogate the entire tendon. A robust, portable unit was assembled that included a computer controlled data acquisition system and specialized data processing software to analyze the ultrasonic signals. This system was tested on laboratory specimens and is presently being fielded at two dam sites.

Thomas, Graham H.; Brown, Albert E.

1998-03-01

231

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons  

SciTech Connect

Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch in diameter. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corrosion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is working with the California Department of Water Resources to develop advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructively inspecting their tendons. A unique transducer was designed and fabricated to interrogate the entire tendon. A robust,portable unit was assembled that included a computer controlled data acquisition system and specialized data processing software to analyze the ultrasonic signals. This system was tested on laboratory specimens and is presently being fielded at two dam sites.

Thomas, G.; Brown, A.

1997-10-01

232

Flood Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

233

Implementing a geospatial health data infrastructure for control of Asian schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China and the Philippines.  

PubMed

This review focuses on implementing a geospatial health infrastructure for control of schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections in Southeast Asia, with special focus on the People's Republic of China and the Philippines, using a model working group approach. Health workers have lagged in utilization of geospatial analysis and widely available, low-cost spatial data resources for epidemiological modelling and control programme management. The critical limitation on development of useful health applications to date has not been the availability of geospatial data and methods. Rather, the key barriers have been the speed of adoption of geospatial analysis tools by health scientists and the quality of geographic information system (GIS)-friendly medical databases. Regional GIS applications on Asian schistosomiasis are reviewed to illustrate recent geospatial health analysis applications. A model programme is presented for implementation of training programmes and establishment of regional working groups to facilitate development and use of geospatial health infrastructure resources by health workers in Southeast Asia. PMID:20627140

Malone, John B; Yang, Guo-Jing; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2010-01-01

234

The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-20

235

A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

236

Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The method was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were analysed to capture the flood signal. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen inferred vegetation dynamics. The results suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. After 4500-4000 cal BP, the record shows a shift toward increased flood frequency. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed after ca. 4500/4000 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use probably partially control the flood activity.

Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

2013-05-01

237

Three-dimensional mapping of geomorphic controls on flood-plain hydrology and connectivity from aerial photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nyack flood plain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, MT, USA is a 9-km anastomosed alluvial montane flood plain. Upstream from the flood plain, the river is unregulated and the catchment virtually pristine. A patchy mosaic of vegetation and channels exists on the flood-plain surface. The surface and subsurface geomorphic structures of the flood plain facilitate high hydrologic connectivity

Geoffrey C. Poole; Jack A. Stanford; Christopher A. Frissell; Steven W. Running

2002-01-01

238

Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview on power infrastructure defense systems. A review of the literature on the subjects of critical infrastructures, threats to the power grids, defense system concepts, and the special protection systems is reported. The proposed Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system methodology is a real-time, wide-area, adaptive protection and control system involving the power, communication,

Hao Li; GARY W. ROSENWALD; JUHWAN JUNG; Chen-ching Liu

2005-01-01

239

Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed,\\u000a i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the\\u000a polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted

Valérie Bert; Piet Seuntjens; Winnie Dejonghe; Sophie Lacherez; Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Bart Vandecasteele

2009-01-01

240

Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in Northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The automatic counting of flood deposits was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were processed to capture the flood signal. Automatic quantification was compared with naked-eye counting. Counts were performed twice on the proximal and distal cores to provide an objective and reproducible record of flood frequency. Geophysical and geochemical analyses made it possible to distinguish event deposits from background sedimentation. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen dynamics inferred from vegetation data. The data suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. The last third of the Holocene is characterised by a shift toward increased flood frequency at ca. 4500-4000 cal BP. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed at ca. 4500 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. The role of climate as the main forcing factor in flood activity is supported by the lake-level records: the major lake-level rises are synchronous with flood frequency increases. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use are indicated by pollen and archaeological data. These human activities have clearly affected the sediment record of flood activity, and they can partially explain the amplitude of the increases in flood activity.

Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

2012-09-01

241

Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

2014-06-01

242

Effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project on flood control in the Dongting Lake area, China, in a 1998-type flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the protective effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) against flooding in the middle region of the Changjiang River basin, we applied an integrated watershed hydrological model using gauged daily precipitation data for 1998, when the second largest flood of the last century occurred in the basin. From the results simulated by applying the daily average discharge

Seiji Hayashi; Shogo Murakami; Kai-Qin Xu; Masataka Watanabe

2008-01-01

243

Long-term flood controls on semi-arid river form: evidence from the Sabie and Olifants rivers, eastern South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers in the Kruger National Park, eastern South Africa, are characterised by bedrock-influenced "macrochannels" containing variable alluvial thicknesses and riparian vegetation assemblages. Evidence from the Sabie and Olifants rivers suggests that flows up to moderate floods (<3500 m3 s-1) tend to result in net alluviation, with sediments gradually covering the underlying bedrock. More extreme floods strip alluvium and erode bedrock, effectively exerting the primary control over long-term river morphologic development. On the Olifants River, post-flood aerial LIDAR imagery reveals that the 2012 extreme flood (~14000 m3 s-1) resulted in extensive stripping of stored alluvial sediment, exposing and eroding the underlying weathered bedrock. On the Sabie River, preliminary optically stimulated luminescence ages for remnant alluvium are all less than 1000 years, highlighting typical timescales of sediment storage. Together, these results suggest that while periods of general alluviation occur on these systems, long-term river development results from extreme flood-generated bedrock erosion.

Heritage, G.; Tooth, S.; Entwistle, N.; Milan, D.

2015-03-01

244

Voice of Experience International Research Infrastructure and the Impact of Export Control Regulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research today has become very complex, often involving international collaborations among multidisciplinary teams. Many institutions, especially those in less economically developed countries, have a great deal of expertise to contribute to these collaborations, but often lack the instrumentation, training, and research management infrastructure

Kulakowski, Elliott C.; Chronister, Lynne; Molfese, Victoria; Slocum, Michael; Studman, Cliff; Waugaman, Paul

2007-01-01

245

Multisystem Simulation: Analysis of Critical Infrastructures for Disaster Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National critical infrastructures (e.g., electricity, water, transportation, etc.) form large complex systems that sustain essential living functions. During large emergencies (earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, etc.) multiple critical systems suffer damage and the normal recovery processes of individual infrastructures are not sufficient to bring back the combined system of systems. Coordinated action among infrastructures is needed to make the combined system operational and save as many human lives as possible. The complexity of the combined system of systems and the uncertainties of the available data require an approach that limits the number of possible operational states and leads to robust real-time solutions. An optimum coordinated response needs to consider the interactions among the multiple layers of an effective disaster response: the physical layer of buildings, lifelines, and critical resources, the information and control layer, and the decision layer where choices are made as to the best responses. The solution framework discussed in this chapter provides a structure to capture these interactions.

Martí, José R.

246

Synchronicity in global flood responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal pattern of global flooding was investigated using annual maximum discharge data for 200 gauging stations from around the world. The stations were initially aggregated into regions of similar climatic conditions. A hierarchical clustering scheme was subsequently used to create larger groups of stations controlled by a measure of similarity in flood response. The results of the investigation revealed that diverse regions of the world exhibit synchronous flood responses which can be related to various global climatic conditions. The global flooding response also displayed temporal patterns in flooding with distinct historic periods corresponding to increased global flooding activity.

Burn, Donald H.; Arnell, Nigel W.

1993-04-01

247

Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types  

SciTech Connect

The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential of the specimen is as uniform as possible. However, experiments involving both flood gun use and specimen grounding, demonstrate that peak broadening and shifting can occur when two (or more) potentials are present in the region of analysis. Finally, the ability of interface charge to shift specimen potentials and measured binding energies demonstrates fundamental limitations to the absolute accuracy of binding energy measurements, but also remind us that charging phenomena can be used to obtain important information about the sample.

Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Lea, Alan S.; Windisch, Charles F.

2002-10-01

248

Study on GIS-based flood risk map for flood detention area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood Risk Map is one of the important non-engineering measures for flood control and disaster reduction. On the basis of the flood risk analysis, and with the powerful spatial analysis and display functions of Arc GIS, the Flood Risk Map in flood detention area can be drawn automatically through the redevelopment of Arc GIS by Arc Engine. Firstly, a new

Zhongmin Liang; Jun Wang; Ye Shi; Zhongbo Yu

2008-01-01

249

Real-time multi-step-ahead water level forecasting by recurrent neural networks for urban flood control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood control is a crucial task, which commonly faces fast rising peak flows resulting from urbanization. To mitigate future flood damages, it is imperative to construct an on-line accurate model to forecast inundation levels during flood periods. The Yu-Cheng Pumping Station located in Taipei City of Taiwan is selected as the study area. Firstly, historical hydrologic data are fully explored by statistical techniques to identify the time span of rainfall affecting the rise of the water level in the floodwater storage pond (FSP) at the pumping station. Secondly, effective factors (rainfall stations) that significantly affect the FSP water level are extracted by the Gamma test (GT). Thirdly, one static artificial neural network (ANN) (backpropagation neural network-BPNN) and two dynamic ANNs (Elman neural network-Elman NN; nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs-NARX network) are used to construct multi-step-ahead FSP water level forecast models through two scenarios, in which scenario I adopts rainfall and FSP water level data as model inputs while scenario II adopts only rainfall data as model inputs. The results demonstrate that the GT can efficiently identify the effective rainfall stations as important inputs to the three ANNs; the recurrent connections from the output layer (NARX network) impose more effects on the output than those of the hidden layer (Elman NN) do; and the NARX network performs the best in real-time forecasting. The NARX network produces coefficients of efficiency within 0.9-0.7 (scenario I) and 0.7-0.5 (scenario II) in the testing stages for 10-60-min-ahead forecasts accordingly. This study suggests that the proposed NARX models can be valuable and beneficial to the government authority for urban flood control.

Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Lu, Ying-Ray; Huang, Eric; Chang, Kai-Yao

2014-09-01

250

Optimum multi-objective reservoir operation with emphasis on flood control and ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is to present a reservoir management system which is capable of determining optimal operating rules both for flood event based and normal operation while at the same time attempting to achieve ecologically oriented operation. In order to maintain the variability of the natural flow regime, a new dynamic operating policy is introduced for normal operation. Flood event based operation is managed by a two-part step function. Both operating policies are optimized using a state-of-the-art multi-objective evolution strategy algorithm.

Dittmann, R.; Froehlich, F.; Pohl, R.; Ostrowski, M.

2009-11-01

251

In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvac?k Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by taking inflow, elevation, precipitation and snow water equivalent into consideration to propose alternative simulations as a decision support system. After that, the releases are subjected to user-defined rules. Thus, previous year reservoir simulations are compared with observed reservoir levels and releases. Hypothetical flood scenarios are tested in case of different storm event timing and sizing. Numerical weather prediction data of Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) can be used for temperature and precipitation forecasts that will form the inputs for a hydrological model. The estimated flows can be used for real time short term decisions for reservoir simulation based on variable guide curve and user defined rules.

Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

2012-04-01

252

Evaluation of the Relative Influence of Climate Variability and Human Activities on Flood Risk in Moderately Impaired Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard procedures for forecasting flood risk involve estimating the recurrence interval associated with observed annual maximum flood (AMF) events using an assumed theoretical probability distribution. The magnitude of a needed design event (i.e., the 100-year event) is then determined for use in floodplain delineation, land-use planning and management, design and operation of water-use and water-control structures, and design of transportation infrastructure such as bridges and roads. These procedures assume annual maximum flood series are stationary, meaning the distribution of flood flows is not significantly affected by climatic trends or cycles. Historical flood events are thus considered to be representative of future flood occurrences, and the flood risk associated with a given magnitude of flow is modeled as constant over time. This represents a significant limitation of current flood frequency models as results of previous studies indicate AMF series are non-stationary even in unimpaired watersheds. Moreover, as the majority of streams are located in areas of increasing human activity, relative and coupled impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors need to be considered such that non-stationary flood frequency models can be developed for flood risk forecasting over relevant planning horizons for large scale water resources planning and management. Large-scale climate patterns -- El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) - have been identified as influencing factors on annual maximum flood series for a number of unimpaired watersheds throughout the US. In addition, strong correlation exists between the magnitude and timing of annual maximum flood peaks and leading precipitation and temperature series, respectively, for unimpaired sites within the Upper Midwest and Northeastern US. In this study, similar analyses are conducted to identify possible climatic/meteorological sources of nonstationarity in the flood series observed at moderately impaired sites throughout the Upper Midwest and Northeastern US. Efforts are also made to distinguish the effects of human activities on flood response from the influence of natural climatic variation.

