Note: This page contains sample records for the topic flood control infrastructure from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

FLOOD! Engineered Flood Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a variety of offerings for a unit on flood engineering controls including background information, outside resources and three learning activities." A number of activities are included which would be useful for environmental engineering students. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

2

FLOOD! Natural Flood Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a set of activities that ask students to investigate the characteristics of drainage basins of rivers in order to understand the relationships between landscape and the movement of water across the landscape surface." Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

3

Impact of flood damaged critical infrastructure on communities and industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the severity of social and economic impact of floods on the communities and industries with respect to their reliance on the flood impacted critical infrastructure. This paper illustrates a severity assessment tool to determine the reduced serviceability level of critical infrastructure after a disaster, how the change in serviceability impacts

Abhijeet Deshmukh; Eun Ho Oh; Makarand Hastak

2011-01-01

4

Modeling of Flood-Related Interdependencies among Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an integrated approach for modeling the flood-related interdependencies among critical infrastructures\\u000a and their vulnerabilities. The developed method is based on the development of a Petri-Net model and fragility curves analysis.\\u000a Specifically, infrastructure interdependency is simulated using Petri Nets, and consequences to infrastructures following\\u000a a flood are quantified through developing fragility curves. Both empirical and analytical fragility curves

Sharmin Sultana; Zhi Chen

5

Modeling flood induced interdependencies among hydroelectricity generating infrastructures.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural-hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management. PMID:19570603

Sultana, S; Chen, Z

2009-06-30

6

A Spatial Data Infrastructure for Landslides and Floods in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Geo-Hydrologic Hazard Assessment (IRPI), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), is part of the GIIDA project. GIIDA, an Italian acronym for Integrated and Interoperable Management of Environmental Data, aims at establishing a multi-disciplinary e-infrastructure for the efficient management, processing, and dissemination of Earth and Environmental information resources, including data, services, models, and sensors. GIIDA is compliant to the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) Directive 2007/2/EC promoted by the European Parliament in 2007. For the GIIDA project, IRPI coordinates the thematic area on natural and man-made hazards and risk, focusing on the dissemination of spatial information on landslides and floods in Italy, including catalogues of historical landslide and flood events, inventory maps, landslide hazard zonations, and risk maps. For the purpose, a specific (dedicated) Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) was implemented, using chiefly open source (OS) software, which favors interoperability and adoption to international standards. In the SDI, multiple services have been implemented, including: (i) Web Mapping Services (WMS) for the visualization of geographical data as images, (ii) Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Coverage Services (WCS) for the delivery of geographical information in vector (feature) and raster (coverage) format, and (iii) Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW) for the design and the implementation of digital catalogues of metadata for the published geospatial data and services. Prototypes of Web Processing Processes (WPS) were experimented using pyWPS (http://pywps.wald.intevation.org), a Python implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium WPS standard. In addition, dedicated Web-GIS applications were designed and implemented to allow user-friendly visualization of the geographical information. In our presentation, we describe the SDI infrastructure and the different types of implemented services; and we discuss the problems encountered and the solutions adopted to overcome the problems.

Marchesini, Ivan; Tonelli, Gabriele; Balducci, Vinicio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

2010-05-01

7

STUDY ON PERMANENT FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES INCLUDING THOSE FOR FLOODPLAINS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood control administration is facing the turning point of policy. The new directions are the following: 1)a shift towards policies that "reduce dependency on dams," 2)addressing issues associated with climate change, including excess flooding from localized torrential downpours, 3)proper maintenance, intensive use and improvement of existing infrastructure, 4)advanced flood control using advanced technologies from various fields, and 5)alteration of zoning toward creating a region that permits flooding in cooperation with the administration in charge of land use. In this study, I comprehensively analyze the history of flood control administration in Japan toward proposing permanent flood control measures, including those that provide for altering the land use of floodplains. The study aims to support the development of flood control principles for next-generation.

Seiji, Masato

8

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

Pollard, Bruce D.

1983-01-01

9

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

2008-12-01

10

Comprehensive Framework Study. California Region. Appendix IX. Flood Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Flood Control Subcommittee finds that serious flood problems exist in the California Region. Although the existing flood control measures have been very effective in their respective areas, damages from flooding continue to increase. Except for the in...

1971-01-01

11

How do local stakeholders respond to the uncertain implications of an innovative flood infrastructure project?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 20th century, flood management was dominated by rigid structures - such as dikes and dams - which intend to strictly regulate and control water systems. Although the application of these rigid structures has been successful in the recent past, their negative implications for ecosystems and natural processes is often not properly taken into account. Therefore, flood management practices are currently moving towards more nature-inclusive approaches. Building with Nature (BwN) is such a new approach of nature-inclusive flood management in the Netherlands, which aims to utilize natural dynamics (e.g., wind and currents) and natural materials (e.g., sediment and vegetation) for the realization of effective flood infrastructure, while providing opportunities for nature development. However, the natural dynamics driving a project based on BwN design principles are inherently unpredictable. Furthermore, our factual knowledge base regarding the socio-ecological system in which the BwN initiative is implemented is incomplete. Moreover, in recent years, it is increasingly aimed for by decision-makers to involve local stakeholders in the development of promising flood management initiatives. These stakeholders and other actors involved can have diverging views regarding the project, can perceive unanticipated implications and could choose unforeseen action paths. In short, while a project based on BwN design principles - like any human intervention - definitely has implications for the socio-ecological system, both the extent to which these particular implications will occur and the response of stakeholders are highly uncertain. In this paper, we study the Safety Buffer Oyster Dam case - a BwN pilot project - and address the interplay between the project's implications, the uncertainties regarding these implications and the action paths chosen by the local stakeholders and project team. We determine how the implications of the Safety Buffer project are viewed by local stakeholders, identify the frames and uncertainties related to these implications, and classify these uncertainties according to their nature and level. We describe which action paths are chosen by the local stakeholders and project team regarding the implications identified. Our research shows that there is a correspondence between the level of uncertainty about the implications identified and the action paths chosen by the actors involved. This suggests that the inherent deep uncertainty in projects based on BwN principles calls for more adaptable and flexible strategies to cope with the implications of these initiatives.

van den Hoek, Ronald; Brugnach, Marcela; Hoekstra, Arjen

2013-04-01

12

Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

1982-09-01

13

Planning Flood Control Measures by Digital Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to develop adequate guidelines whereby those interested in flood control planning would be able to apply a pair of digital computer programs known as the University of Kentucky Flood Control Planning Programs to ease the compu...

J. N. Cline

1968-01-01

14

Vulnerability Assessment for Critical Infrastructure Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing security in critical control systems is a particular task that can have dangerous real-world consequences if done poorly or according to more traditional security assessments. In 2006, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation adopted the Critical Infrastructure Protection standards for cyber vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure control systems. Such CIP assessments entail challenges at each stage, from planning and

Raymond C. Parks; Edmond Rogers

2008-01-01

15

Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment

Gary B. Griggs; Lance Paris

1982-01-01

16

A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

Eleutério, J.; Hattemer, C.; Rozan, A.

2013-04-01

17

Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

18

Flood Control Plans, Wallkill River, New York (Black Dirt Area).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposed flood control in the Black Dirt Area of the Wallkill River to reduce flood damages to farming. Environmental impacts include: Reduction of flood damages, resulting in enhancement of the economy of the region; modifications to streams,...

1973-01-01

19

Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

20

Planning flood control projects in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning and design of flood control projects invariably involves a consideration of sociological, economic, political and ecological factors in order to derive maximum benefits from the project. In urbanizing areas, this is often a rule rather than an exception where a project tends to have a variety of interrelated impacts on the environment. This paper presents the details of the

Nageshwar Rao Bhaskar; Vijay P. Singh

1988-01-01

21

Intelligence in Transportation Infrastructures via Model-Based Predictive Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we discuss similarities and differences between transportation infrastructures like power, road traffic, and\\u000a water infrastructures, and present such infrastructures in a generic framework. We discuss from a generic point of view what\\u000a type of control structures can be used to control such generic infrastructures, and explain what in particular makes intelligent infrastructures intelligent. We hereby especially focus

R. R. Negenborn; H. Hellendoorn

22

The Urban Drainage Network and its Control on Flood Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic and hydraulic processes that control urban flooding are examined through analyses of flood response in the Baltimore Metropolitan area. These analyses focus on warm season thunderstorm systems and their impact on Dead Run, a 14.3 km2 tributary of the Gwynns Falls watershed, which is the principal study region of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Field observations of rainfall from a network of 18 rain gage stations and discharge from a network of 6 stream gaging stations have been collected during "warm season" observing periods in 2003, 2004, and 2005. Field observations are used in conjunction with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to examine the spatially and temporally varying hydrological response of Dead Run. Model implementation incorporates a complete representation of the storm drain network (digitized from engineering drawings) and the network of stormwater detention basins. Analyses highlight the role of differences in density and distribution of impervious surfaces and in the urban drainage infrastructure (the storm pipe network and stormwater management facilities) for spatial heterogeneities of flood response.

Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.

2006-05-01

23

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information. Flash Flood Watch - Flash flooding is ... listen to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information. Flood Warning - Flooding is occurring or ...