Griffis, V. W.; Salvadori, N.

2013-12-01

253

Status of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System within the Context of Its Natural  

E-print Network

, potentially causing backwater effects that could limit diversion of flood discharge into the bypass system. Systematic bypass deposition tends to occur in locations where local backwater effects are imposed by river to bypasses and levee repair along main channels, but it is unclear how effective these measures

California at Santa Barbara, University of

254

Geomorphic and Sedimentological Controls on the Effectiveness of an Extreme Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B STRA C T The 1993 flood on the Upper Mississippi River was a rare, large-magnitude hydrological event. Field and aerial survey analyses and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to appraise the thickness of overbank deposits on leveed and unleveed reaches. Results indicate that minimal (,5 mm) overbank sedimentation occurred, except in the immediate vicinity of a

Francis J. Magilligan; Jonathan D. Phillips; L. Allan James; Basil Gomez

1998-01-01

255

Feedbacks among Floods, Pioneer Woody Vegetation, and Channel Change in Sand-Bed Rivers: Insights from Field Studies of Controlled Flood Releases and Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate feedbacks between flow, geomorphic processes, and pioneer riparian vegetation in sand-bed rivers, we are combining field, hydraulic modeling, and laboratory simulations. Field studies have examined the response of woody riparian seedlings and channel morphology to prescribed dam-released floods that have been designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Through monitoring of floods over a 7-year period, we have observed temporal and spatial variations in channel response. Floods have produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach with greater sediment supply. We also have observed that as vegetation grows beyond the seedling stage, its stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increases, such that floods of similar sizes but at different times may produce markedly different downstream responses as a function of vegetation characteristics. We also observed greater mortality among nonnative Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) seedlings than among native Salix gooddingii (Goodding's willow) seedlings, likely as a result of the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. Combining field observations with modeling predictions of local hydraulics for the flood events we have studied is being used to draw linkages between hydraulics, channel change, and plant response at the patch and bar scale. In addition, mechanistic linkages are being examined using a field-scale laboratory stream channel, where seedlings of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) and Populus fremontii (cottonwood) were planted and subjected to floods with varying sediment feed rate and plant configurations. The floods conveyed by our model channel were generally insufficient to scour the woody seedlings we planted, but changes in bar size and hydraulics were observed as a function of sediment feed and vegetation density and architecture.

Wilcox, A. C.; Shafroth, P. B.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; Kiu, L.; Skorko, K.

2012-04-01

256

By Michael Timm hen heavy rains and flooding  

E-print Network

9 9 By Michael Timm W hen heavy rains and flooding collapsed an East Side manhole, turning an urban agreement about a pre- cipitation increase in late winter and spring. "Most of flooding takes place- creases in stormwater runoff could overwhelm existing infrastructure, resulting in greater flood risk

Sheridan, Jennifer

257

Flood Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center SVS

258

Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre) and an increase in anxiety in the control group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre). Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285 PMID:20193089

2010-01-01

259

Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In particular, after the atmospheric events of the April, 1992, November 1998 and September 2000, which caused vast damages, it could be shown that the causes determining the flash flooding, as well as the occurrence of floods with return times of less than 20 years (flow rate of the order of 120 m3/sec) and which are increasing in the last decade, were attributable to four main causes: · deviations and artificial banks along the lower valley, dating from 1400 to 1500, for land reclamation and agriculture; · 15th century alterations and destruction due to anthropic settlements and more extensive agricultural cultivation; · beginning from the year 1900, the building of transversal works to deviate the water for hydroelectric and agricultural purposes with a hydraulic profile rate incompatible with that of the existent hydraulic defenses such as to cause flash floods due to breaking of the banks; · underestimation in measuring the fluvial discharge due to indiscriminate and strong exploitations of the aquifers for agriculture during arid periods.

Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

260

Morphometry and floods in small drainage basins subject to diverse hydrogeomorphic controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric parameters such as drainage density, stream magnitude, and relief ratio are practical measures of flood potential in small (<100 mi2) drainage basins. Stereoscopic interpretation of low-altitude aerial photographs provides the most accurate maps of basins for generating these parameters. Field surveys of a high-density limestone basin in central Texas show that 1:24,000 scale topographic maps accurately portray the efficient

Peter C. Patton; Victor R. Baker

1976-01-01

261

Study and pilot test on a novel EOR method -- coupling PPG conformance control and surfactant flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods has re-emerged in recent years; however, significant challenges remain for the widespread deployment of these methods. One major downside to the successful application of EOR technologies in mature reservoirs is conformance problems (e.g. heterogeneity). To mitigate these problems, a novel EOR method which couple preformed particle gel (PPGs) conformance treatment with traditional surfactant flooding in one process is introduced. This dissertation provides a comprehensive study for the proposed method. A series of laboratory tests were carried out to understand the chemical interaction between PPGs and surfactants. A new method to evaluate PPGs strength in the oilfield and laboratory was introduced. Core flooding tests were run to investigate to what extent the coupled method can improve oil recovery using fractured carbonate and sandstone cores. Oilfield pilot tests were implemented in several injection wells located in Kansas. The chemical interaction experiments showed that surfactants concentrations influenced the swelling ratio and strength of PPGs. Fractured core flooding tests showed a higher increase in oil recovery through surfactant forced imbibition process by PPGs than a single method. The new PPG strength measurement apparatus provided a reliable technique to quantitatively evaluate PPG properties in the field. Oilfield pilot tests were implemented successfully in several candidate wells. The treatment s effectively increased the injection pressure of injection wells and reduced water production of adjacent production wells. Overall, this method provides a cost-effective approach for improving oil recovery while also reducing excess water production in mature and fractured reservoirs.

Muhammed, Farag Awadh

262

Teaching Floods and Flooding Quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

2011-04-21

263

Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan ranging from governmental organizations, for-profit to and non-profit entities. All vehicles were equipped with a data acquisition system that automatically collected statistically relevant data for submission to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which monitored the progress of the fuel cell vehicles against the DOE technology validation milestones. The Mercedes Team also provided data from Gen-II vehicles under the similar operations as Gen I vehicles to compare technology maturity during program duration.

Ronald Grasman

2011-12-31

264

Geochemistry and flooding as determining factors of plant species composition in Dutch winter-flooded riverine grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dutch water policy aims for more frequent, controlled flooding of river valley floodplains to avoid unwanted flooding elsewhere; in anticipation of increased flooding risks resulting from climate changes. Controlled flooding usually takes place in winter in parts of the valleys which had not been subject to flooding in the last decades. It may thus affect existing nature with its conservation

Victor Beumer; Geert van Wirdum; Boudewijn Beltman; Jasper Griffioen; Ab P. Grootjans; Jos T. A. Verhoeven

2008-01-01

265

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain: 1. Hydraulic controls on water elevation, inundation extent, and river-floodplain discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the routing of flood waters across large floodplains is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls from complex geomorphology, vegetation, and multiple water sources. In this study, we analyzed the topographic and hydrologic controls of inundation dynamics of a large floodplain unit (2440 km2) along the lower Amazon River. We combined land topography derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with underwater topography derived from an extensive echo-sounding survey to generate a seamless digital elevation model (DEM). Floodplain inundation was simulated using LISFLOOD-FP, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. For the first time, accurate simulation of filling and drainage of an Amazon floodplain was achieved with quantification of changes in water elevation, flooding extent, and river-floodplain exchange. We examined the role of diffuse overbank versus channelized flows on river-floodplain exchange. Diffuse overbank flows represent 93% of total river to floodplain discharge and 54% of floodplain to river discharge. Floodplain discharge during high-water was four times higher than field observation values when the SRTM v.4 DEM with no correction was used for simulation because of a -4.4 m elevation bias originating from residual motion errors of the SRTM interferometric baseline.

Rudorff, Conrado M.; Melack, John M.; Bates, Paul D.

2014-01-01

266

Modeling infiltration process of regulating reservoir built for flood-control based on site-characterization using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulating reservoir built for flood-control in the Shougawa alluvial fan of Toyama prefecture, Japan, was designed to have a high permeable bottom to maintain smooth infiltration of flood water pouring from a river. The infiltration process in the permeable ground was surveyed by sensors, such as piezometers set inside the observation boreholes installed in the reservoir. The observation showed that not only the temperature of the water but also the existence of pore air and heterogeneity in the ground essentially effects on the infiltration behavior beneath the reservoir. To clarify this infiltration process, we conducted 3D-Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey and time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling. 3D-GPR was applicable to detecte less permeable zone with rich clay in sand gravel basement, which control infiltration of reservoir. Time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling could estimate infiltration rate in vadose zone. Based on these results we built unsaturated-saturated water flow model considering subsurface heterogeneity and its effect. This model will contribute the management to maintain its permeability and help understanding the effect of reservoir on surrounding water environment. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25294117 and 30343768.

Kuroda, S.; Tatsuya, S.; Sudani, G.; Ikeda, S.; Satoshi, T.; Kenichi, W.; Tagashira, H.; Masukawa, S.

2013-12-01

267

Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-04-23

268

Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab.  

PubMed

The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17?million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900?kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces. PMID:22337059

Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R

2012-02-16

269

Spatial and temporal variation of muddy floods in central Belgium, off-site impacts and potential control measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous villages in the European loess belt are confronted with floods caused by runoff from agricultural land. Seventy-nine percent of the municipalities in central Belgium experienced at least one muddy flood during the last decade. Of these flooded municipalities, 22% have been affected more than 10 times during this period. Twenty municipalities have been selected for a detailed analysis. A database

Olivier Evrard; Charles L. Bielders; Karel Vandaele; Bas van Wesemael

2007-01-01

270

Climate change, flooding in South Asia and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asia is one of the most flood vulnerable regions in the world. Floods occur often in the region triggered by heavy monsoon\\u000a precipitation and can cause enormous damages to lives, property, crops and infrastructure. The frequency of extreme floods\\u000a is on the rise in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Past extreme floods fall within the range of climate variability but

M. Monirul Qader Mirza; Qader Mirza

2011-01-01

271

Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from\\u000a flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian\\u000a vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might\\u000a appear to be at odds,

Edward P. Glenn; Kate Hucklebridge; Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Pamela L. Nagler; Jennifer Pitt

2008-01-01

272

The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In both systems, controlled floods are generally effective at enhancing channel relief through fine sediment redistribution. Yet, controlled floods may also exacerbate the fine sediment deficit, and their long-term efficacy thus requires a detailed understanding of sediment mass balance.

Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

2013-12-01

273

Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is a major hazard to lives and infrastructure, but trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. We have developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States Flood frequency was generally nonstationary, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity were smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs.

Slater, Louise J.; Singer, Michael Bliss; Kirchner, James W.

2015-01-01

274

An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

2012-12-01

275

Stochastic generation and disaggregation of hourly rainfall series for continuous hydrological modelling and flood control reservoir design.  

PubMed

In the urban environment, stormwater detention basins are a powerful means to limit the frequency of sewer system failures and consecutive urban flooding. To design such waterworks or to check their efficiency, it is possible to carry out continuous rainfall-runoff modelling. A long-term discharge series obtained from a long-term rainfall series is used as input for a storage model describing the detention basin behaviour: the basin behaviour may be consequently studied over a long period. The provided statistical information on the working state frequency, failure frequency, ... of the detention basin is of high interest for the basin diagnostic or for its design. This paper presents the whole methodology which leads to production of such statistical information and especially: the models used to generate long term rainfall series with a short time step, the rainfall-runoff model used to transform the later series into a long term discharge series, and the model used to describe the behaviour of the detention basin. This methodology was applied to evaluate the efficiency of 4 detention basins built for stormwater control and flood mitigation. They are situated on a Swiss urban catchment (Chamberonne catchment--40 km2) collecting water from the Mèbre and Sorge rivers. PMID:11888173

Hingray, B; Monbaron, E; Jarrar, I; Favre, A C; Consuegra, D; Musy, A

2002-01-01

276

Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized adaptive management efforts in the world to manage resources under growing environmental uncertainty as climate change and global warming continues.

Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

2013-12-01

277

Flood risk management by flooding currents using satellite image in the Nakdong basin, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, floods have increased due to rapid urbanization and human activity in the lowland. Therefore, river flood control is essential for functional embankments and maintenance of safety concerns. Floods in Korea that occur every year are also caused by heavy rains and typhoons. However, due to lack of hydrologic, hydraulic and geomorphic data, high-magnitude floods is often difficult to compute

Y. Kwak; A. Kondoh

2009-01-01

278

78 FR 78986 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket ID FEMA-2013-0002] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations...County August 2, 2013...Kunasek, Chairman, Flood Control (12-09-3189P...97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: November 20, 2013. Roy Wright,...

2013-12-27

279

Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests. This proved to be a major challenge for the project and was ultimately abandoned in favor of a directly wired solution for collecting sensor data at the building. The primary reason for this was the relatively short ranges at which we were able to effectively place the sensor nodes from the central receiving unit. Several different mesh technologies were attempted with similar results. Two hardware devices were created during the original performance period of the project. The first device, the WEB-MC, is a master control unit that has two radios, a CPU, memory, and serves as the central communications device for the WEB-MC System (Currently called the 'BEST Wireless HVAC Maintenance System' as a tentative commercial product name). The WEB-MC communicates with the local mesh network system via one of its antennas. Communication with the mesh network enables the WEB-MC to configure the network, send/receive data from individual motes, and serves as the primary mechanism for collecting sensor data at remote locations. The second antenna enables the WEB-MC to connect to a cellular network ('Long-Haul Communications') to transfer data to and from the NorthWrite Network Operations Center (NOC). A third 'all-in-one' hardware solution was created after the project was extended (Phase 2) and additional resources were provided. The project team leveraged a project funded by the State of Washington to develop a hardware solution that integrated the functionality of the original two devices. The primary reason for this approach was to eliminate the mesh network technical difficulties that severely limited the functionality of the original hardware approach. There were five separate software developments required to deliver the functionality needed for this project. These include the Data Server (or Network Operations Center), Web Application, Diagnostic Software, WEB-MC Embedded Software, Mote Embedded Software. Each of these developments was necessarily dependent on the others. This resulted in a challenging management task - requiring high bandwidth communications among

Patrick O'Neill

2009-06-30

280

Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

2011-01-01

281

Social infrastructure  

E-print Network

Current urbanization patterns and aging transportation infrastructures have marginalized millions of US citizens. The result is that 4 .5 million US residents live within 100 meters of a four-lane highway' and have become ...

Kurlbaum, Ryan E. (Ryan Edward)

2013-01-01

282

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Alex Tingle

283

The Global Flood Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage, the core specifications and reference version of the GFM will be licensed free. - for commercial use, users (such as software companies, engineering companies and business or risk management consultancies) will pay an annual fee, contributing to upkeep and maintenance. The GFM demonstrator will be shown and discussed. The initiative is seeking active involvement of the academic community.

Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

2012-04-01

284

Drainage and flooding in karst terranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding in karst terranes is a commonly occurring geo-hazard. It causes damage to property, businesses, and roadways. It can lead to the formation of cover-collapse sinkholes and groundwater contamination. Generally, three types of flooding or their combinations are related to karst: recharge-related sinkhole flooding, flow-related flooding, and discharge-related flooding. Understanding of the type of flooding is essential for solving the flooding problem. Areas prone to karst flooding should be recognized, and restrictions and laws on land use should be implemented. Runoff and erosion control plans should address the unique characteristics of karst features. Digging out clogged sinkholes, creating retention basins, or installing Class V Injection Wells are possible solutions to improve drainage of storm water. Solutions to flooding problems in karst areas should also be coordinated with the water quality control to prevent groundwater contamination.

Zhou, Wanfang

2007-01-01

285

Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including ? OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, ? Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, ? Control plane software release, ? Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, ? Network Virtualization architecture, ? Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Lehman, Tom [USC] [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM] [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID] [UCAID

2010-08-31

286

The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

2015-01-01

287

Lynn E. KatzpH Sensitive Polymers for Novel Conformance Control and Polymer Flooding Applications  

E-print Network

To my wife, Kun Sook Na, and my daughter, Hee Seung Choi, who both patiently supported me in my studies and To my mother, Kwang Young Lee, my father, Sang Soon Choi, and all my other family, for their devoted and endless love. Acknowledgements I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Mukul M. Sharma, for his continuous guidance and support throughout all these years. As a truly talented supervisor and professor, he allowed me to explore my academic potential and exposed me to the exciting world of research. I also would like to acknowledge Drs. Steven L. Bryant and Huh Chun, as my co-supervisors, for their warm-hearted guidance and sincere advice. Their supervision over the last 4 years truly guided me to a right path, and encouraged me, especially during the difficult process of research. Dr. Gary A. Pope must also be acknowledged for his invaluable contribution to the understanding of polymer flooding, which is major part of my dissertation. Dr. Lynn E. Katz is also acknowledged for her constructive comments on geochemical reactions

Suk Kyoon Choi; Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Gary A. Pope; Suk Kyoon Choi

288

Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Summerhill, Richard

2009-08-14

289

The SCOS: A configurable infrastructure for the control of spacecraft using packets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reusable and highly configurable Spacecraft Control System (SCOS) kernel is described. The objectives of the SCOS are to provide the telemetry and telecommand related functions for both classical and new packetized spacecraft data and for low orbiting, geostationary and deep space missions. The telemetry functions include real time reception, validation, processing and filing of telemetry, real time and retrieval displays, printouts, archiving, etc. The telecommand functions include the preparation of telecommands, scheduling, validation, verification, filling, display, and printouts.

Mullet, Bruno; Kaufeler, J. F.; Bowers, J.; Ahier, M.

1990-10-01

290

Tectonic and volcanic controls on Early Jurassic rift-valley lake deposition during emplacement of Karoo flood basalts, southern Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Karoo Igneous Province of southern Africa is one of the classic Mesozoic flood basalt provinces of the world. In the case of the early Jurassic Kalkrand Formation of Namibia the succession comprises three major flood basalt units that are separated by two stratigraphically important fluvio-lacustrine interlayers. These horizons preserve a record of the complex interplay between sedimentation, effusion of

Harald Stollhofen; Stephan Gerschütz; Ian G Stanistreet; Volker Lorenz

1998-01-01

291

Flood Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... gov The official site of the National Flood Insurance Program Call toll free: 1-888-379-9531 ... you Enter Search Term(s): Home About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial Coverage PolicyHolder Resources Preparation & ...

292

The Design and Implementation of a Real-Time Flood Forecasting System in Durban, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South Africa, five flood events during the period 1994-1996 resulted in the loss of 173 lives, more than 7000 people requiring evacuation and/or emergency shelter and damages to the value of R680 million (White paper on Disaster Management 1998). The South African Disaster management bill provides for "...preventing or reducing the risk of disasters, mitigating the severity of disasters ...". To this end a pilot study funded by the Water Research Commission aims at providing flood forecasts for the Mgeni and Mlazi catchments near the city of Durban in South Africa. The importance and usefulness of flood forecasting is particularly evident in an urban context where the density of population and infrastructure provide great potential for disaster. A reliable flood warning or forecasting system cannot prevent the occurrence of floods, but provides a key tool that can allow decision makers to be proactive rather than reactive in their response to a flooding event. Taking preventative measures before the fact can significantly reduce the social and economic impacts associated with a disaster. The flood forecasting system described here makes use of a "best estimate" spatial rainfield (obtained by combining radar and telemetered rain gauge rainfall estimates) as input to a linear catchment model. The catchment model parameters are dynamically updated in response to measured streamflows using Kalman filtering techniques, allowing improved forecasts of streamflow as the catchment conditions change. Precomputed flood lines and a graphical representation of the spatial rainfield are dynamically displayed on a GIS in the Durban disaster management control center enabling Disaster Managers to be proactive in times of impending floods.

Sinclair, Scott; Pegram, Geoff

2003-04-01

293

Master-Slave Control Scheme in Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure  

PubMed Central

WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

2014-01-01

294

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

295

From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

2012-04-01

296

Infrastructure Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by Scranton Gillette Communications, contains information on various types of infrastructures. It contains searchable archives of selected articles from four of SGC's publications (Roads & Bridges, Water & Waste Digest, Water Engineering & Management, and Water Quality Products). In addition, a supplier and product directory (unfortunately not searchable) are available.

297

IT Infrastructure  

Cancer.gov

Overview The CGR IT infrastructure exists as a fully functional data and high performance computing (HPC) center running on a secure 1/10 GB network. The CGR maintains a 5-node Network Accessed Storage (NAS) system consisting of approximately 500 TB of

298

Flood mapping with multitemporal MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most devastating and frequent disasters resulting in loss of human life and serve damage to infrastructure and agricultural production. Flood is phenomenal in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam. It annually lasts from July to November. Information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics is thus important for planners to devise successful strategies for flood monitoring and mitigation of its negative effects. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for weekly mapping flood dynamics with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data in MRD using the water fraction model (WFM). The data processed for 2009 comprises three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time series of the difference in the values (DVLE) between land surface water index (LSWI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) flood derivation using WFM, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data, which were constructed from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. As several error sources, including mixed-pixel problems and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, could lower the level of classification accuracy, the comparisons indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracy of 80.5% and Kappa coefficient of 0.61, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived flood area and that of the ground reference map at the provincial level, with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93. Considering the importance of remote sensing for monitoring floods and mitigating the damage caused by floods to crops and infrastructure, this study eventually leads to the realization of the value of using time-series MODIS DVLE data for weekly flood monitoring in MRD with the aid of EMD and WFM. Such an approach that could provide quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics for monitoring purposes was completely transferable to other regions in the world.

Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru

2014-05-01

299

Introduction BIOPICCC (Built Infrastructure for Older  

E-print Network

and related infrastructures important for maintaining these conditions in the case of weather hazards the UK that are most at risk from weather-related hazards including heat waves, cold waves and floods. · Within the zones at greatest risk from climate change, identify `case study' communities (neighbourhoods

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

300

3, 32793319, 2006 Thresholds and flood  

E-print Network

HESSD 3, 3279­3319, 2006 Thresholds and flood frequency I. Struthers and M. Sivapalan Title Page of process controls upon flood frequency: role of thresholds I. Struthers 1 and M. Sivapalan 2 1 School. Struthers (struther@sese.uwa.edu.au) 3279 #12;HESSD 3, 3279­3319, 2006 Thresholds and flood frequency I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.

Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

2014-05-01

302

Multi-objective sustainable river management: balancing flood control, bio-pysical restoration and socio-economic factors in a Scottish river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of river corridors requires an understanding of the linkages between geomorphic, hydrologic, ecologic and socio-economic factors across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, in order to be genuinely sustainable, management must ideally be set within a catchment/watershed context. However, in practice, this rarely occurs due to obstacles imposed by fragmented land ownership/governance and an incomplete understanding of bio-physical process linkages. We present our experience on a project with the goal of optimising physical objectives at the catchment scale within a framework influenced by environmental legislation and conflicting land-use pressures. The project was carried out on the Eddleston Water in the Scottish Borders and had the primary objective of providing sustainable flood risk management to settlements on the water course while also providing ecological benefit to the river corridor. These co-objectives had to be met while considering the constraints imposed by land-use (predominantly arable agriculture) and transport infrastructure on the floodplain. The Eddleston Water has been heavily impacted by many human activities for over 200 years although a modified upland drainage, markedly canalised main-stem channel and floodplain disconnection are most significant to present-day physical and ecological processes. Catchment-scale restoration plans aim to restore broad-scale hydrological processes in conjunction with re-naturalisation of the river corridor at the reach-scale (including floodbank set-back, floodplain reconnection, regeneration of riparian vegetation, large wood placement). In addition, these measures also had to accommodate the objective of sustainable flood risk management, through the combination of a re-naturalised run-off regime and the encouragement of floodplain water storage. We present the output from 1D and 2D hydraulic models of a 1km stretch of the Eddleston Water that jointly assesses the benefit to flood hydrograph attenuation and bio-physical processes of a suite of restoration designs within the floodplain. Although the models produced an optimised design based on these environmental objectives, the ‘real world’ situation of constraints imposed by ‘socio-economic’ factors (particularly agricultural and urban infrastructure pressures) subsequently modified this. In this way the project demonstrated the compromises that have to be made in implementing these type of idealised physical objectives.

Moir, H.; Bowles, C.; Campbell, C.; Sawyer, A.; Comins, L.; Werritty, A.

2010-12-01

303

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

304

Cost of Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... Schedule Floodsmart Video Library Flood Risk Scenarios The Cost of Flooding The Levee Simulator About The National ... you what a flood to your home could cost, inch by inch. Launch Cost Of Flooding Now ...

305

Rivers and Flooding Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

Laurel Senft

306

Coiled-coil protein composition of 22 proteomes – differences and common themes in subcellular infrastructure and traffic control  

PubMed Central

Background Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffolds that organize membrane systems and tissues, motors, levers, rotating arms, and possibly springs. Mutations in long coiled-coil proteins have been implemented in a growing number of human diseases. Using the coiled-coil prediction program MultiCoil, we have previously identified all long coiled-coil proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and have established a searchable Arabidopsis coiled-coil protein database. Results Here, we have identified all proteins with long coiled-coil domains from 21 additional fully sequenced genomes. Because regions predicted to form coiled-coils interfere with sequence homology determination, we have developed a sequence comparison and clustering strategy based on masking predicted coiled-coil domains. Comparing and grouping all long coiled-coil proteins from 22 genomes, the kingdom-specificity of coiled-coil protein families was determined. At the same time, a number of proteins with unknown function could be grouped with already characterized proteins from other organisms. Conclusion MultiCoil predicts proteins with extended coiled-coil domains (more than 250 amino acids) to be largely absent from bacterial genomes, but present in archaea and eukaryotes. The structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins and their relatives are the only long coiled-coil protein family clearly conserved throughout all kingdoms, indicating their ancient nature. Motor proteins, membrane tethering and vesicle transport proteins are the dominant eukaryote-specific long coiled-coil proteins, suggesting that coiled-coil proteins have gained functions in the increasingly complex processes of subcellular infrastructure maintenance and trafficking control of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:16288662

Rose, Annkatrin; Schraegle, Shannon J; Stahlberg, Eric A; Meier, Iris

2005-01-01

307

Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2011-01-01

308

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

2014-09-18

309

1996 Grand Canyon Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Manone, Northern Arizona University Summary Analyze the effect of a 1996 controlled flood on a sandbar in Grand Canyon. This exercise uses Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst Context Type and level of course ...

Mark Manone

310

Urban infrastructure and longitudinal stream profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban streams usually are highly engineered or modified by human activity and are conventionally thought of as being geometrically, and thus hydraulically, simple. The work presented here, a contribution to NSF CNH Project 0709659, is designed to capture the influence of urban infrastructure on the character of longitudinal profiles and flow hydraulics along streams in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Detailed topographic data sets are derived from LiDAR supplemented by total-station surveys of the channel bed and low-flow water surface. These in turn are used to drive 2D depth-averaged hydraulic models comparing flow conditions over a range of urban development patterns and stormwater management regimes. Results from stream surveys of 1-2 km length indicate that channels in older, highly urbanized areas typically have straight planforms and strongly stepped profiles characterized by a series of deep, stagnant pools with short intervening riffles or runs. This pattern is associated with frequent interruption of the channel profile by bridges, culverts, road embankments and other artificial structures. In one survey reach of the Dead Run watershed, 50 percent of cumulative channel length has zero gradient at low flow, and 50 percent of cumulative head loss is accounted for by only 4 percent of channel length. In the suburban Red Run watershed recent development has occurred under strict stormwater management regulations with minimal encroachment on the riparian zone. Although their average gradients are similar, the Red Run survey reach is steeper than the Dead Run reach over most its length but has a smaller fraction of total head loss caused by local slope breaks. Modeling results indicate that these differences in stream morphology are associated with differences in velocity, flow pattern, and residence time at base flow; the stepped nature of the profile in the older urban area becomes less pronounced at intermediate to high flows, but the controlling influence of infrastructure may become dominant again during large floods. Because flashy urban streams have lower and more persistent low flows as well as more extreme flood flows, these hydraulic patterns may have implications for both biogeochemical cycling at base flow and transport and deposition of sediment and other constituents during flood periods. Continuing research will develop a typology of urban streams in terms of the influence of engineering practices on flow patterns and material transport.

Lindner, G. A.; Miller, A. J.

2009-12-01

311

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 May 2012 vol 5 no 3  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 May 2012 vol 5 no 3 coll Table of Contents Alexander named on all matters associated with Flood Risk Management, Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience commanded at every level from platoon to brigade. His diverse experience Flood Risk Management Newsletter

US Army Corps of Engineers

312

Two Floods in Fort Collins, Colorado: Learning from a Natural Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash flood in Fort Collins, Colorado, on 28 July 1997 resulted in 5 deaths, 62 injuries, and more than $250 million in property damage. Following the 1997 flood, a great many changes were made in the city's preparedness infrastructure. On 30 April 1999, a combination of heavy rain and melting snow caused a second, less serious flood event. This

John F. Weaver; Eve Gruntfest; Glenn M. Levy

2000-01-01

313

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Stephen Nelson

314

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

315

GIS Support for Flood Rescue Gengsheng Liang, Darka Mioc  

E-print Network

damaged (see Fig. 2). Under these conditions, the control of ground traffic in and around flooded areasGIS Support for Flood Rescue Gengsheng Liang, Darka Mioc Department of Geodesy and Geomatics@imm.dtu.dk Abstract--Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages

316

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was studied. The aim was to determine the effect of structure on surfactant adsorption at the solid-liquid as well as at the liquid-air interface. Nonionic polyethoxylated alkyl phenols and anionic meta xylene sulfonates (MXS) were the surfactants studied. Electrokinetic behavior was also determined along with adsorption in order to determine the role of electrostatic forces in determining the adsorption. In addition, the effect of varying the number of ethylene oxide groups on the adsorption of polyethoxylated alkyl phenols on silica was determined since the ethoxyl groups offer unique opportunities to control adsorption as well as wettability. Effect of pH was studied both because it is a parameter with first order effect and also because pH effects can help in developing mechanisms.

Somasundaran, P.

1993-05-01

317

Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.

2007-01-01

318

Assessing grain-size correspondence between flow and deposits of controlled floods in the Colorado River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-deposited sediment has been used to decipher environmental parameters such as variability in watershed sediment supply, paleoflood hydrology, and channel morphology. It is not well known, however, how accurately the deposits reflect sedimentary processes within the flow, and hence what sampling intensity is needed to decipher records of recent or long-past conditions. We examine these problems using deposits from dam-regulated floods in the Colorado River corridor through Marble Canyon–Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A., in which steady-peaked floods represent a simple end-member case. For these simple floods, most deposits show inverse grading that reflects coarsening suspended sediment (a result of fine-sediment-supply limitation), but there is enough eddy-scale variability that some profiles show normal grading that did not reflect grain-size evolution in the flow as a whole. To infer systemwide grain-size evolution in modern or ancient depositional systems requires sampling enough deposit profiles that the standard error of the mean of grain-size-change measurements becomes small relative to the magnitude of observed changes. For simple, steady-peaked floods, 5–10 profiles or fewer may suffice to characterize grain-size trends robustly, but many more samples may be needed from deposits with greater variability in their grain-size evolution.

Draut, Amy; Rubin, David M.

2013-01-01

319

Simulating floods : On the application of a 2D-hydraulic model for flood hazard and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, river floods in Europe seem to occur more frequently and are causing more and more economic and emotional damage. Understanding the processes causing flooding and the development of simulation models to evaluate countermeasures to control that damage are important issues. This study deals with the application of a 2D hydraulic flood propagation model for flood hazard

D. Alkema

2007-01-01

320

Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods  

SciTech Connect

The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

2013-12-31

321

Flood risk and flood management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management has been established as a well defined procedure for handling risks due to natural, environmental or man made hazards, of which floods are representative. Risk management has been discussed in many previous papers giving different meanings to the term—a result of the fact that risk management actually takes place on three different levels of actions: the operational level,

Erich J. Plate

2002-01-01

322

FLOOD RESPONSE PLAN River Flood Guide  

E-print Network

1 FLOOD RESPONSE PLAN River Flood Guide Effective Date: January 2013 Updated: February 2014 #12 Thames River basin have the potential to cause flooding on Western properties. PURPOSE To establish areas) closing of parking lots and clearing of parked vehicles and other Western property in flood

Lennard, William N.

323

Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: a Consensus Panel report.  

PubMed

In 1997 the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America established a consensus panel to develop recommendations for optimal infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology programs in out-of-hospital settings. The following report represents the Consensus Panel's best assessment of requirements for a healthy and effective out-of-hospital-based infection control and epidemiology program. The recommendations fall into 5 categories: managing critical data and information; developing and recommending policies and procedures; intervening directly to prevent infections; educating and training of health care workers, patients, and nonmedical caregivers; and resources. The Consensus Panel used an evidence-based approach and categorized recommendations according to modifications of the scheme developed by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. PMID:10511489

Friedman, C; Barnette, M; Buck, A S; Ham, R; Harris, J A; Hoffman, P; Johnson, D; Manian, F; Nicolle, L; Pearson, M L; Perl, T M; Solomon, S L

1999-10-01

324

Sediment deposition in a flood retention structure after two record floods in southwestern Wisconsin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment deposited in a flood-control structure was measured after record floods in SW Wisconsin on June 17 and June 30-July 1, 1978. The structure is in the Driftless Area, where high relief, erodible soils, and land use contribute to high soil losses. The two floods deposited 4.1 acre-ft of sediment in the structure.-from Authors

Kammerer, P.A., Jr.; Batten, W.G.

1982-01-01

325

EFFECTS OF LAND SUBSIDENCE ON FLOOD PROFILES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, the effects of land subsidence on water-surface elevation and depth profiles during flood conditions were investigated for a large, hypothetical, slope-controlled stream. Subsidence depressions, with a range of vertical magnitudes and areas were imposed on a hypothetical stream reach. Step-backwater computations were made to determine water-surface and depth profiles for a large hypothetical flood. Changes in the water-surface and depth profiles were related to the assumed subsidence to determine relative effects on flood profiles. The results may be useful in understanding and evaluating flood hazards where subsidence coincides with the flood plain of a large, upland stream.

Landers, M.N.

1987-01-01

326

Tsunami flooding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

2013-01-01

327

Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods.  

PubMed

Riverine mercury (Hg) export dynamics from the Zackenberg River Basin (ZRB) in Northeast Greenland were studied for the period 2009-2013. Dissolved and sediment-bound Hg was measured regularly in the Zackenberg River throughout the periods with running water (June-October) and coupled to water discharge measurements. Also, a few samples of snow, soil, and permafrost were analysed for Hg. Mean concentrations of dissolved and sediment-bound Hg in the river water (±SD) were 0.39±0.13 and 5.5±1.4ngL(-1), respectively, and mean concentrations of Hg in the river sediment were 0.033±0.025mgkg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57kg and the majority (86-96%) was associated with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1gHgkm(-2)yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial lake outburst floods in the ZRB in late summer at the time of maximum soil thaw depth, the location of the glacier in the upper ZRB, and increased thawing of the permafrost in Zackenberg in recent years leading to destabilisation of river banks are considered central factors explaining the high fraction of flood-controlled Hg export in this area. PMID:25666278

Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Elberling, Bo; Larsen, Martin M; Mylius, Maria Rask; Lund, Magnus; Abermann, Jakob; Rigét, Frank

2015-05-01

328

Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

2012-04-01

329

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web.  

PubMed

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS's newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders. PMID:24303773

Hearn, Paul P; Longenecker, Herbert E; Aguinaldo, John J; Rahav, Ami N

2013-01-01

330

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

Hearn, Paul P.; Longenecker, Herbert E., III; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

2013-01-01

331

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined. Solids of relevant mineralogy and a multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption/desorption of single surfactant and surfactant mixtures at the kaolinite-water and alumina-water interface were studied during this quarter. The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C{sub l2}EO{sub 8}) on kaolinite was found to be higher from their mixtures than as single components. This enhanced adsorption was attributed to be due to hydrophobic chain-chain interactions. The effect of pH on the adsorption of single and surfactant mixtures on kaolinite was also elucidated. Desorption of cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) studied at the alumina-water interface indicated that adsorption was reversible. Electrokinetic measurements supported this observation.

Somasundaran, P.

1993-11-30

332

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project is to investigate mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy will be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability; is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the first year of this three year contract, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Surfactants studied include alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amount of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed.

Somasundaran, P.