24

The dilemma of flood control in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of increasing annual expenditures for flood control, losses from flooding continue to rise in the United States. This seeming contradiction arises from overdependence on federally supported structural solutions to flood problems. Nonstructural controls are initiated reluctantly at local levels of government because of constitutional questions, restrictions of local tax bases, lack of federal subsidies for nonstructural solutions, and

John E. Costa

1978-01-01

25

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2013-07-01

26

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2013-07-01

27

Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be executed by different resources of the Grid system. The resulting geospatial services are available in various OGC standards such as KML and WMS. Currently, the Grid infrastructure integrates the resources of several geographically distributed organizations, in particular: Space Research Institute NASU-NSAU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 (htpp://www.globus.org) and gLite 3 (http://glite.web.cern.ch) middleware, access to geospatial data and a Grid portal; Institute of Cybernetics of NASU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes (SCIT-1/2/3 clusters) based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to computational resources (approximately 500 processors); Center of Earth Observation and Digital Earth Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE-CAS, China) with deployed computational nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to geospatial data (approximately 16 processors). We are currently adding new geospatial services based on optical satellite data, namely MODIS. This work is carried out jointly with the CEODE-CAS. Using workflow patterns that were developed for SAR data processing we are building new workflows for optical data processing.

Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

2010-05-01

28

Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the U.S. critical infrastructure is potentially vulnerable to cyber-attack. Industrial control computer systems involved in this infrastructure are specific points of vulnerability, as cyber-security for these systems has not been previously perce...

D. A. Shea

2003-01-01

29

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203...restoration of flood control works damaged by floods or coastal storms. (b) Policy. (1) The option of implementing...

2013-07-01

30

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

2008-01-01

31

Vehicle control system for automatic valet parking with infrastructure sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents vehicle control system for automatic valet parking with infrastructure sensors. First, we describe the automatic valet parking service system. In the service, vehicle moves autonomously based on sensing data generated by infrastructure sensors. Second, we implement vehicle control system for automatic valet parking. We design hardware and software components focusing on minimizing the add-on devices and maximizing

Kyungbok Sung; Jungdan Choi; Dongyong Kwak

2011-01-01

32

Flood Control Root River Basin, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action of the Root River basin consists of 3.1 miles of levees and 0.2 miles of road raises at Houston and encouragement of floodplain regulation and flood insurance at other flood-prone communities. The construction of the levee would result...

1977-01-01

33

Climate and Soil Controls on Flood Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flood frequency estimation in ungauged basins is an important field that requires the development of innovative statistical tools aimed to improve the available techniques for risk assessment. This research is aimed to better understand and classify the hydrological processes underlying the flood generation exploiting the theoretical model of Iacobellis and Fiorentino (8). The present paper is oriented to investigate

ANDREA GIOIA; VITO IACOBELLIS; SALVATORE MANFREDA; MAURO FIORENTINO

2007-01-01

34

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

2013-07-01

35

33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section 203...Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to...

2013-07-01

36

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

2013-07-01

37

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2013-07-01

38

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section 239.7...Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely...considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control....

2010-07-01

39

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section 239.7...Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely...considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control....

2009-07-01

40

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood site is an experiment with a stream table to see what happens during a flood. It was originally a joint project between a 6th grade class and the Bureau of Economic Geography. There are explanations and photographs of the experimental set up and of students and their observation of rivers forming and the creation of a flood. There is also a worksheet for experimental notes and a sheet containing the experimental method and instructions.

41

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a)...

2013-07-01

42

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.44 Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works....

2013-07-01

43

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.48 Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control...

2013-07-01

44

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.45 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works....

2013-07-01

45

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.42 Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a)...

2013-07-01

46

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.47 Modifications to non-Federal flood control...

2013-07-01

47

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authority contained in section 7 of the Flood Control Act of December 1944...the provisions of section 3, Flood Control Act of 1936, as amended...as an integral part of a plan for preventing flood damage. [40 FR 51134,...

2010-07-01

48

33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authority contained in section 7 of the Flood Control Act of December 1944...the provisions of section 3, Flood Control Act of 1936, as amended...as an integral part of a plan for preventing flood damage. [40 FR 51134,...

2009-07-01

49

CP corrosion control of municipal infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Since its introduction in 1824, cathodic protection (CP) technology has developed to become a fundamental tool for preventing corrosion on municipal infrastructure. Potable water storage tanks and piping, prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete structures, bridges, parking structures, underground fuel tanks, and effluent treatment clarifiers now benefit from this technology.

Gummow, R.A.

2000-02-01

50

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

2012-05-01

51

Flooding and Flood Management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

Brooks, K. N.; Fallon, J. D.; Lorenz, D. L.; Stark, J. R.; Menard, Jason

2011-01-01

52

Assessment of Urban Basins Flood Control Measures Using Hydrogis Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of constructing feasible detention dams in urban basins, immediately upstream an urban area, were studied. Comparisons were made between this practice and conventional localized river engineering countermeasures regarding socio-economic aspects. For assesment of the effects of detentions dams, 3 scenarios were tested. To evaluate the scenarios, ARCVIEW GIS with GEO-HMS extension, linked with HEC-HMS as mathematical model were used. The study was conducted in an urban basin in south of IRAN. Upon determination of design flood, the effects of flood magnitude on conveyance canal dimensions, with and without detention dams, were compared. Total costs of both flood control alternatives were estimated and compared. Results showed that incorporation of detention dams in urban basins for flood control purposes was superior to conventional localized Urbam Basin, localized river engineering.

Shokoohi, Ali Reza

53

Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.  

PubMed

The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders. PMID:23295568

Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

2012-12-21

54

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

55

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. (a) Intent. The intent of...

2009-07-01

56

A control system testbed to validate critical infrastructure protection concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Mississippi State University SCADA Security Laboratory and Power and Energy Research laboratory. This laboratory combines model control systems from multiple critical infrastructure industries to create a testbed with functional physical processes controlled by commercial hardware and software over common industrial control system routable and non-routable networks. Laboratory exercises, functional demonstrations, and lecture material from the testbed

Thomas Morris; Anurag Srivastava; Bradley Reaves; Wei Gao; Kalyan Pavurapu; Ram Reddi

2011-01-01

57

Response of benthos and organic drift to a controlled flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controlled flood in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, provided valuable information on short-term responses for both the riverine system and the biotic community, but the long-term effects of the flood on the aquatic food base were more difficult to assess. The 1274 m3/s discharge flushed the silt/clay fraction from the channel bottom throughout the river corridor. There were no significant differences in dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH before and after the flood compared to during the flood. However, water clarity was dramatically reduced during the first 2 days of the flood event, but cleared after 7 days. Over 90% of the phytobenthos and ?50% of the benthic invertebrates were scoured from the Lees Ferry reach, with biota associated with unstable fine sediment most vulnerable. Most of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) that passed through the river corridor was entrained in the initial hydrostatic wave; values for DOC and POC were significantly lower throughout the remainder of the flood. Stable isotope analyses indicated that riparian and upland vegetation made up most of the stream drift during the experimental flood, whereas phytobenthos was the dominant drift constituent during normal dam operations. Recovery rates to preflood levels were fast for phytobenthos (1 mon) and invertebrates (2 mon). We propose that the rapid recover rates and current high standing stock of aquatic benthos in the river corridor is more a function of higher water clarity, due to higher relatively constant dam releases, rather than solely related to the controlled flood. Our data indicate that consistent high discharges (?400 m3/s) from Glen Canyon Dam mitigate the influence of suspended sediments delivered from tributaries on water clarity. Therefore, optimum conditions for management of the present exotic food base below Glen Canyon Dam may be achieved by steady discharges (˜450 m3/s) with minimal fluctuation cycles (˜50 m3/s).

Blinn, Dean W.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Wilson, Kevin P.; O'Brien, Chris; Benenati, Peggy L.

58

Qualitative performance control in supervised IT infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performability control of IT systems still lacks theoretically well-founded approaches that fit well to enterprise system management solutions. We propose a methodology for designing compact qualitative, state-based predictive performability control that use instrumentation provided by typical system monitoring frameworks. We identify the main systemic insufficiencies of current monitoring tools that hinder designing trustworthy fine-granular controls.

Gergely János Paljak; Zoltán Égel; Dániel Tóth; Imre Kocsis; Tamás Kovácsházy; András Pataricza

2010-01-01

59

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the discoveryschool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on how flooding can occur due to different types of soil and how soils are able to retain rainwater. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

60

Pan-European flood frequency distributions and hydrological controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of an adequate frequency distribution is a crucial step in flood regionalisation studies. In some cases it is even based on traditional practice or familiarity to some kind of function and not on the comparison of the statistical properties of the theoretical curve and the flood peaks sample. This study reports the analysis of a new database of higher order L moment ratios from more than 4000 individual annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flow, compiled by joining national datasets among 15 European countries. The position of this dataset on an L-moment-ratio diagram together with other recommended flood frequency distributions is discussed, resulting the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution the closest one to the sample Weighted Moving Average (WMA). This suggested its potential use as a pan-European flood frequency distribution. However, a more detailed investigation of a subset of the database (Austria, Italy and Slovakia) with catchment area and mean annual precipitation (MAP) as hydrologic controls was conducted through a novel representation on L-moment-ratio diagrams. This investigation confirmed the usefulness of the GEV distribution, but also showed that for dry (low MAP) medium sized catchments, the three parameter log normal (LN3) distribution is a more appropriate choice. Two parameter distributions were found not to provide a representation of the dataset as good as the three parameter ones. In this study, lower L-Cv and L-Cs for bigger catchments was found due to the smoothing effect of non-linearities in flood generation with increasing catchment area. Also, for drier catchments (lower MAP), bigger L-Cv and L-Cs was reported due to the higher variability of annual flood peaks in more arid regions; both of these results are coherent with previous data-based studies on a country scale, which extracted similar relationships of catchment size and precipitation with product moments.

Salinas, Jose Luis; Castellarin, Attilio; Kohnová, Silvia; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.

2013-04-01

61

Monitoring, control and diagnostics using RFID infrastructure.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the developed application for disinfection control by the sensing of chemical agents. The objective was to develop an Automatic Disinfectant Tracker (ADT) that would verify the disinfection of the hands of nurses, doctors, staff, patients, and visitors in hospitals within a required time frame. We have successfully investigated the development of hand disinfection control mechanisms and demonstrated two approaches, both based on the wireless Ultra-High-Frequency-based Radio-Frequency Identification (UHF-RFID) technology. The 100 % efficacy of detecting propanol and ethanol concentration was achieved by using the static disinfectant control (SDC-ADT) method. The time domain response provides an accurate determination of their performance in practice simply by measuring the applied disinfectant concentration and the duration of application. The present paper resulted from the measurements of a capacitive chemical sensor fabricated in the Laboratory for Microelectronics, (LMFE) and on measurements, based on a commercially available resistive type of sensor. A graphic user interface (IDS-GUI) is designed to successfully set the logger parameters and display the results. PMID:22438102

Pleteršek, Anton; Sok, Miha; Trontelj, Janez

2012-03-22

62

Saylorville Lake Flood Control Project, Des Moines River, Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement proposes to continue construction of Saylorville Lake multi-purpose project for flood control, low-flow augmentation, fish and wildlife management, and recreation. The damsite is located on the Des Moines River in Polk County, Iowa, about 5 ...

1973-01-01

63

Overview of property, looking north from flood control levee at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of property, looking north from flood control levee at Summit Avenue and interstate 15. Note Bullock House (feature 11) in middle distance. (Panoramic view 1 of 4, from north to west). - Sainsevain Property, 14804 Summit Avenue, Fontana, San Bernardino County, CA

64

Criteria for Evaluation of Urban Drainage and Flood Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of urban drainage and flood control (UDFC) projects is a familiar problem to engineers in the public sector. Benefits for UDFC projects can best be understood by breaking UDFC systems into major and minor sub-systems and thereafter consider...

N. S. Grigg

1974-01-01

65

BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA  

EPA Science Inventory

In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

66

18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

2013-04-01

67

Derby Dam Concept Report for Truckee Canal Fish Screen Fishway Auxiliary Gated Flood Control Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides concept levels designs for constructing a fish passage structure, fish screen structure and a gated flood control structure to improve the capability of the facility to pass flood flows and large debris.

B. Mefford A. Glickman J. Baysinger S. Willcut

2001-01-01

68

Methodology for Evaluation of Feasibility: Multijurisdictional Urban Drainage and Flood Control Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology enabling engineers to evaluate the feasibility of urban drainage and flood control (UDFC) projects is reported. Currently, interest is increasing in nonstructural solutions to flooding. In addition to providing better land use plans and floo...

1977-01-01

69

Assessment of the Vulnerabilities of SCADA, Control Systems and Critical Infrastructure Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A damage or breakage of Critical Infrastructure or CI will have a huge effect on humanity and economy. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) play a big role on Critical Infrastructure since most of these infrastructures are controlled by control systems like SCADA. In this paper, we assess vulnerabilities of a SCADA system, its effect to the society and

Rosslin John Robles; Min-kyu Choi

70

Integrating industrial control systems into the control environment of the technical infrastructure at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

At CERN, more and more of the technical infrastructure is controlled by industrial systems, using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) supplied by different manufacturers. The systems are also increasingly being installed and configured by our industrial partners. These diverse systems need to be integrated into the existing control environmen t, which itself is part of the accelerator control system, so th

P. Sollander; D. Blanc; A. Swift

1995-01-01

71

Ex-post evaluation analysis of flood control engineering system based on grey relation projection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For those modern construction projects in the large-scale flood control engineering system built with great investment, they are of great importance. In the evaluation of these projects, many of their effects are concerned. To study the EX-Post Evaluation Analysis (PEA) of Flood Control Engineering System (FCES) from the viewpoint of sustainable development is an urgent need for water resource conservancy.

Yi Xiao; Dongguo Shao; Yunqing Wu

2007-01-01

72

Software Environment for Simulation of Flood Control in Multiple-reservoir Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an open architecture software package FC-MWS (Flood Control - Multireservoir Water System). This software tool provides framework, which allows to perform simulation of the operational control of multiple water storage reservoirs during flood. In general, it can be used to perform experiments for various water systems with reservoirs located serially or in parallel. The program is addressed

Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz

73

Increase of the reliability and cost effectiveness of the Leningrad flood control gates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of competing designs of rolling gates and floating radial gates for the Leningrad flood control system and describes from a hydraulic engineering standpoint those aspects of the gate designs which led to the conclusion that they did not have sufficient reliability for the loads encountered under flood conditions. Specific design revisions which take into account not only the flood loads but also the navigation and dock parts of the structures were investigated and recommended.

Khlopenkov, P.R.

1988-06-01

74

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

75

Assessing and affording the control of flood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood is a most serious hazard to life and property. Dams, dikes and levees are often designed to a fuzzy quantity (PMF). Probabilistic design is preferable but requires that hydrological data be translated into a local monoscopic flood probability distribution. This process introduces information that goes beyond the facts. The method of relative entropy with quantile constraints minimizes this information

Niels Lind; Mahesh Pandey; Jatin Nathwani

2009-01-01

76

Possibility of positioning dams to control flooding in Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of flooding is worldwide to many countries of which, the island of Trinidad and Tobago is no exception. The government of the country has been spending a large amount of its resources to address the flooding problem of which there have been no satisfactory solutions. In this article is presented an investigated approach to determine if the ArcHydro

Steve Ramroop

77

STUDY ON THE FLOOD CONTROL ABILITY OF A DRY DAM USED AS A FLOOD RETARDING BASIN IN A RIVER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest to construct small scale dry dams in a river instead of a large scale dam in order to prevent a flood disaster and preserve a natural environment. In recent years, a flood control dam without a slide gate in spillway, known as a ’dry dam’, has been reviewed, planned and built in some sites. In this study, the effects of some slide gates in a bottom spillway which can be opened and closed automatically depending on hydraulic pressure called ’pressure gate’ for a dry dam are examined. In addition, width of a crest spillway gate is discussed to reduce rapid increase of flow discharge in the situation of overflowing. It is demonstrated that a dry dam has an additional ability to reduce damage from a flood surge. Small scale dry dams must be regarded as a flood retarding basin fitting to a natural environment. Therefore, construction of small scale dry dams is one of the powerful options to adapt a natural environment and global warming.

Oshikawa, Hideo; Imamura, Tomohiko; Komatsu, Toshimitsu

78

Infrastructure for numeric precision control in the ptolemy environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abstract algorithm specification with idealizedarithmetic must be made concrete with realisticarithmetic in the final phase of the "algorithm-toimplementation" design process in order to assess powerconsumption, hardware cost, and execution speed. In thispaper, an infrastructure for refining an idealized modelto get an architecture-dependent specification with finiteprecision is introduced. This infrastructure is built on topof the Ptolemy environment.I. IntroductionDataflow is a

Seehyun Kim; Edward A. Lee

1999-01-01

79

Identifying Effects of Forecast Uncertainty on Flood Control Decision - A Hydro-economic Hedging Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different from conventional studies developing reservoir operation models and treating forecast as input to obtain operation decisions case by case, this study issues a hydro-economic analysis framework and derives some general relationships between optimal flood control decision and streamflow forecast. By analogy with the hedging rule theory for water supply, we formulate reservoir flood control with a two-stage optimization model, in which the properties of flood damage (i.e., diminishing marginal damage) and the characteristics of forecast uncertainty (i.e., the longer the forecast horizon, the larger the forecast uncertainty) are incorporated to minimize flood risk. We define flood conveying capacity surplus (FCCS) variables to elaborate the trade-offs between the release of current stage (i.e., stage 1) and in the release of future stage (i.e., stage 2). Using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, the flood risk trade-off between the two stages is theoretically represented and illustrated by three typical situations depending on forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude. The analytical results also show some complicated effects of forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude on real-time flood control decision: 1) When there is a big flood with a small FCCS, the whole FCCS should be allocated to the current stage to hedge against the more certain and urgent flood risk in the current stage; 2) when there is a medium flood with a moderate FCCS, some FCCS should be allocated to the future stage but more FCCS still should be allocated to the current stage; and 3) when there is a small flood with a large FCCS, more FCCS should be allocated to the future stage than the current stage, as a large FCCS in the future stage can still induce some flood risk (distribution of future stage forecast uncertainty is more disperse) while a moderate FCCS in the current stage can induce a small risk. Moreover, this study also presents a hypothetical case study to analyze the flood risk under Pseudo probabilistic streamflow forecast (pPSF, deterministic forecast with variance) and Real probabilistic streamflow forecast (rPSF, ensemble forecast) forecast uncertainties, which shows ensemble forecast techniques are more efficient on mitigating flood risk.

Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

2011-12-01

80

Rapid Economic Assessment of Flood-control Failure along the Rio Grande: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent flood events along the international border between the USA and Mexico resulted in significant economic damage and loss of human life. The International Boundary and Water Commission, the agency responsible for monitoring US–Mexican flood control levees, had requested funding for maintenance and improvement of these levees. However, the Office of Management and Budget requires agencies to provide benefits or

Zhuping Sheng; Allen Sturdivant; Ari Michelsen; Ron Lacewell

2005-01-01

81

Bristol Floods 1968. Controlled Survey of Effects on Health of Local Community Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the health of people in Bristol flooded in July 1968 was made by means of a controlled survey and a study of mortality rates. There was a 50% increase in the number of deaths among those whose homes had been flooded, with a conspicuous rise in deaths from cancer.Surgery attendances rose by 53%, referrals to hospital and

Glin Bennet

1970-01-01

82

Climate change adaptation for corrosion control of concrete infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The durability of concrete is determined largely by its deterioration over time which is affected by the environment. Climate change may alter this environment, especially in the longer term, causing an acceleration of reinforcement corrosion that will affect the safety and serviceability of concrete infrastructure in Australia, US, Europe, China and elsewhere. This paper reviews advanced simulation procedures to predict

Mark G. Stewart; Xiaoming Wang; Minh N. Nguyen

83

Evaluating Green/Gray Infrastructure for CSO/Stormwater Control  

EPA Science Inventory

The NRMRL is conducting this project to evaluate the water quality and quantity benefits of a large-scale application of green infrastructure (low-impact development/best management practices) retrofits in an entire subcatchment. It will document ORD's effort to demonstrate the e...