1994-07-01

333

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30 1995  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project was to investigate mechanisms governing adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy have been determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the three years contract period, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride were the surfactants studied. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes in interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amounts of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactants in mixed aggregate leads to shielding of the charge of ionic surfactants which in turn promotes aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution on adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentration in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

Casteel, J. [Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

1996-07-01

334

CHANNEL-DYNAMIC CONTROL ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RIPARIAN TREES AFTER LARGE FLOODS IN NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large floods in northwestern California in the past two decades have mobilized extensive areas of valley floors, removed streamside trees, and widened channels. Channel cross sections were surveyed to illustrate an hypothesis on the linkage between sediment transport, colonization of channel margins by trees, and streambank recovery. Riparian trees, e.g., white alder (Alnus rhombifolia), colonize the water's edge at low

Thomas E. Lisle

335

Multiple fluvial processes detected by riverside seismic and infrasound monitoring of a controlled flood in the Grand Canyon  

E-print Network

flood in the Grand Canyon Brandon Schmandt,1 Richard C. Aster,2,3 Dirk Scherler,4 Victor C. Tsai,4,5 and Karl Karlstrom1 Received 28 July 2013; revised 6 September 2013; accepted 9 September 2013; published 18 September 2013. [1] As rivers transport water and sediment across Earth's surface, they radiate

Tsai, Victor C.

336

Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the

Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Meesha Joshi; Acharya Balkrishna

2010-01-01

337

Physical Infrastructure: Connections  

E-print Network

Physical Infrastructure: Connections METALS Using a complementary approach of experimental conditions. Due to years of limited investment and maintenance, the U.S. transportation infrastructure infrastructure, and guide cost-effective strategies for maintenance, repair, and replacement. · Validated

338

November 2008 Infrastructure &  

E-print Network

November 2008 Infrastructure & Communities:The Path to Sustainable Communities John Robinson, Tom The focus of this White Paper is on infrastructure and communities. More specifically, we look infrastructure, therefore, are essential mitigation strategies that can contribute to significant, long

Pedersen, Tom

339

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security  

E-print Network

Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST Sandia, and reactorsystemoverviews. Training in Action: Gulf Nuclear Energy InfrastructureInstitute In2011,Sandiateamedwiththe Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII). Located in Abu Dhabi, UAE, GNEII is a regional education

340

Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve water quality and protect the aquatic habitat of the Roanoke River.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

341

Flood Frequency Curves - Use of information on the likelihood of extreme floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investment in the infrastructure that reduces flood risk for flood-prone communities must incorporate information on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in that area. Traditionally, that information has been a probability distribution of annual maximum streamflows developed from the historical gaged record at a stream site. Practice in the United States fits a Log-Pearson type3 distribution to the annual maximum flows of an unimpaired streamflow record, using the method of moments to estimate distribution parameters. The procedure makes the assumptions that annual peak streamflow events are (1) independent, (2) identically distributed, and (3) form a representative sample of the overall probability distribution. Each of these assumptions can be challenged. We rarely have enough data to form a representative sample, and therefore must compute and display the uncertainty in the estimated flood distribution. But, is there a wet/dry cycle that makes precipitation less than independent between successive years? Are the peak flows caused by different types of events from different statistical populations? How does the watershed or climate changing over time (non-stationarity) affect the probability distribution floods? Potential approaches to avoid these assumptions vary from estimating trend and shift and removing them from early data (and so forming a homogeneous data set), to methods that estimate statistical parameters that vary with time. A further issue in estimating a probability distribution of flood magnitude (the flood frequency curve) is whether a purely statistical approach can accurately capture the range and frequency of floods that are of interest. A meteorologically-based analysis produces "probable maximum precipitation" (PMP) and subsequently a "probable maximum flood" (PMF) that attempts to describe an upper bound on flood magnitude in a particular watershed. This analysis can help constrain the upper tail of the probability distribution, well beyond the range of gaged data or even historical or paleo-flood data, which can be very important in risk analyses performed for flood risk management and dam and levee safety studies.

Faber, B.

2011-12-01

342

Flood Modelling in Jakarta   

E-print Network

Flooding is a major issue that affects the well being of a big part of the global population. This project is concerned with flooding caused by extreme rainfall events. Its aim is the development of a flood prediction ...

Diamantidis, Georgios

2009-11-26

343

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works; maintenance and...

2014-07-01

344

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works; maintenance and...

2012-07-01

345

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2010 vol 4 no 1  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2010 vol 4 no 1 Focusing on - Corps of Engineers Resources for Flood Risk Management Table of Contents CERB.............................. 8 Flood Control & Coastal Emergencies............4 PROSPECT Courses 2011

US Army Corps of Engineers

346

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works; maintenance and...

2013-07-01

347

Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy Management of a Large-scale Industrial Site in Alberta, Canada  

E-print Network

Infrastructure Case Study Suncor Building Management System Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy... to building, panel to backbone • All modular buildings built to the same standard • Central site server • Common network database using LNS (LonWorks Network Services) and LonMaker Software • Single network management platform for all equipment and devices...

Bernstein, R.

2014-01-01

348

Coastal Climate Change and Urban Infrastructure Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key urban infrastructure includes roads, bridges, sewer and drainage systems, and buildings. They and the services they provide are sensitive to coastal climate changes that affect tides, groundwater, storm surges, velocity zones, storm intensities, and estuary inflows. Generally roads and sewer and drainage systems are sensitive to all changes. Bridges and buildings are more sensitive to changes in coastal flooding. Several forms of analysis are useful to determine the vulnerabilities of these systems to climate change. These include elevation mapping of tides and floods, approximations of impacts of waves and other dynamics on damages, Monte Carlo simulation, and expected value analysis. Examples of impacts on infrastructure and methods of analysis are presented for several cities in the northeastern USA.

Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Ballestero, T. P.

2012-12-01

349

An infrastructure ecology approach for urban infrastructure sustainability and resiliency  

Microsoft Academic Search

urban infrastructure as well when the infrastructure components are not analyzed individually but as an interlinked system, which then can be termed as ‘infrastructure ecology’. Urban infrastructure can be envisioned as an integrated network of four major infrastructure components, which are the water infrastructure, the energy infrastructure, the transportation infrastructure and the land-use pattern or the urban form. Two of

Arka Pandit; Hyunju Jeong; John C. Crittenden; Ming Xu

2011-01-01

350

Mitigation of Flooding Disruption Attacks in Hierarchical OLSR Networks Gimer Cervera, Michel Barbeau, Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro and Evangelos Kranakis  

E-print Network

Mitigation of Flooding Disruption Attacks in Hierarchical OLSR Networks Gimer Cervera, Michel (MPR) nodes as a flooding mechanism for distributing control information. Unlike OLSR, nodes affect the topol- ogy map acquisition process by interrupting the flooding of control information

Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

351

11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

352

10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ON THE PRESSURE CULVERT, LOOKING NORTH. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

353

Hierarchical Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure a resilient Healthcare Critical Infrastructure, understanding the vulnerabilities and analysing the interdependency on other critical infrastructures is important. To model this critical infrastructure and its dependencies, Hierarchal Coloured petri net modelling approach for simulating the vulnerability of Healthcare Critical infrastructure in a disaster situation is studied.. The model enables to analyse and understand various state changes, which occur when there is a disruption or damage to any of the Critical Infrastructure, and its cascading nature. It also enables to explore optimal paths for evacuation during the disaster. The simulation environment can be used to understand and highlight various vulnerabilities of Healthcare Critical Infrastructure during a flood disaster scenario; minimize consequences; and enable timely, efficient response.

Nivedita, N.; Durbha, S.

2014-11-01

354

The vulnerability of U.S. coastal energy infrastructure under climate change  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure -much of it a result of flooding from storm surges during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, Megan Jeramaz

2012-01-01

355

TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE  

SciTech Connect

This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

2005-12-01

356

A six-year study of insect emergence from temporary flooded wetlands in central Sweden, with and without Bti-based mosquito control.  

PubMed

In temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains, recurrent but irregular floods induce massive hatching of the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, which causes enormous nuisance. Flood-water mosquito control using the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) was commenced in parts of the floodplains during 2002, and here we report the first six years of full-season monitoring of general insect emergence from temporary wetlands with and without treatment. Emergence traps, which were emptied weekly, were used from May to September each year. A total of 137,153 insects of 13 taxonomic orders were collected. Diptera was highly dominating and especially the sub-order Nematocera with 18 families was a very prominent taxon. Bti-treatment effects were analysed by taxonomic order, by sub-order in Diptera and Hemiptera, and by family for Nematocera and Coleoptera for the whole study period. We found no significant negative effects of Bti treatments on the production of insects by taxonomic order, with the exception of Coleoptera in the long term. However, no significant negative effects were found for the Coleoptera families, neither in the short term nor in the long term. There was no significant negative treatment effect on Nematocera production, neither when analyzed for the whole sub-order nor when analyzed by family. However, abundance of Ceratopogonidae was significantly higher in experimental than in reference wetlands. We conclude that Bti-treatment effects on insect production may be minute in comparison to other environmental factors structuring the insect fauna of the temporary wetlands studied. PMID:20504386

Persson Vinnersten, T Z; Lundström, J O; Schäfer, M L; Petersson, E; Landin, J

2010-12-01

357

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of single surfactants on silica and alumina as well as the solution behavior of surfactant mixtures was studied during this quarter. The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-liquid interface was correlated with changes in interfacial behavior such as wettability and zeta potential. Surface tension was used to study interactions between surfactant mixtures in solution. Mixed micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl phenoxy polyethoxylated alcohol was found to be non-ideal. Regular solution theory adequately describes the interactions. The adsorption isotherm of a cationic surfactant, tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), on alumina was determined at two values of pH. Changes in the settling rate of alumina suspensions after TTAC adsorption were also followed to describe the evolution of the adsorbed layer. At high surface coverage it was observed that the alumina surface became hydrophilic suggesting the formation of a TTAC bilayer at the surface. Wettability of silica after adsorption of nonyl phenyl polyethoxylated alcohols (with number of polyethylene oxide groups varying from 10-40) was measured using flotation to determine the orientation of the adsorbed layer. Effect of number of ethylene oxide groups was also determined. The amount of silica floated after the nonionic surfactant adsorption was same irrespective of the ethylene oxide chain length.

Somasundaran, P.

1993-08-31

358

Controlling factors of environmental flooding, soil pH and Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil feeding in citrus: Larval survival and larval growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying influences of soil flooding, pH level and soil-inhabiting Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil larval feeding in citrus were examined in two separate greenhouse studies, rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (RFD) and liming×rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (LRFD). Our objectives were to determine the combined effects of soil flooding and pH level on survival and growth of Diaprepes root weevil larvae to gain insights of insect-environmental relations

Hong Li; Clay W. McCoy; James P. Syvertsen

2007-01-01

359

Flood Inundation Mapper  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

360

Flood of Evidence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is a Why Files report on the increase in "natural" disasters from floods, probably the most destructive type of natural disaster. The article notes that in constant dollars, the cost in 1998 alone exceeded the economic toll of the entire decade of the 1980s. Evidence is cited that inundations reflect human action rather than simply rainfall amounts. The report covers: furious floods (including possible human-induced causes), too many floods (recent flood events), do fewer trees create more floods?, wetlands and floods, and flood prevention: the engineering structure or earthmover approach. Six scientists and researchers were interviewed for this report.

David Tenenbaum

2000-03-16

361

Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park through use of controlled floods in conjunction with typical amounts and grain sizes of sand supplied by the tributaries that enter the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam.

Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

2010-01-01

362

Strategically placing green infrastructure: cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain.  