84

Report on the Archaeological Survey of the Rochester-Zumbro River Flood Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report of an archaeological testing and survey project covering the proposed flood control construction in and around the city of Rochester Minnesota. It is preliminary in nature, involving surface reconnaissance and testing to be followed by mo...

R. A. Strachan

1975-01-01

85

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton in a Flood Control Reservoir and Tailwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zooplankton, when available, may be an important food source for fish fry in lotic habitats. The effects of flood control reservior operation on the downstream transport of reservior zooplankton (both microcrustaceans and rotifers) were quantified by exam...

J. R. Novotny R. D. Hoyt

1983-01-01

86

Ex Post Evaluation of Flood Control Investments: a Case Study in North Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ex post estimates of a flood control project in North Dakota are compared with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ex ante estimates. Ninety-two percent of the ex ante benefits were suppose to come from water supply and 8% from flood control. Ex post estimates found zero water supply benefits and flood control 37 times higher than ex ante estimates. These added flood control benefits were enough to make up for all the lost water supply benefits. Still the ex post analysis shows that the ex ante estimates were based on inadequate information and did not include commerical fishing and recreation benefits which accounted for 28% of the ex post benefits.

Palanisami, K.; Easter, K. William

1984-12-01

87

Risk-based methodology for parameter calibration of a reservoir flood control model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash floods are of major relevance in natural disaster management in the Mediterranean region. In many cases, the damaging effects of flash floods can be mitigated by adequate management of flood control reservoirs. This requires the development of suitable models for optimal operation of reservoirs. A probabilistic methodology for calibrating the parameters of a reservoir flood control model (RFCM) that takes into account the stochastic variability of flood events is presented. This study addresses the crucial problem of operating reservoirs during flood events, considering downstream river damages and dam failure risk as conflicting operation criteria. These two criteria are aggregated into a single objective of total expected damages from both the maximum released flows and stored volumes (overall risk index). For each selected parameter set the RFCM is run under a wide range of hydrologic loads (determined through Monte Carlo simulation). The optimal parameter set is obtained through the overall risk index (balanced solution) and then compared with other solutions of the Pareto front. The proposed methodology is implemented at three different reservoirs in the southeast of Spain. The results obtained show that the balanced solution offers a good compromise between the two main objectives of reservoir flood control management.

Bianucci, P.; Sordo-Ward, A.; Pérez, J. I.; García-Palacios, J.; Mediero, L.; Garrote, L.

2013-04-01

88

Newton's Apple: Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

89

Daily Time Step Refinement of Optimized Flood Control Rule Curves for a Global Warming Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific Northwest temperatures have warmed by 0.8 °C since 1920 and are predicted to further increase in the 21st century. Simulated streamflow timing shifts associated with climate change have been found in past research to degrade water resources system performance in the Columbia River Basin when using existing system operating policies. To adapt to these hydrologic changes, optimized flood control operating rule curves were developed in a previous study using a hybrid optimization-simulation approach which rebalanced flood control and reservoir refill at a monthly time step. For the climate change scenario, use of the optimized flood control curves restored reservoir refill capability without increasing flood risk. Here we extend the earlier studies using a detailed daily time step simulation model applied over a somewhat smaller portion of the domain (encompassing Libby, Duncan, and Corra Linn dams, and Kootenai Lake) to evaluate and refine the optimized flood control curves derived from monthly time step analysis. Moving from a monthly to daily analysis, we found that the timing of flood control evacuation needed adjustment to avoid unintended outcomes affecting Kootenai Lake. We refined the flood rule curves derived from monthly analysis by creating a more gradual evacuation schedule, but kept the timing and magnitude of maximum evacuation the same as in the monthly analysis. After these refinements, the performance at monthly time scales reported in our previous study proved robust at daily time scales. Due to a decrease in July storage deficits, additional benefits such as more revenue from hydropower generation and more July and August outflow for fish augmentation were observed when the optimized flood control curves were used for the climate change scenario.

Lee, S.; Fitzgerald, C.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.

2009-12-01

90

Multireservoir Flood-Control Optimization with Neural-Based Linear Channel Level Routing Under Tidal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the optimal hourly releases from reservoirs under the estuary tidal effects during typhoon periods,\\u000a this paper develops a generalized multipurpose multireservoir optimization model for basin-scale flood control. The model\\u000a objectives include: preventing the reservoir dam and the downstream river embankment from overtopping, and meeting reservoir\\u000a target storage at the end of flood. The model constraints include

Chih-Chiang Wei; Nien-Sheng Hsu

2008-01-01

91

Extreme flood abatement in large dams with gate-controlled spillways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the flood abatement effects of dams with gate-controlled spillways.We analyzed the abatement behavior of 355 configurations of dams and reservoirs under stochastic hydrological forcing.A strong bi-linear correlation between peak inflow and peak outflow was found.We obtained expressions that establish a relationship in terms of adimensional coefficients.The results allowed for the characterization of the flood abatement behavior.

Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, M. Dolores; Castillo, Luis G.

2013-08-01

92

Multireservoir real-time operations for flood control using balanced water level index method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a real-time simulation-optimization operation procedure for determining the reservoir releases at each time step during a flood. The proposed procedure involves two models, i.e., a hydrological forecasting model and a reservoir operation model. In the reservoir operation model, this paper compares two flood-control operation strategies for a multipurpose multireservoir system. While Strategy 1 is the real-time joint

Chih-Chiang Wei; Nien-Sheng Hsu

2008-01-01

93

The Possibility of Community-Wide Flood Control Benefits: Evidence From Voting Behavior in a Bond Referendum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voting behavior in a flood control referendum in Roanoke, Virginia, provides evidence that people living and working outside the flood prone area are willing to pay for flood control project construction. This voting behavior supports the argument that flood control benefits exist at the community level. In providing the cost sharing required under recent federal legislation, local government financing which distributes project costs over the whole population of a local jurisdiction, and not just those persons living or working in protected areas, may increase both economic efficiency and expand communities' financial capacity to pay for such projects.

Shabman, Leonard; Stephenson, Kurt

1992-04-01

94

Application of stochastic differential equation to reservoir routing with probabilistic inflow forecasting and flood control risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time flood control of a reservoir system involves various uncertainties including the prediction uncertainty of inflow flood events, uncertainties in boundary conditions such as the reservoir storage curve, release capacity curve, and the uncertainty within the reservoir flood routing model itself. In this study, the hydrologic uncertainty processor (PUB) under the framework of Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted to quantify the uncertainty of flood prediction, providing with the probabilistic forecasting for real-time flood events. A Gaussian form of distribution is used to describe uncertainty of reservoir storage or release capacity; parameters of the distribution are estimated by historical measurements. In order to route the flood hydrograph with probability feature, i.e. a probabilistic forecasting flood event, stochastic differential equation (SDE) is introduced to build the reservoir flood routing model. By introducing a Gaussian white noise term, the traditional reservoir's water balance equation is altered to a kind of Ito stochastic differential equation. The solutions of Ito equation provide a probabilistic form of forecasting for reservoir stage process and outflow hydrograph. Both the analytical and numerical approaches are applied to solve the Ito stochastic differential equation, and their applicability for reservoir stochastic flood routing is testified. By assigning a specific flood limit level or reservoir beginning water level on which a real-time flood event is started to route through using the SDE, a corresponding probabilistic reservoir stage processes can be forecasted. For a designed control water level (DCWL), the risk rate or the largest probability that the forecasted reservoir stage excesses DCWL can be computed. Setting a series of flood limit levels, for a forecasted probabilistic inflow hydrograph, there obtains the corresponding reservoir stage processes, and in turn the risk rate of flood protection. By checking if the risk rate is less than a preassigned acceptable risk or flood control standard, a reasonable flood limit water level is determined to raise the utilization ratio of flood resources. As an example, the approach is applied to Dahuofang reservoir, which is located on Hun river in Northeast China. A typical flood event occurred in the flooding season of 2005 is analyzed to demonstrate the application of proposed procedure.

Liang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Wang, J.

2012-04-01

95

Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Flood Control Project Area, Gays Mills, Crawford County, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flood control measures in the town of Gay Mills, Wisconsin, on the Kickapoo River include levee construction, storm sewer construction, and bank cutting to reroute a portion of the Kickapoo River. Most of the project area is within the town of Gay Mills a...

B. Withrow

1983-01-01

96

Report on the Archaeological Survey of the Mankato Flood Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to identify archaeological resources present in the areas to be altered during or as a result of the Army Corps of Engineers Flood Control Project in the Mankato area, and to evaluate the historic and prehistoric importance ...

R. A. Strachan K. A. Roetzel

1975-01-01

97

Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplet, P. & Yésou, P. 2000. Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment? Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 106–111.The delta of the Senegal river (320 000 ha) has been gradually dammed, mostly during the 1970–80s. From 1986, the Diama dam has stopped any backflow of salt water from the sea into most

Patrick Triplet; Pierre Yésou

2000-01-01

98

Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

99

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL TRENDS IN SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY IMPOUNDED WITHIN A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR: GRENADA LAKE, MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sedimentation issues were examined in a relatively large flood control reservoir in a highly unstable, cultivated watershed. Collected sediment cores were analyzed for 137Cs and texture, which demarcated the as-built reservoir timeline, and the bulk chemistry of the sediments. The concentrations of ...

100

Drowned and Damned: Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume explores the idea and practice of flood control and argues that this is a part of a political agenda, deeply implicated in the social, economic, and political calculations of capitalism in general and colonialism in particular. It argues for a comprehensive reconsideration of the debate on the colonial environmental watershed, its hydraulic legacy amd questions contemporary enthusiasm for

Rohan DSouza

101

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...these inspections determine Active status...CEI's. (b) Level of detail...personnel. The level of detail...required to help determine the Federal...the estimated level of protection...existing or needed erosion control...

2010-07-01

102

Green Infrastructure for CSO Control in Kansas City, Missouri  

EPA Science Inventory

Kansas City Water Services Department (WSD) conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system over the last 5 years, for submittal of its long term control plan to EPA. These studies and recent funding opportunities have provided the impetus for sele...

103

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL

2009-01-01

104

Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

105

Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example. The project will have a major in...

106

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...Secretary of the Army in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.11...

2009-07-01

107

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...Secretary of the Army in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.11...

2010-07-01

108

Multireservoir real-time operations for flood control using balanced water level index method.  

PubMed

This paper presents a real-time simulation-optimization operation procedure for determining the reservoir releases at each time step during a flood. The proposed procedure involves two models, i.e., a hydrological forecasting model and a reservoir operation model. In the reservoir operation model, this paper compares two flood-control operation strategies for a multipurpose multireservoir system. While Strategy 1 is the real-time joint reservoir operations without using the balanced water level index (BWLI) method, Strategy 2 involves real-time joint reservoir operations using the BWLI method. The two strategies presented are formulated as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems. The idea of using the BWLI method is derived from the HEC-5 program developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The proposed procedure has been applied to the Tanshui River Basin system in Taiwan using the 6h ahead forecast data of six typhoons. A comparison of the results obtained from the two strategies reveals that Strategy 2 performs much better than Strategy 1 in determining the reservoir real-time releases throughout the system during flood emergencies in order to minimize flooding, while maintaining all reservoirs in the system in balance if possible. Consequently, the proposed model using the BWLI method demonstrates its effectiveness in estimating real-time releases. PMID:17923249

Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

2007-10-17

109

Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

2009-05-01

110

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

111

A real-time reconfiguration infrastructure for distributed embedded control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades production automation research has been focused on improving the flexibility and adaptability in order to cope with the arising challenges of mass customization. Much work was devoted to the higher-planning and scheduling-levels of automation systems. However, the lower level real-time control infrastructure was widely neglected. Therefore, we are currently faced with an adaptive flexible high level

Alois Zoitl; Wilfried Lepuschitz; Munir Merdan; M. Vallee

2010-01-01

112

Access Control Meets Public Key Infrastructure, Or: Assigning Roles to Strangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A new approach to the deployment of public key infrastructure is presented, based on a separation between,the issuing of certificates and the usage of certificates.Certificates are signed assertions by the issuer about the subject of the certificate (holder of correspondingsecret key), not necessarily identifying the subject. Typical use of certificate is for access control decisions, to determine whether,the subject

Amir Herzberg; Yosi Mass; Joris Mihaeli; Dalit Naor; Yiftach Ravid

2000-01-01

113

The Fishery in Lake Wappapello, A Flood-Control Reservoir on the St. Francis River, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Wappapello, an impoundment on the St. Francis River in southeastern Missouri, was created in 1941 by the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, as part of the flood-control program for the lower Mississippi River. At conservation-pool level (355 feet, Mean Gulf Level) the reservoir has a surface area of approximately 6,000 acres and more than 50 percent of the lake

Mercer H. Patriarche

1953-01-01

114

Geomorphic Impacts of a Flood Control Reservoir on the Green River of Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green River is a tributary of the Ohio River draining approximately 24,000 km2 in south-central and western Kentucky. Green River is also one of the most biologically diverse waterways in the United States, supporting several threatened and endangered species. Green River Lake is a flood control reservoir receiving runoff from the upper 7% (1766 km2 of the watershed. Reduction

S. T. Kenworthy

2004-01-01

115

SURVEY OF ATTITUDES AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER BODY RESTORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Government and industry planners who rely on public Willingness to Pay (WTP) estimates to make decisions about policies related to risk management,need to know how stable these WTP estimates are. This paper presents an “audience-based” risk communication,model that will be used to identify the psychological factors which can affect the public's WTP for flood risk control and watershed restoration.

James K. Giese

116

Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

2012-04-01

117

Intensive Archaeological Survey for the Proposed Fort Wayne Flood Control Project at Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The archaeological survey project area encompassed approximately 63 acres that are located within the boundaries of a proposed flood control project. As a result of the survey, one historic phase archaeological site was identified and designated as the Ru...

C. S. Demeter D. J. Weir

1989-01-01

118

The DARHTAcquisition, Archival, Analysis, And Instrument Control System (DAAAC), And Network Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the world's most advanced weapons test facility. DARHT contains two linear accelerators for producing flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. High-speed electronics and optical instrumentation are used for triggering the accelerators and collecting accelerator data. Efficient and effective diagnostics provide basic information needed to routinely tune the accelerators for peak radiographic performance, and to successfully monitor the accelerators performance. DARHT's server and network infrastructure is a key element in providing shot related data storage and retrieval for successfully executing radiographic experiments. This paper will outline the elaborate Data Acquisition, Archival, Analysis, and Instrument Control System (DAAAC), as well as the server and network infrastructure for both accelerators.

Archuleta, Rita Denise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

119

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

120

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the salt marsh radiation budget, surface energy balance, and CO2 flux. Analysis contrasted flooded and nonflooded and day and night effects. The salt marsh surface energy balance was similar to that of a heating-dominated sparse crop during nonflooded periods but similar to that of an evaporative cooling-dominated, well-watered grassy lawn during flooding. Observed increases in latent heat flux and decreases in net ecosystem exchange during flooding were proportional to flood depth and duration, with complete CO2 flux suppression occurring above some flood height less than the canopy height. Flood-induced changes in the salt marsh energy balance were dominated by changes in sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, and surface water heat storage. Parameters suitable for predicting the salt marsh surface energy balance were obtained by calibrating common models (e.g., Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and pan coefficient). Biophysical controls on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange were identified following calibration of models describing the coupling of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the salt marsh. The effects of flooding on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange are temporary but strongly affect the marsh water, carbon, and energy balance despite their short duration.

Moffett, Kevan B.; Wolf, Adam; Berry, Joe A.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2010-10-01

121

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-01

122

Model-controlled flooding with applications to image reconstruction and segmentation  

PubMed Central

We discuss improved image reconstruction and segmentation in a framework we term model-controlled flooding (MCF). This extends the watershed transform for segmentation by allowing the integration of a priori information about image objects into flooding simulation processes. Modeling the initial seeding, region growing, and stopping rules of the watershed flooding process allows users to customize the simulation with user-defined or default model functions incorporating prior information. It also extends a more general class of transforms based on connected attribute filters by allowing the modification of connected components of a grayscale image, thus providing more flexibility in image reconstruction. MCF reconstruction defines images with desirable features for further segmentation using existing methods and can lead to substantial improvements. We demonstrate the MCF framework using a size transform that extends grayscale area opening and attribute thickening/thinning, and give examples from several areas: concealed object detection, speckle counting in biological single cell studies, and analyses of benchmark microscopic image data sets. MCF achieves benchmark error rates well below those reported in the recent literature and in comparison with other algorithms, while being easily adapted to new imaging contexts.

Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

2012-01-01

123

CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection  

SciTech Connect

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

2012-05-14

124

Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding: State-of-the-art review: Topical report. [177 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding (polymer, micellar-polymer, and alkaline-polymer) can be achieved through the use of low-concentration water-soluble polymers in water or in chemical slugs. Since the late 1950's, water-soluble polymers have been studied extensively in laboratories by many researchers and widely used in many chemical flooding projects to improve sweep efficiency and increase ultimate oil recovery.

Gao

1987-01-01

125

Development of novel EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Foams for mobility control in surfactant flooding  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam as a novel method for mobility control in surfactant flooding was investigated. This report presents an initial evaluation of the potential application of foam as a mobility control agent behind a low concentration surfactant flood. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process involves the injection of alternate slugs of gas and surfactant solution as drive fluids behind the active surfactant slug front as an alternative to the use of polymers in order to eliminate unfavorable surfactant-polymer interactions. Experiments were performed to determine in situ foam generation and propagation using varying concentrations of surfactants in a Berea sandstone core. An apparatus was designed and built to accurately measure differential pressures along sections of the core. Bottle or shake tests using the various concentrations of surfactants and experiments to determine the effect of foam flow on reducing mobility and involved steady-state measurement of differential pressures in the presence of foam were performed. Coreflood displacement experiments in the presence of oil were performed using varying concentrations of surfactants to compare various injection modes and oil recovery efficiency. 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Llave, F.M.; Sturm, J.M.; Olsen, D.K.

1989-01-01

126

Geomorphic Impacts of a Flood Control Reservoir on the Green River of Kentucky.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green River is a tributary of the Ohio River draining approximately 24,000 km2 in south-central and western Kentucky. Green River is also one of the most biologically diverse waterways in the United States, supporting several threatened and endangered species. Green River Lake is a flood control reservoir receiving runoff from the upper 7% (1766 km2 of the watershed. Reduction in flood peaks since the mid-1960's have eliminated overbank inundation and floodplain sediment deposition along much of the 197 km reach below the dam. The impact of flow regulation is greatest along the tailwater reach between Green River dam and Russell Creek, the first of four major surface tributaries entering along a reach extending from 47 to 90 km below the dam. In the tailwater reach, the reduction in flood peaks and fine sediment supply has altered patterns of in-channel sediment storage and mobilization. Widespread channel bed armoring has not occurred, presumably due to continued fine sediment input from small tributaries, floodplain gullying, and bank erosion. There is little evidence of encroachment of riparian vegetation and related channel narrowing in the tailwater reach. Inputs of water and sediment from the four large, unregulated tributaries modify the impacts of the reservoir on in-channel sediment dynamics downstream of Russell Creek. During intermediate magnitude events, particularly those associated with localized storms, flow and sediment dynamics on the Green R. are likely similar to those of the pre-regulated system. However, reduction in peak flows during large storm events has decreased sediment transport capacity and thereby altered seasonal patterns of fine sediment deposition and storage. In addition, the frequency and spatial extent of streambed gravel mobilization have been reduced. River islands provide most of the remaining areas for vertical accretion of fine sediment during flow events, although the dynamics of accretion and erosion of islands and island-bar complexes are also affected by flow regulation.