PubMed

Green infrastructure approaches have attracted increased attention from local governments as a way to lower flood risk and provide an array of other environmental services. The peer-reviewed literature, however, offers few estimates of the economic impacts of such approaches at the watershed scale. We estimate the avoided flood damages and the costs of preventing development of floodplain parcels in the East River Watershed of Wisconsin's Lower Fox River Basin. Results suggest that the costs of preventing conversion of all projected floodplain development would exceed the flood damage mitigation benefits by a substantial margin. However, targeting of investments to high-benefit, low-cost parcels can reverse this equation, generating net benefits. The analysis demonstrates how any flood-prone community can use a geographic-information-based model to estimate the flood damage reduction benefits of green infrastructure, compare them to the costs, and target investments to design cost-effective nonstructural flood damage mitigation policies. PMID:23544743

Kousky, Carolyn; Olmstead, Sheila M; Walls, Margaret A; Macauley, Molly

2013-04-16

363

Uncertainty in surface water flood risk modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two thirds of the flooding that occurred in the UK during summer 2007 was as a result of surface water (otherwise known as ‘pluvial') rather than river or coastal flooding. In response, the Environment Agency and Interim Pitt Reviews have highlighted the need for surface water risk mapping and warning tools to identify, and prepare for, flooding induced by heavy rainfall events. This need is compounded by the likely increase in rainfall intensities due to climate change. The Association of British Insurers has called for the Environment Agency to commission nationwide flood risk maps showing the relative risk of flooding from all sources. At the wider European scale, the recently-published EC Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks will require Member States to evaluate, map and model flood risk from a variety of sources. As such, there is now a clear and immediate requirement for the development of techniques for assessing and managing surface water flood risk across large areas. This paper describes an approach for integrating rainfall, drainage network and high-resolution topographic data using Flowroute™, a high-resolution flood mapping and modelling platform, to produce deterministic surface water flood risk maps. Information is provided from UK case studies to enable assessment and validation of modelled results using historical flood information and insurance claims data. Flowroute was co-developed with flood scientists at Cambridge University specifically to simulate river dynamics and floodplain inundation in complex, congested urban areas in a highly computationally efficient manner. It utilises high-resolution topographic information to route flows around individual buildings so as to enable the prediction of flood depths, extents, durations and velocities. As such, the model forms an ideal platform for the development of surface water flood risk modelling and mapping capabilities. The 2-dimensional component of Flowroute employs uniform flow formulae (Manning's Equation) to direct flow over the model domain, sourcing water from the channel or sea so as to provide a detailed representation of river and coastal flood risk. The initial development step was to include spatially-distributed rainfall as a new source term within the model domain. This required optimisation to improve computational efficiency, given the ubiquity of ‘wet' cells early on in the simulation. Collaboration with UK water companies has provided detailed drainage information, and from this a simplified representation of the drainage system has been included in the model via the inclusion of sinks and sources of water from the drainage network. This approach has clear advantages relative to a fully coupled method both in terms of reduced input data requirements and computational overhead. Further, given the difficulties associated with obtaining drainage information over large areas, tests were conducted to evaluate uncertainties associated with excluding drainage information and the impact that this has upon flood model predictions. This information can be used, for example, to inform insurance underwriting strategies and loss estimation as well as for emergency response and planning purposes. The Flowroute surface-water flood risk platform enables efficient mapping of areas sensitive to flooding from high-intensity rainfall events due to topography and drainage infrastructure. As such, the technology has widespread potential for use as a risk mapping tool by the UK Environment Agency, European Member States, water authorities, local governments and the insurance industry. Keywords: Surface water flooding, Model Uncertainty, Insurance Underwriting, Flood inundation modelling, Risk mapping.

Butler, J. B.; Martin, D. N.; Roberts, E.; Domuah, R.

2009-04-01

364

An alternative mechanism of flood basalt formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

All large continental igneous provinces and most high-temperature magmas (picrites, komatiites) are found on the margins of cratonic lithosphere. The standard plume model of flood basalt formation offers no explanation for this observation. We propose that thick lithosphere (usually Archean) adjacent to thinner lithosphere may control the locations of flood basalt provinces. The boundary between thick and thin lithosphere focuses

Scott D. King; Don L. Anderson

1995-01-01

365

Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

2013-12-01

366

Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: a consensus panel report. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.  

PubMed

In 1997 the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America established a consensus panel to develop recommendations for optimal infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology programs in out-of-hospital settings. The following report represents the Consensus Panel's best assessment of requirements for a healthy and effective out-of-hospital-based infection control and epidemiology program. The recommendations fall into 5 categories: managing critical data and information; developing and recommending policies and procedures; intervening directly to prevent infections; educating and training of health care workers, patients, and nonmedical caregivers; and resources. The Consensus Panel used an evidence-based approach and categorized recommendations according to modifications of the scheme developed by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. PMID:10530650

Friedman, C; Barnette, M; Buck, A S; Ham, R; Harris, J A; Hoffman, P; Johnson, D; Manian, F; Nicolle, L; Pearson, M L; Perl, T M; Solomon, S L

1999-10-01

367

August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

2003-04-01

368

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

2014-09-14

369

78 FR 47330 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket ID FEMA-2013-0002; Internal...FEMA-B-1337] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations...org/ September 9, 2013...Cochise English Chair, Flood Control Docs/13-09-0282P...No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: July 12, 2013. Roy Wright,...

2013-08-05

370

Riverine flood plains: present state and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Natural flood plains are among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems on earth. Globally, riverine flood plains cover ? 2 ? 106 km2, however, they are among the most threatened ecosystems. Floodplain degradation is closely linked to the rapid decline in freshwater biodiversity; the main reasons for the latter being habitat alteration, flow and flood control, species invasion

Klement Tockner; Jack A. Stanford

2002-01-01

371

Flood modelling in complex hydrologic systems with sparsely resolved data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Directive on Assessment and Management of Flood Risks places significant emphasis on establishing tools suitable for simulating the relevant hydrologic processes in areas of high flood risk. Because flood modelling requires relatively detailed spatial and temporal resolutions, the model selection is controlled by the available distributed hydrologic information. The value of data (mainly stage\\/discharge records) is indisputable, since

A. Efstratiadis; K. Mazi; A. D. Koussis; D. Koutsoyiannis

2009-01-01

372

Global Flood risk and Nuclear risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima accident raised considerable concern around the globe on the overall safety of nuclear power plants against natural hazard induced risks. It appeared that natural hazards, and in particular flooding , are a large threat for the safety of global nuclear power plants. Flooding of coastal and fluvial systems are the most significant natural hazards that modern society and is affecting several million people globally each year. The total population and the economic value of material assets located in zones prone to flooding have increased dramatically over the past decades and are expected to increase further due to: (1) an overall growth in economic assets, infrastructure, population and wealth; and (2) increases in sea-level and flood frequency due to climate change. The Fukushima accident has geared an immediate and coordinated response from IAEA and EU member states, who stated that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be re-assessed on their vulnerability to natural hazards such as floods and earthquakes. This 'stress test' was developed in 2012 together with experts from e.g. the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Guidelines for a stress test were developed according to how nuclear installations can withstand the consequences of various extreme external events and to analyze security threats due to e.g. terrorist acts. Since nuclear power-plants are often located near- or in flood zones from rivers, this research assesses whether nuclear facilities will face increased risk from flooding in the future. The research will contribute to stresstesting nuclear facilities in flood zones and describes how global flood risk may increase in the future using a global hydrological model. This information is used to assess the vulnerability of existing and planned nuclear facilities as to whether they (1) are located in flood prone areas (2) are susceptible to an increase in potential flood inundation and (3) are vulnerable to other natural hazards such as earthquake and tsunami. Based on this assessment, a priority ranking can made showing the potentially most vulnerable nuclear power plants to natural hazards, and in particular flood risk.

Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

373

Financing infrastructure projects  

E-print Network

Infrastructure is of great importance to the development and economic growth of communities. Due to the increased demand on sophisticated infrastructure, governments' budgets are not anymore able to satisfy this growing ...

Eid, Serge Emile

2008-01-01

374

Information and Communications Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Information and Communications Infrastructure Confidential Presidential Working Paper August 17, 2007 Copyright © 2007 Virginia Tech #12;PRESIDENTIAL WORKING PAPER: TELECOMMUNICATIONS WORKING GROUP Notification System______________________________________ 14 4.2 Infrastructure Challenges (What Needs Work

Liskiewicz, Maciej

375

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

376

Infrastructure systems, such as buildings, schools, roads, bridges, water lines, sewage systems, communication systems, and power plants, are a fundamental part of daily life. Both rapid and gradual climate changes can affect  

E-print Network

Overview Infrastructure systems, such as buildings, schools, roads, bridges, water lines, sewage events, such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, and tornadoes, can heavily damage infrastructure, creating infrastructure is built in low-lying coastal areas and whether existing infrastructure needs to be relocated

377

Infrastructure systems, such as buildings, schools, roads, bridges, water lines, sewage systems, communication systems, and power plants, are a fundamental part of daily life. Both rapid and gradual climate changes can affect  

E-print Network

OVERVIEW Infrastructure systems, such as buildings, schools, roads, bridges, water lines, sewage events, such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, and tornadoes, can heavily damage infrastructure, creating infrastructure is built in low-lying coastal areas and whether existing infrastructure needs to be relocated

378

Flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in Massachusetts: A case-crossover study.  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Floods and other severe weather events are anticipated to increase as a result of global climate change. Floods can lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases due to disruption of sewage and water infrastructure and impacts on san...

379

Mapping rivers with a potential danger of damage by flash flooding and debris flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landforms associated with past debris flows such as alluvial fans are typical locations for settlements in Norway. Flash floods with associated debris flows in small and steep river catchments cause a great deal of damage to infrastructure and housing located on alluvial fans. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Resources Directorate (NVE) is the national authority responsible for flood and

I. Peereboom; J. Svegården; T. Fergus

2009-01-01

380

Final Report Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Final Report #12;7. Infrastructure "With three campuses in Halifax, one in Truro and one in Saint technology infrastructure and systems at Dalhousie Dalhousie carries out its mission using a diverse set of buildings, property and other infrastructure across five campuses. The university owns and operates three

Brownstone, Rob

381

Effects of seasonal flooding and grazing on the vegetation of former ricefields in the Rhône delta (Southern France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six management regimes were tested during 5 years in 18 abandoned ricefields in the Rh^one delta, France: two artificial floodings for 6 months (winter and summer flooding, 10 cm deep) and a control only flooded by rain, each flooding treatment either with or without grazing by cattle and horses. In the absence of artificial flooding and in presence of grazing by

François Mesléard; Jacques Lepart; Patrick Grillas; André Mauchamp

1999-01-01

382

M. Amin/ Automation, Control, and Complexity: An Integrated Approach, Samad & Weyrauch (Eds.), John Wiley and Sons, pp. 263-286,2000 National Infrastructures as Complex  

E-print Network

and finance · State and local services: Water supply and emergency services. Interactions between networks and interconnectedness of energy, telecommunications, transportation, and financial infrastructures pose new challenges

Amin, S. Massoud

383

The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider reaching Alameda Creek Historical Ecology Study has assessed overall watershed conditions prior to significant Euro-American modification, including historical patterns of sediment transport and storage in the Livermore Valley. These two studies provide context for a focused three-year study to determine the flow of water and sediment into and out of Zone 7 facilities; determine characteristics, rates, and causes of sedimentation; and map and characterize channel modification and mitigation opportunities. The program has begun measuring suspended load and bedload during high flow events at three sites that constrain the management area which will continue into water year 2012, and has begun mapping hillslope sediment processes. Next phases will include an assessment of channel depositional processes and causes and a more detailed evaluation of historical channel function at the reach scale building upon the existing watershed scale knowledge. This study provides further opportunity to integrate historical understanding of watershed functions with current geomorphic research to more effectively inform resource management decisions and can be and has been a model for other watersheds in California and beyond.

Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

2011-12-01

384

Decision-Support Software for Grid Operators: Transmission Topology Control for Infrastructure Resilience to the Integration of Renewable Generation  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: The CRA team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning on and off entire power lines in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.

None

2012-03-16

385

Geomorphically effective floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the hydrology and geomorphology of recent floods from the rapid failure of two small upland dams document the unusually large peak boundary shear stress and peak stream power per unit area for each flood. Downstream consequences to alluvial channels and floodplains, however, were minimal. Lack of geomorphic change is attributed to the short duration of the floods, which lasted about six and sixteen minutes each. Distribution of stream power over hydrographs of eight exceptional floods is constructed from channel geometry, discharge rating curves, and flood hydrographs; the resulting curve is defined as a stream-power graph. A stream-power graph gives a better portrayal of the potential for a flood to be geomorphically effective than simple statements of flow magnitude. From stream-power graphs, total energy expended over a flood hydrograph can be computed. Total flood energy may not be a sensitive measure of geomorphic effectiveness without consideration of channel and floodplain resistance. A conceptual model combining flow duration, peak stream power per unit area, flood energy, and alluvial and bedrock thresholds may represent the effectiveness of floods and can distinguish among such cases as (a) floods of long duration, moderate to large energy expenditure, but low peak stream power per unit area. These floods are ineffective in causing significant landform changes in alluvial or bedrock channels; (b) floods of medium to long duration, with medium to large total energy expenditure, and large peak stream power per unit area. These are believed to be the most effective geomorphic floods in any kind of channel because of the optimal combination of peak flood power, duration, and total energy expenditure; and (c) floods of very short duration, low total energy expenditure, but large peak stream power. These floods are also ineffective agents of geomorphic change in spite of record values of peak stream power per unit area because of their short duration, and resulting low energy expenditures.

Costa, John E.; O'Connor, Jim E.

386

Geomorphological understanding of floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer 1993 flooding of the upper Mississippi River valley reminds us that floods are the most globally pervasive, environmentally diverse and continually destructive of all natural hazards. The fact that flood damages continue to rise raises commonsense questions about conventional flood science. Like much modern environmental science, conventional flood science has followed the model of theoretical physics. It advanced from early emphasis on streamflow measurement to the use of simple formulae, and finally to the abstract theoretical sophistication of modern modeling studies. Two approaches are now used to "predict" flood phenomena: (1) beginning with the conventional database of measured properties of small common floods, a conceptual generalization is made to the idealized properties of the large, rare floods from which society is assumed to be at risk, and (2) explanation of detailed, specific flood phenomena is achieved through theoretical generalization (models) based on "first principles", which are assumed to apply to the entire class of phenomena. Unfortunately, both approaches devote almost all their attention to methodology, increasingly mathematical, without questioning basic underlying assumptions. Increasingly it is the assumptions, often unstated, that serve to embody the understanding of floods as real-world particular phenomena, rather than as conceptual generalities. Such trends lead to an unease that it is not floods that are being researched by much of conventional flood science. Rather, such flood "science" is increasingly becoming the mathematical manipulation of idealized parameters that are assumed to have flood-like properties. These idealizations of flood attributes are generalized, and the resulting predicted consequences are imposed upon society through engineering designs, flood-hazard zonations, and the like. Geomorphological understanding of floods derives a from along geological tradition of studying indices of real processes operating in the past. In contrast to the conceptual, theoretical treatment of floods as classes or generalizations, geomorphologists study particular floods revealed as a natural experience that is recorded in the sediments, landforms, and erosional scars of past floods. The strength of this approach is in its affinity to the commonsense perceptional basis that underpins human action. Geomorphological flood studies, including recent advances in paleoflood hydrology, are needed as a complement to conventional hydrological approaches. The resulting complementarity will allow the predictions of the conventional approach to be grounded in the concrete particulars of experience. Without such grounding, flood science risks continuing as an empty quest for universal ideals while humanity, paralyzed by inaction, continues to suffer from the reality of particular floods.

Baker, Victor R.

1994-08-01

387

FLASH FLOOD PREDICTION IN THE DEAD SEA REGION UTILIZING RADAR RAINFALL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model utilizing radar rainfall data

Efrat Morin

2009-01-01

388

Towards flash-flood prediction in the dry Dead Sea region utilizing radar rainfall information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high-intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model which utilizes radar rainfall data

Efrat Morin; Yael Jacoby; Shilo Navon; Erez Bet-Halachmi

2009-01-01

389

The Ivalo River and its People: There Have Always Been Floods – What Is Different Now?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Ivalo River and its annual variation have always been a part of the everyday life of the nearby town’s inhabitants. This\\u000a case study looks at the history of flooding and closely analyses the latest major flood of 2005. The development of the community,\\u000a with particular respect to increase of infrastructure, has left the community more vulnerable to flooding than

Monica Tennberg; Terhi Vuojala-Magga; Minna Turunen

390

sSCADA: Securing SCADA Infrastructure Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed control systems (DCS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems were developed to reduce labor costs, and to allow system-wide monitoring and remote control from a central location. Control systems are widely used in critical infrastructures such as electric grid, natural gas, water, and wastewater industries. While control systems can be vulnerable to a variety of types of

Yongge Wang; Bei-Tseng Chu

2004-01-01

391

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study  

E-print Network

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study #12;Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Background: · Currently, funding

Minnesota, University of

392

Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (< 1.5-year return periods) that mobilize channel-bed material and less frequent events that determine bankfull channel (1.5- to 3-year return periods) and macrochannel (10- to 40-year return periods) dimensions; (v) macrochannels with high f values (most ? 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize development of alluvial bankfull indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that mixed alluvial–bedrock channels exhibit first-order lithologic controls (lithologic resistance and valley confinement) of channel geometry, second-order hydrologic (flow regime) control of channel dimensions, and third-order sedimentary controls that exert subsidiary influence on channel shape and bed configuration.

Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

2015-01-01

393

FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

394

Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations vegetation such as tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) was damaged, wholesale bed motion necessary to fully clear these surfaces was not evident. In flow recirculation zones, eddy sandbars aggraded one meter or more, increasing the area of bars exposed during typical dam operations. Yet overall, the 2011 flood resulted in a decrease in reach-scale sand storage because bed degradation exceeded bar deposition. The 2011 response is consistent with that of a similar event in 1999, which was followed by sand-bar erosion and sediment accumulation on the bed during subsequent years of normal dam operational flows. Although the 1999 and 2011 floods were exceptional in the post-dam system, they did not exceed the pre-dam 2-year flood, isolating their effects to the modern active channel with minor erosion or reworking of pre-dam deposits stabilized through vegetation encroachment.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

2014-01-01

395

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

396

USGS Measures Flooding Near Bonnet Carre Spillway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists take streamflow and water quality measurements downstream of the Bonnet Carre Spillway near Norco, La. The Army Corps of Engineers uses USGS streamflow data to help them manage flood control structures....

397

Flooding in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

Drew Patrick

398

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

399

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO(2) Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO(2) Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs.  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to improve the efficiency of miscible C0{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This objective was accomplished through experimental and modeling research in three task areas: (1) foams for selective mobility control in heterogeneous reservoirs,( 2) reduction of the amount of C0{sub 2} required in C0{sub 2} floods, and (3) low IFT processe and the possibility of C0{sub 2} flooding in fractured reservoirs. This report provides results from the three-year project for each of the three task areas.

Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

1997-08-01

400

Future trends in flood risk in Indonesia - A probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is one of the 10 most populous countries in the world and is highly vulnerable to (river) flooding. Catastrophic floods occur on a regular basis; total estimated damages were US 0.8 bn in 2010 and US 3 bn in 2013. Large parts of Greater Jakarta, the capital city, are annually subject to flooding. Flood risks (i.e. the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability) are increasing due to rapid increases in exposure, such as strong population growth and ongoing economic development. The increase in risk may also be amplified by increasing flood hazards, such as increasing flood frequency and intensity due to climate change and land subsidence. The implementation of adaptation measures, such as the construction of dykes and strategic urban planning, may counteract these increasing trends. However, despite its importance for adaptation planning, a comprehensive assessment of current and future flood risk in Indonesia is lacking. This contribution addresses this issue and aims to provide insight into how socio-economic trends and climate change projections may shape future flood risks in Indonesia. Flood risk were calculated using an adapted version of the GLOFRIS global flood risk assessment model. Using this approach, we produced probabilistic maps of flood risks (i.e. annual expected damage) at a resolution of 30"x30" (ca. 1km x 1km at the equator). To represent flood exposure, we produced probabilistic projections of urban growth in a Monte-Carlo fashion based on probability density functions of projected population and GDP values for 2030. To represent flood hazard, inundation maps were computed using the hydrological-hydraulic component of GLOFRIS. These maps show flood inundation extent and depth for several return periods and were produced for several combinations of GCMs and future socioeconomic scenarios. Finally, the implementation of different adaptation strategies was incorporated into the model to explore to what extent adaptation may be able to decrease future risks. Preliminary results show that the urban extent in Indonesia is projected to increase within 211 to 351% over the period 2000-2030 (5 and 95 percentile). Mainly driven by this rapid urbanization, potential flood losses in Indonesia increase rapidly and are primarily concentrated on the island of Java. The results reveal the large risk-reducing potential of adaptation measures. Since much of the urban development between 2000 and 2030 takes place in flood-prone areas, strategic urban planning (i.e. building in safe areas) may significantly reduce the urban population and infrastructure exposed to flooding. We conclude that a probabilistic risk approach in future flood risk assessment is vital; the drivers behind risk trends (exposure, hazard, vulnerability) should be understood to develop robust and efficient adaptation pathways.

Muis, Sanne; Guneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

401

Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

2014-12-01

402

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment asks students to do a flood frequency analysis to determine the size and stage of various floods and determine if the town of Crawford, OH is likely to be flooded or not. Outcomes: learn to work with quantitative data, learn to use Excel, be able to use USGS data.

Sheila Roberts

403

Flood Aftermath, Boulder, Colo.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This flooded culvert is located on Monarch Road just east of the Diagonal Highway in Boulder, Colo. Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damaging or destroying several USGS streamgages. In response, USGS field crews measured flood...

404

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level ...

405

SMS flood alert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood disaster is considered a norm for Malaysians since Malaysia is located near the Equator. Flood disaster usually happens due to improper irrigation method in a housing area or the sudden increase of water volume in a river. Flood disaster often causes lost of property, damages and life. Since this disaster is considered dangerous to human life, an efficient countermeasure

Noor Hafizah Abdul Aziz

2011-01-01

406

Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage)

Chrysovalantou Ziogou; Dimitris Ipsakis; Costas Elmasides; Fotis Stergiopoulos; Simira Papadopoulou; Panos Seferlis; Spyros Voutetakis

2011-01-01

407

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

408

Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

2015-01-01

409

Effects of Projected Twenty-First Century Sea Level Rise, Storm Surge, and River Flooding on Water Levels in the Skagit River Floodplain and Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near coastal environments have been identified as some of the most likely to be impacted by climate change. Observed changes in Puget Sound sea level and flood magnitudes are in line with those projected by previous climate change impacts studies. Current understanding of the combined effects of these changes is relatively low and has prompted us to explore the ways in which their co-occurrence will influence near coastal ecosystems and infrastructure. Using numerical simulation models the project examines the projected effects of climate change on water levels and inundation in the lower reaches of the Skagit River in western WA due to the combined effects of changes in storm surge, sea level rise, and riverine flooding. Global climate model simulations from the ECHAM-5 climate model were used as the climate forcings and were 1) statistically downscaled using the hybrid delta method, and 2) dynamically downscaled using the WRF regional climate model. Naturalized flows produced using the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model were used to drive reservoir models that simulate flood control operations and regulated flow during extreme events. Storm surge was calculated using a regression approach that included atmospheric pressure patterns simulated by the WRF model and ENSO. A 2D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit River estuary and floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the daily time step reservoir simulation model and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and storm surge. Combining peak annual storm surge with expected sea level rise, the historic (1970-1999) 100-yr peak tidal anomaly is found to be exceeded every year by the 2020s. By the 2050s, the extrapolated 100-yr riverine flood events are found to increase by 30% and 25% in the Skagit and Nisqually Rivers, respectively. In the Skagit River, the combined effect of sea level rise and larger floods yields increased areal flood inundation up to 80% relative to the present "100-year" flood.

Hamman, J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Grossman, E. E.; Fuller, R.

2012-12-01

410

Inland and coastal flooding: developments in prediction and prevention  

E-print Network

is likely to be exceeded in developed countries by the equally serious natural disaster of heat waves in urban areas, often associated with high levels of air pollution. Both flooding and heat waves to property and infrastructure (Ulbrich et al. 2003). However, the recent heat waves in Europe and the USA had

Hunt, Julian

411

Economic Impacts of the 2008 Floods in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the economic consequences of the 2008 Iowa floods requires careful consideration of what exactly is to be counted as an economic outcome. Property losses and damaged infrastructure mark reductions in overall private and public assets. Ruined or slowed businesses result in constrained productivity. Workers get laid off and household incomes decline. Alternatively, natural disasters require a tremendous amount of

Liesl Eathington; David A. Swenson; Meghan OBrien

2008-01-01

412

Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

2014-12-01

413

Real-time control of urban flooding P. Willems*, T. Barjas Blanco**, P-K. Chiang*, K. Cauwenberghs***, J. Berlamont* and B. De Moor**  

E-print Network

number of recording rain gauges. The InfoWorks-RS model recently was extended with a real-time flood based on the simulation of the historical flood events of 1998 and 2002 that after solving rules by the local water authority. The same conclusions were obtained after simulation of two severe

414

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

415

The Ebola Threat: China's Response to the West African Epidemic and National Development of Prevention and Control Policies and Infrastructure.  

PubMed

There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;0:1-2). PMID:25563862

Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

2015-02-01

416

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

2014-09-14

417

Floods: The Awesome Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâ??re caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

2002-01-01

418

Using the infrastructure of a conditional cash transfer program to deliver a scalable integrated early child development program in Colombia: cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effectiveness of an integrated early child development intervention, combining stimulation and micronutrient supplementation and delivered on a large scale in Colombia, for children’s development, growth, and hemoglobin levels. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial, using a 2×2 factorial design, with municipalities assigned to one of four groups: psychosocial stimulation, micronutrient supplementation, combined intervention, or control. Setting 96 municipalities in Colombia, located across eight of its 32 departments. Participants 1420 children aged 12-24 months and their primary carers. Intervention Psychosocial stimulation (weekly home visits with play demonstrations), micronutrient sprinkles given daily, and both combined. All delivered by female community leaders for 18 months. Main outcome measures Cognitive, receptive and expressive language, and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley scales of infant development-III; height, weight, and hemoglobin levels measured at the baseline and end of intervention. Results Stimulation improved cognitive scores (adjusted for age, sex, testers, and baseline levels of outcomes) by 0.26 of a standard deviation (P=0.002). Stimulation also increased receptive language by 0.22 of a standard deviation (P=0.032). Micronutrient supplementation had no significant effect on any outcome and there was no interaction between the interventions. No intervention affected height, weight, or hemoglobin levels. Conclusions Using the infrastructure of a national welfare program we implemented the integrated early child development intervention on a large scale and showed its potential for improving children’s cognitive development. We found no effect of supplementation on developmental or health outcomes. Moreover, supplementation did not interact with stimulation. The implementation model for delivering stimulation suggests that it may serve as a promising blueprint for future policy on early childhood development. Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN18991160. PMID:25266222

Attanasio, Orazio P; Fernández, Camila; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Meghir, Costas; Rubio-Codina, Marta

2014-01-01

419

Floods of June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During June 19–20, 2012, heavy rainfall, as much as 10 inches locally reported, caused severe flooding across northeastern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions from a relatively rainy spring, with May 2012 as one of the wettest Mays on record in Duluth. The June 19–20, 2012, rainfall event set new records in Duluth, including greatest 2-day precipitation with 7.25 inches of rain. The heavy rains fell on three major watersheds: the Mississippi Headwaters; the St. Croix, which drains to the Mississippi River; and Western Lake Superior, which includes the St. Louis River and other tributaries to Lake Superior. Widespread flash and river flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of residents, and damages to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, nine counties in northeastern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas as a result of the flooding. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 13 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 35 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Flood-peak streamflows in June 2012 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.002 (0.2 percent; recurrence interval greater than 500 years) for five streamgages, and between 0.002 and 0.01 (1 percent; recurrence interval greater than 100 years) for four streamgages. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Barnum (Moose Horn River), Carlton (Otter Creek), Duluth Heights neighborhood of Duluth (Miller Creek), Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth (St. Louis River), Moose Lake (Moose Horn River and Moosehead Lake), and Thomson (Thomson Reservoir outflow near the St. Louis River). Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were produced for these six severely affected communities. The inundation maps were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with high-resolution digital elevation model data. The flood maps and profiles show the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and can be used for flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Kessler, Erich W.

2012-01-01

420

Designing Infrastructures: Dilemmas of Design and the Reliability of Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructures (CIs) are ‘balky systems’ of highly diverse, networked components with such high performance variations among them that there are few modal behaviors that characterize these infrastructures as whole systems. Consequently, they are under-determined with respect to design principles and the control variables available to operators. These features raise significant reliability challenges in the management of CIs. In particular,

Paul R. Schulman; Emery Roe

2007-01-01

421

Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.  

PubMed

Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change. PMID:24067733

Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

2013-01-01

422

Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms  

PubMed Central

There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years. PMID:21845165

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2011-01-01

423

Assessment of vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms.  

PubMed

There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years. PMID:21845165

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2011-07-01

424

Flood risk awareness during the 2011 floods in the central United States: showcasing the importance of hydrologic data and interagency collaboration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods have long had a major impact on society and the environment, evidenced by the more than 1,500 federal disaster declarations since 1952 that were associated with flooding. Calendar year 2011 was an epic year for floods in the United States, from the flooding on the Red River of the North in late spring to the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri River basin floods in the spring and summer to the flooding caused by Hurricane Irene along the eastern seaboard in August. As a society, we continually seek to reduce flood impacts, with these efforts loosely grouped into two categories: mitigation and risk awareness. Mitigation involves such activities as flood assessment, flood control implementation, and regulatory activities such as storm water and floodplain ordinances. Risk awareness ranges from issuance of flood forecasts and warnings to education of lay audiences about the uncertainties inherent in assessing flood probability and risk. This paper concentrates on the issue of flood risk awareness, specifically the importance of hydrologic data and good interagency communication in providing accurate and timely flood forecasts to maximize risk awareness. The 2011 floods in the central United States provide a case study of the importance of hydrologic data and the value of proper, timely, and organized communication and collaboration around the collection and dissemination of that hydrologic data in enhancing the effectiveness of flood forecasting and flood risk awareness.

Holmes, Robert R.; Schwein, Noreen O.; Shadie, Charles E.

2012-01-01

425

CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

426

Benefits of green infrastructure Benefits of green infrastructure  

E-print Network

Benefits of green infrastructure 1 #12;Benefits of green infrastructure 2 #12;Benefits of green infrastructure 3 Benefits of green infrastructure Report to Defra and CLG October 2010 Prepared by Land The report should be cited as: Forest Research (2010). Benefits of green infrastructure. Report to Defra

427

Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 28 Story by Kathy Wythe | pg. 28 A flood warning system resulting from a Texas AgriLife Research water quality monitoring project at Fort Hood is potentially saving lives and property. The Flood Alert System via Telemetry... or FAST uses stream level sensors attached to cell phones to notify Fort Hood Range Control of flooding at six low water crossings. The sensors are part of Blackland Research and Extension Center?s Fort Hood Water Quality Monitoring project, designed...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

428

Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization Appendix A  

E-print Network

Appendix A Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization #12;Appendix A Preliminary Flood Plain ................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Flood Plain Preliminary Characterization Objectives.......................................................................1 2 Flood Plain Preliminary Characterization Activities

429

Lab 12 : Flooding II --Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Lab 12 : Flooding II -- Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction Knowledge of the timing of flooding events is important for a variety of planning purposes. The time between floods Efforts to planning for flooding along a particular stream requires a historical record of how the stream

Chen, Po

430

Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

2012-04-01

431

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions. Lickley* , Ning Lin** and Henry D. Jacoby* Abstract The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging

432

Flood Modeling in Spatial Data and Grid Infrastructures  

E-print Network

Möller ­ Matthew Smith Motivation und Ziele der Arbeit Lösungsansatz (Grid-WPS) Anwendung und Evaluation Operationen zur Geoverarbeitung Konzeption und Implementierung (Grid-WPS) Standard-konforme Geoverarbeitung Geoverarbeitung Job-Abgabe Grid-WPS ­ Interoperabilität �bertragung Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF

Moeller, Ralf

433

The nature of small-scale flooding, muddy floods and retention pond sedimentation in central Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the spatial variation of small-scale flooding and muddy floods in rural areas in a medium sized study area (5516 km 2) and the linkage with controlling factors. A questionnaire set up in central Belgium indicates that 43% of the municipalities have to deal from time to time with muddy floods generated from direct runoff from arable land and 36% with flooding of permanent streams. A strong relation exists between the nature of the problem and the site in relation to topography and landuse. Areas suffering from muddy floods have significantly steeper cultivated slopes compared to areas suffering only from small-scale flooding. The high spatial and temporal frequency of small-scale flooding and muddy floods results in emotional and significant economic damage to private households. As a control measure more than 100 retention ponds have been constructed with 50 more to be built in the near future. The mean cost for the construction of a retention pond amounts to 380,000 EURO. These retention ponds store large quantities of sediment from runoff events and must thus be dredged regularly with costs of the order of 1.5 million EURO yearly. The dredged sediment volumes can be used to assess and predict sediment yield for these drainage basins; values vary between 0.19 and 6 m 3 ha -1 year -1 for basins ranging from 25 to 5000 ha.

Verstraeten, Gert; Poesen, Jean

1999-09-01

434

Industrial location and public infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of public infrastructure on industrial location when increasing returns are present. Trade integration implies that firms tend to locate in countries with better domestic infrastructure. High levels of international infrastructure and strong returns to scale magnify industrial relocation due to differentials in domestic infrastructure or capital endowments. Regional policies which finance domestic infrastructure in a

Philippe Martin; Carol Ann Rogers

1995-01-01

435

CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of critical infrastructures, assessed by the potential consequences of failure or destruction of infrastructures providing essential services to the population. The integration of these two methodologies within a same tool allows the dynamic mapping of human vulnerability according to the characteristics of the flood, and thus produces a precise and reliable evaluation of human risk related to a potential or an ongoing flood. The methodology was successfully applied to two rivers sections exposed to flooding on the suburbs of Quebec City (Canada), which present a diversified land use (industrial areas, residential areas, public facilities, etc.).

Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

2013-12-01

436

Russia's sorry infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of the nuclear submarine Kursk and the fire in Moscow's TV tower are indications of an infrastructure in grievous disrepair. The outlook for Russia's technological infrastructure remains grim, experts insist. Almost 70 percent of the population drinks water unfit by US standards. One-third of waste water is released untreated. Railways, electricity, oil and gas pipelines, roads and bridges

J. Oberg

2000-01-01

437

The RETSINA MAS Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

RETSINA is an implemented Multi-Agent System infrastructure that has been developed for several years and applied in many domains ranging from financial portfolio management to logistic planning. In this paper, we distill from our experience in developing MASs to clearly define a generic MAS infrastructure as the domain independent and reusable substratum that supports the agents' social interactions. In addition,

Katia P. Sycara; Massimo Paolucci; Martin Van Velsen; Joseph A. Giampapa

2003-01-01

438

Infrastructure Survey 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

439

The Ethnography of Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article asks methodological questions about studying infrastructure with some of the tools and perspectives of ethnography. Infrastructure is both relational and ecological—it means different things to different groups and it is part of the balance of action, tools, and the built environment, inseparable from them. It also is frequently mundane to the point of bore - dom, involving things

SUSAN LEIGH STAR

1999-01-01

440

Telemedicine infrastructure development  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there are significant technical and regulatory barriers to developing an adequate infrastructure for telemedicine, even more fundamental organizational and financial infrastructure issues must be addressed if this technology is to realize its potential. The lack of good evaluative data on telemedicine consultations has been a further major stumbling block to its acceptance by both practitioners and policy-makers. This paper

Dena S. Puskin; Jay H. Sanders

1995-01-01

441

Smart Valley Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

Maule, R. William

1994-01-01

442

Location, agglomeration and infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss the relationships between transportation infrastructure, firm location, agglomeration and regional development. We will argue that the spatial transaction costs faced by modern firms have changed over recent decades, and that this has changed the ways in which transportation infrastructure contributes to form location behaviour and regional economic development. Therefore, in order to analyse these issues,

Philip McCann; Daniel Shefer

2003-01-01

443

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier  

E-print Network

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier 4.1. Various floods Usually, various kinds of floods are distinguished based on the origin or on the main processes. Basically, the cause of the flood can be overflow floods are typical of steep beds and / or high intensity rainfalls. In mountain areas, they can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Peter Faust Dam

Greenslade, Diana

445

Adaptive Infrastructures Toward a Secure and  

E-print Network

-- To develop distributed systems of management and control to keep infrastructures robust and operational. #12 Economic load dispatch 10 seconds to 1 hour; ongoing Thermodynamic changes from boiler control action (slow-Healing Grid · What is "self healing"? ­ A system that uses information, sensing, control and communication

Amin, S. Massoud

446

Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel  

E-print Network

recovery of hydrocarbons and premature well or field abandonment. Water production can be more problematic during waterflooding in a highly heterogeneous reservoir with vertical communication between layers leading to unevenness in the flood front, cross...

Okeke, Tobenna

2012-07-16

447

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

448

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

449

Flood Inundation Mapping  

E-print Network

KU GIS Day 2009 November 18, 2009 Wendy L. Pearson NOAA’s National Weather Service Central Region Headquarters Kansas City, Missouri Flood Inundation Mapping “Water Predictions for Life Decisions” Page 2 Flood Inundation Mapping Objectives...: Overview of the technical aspects of the map development process Web demonstration “Water Predictions for Life Decisions”3 NOAA National Weather Service • Flood Mapping depends on partnerships, diligence, dedication, and commitment to ensure...

Pearson, Wendy

2009-11-18

450