Kenworthy, S. T.

2004-12-01

127

Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Final report, October 1983-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. This final report is divided into four major parts. Part A contains a rather complete description of our current three-dimensional simulator as well as some of the simulation studies in both one and three dimensions. This report emphasizes the development, testing and use of the three-dimensional version of our chemical flood simulator. Although its development was based on the two-dimensional version of C.H. Hong previously reported, the thre-dimensional version of A. Datta Gupta contains several significant new features in addition to its three dimensional capability as well as a complete incorporation of the latest physical property models used in the current one-dimensional version of T. Satoh. The most significant of these is the improved phase behavior model developed and tested in part by Satoh and in part by Prouvost. Part B of this report contains the theoretical description of this phase behavior model and comparison with our experimental data. Part C contains our most recent three-phase relative permeability data and the tracer data taken during these same experiments along with the theoretical interpretation of these tracer data with a capacitance-dispersion model developed by Mojdeh Delshad. Finally, Part D contains our rheology data on polymer solutions. 141 refs., 150 figs., 23 tabs.

Pope, G.A.

1986-02-01

128

Use of Green Infrastructure Integrated with Conventional Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control: Kansas City, MO  

EPA Science Inventory

Advanced design concepts such as Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Solutions (or upland runoff control techniques) are currently being encouraged by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a management practice to contain and control stormwater at the lot ...

129

Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, August 1979-July 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the first year of our research on Mobility Control and Scaleup. Specifically, we report results on these items: (1) simulation development, (2) history matching core floods, (3) transport experiments, (4) oil recovery experiments and (5) rheology experiments. Both 1-D and 2-D micellar/polymer simulators have been under development. This research involves physical property modelling, model formulation, numerical techniques, coding, testing, and applications. The 1-D simulator has been used to match various core floods. The transport experiments include low-tension, steady-state relative permeabilities and multiphase dispersion. The oil recovery experiments are for history matching purposes. Extensive physical property data were collected to support all of the flow experiments and for use as input to our simulators. This integrated program of experiments and simulation, including theoretical analysis, is designed to both enhance our understanding of the process, and to improve our capability to reliably scale it up from the laboratory to the field.

Pope, G.A.

1981-06-01

130

Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Second annual report, August 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity, and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. These objectives were discussed in our First Annual DOE Report last year. Also discussed in this report were the experimental aspects of the project and the initial results of these experiments; and the simulation deveopment approach, property modelling, the basic flow equations, numerical techniques used, and initial simulation results for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional cases. Therefore, this report stresses the subsequent results of this continuing research. Eight graduate students contributed to the results given in this year's report. The results of each of these students are discussed in turn. For the detailed procedures, techniques, and conditions, as well as more complete results and discussions, their theses should be consulted. In addition, some of the results of a research scholar from Elf Aquitaine, Andre Fil, who spent a year working in our project, are included.

Pope, G.A.

1982-11-01

131

Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon.  

PubMed

Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, U.S.A., in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer-resource interactions were not necessarily congruent with the dominant organic matter flows. Our study illustrates the value of detailed food web analysis for elucidating pathways by which dam management may alter production and strengths of species interactions in river food webs. We suggest that controlled floods may increase production of nonnative rainbow trout, and this information can be used to help guide future dam management decisions. PMID:21939041

Cross, Wyatt F; Baxter, Colden V; Donner, Kevin C; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kennedy, Theodore A; Hall, Robert O; Kelly, Holly A Wellard; Rogers, R Scott

2011-09-01

132

Mobility Controlled Flooding (MCF) Technology for Enhanced Sweeping and NAPL Remediation in Heterogeneous Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are bypassed when remedial fluid is injected into heterogeneous systems. The contaminant in the bypassed areas is therefore untouched by the remedial fluid, which can prolong the remediation operations significantly. Methods of forcing fluids into low-permeability flow paths have been developed and widely implemented to solve the heterogeneity-induced bypassing problem encountered during oil recovery in the petroleum industry over the past 40 years. Since the intent of the petroleum reservoir engineers is to control the mobility of the injected fluid in the high-permeable zones so that the fluid can be pushed through the low-permeable zones to contact and mobilize the remaining oil in these zones, this method are referred as mobility controlled flooding (MCF) technology in the petroleum engineering literature. Two methods of mobility control have been developed. One method is to use a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injectate so that the in situ pore pressure is raised, and cross-flow between layers with different permeability occurs. The other method is to use surfactant-foam flood to generate foam in high permeable zones in situ; therefore, the injected fluid is forced into the low-permeable areas. A water-soluble polymer, xanthan gum, and surfactant MA-80 was used to formulate MCF remedial fluids to remediate nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated heterogonous systems in two-dimensional (2-D) flow-cell (40 by 50 by 5 cm) experiments. It was demonstrated that the MCF technology is capable of sweeping the low-permeability flow paths. The bypassing of low-permeable zones was significantly reduced. The removal of NAPL trapped in the low-perm zones was remarkable enhanced attributed to more efficient NAPL mobilization. The results also indicate that the MCF technology is able to manage the fluid density effects. The unfavorable irregular displacing front observed during the plain surfactant solution remediation flood due to the density difference between the resident and remedial fluids disappeared when the MCF surfactant-polymer solution was used.

Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T.

2005-12-01

133

Data and Administrative Considerations for Two District Flood Plain Zoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National flood plain management policy has shifted from placing the primary emphasis on structural controls to a balance between structural and regulatory type controls. Two district flood plain zoning, in which the flood hazard area is divided into flood...

S. J. Burges J. S. Hillmer

1974-01-01

134

Post-Flood Tank-Mix Combinations with Cyhalofop (Clincher) for Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) Control in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-flood applications of Clincher controlled tillered barnyardgrass from 65 to 85% when evaluated from 2 to 4 weeks after treatment. Grandstand, 2,4-D amine, and Blazer all caused reduction in control of barnyardgrass when tank-mixed with cyhalofop early after application. Clincher applied alone at 0.28 lb\\/acre controlled barnyardgrass 96% 8 weeks after treatment. Barnyardgrass control with Clincher was reduced signifi- cantly

R. C. Scott

135

Improving riparian wetland conditions through evaluation of infiltration and drainage behavior during and after a controlled flood event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting an observational and modeling study of a riparian wetland system adjacent to the Tuolumne River, downstream of the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in Yosemite National Park. The study area is located along the bottom of Poopenaut Valley, a 25 hectare region that contains a diverse mixture of soil, vegetation, and wetland types. The Hetch Hetchy reservoir is part of a water supply system for 2.4 million residents in the San Francisco Bay area. Spring and summer releases of excess water from the reservoir can benefit riparian wetlands within the Poopenaut Valley, but little is known about how shallow wetland soils in the valley respond to rapid inundation and exposure associated with a controlled flood hydrograph. Instruments were deployed within wetlands, along and adjacent to a 300-m stretch of the Tuolumne River in the Poopenaut Valley, to assess soil and shallow wetland response to a controlled flood in Spring 2009. Instruments included stream stage recorders, shallow piezometers, water content sensors, and vertical thermal probe arrays used to assess streambed seepage. Instruments were arranged in vertical clusters along profiles oriented perpendicular and parallel to the river channel. The controlled flood lasted for about four weeks, and increased channel discharge from about 4 cms to a peak near 225 cms, with typical flood discharge of 30 cms. Water content sensors show the influence of soil inundation and penetration of a wetting front within the upper 1 m of soil. Piezometers show a water table response to shallow ground water recharge. Thermal probes show river water seeping into the streambed at the upstream end of the instrumented stretch, and returning to the channel at the downstream end of the stretch, prior to the flood. During the flood event, stream seepage was downward at both locations. We are completing soil grain size analyses in preparation for numerical modeling of unsaturated-saturated conditions to assess controls on the infiltration and ground water response to controlled flooding in this area. One metric for wetland functionality is maintenance of saturated conditions to a depth of 40 cm for 12.5% of the growing season in five of every 10 years. Our model will be used to assess what kinds of controlled flood events (duration, hydrograph shape, integrated volume of release) will satisfy this requirement.

Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Roche, J. W.

2009-12-01

136

Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America.

2010-01-01

137

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section 211.6 Navigation...granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control property. (a) Leases....

2013-07-01

138

Flood Cleanup  

MedlinePLUS

... Flood Cleanup During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to ... additional resources: Fact Sheet: Flood Cleanup - Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems (PDF) (2 pp, 57 K, about PDF ) ...

139

The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: Insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred.

Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-11-01

140

Predictive Methods for Real-Time Control of Flood Operation of a Multireservoir System: Methodology and Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive methods for real-time flood operation of water systems consisting of reservoirs located in parallel on tributaries to the main river are presented and discussed. The aspect of conflicting individual goals of the local decision units and other objectives important from an overall point of view is taken into account. The particular attention is focused on hierarchical control structure which

Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz; Krzysztof Malinowski; Andrzej Karbowski

1996-01-01

141

Predictive methods for real-time control of flood operation of a multireservoir system: Methodology and comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive methods for real-time flood operation of water systems consisting of reservoirs located in parallel on tributaries to the main river are presented and discussed. The aspect of conflicting individual goals of the local decision units and other objectives important from an overall point of view is taken into account. The particular attention is focused on hierarchical control structure which

Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz; Krzysztof Malinowski; Andrzej Karbowski

1996-01-01

142

Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential

Donald R. Baer; Mark H. Engelhard; Dan J. Gaspar; Alan S. Lea; Charles F. Windisch

2002-01-01

143

Urban flash flood in Gda?sk ? 2001; solutions and measures for city flood management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods in urban areas cause considerable economic losses and affect many people. Measures for flood mitigation in urban areas are primarily of an engineering character. Existing city infrastructure very often restricts the introduction of appropriate new constructions. The city of Gda?sk situated at the mouth of the Vistula River, is the most flood?prone agglomeration in Poland. Now there are three

Wojciech Majewski

2008-01-01

144

Quantification of increased flood risk due to global climate change for urban river management planning.  

PubMed

Global climate change is expected to affect future rainfall patterns. These changes should be taken into account when assessing future flooding risks. This study presents a method for quantifying the increase in flood risk caused by global climate change for use in urban flood risk management. Flood risk in this context is defined as the product of flood damage potential and the probability of its occurrence. The study uses a geographic information system-based flood damage prediction model to calculate the flood damage caused by design storms with different return periods. Estimation of the monetary damages these storms produce and their return periods are precursors to flood risk calculations. The design storms are developed from modified intensity-duration-frequency relationships generated by simulations of global climate change scenarios (e.g. CGCM2A2). The risk assessment method is applied to the Kanda River basin in Tokyo, Japan. The assessment provides insights not only into the flood risk cost increase due to global warming, and the impact that increase may have on flood control infrastructure planning. PMID:22049726

Morita, M

2011-01-01

145

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

146

Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

2013-05-01

147

Midwest Flood: Information on the Performance, Effects, and Control of Levees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intense rainfall that deluged the upper Mississippi River basin in the spring and summer of 1993 caused the largest flood ever measured at St. Louis. This unprecedented event in nine midwestern states generated the highest flood crests ever recorded a...

1995-01-01

148

Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is < 0.2 m s-1 in a lentic reach. We estimated temporal change in the lotic:lentic stream length ratio by relating beaver pond length (determined by the upstream lentic-lotic boundary position) to dam size, and coupling that to the dam-size frequency distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to < 3:1 after 7 years of flows favourable for beaver. We investigated the dam failure-flood intensity relationship in three independent trials (experimental floods) featuring peak discharge ranging from 37 to 65 m3 s-1. Major damage (breach ??? 3-m wide) occurred at ??? 20% of monitored dams (n = 7-86) and a similar or higher proportion was moderately damaged. We detected neither a relationship between dam size and damage level nor a flood discharge threshold for initiating major damage. Dam constituent materials appeared to control the probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Andersen, D. C.; Shafroth, P. B.

2010-01-01

149

Cultural Resource Investigation of the Grand Forks/East Grand Forks Urban Study and the East Grand Forks Flood Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has proposed flood control and flood plain management alternatives for the Grand Forks, North Dakota/East Grand Forks, Minnesota area. The purpose of this investigation is to compile all known cultural resource data within...

G. J. Hudak

1981-01-01

150

Effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project on flood control in the Dongting Lake area, China, in a 1998-type flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the protective effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) against flooding in the middle region of the Changjiang River basin, we applied an integrated watershed hydrological model using gauged daily precipitation data for 1998, when the second largest flood of the last century occurred in the basin. From the results simulated by applying the daily average discharge

Seiji Hayashi; Shogo Murakami; Kai-Qin Xu; Masataka Watanabe

2008-01-01

151

Evaluating Sand Transport Through Two Spillway Diversions on the Lower Mississippi River During the Flood of 2011: Implications for Land Management Via Controlled Diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mississippi River flood of 2011 necessitated operation of both the Bonnet Carré and Morganza spillways, so that up to 25% of the lower river-water discharge plus associated sediment was diverted into Lake Pontchartrain and Atchafalaya River basin, respectively. The design of each spillway is quite different, and here we present data used to analyze the sand transport capacity of both structures. The Morganza Floodway is set several kilometers from a Mississippi River bend reach, is buffered by a wooded floodplain and has a long, contained forebay. This site location and design inhibits movement of sand from the river through the spillway. In contrast, the Bonnet Carré Spillway is positioned adjacent to the river channel and just downstream of two bend reaches; enhanced secondary flow and turbulence associated with this planform contributes to sand suspension, promoting extensive sediment transport through the spillway. Interestingly, despite the depth of the weir separating the Mississippi River channel and the Bonnet Carré Spillway (approximately the upper 10% of the thalweg depth), the spillway captured a significant proportion of channel-bed sand, based on our data for grain-size distribution of sand on the river-channel bed compared to deposits in the spillway. These results indicate that planform controls and sediment transport dynamics can be used to predict the optimal placement of diversion structures intended to distribute water and sediment from the lower Mississippi River to surrounding wetlands, thereby helping prevent coastal erosion and degradation of infrastructure.

Czapiga, M. J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Brantley, C.; Cash, R. W.; Parker, G.; Best, J. L.

2011-12-01

152

Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed,\\u000a i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the\\u000a polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted

Valérie Bert; Piet Seuntjens; Winnie Dejonghe; Sophie Lacherez; Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Bart Vandecasteele

2009-01-01

153

REEVALUATION OF THE FLOOD AND THE FLOOD CONTROL PLAN AROUND THE DAIJUU WEIR IN THE YOSHINO RIVER BY USING THE WATER LEVEL DATA AND THE RIVER SURVEY MAP IN THE MEIJI ERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors analyzed the hydraulic features of the Daijuu Weir and neighboring levee of the Yoshino River in the historical perspective, as the structures are important factors of flood control for the river. Firstly, the authors analyzed the precious data of water level observations around the Weir started by De Rijke, a Dutch engineer in 1883. Then using a river survey map surveyed in 1901, they restored the status of levees of the Yoshino River before modern improvement works. Thirdly they analyzed a relationship between the Yoshino River Levee and the Daijuu Weir based on the newspaper articles of the fifty years of period from 1878 through 1927. As the conclusion they reevaluated the flood and flood control plan of the Yoshino River around the Daijuu Weir.

Matsuo, Yuji; Yatunaga, Kazuo; Nakano, Susumu

154

Effect of multiyear drought on upland sediment yield and subsequent impacts on flood control reservoir storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1950s, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and later the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service has built over 11,000 flood control reservoirs (FCR) in 47 states. FCR built in Texas and Oklahoma in the early 1950s to mid-1950s were impounded during the most severe drought on record in the region. In this study, the sediment trapped in FCR is used to reconstruct the variation in sediment yield through the drought years to the present. New sediment surveys of four FCR in McCulloch County, Texas, are combined with three previous surveys by the SCS. The new surveys are conducted using acoustic profiling to map water depth and sediment thickness in submerged areas of the reservoirs and real-time kinematic GPS in the dry areas. Sediment coring is used to determine sediment dry bulk density. The survey results are used to construct a composite history of the normalized sediment yield for the study area. Normalized sediment yield is the annual sediment yield normalized by the soil erodability factor K and the combined slope length and steepness factor LS of the watershed. The results indicate that sediment yield was lowest during the relatively drought-free period from 1971 to 2007, averaging 4.2 t/ha/yr/unit K/unit LS and over 70 times higher during the early part of the 1950s drought from 1951 to 1953, averaging 300.3 t/ha/yr/unit K/unit LS. These results have important implications for predicting the remaining useful life of FCR in the region and planning for future droughts.

Dunbar, John A.; Allen, Peter M.; Bennett, Sean J.

2010-05-01

155

Flash vaporization forecast and control in the heavy oil production well by steam flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production process of heavy oil production well by steam flooding, local pressure drop is caused by the suction of pump when the oil-water mixture flows through the fixed valve, which causes flash vaporization in the pump. Flash vaporization in the pump will cause pump air lock, tubing and pump damage, fluid production decreased. Based on borehole temperature, pressure

Chunsheng Wang; Shuren Yang; Guoshuai Ju

2010-01-01

156

A Decision Analysis of Options to Rebuild the New Orleans Flood Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter makes another step in this direction by developing a decision analysis of options for the levee and floodwall system in and around New Orleans. Like the previous paper,we assume that substantial portions of New Orleans will be rebuilt and require protection. Moreover, we consider a comprehensive list of options for flood mitigation, of the possible types of events

Carl Southwell; Detlof von Winterfeldt

2008-01-01

157

In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvac?k Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by taking inflow, elevation, precipitation and snow water equivalent into consideration to propose alternative simulations as a decision support system. After that, the releases are subjected to user-defined rules. Thus, previous year reservoir simulations are compared with observed reservoir levels and releases. Hypothetical flood scenarios are tested in case of different storm event timing and sizing. Numerical weather prediction data of Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) can be used for temperature and precipitation forecasts that will form the inputs for a hydrological model. The estimated flows can be used for real time short term decisions for reservoir simulation based on variable guide curve and user defined rules.

Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

2012-04-01

158

Restoring straightened rivers for sustainable flood mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to show how communities with severe river flooding can develop sustainable flood plans that remediate environmental problems caused by previous river straightening and other structural flood controls. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article builds on a case study of the nationally recognized Napa River Flood Protection Project (USA), which incorporates an ecological living river strategy and builds

Vanessa Bechtol; Lucie Laurian

2005-01-01

159

The best plan for flood mitigation: A case study in the north-eastern part of IRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency and magnitude of flood and debris flow have dramatically risen in north-eastern part of IRAN in the past decade. The evidence shows that the peak discharge of 2001 flood has exceeded the estimated PMF (Probable Maximum Flood) of Goleastan dam. The extreme foods of the region which mostly occurred in the summer, have damaged hundreds of life and thousands of livestock and destroyed a lot of infrastructures in recent years. Structural in association with non structural measures have been identified essential elements of flood mitigation in the master plan. Consequently two-phased plan including urgent measures and a master plan have been prepared for the basin as mid-term and long-term solution respectively. Considering flash flood manner of the region, flood detention and attenuation in upstream areas has been assessed as an effective measure in order to mitigate flood magnitude in down stream areas. Therefore a detention dam has been designed in the upstream catchments where there is high contribution in flood generation of the basin. In the design stage of the detention dam, several alternatives of reservoir and spillway capacity have been assessed regarding to flood reduction in the whole catchments. However, detention dam characteristic has been finalized based on maximum justifiable flood attenuation due to high vulnerability of the areas. The designed detention dam can completely control floods up to 200 year and reduce 1000 year peak discharge to less than 100 year return period at the dam site. Nevertheless, the dam would mitigate floods of downstream damage center at least 40% comparing to without project situation. This paper introduces not only the proposed master plan but also evaluates efficiency of the detention dam in flood reduction of the whole basin.

Heidari, A.

2010-05-01

160

Decomposing the rainfall control on flash flood hydrograph shape into spatial, temporal and storm motion components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-time variability of rainfall, drainage network structure and local runoff generation properties, including land use/cover and geologic characteristics, shape the catchment response to storms. A way to describe the complexity of the interaction between these factors is to quantify their relative contribution on flood hydrograph shape. Quantifying the contribution of each factor is of great importance because this can identify which sources of variability are crucial for understanding and predicting catchment response. In this work we focus our analysis on the role of space-time variability of rainfall and drainage structure on flash flood hydrographs. An extended version of the concept of "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" which accounts for hillslope/channel velocity differentiation forms the basis of the analytical framework used in our analysis. The framework is used to quantify the contribution of each source of variability in flood response for eight extreme flash flood-inducing storms occurred in Europe in the period 2002 to 2008. The storms were selected from the HYDRATE project database, where high resolution radar rainfall data were integrated with post event surveys. The location of the events covers a range of climatic regions (Mediterranean, Alpine, Continental). Comparison between scenarios of uniform and variable (spatially) rainfall, showed that the effect of spatial variability of rainfall on mean runoff time is apparent only for basin scales > 100km2 . The difference in mean runoff time, relative to original rainfall, ranges from -5 to +10%. Corresponding investigation on the effect of rainfall spatial variability on variance of runoff time showed no apparent scale dependence and a relative difference of +/- 20%. Regarding the effect of drainage structure, an interesting result is that event-wise the importance of drainage network follows a well-defined scale dependence. Finally, examination on the relative importance of storm motion shows that its contribution is generally low (<10%) suggesting that storm velocity had a minor effect on the hydrograph shape for the cases examined.

Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Anagnostou, Emmanouil

2013-04-01

161

Potential energy and capacity gains from flood control storage reallocation at existing U.S. hydropower reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the procedures and results of an investigation to evaluate potential increases in nationwide hydropower production that could be achieved by reallocation of flood control storage at existing hydropower reservoirs. One aspect of the investigation considered only the increase in energy that could be achieved by storage reallocation; a second aspect considered potential gains in both energy and capacity that could be achieved by adding to the existing installed capacity as well as storage reallocation. The investigation was performed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and is a component of a technical overview study which is part of the National Hydropower Study.

Eichert, B. S.; Bonner, V. R.

1981-06-01

162

Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre) and an increase in anxiety in the control group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre). Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285

2010-01-01

163

Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan ranging from governmental organizations, for-profit to and non-profit entities. All vehicles were equipped with a data acquisition system that automatically collected statistically relevant data for submission to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which monitored the progress of the fuel cell vehicles against the DOE technology validation milestones. The Mercedes Team also provided data from Gen-II vehicles under the similar operations as Gen I vehicles to compare technology maturity during program duration.

Ronald Grasman

2011-12-31

164

Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-04-23

165

Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab.  

PubMed

The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17?million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900?kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces. PMID:22337059

Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R

2012-02-15

166

Polymer flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past,

Littmann

1988-01-01

167

Living With Floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk management in the lower Rhine River basin (downstream from Cologne) relies on flood control by dikes for many centuries. This has resulted in an ever in- creasing sense of safety and, subsequently, in increased investments in the protected areas. In the long term, however, this causes an increase in vulnerability to flood- ing and a recurrent call to further control the floods, with many negative impacts on natural and cultural landscape values, and eventually also on society at large. The ob- jective of the project was to design and evaluate alternative flood risk management strategies which are applicable for the long-term (50-100 years) and better take into account the uncertainties that are inherent to lowland rivers. Two different strategies were elaborated, based on the principle of resilience and living with floods: compart- mentalisation for detentionS and Sgreen rivers for dischargeS. It was found that these ´ alternative strategies have many advantages from a sustainability point of view, but are difficult to implement. They require huge investments and have enormous impact on local and regional scales, whereas the advantages are obvious primarily from a long-term point-of-view and in a larger spatial-scale frame.

van Buuren, M.; Vis, M.; Klijn, F.

168

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the

Kevan B. Moffett; Adam Wolf; Joe A. Berry; Steven M. Gorelick

2010-01-01

169

Issues : infrastructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of a web site about the future of energy, introduces students to the ways that energy is transported throughout the United States. For each of four energy uses--electricity, hearing, manufacturing, and transportation--the article traces a sample path that energy can travel, from its point of origin to its point of use. Students read about problems that occur within existing infrastructures, including the challenge that the United States faces regarding its aging power grid. The article also notes that new energy sources will require new infrastructures. Links to additional articles, including one about the California power crisis, are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

170

Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests. This proved to be a major challenge for the project and was ultimately abandoned in favor of a directly wired solution for collecting sensor data at the building. The primary reason for this was the relatively short ranges at which we were able to effectively place the sensor nodes from the central receiving unit. Several different mesh technologies were attempted with similar results. Two hardware devices were created during the original performance period of the project. The first device, the WEB-MC, is a master control unit that has two radios, a CPU, memory, and serves as the central communications device for the WEB-MC System (Currently called the 'BEST Wireless HVAC Maintenance System' as a tentative commercial product name). The WEB-MC communicates with the local mesh network system via one of its antennas. Communication with the mesh network enables the WEB-MC to configure the network, send/receive data from individual motes, and serves as the primary mechanism for collecting sensor data at remote locations. The second antenna enables the WEB-MC to connect to a cellular network ('Long-Haul Communications') to transfer data to and from the NorthWrite Network Operations Center (NOC). A third 'all-in-one' hardware solution was created after the project was extended (Phase 2) and additional resources were provided. The project team leveraged a project funded by the State of Washington to develop a hardware solution that integrated the functionality of the original two devices. The primary reason for this approach was to eliminate the mesh network technical difficulties that severely limited the functionality of the original hardware approach. There were five separate software developments required to deliver the functionality needed for this project. These include the Data Server (or Network Operations Center), Web Application, Diagnostic Software, WEB-MC Embedded Software, Mote Embedded Software. Each of these developments was necessarily dependent on the others. This resulted in a challenging management task - requiring high bandwidth communications among

Patrick O'Neill

2009-06-30

171

Effects of Fluctuating Flows and a Controlled Flood on Incubation Success and Early Survival Rates and Growth of Age0 Rainbow Trout in a Large Regulated River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates

Josh Korman; Matthew Kaplinski; Theodore S. Melis

2011-01-01

172

Applications of Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery to assess hurricane-related flooding of coastal Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Louisiana coast is subjected to hurricane impacts including flooding of human settlements, river channels and coastal marshes, and salt water intrusion. Information on the extent of flooding is often required quickly for emergency relief, repairs of infrastructure, and production of flood risk maps. This study investigates the feasibility of using Radarsat?1 SAR imagery to detect flooded areas in coastal

Lawrence M. Kiage; Nan D. Walker; Shreekanth Balasubramanian; Adele Babin; John Barras

2005-01-01

173

The management of urban surface water flood risks: SUDS performance in flood reduction from extreme events.  

PubMed

The need to improve the urban drainage network to meet recent urban growth and the redevelopment of old industrial and commercial areas provides an opportunity for managing urban surface water infrastructure in a more sustainable way. The use of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) can reduce urban surface water flooding as well as the pollution impact of urban discharges on receiving waters. However, these techniques are not yet well known by many stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, or at least the evidence of their performance effectiveness may be doubted compared with more traditional engineering solutions often promoted by existing 1D/2D drainage models. The use of geographic information systems (GIS) in facilitating the inter-related risk analysis of sewer surface water overflows and urban flooding as well as in better communication with stakeholders is demonstrated in this paper. An innovative coupled 1D/2D urban sewer/overland flow model has been developed and tested in conjunction with a SUDS selection and location tool (SUDSLOC) to enable a robust management approach to surface water flood risks and to improve the resilience of the urban drainage infrastructure. The paper demonstrates the numerical and modelling basis of the integrated 1D/2D and SUDSLOC approach and the working assumptions and flexibility of the application together with some limitations and uncertainties. The role of the SUDSLOC modelling component in quantifying flow, and surcharge reduction benefits arising from the strategic selection and location of differing SUDS controls are also demonstrated for an extreme storm event scenario. PMID:23128626

Viavattene, C; Ellis, J B

2013-01-01

174

Anomaly detection in power system control center critical infrastructures using rough classification algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system control centers are moving toward distributed and decentralized operations. The use of information technology (IT) to achieve these goals produces vulnerabilities and security threats. To safeguard against the threat of cyber-attacks, service providers also need to maintain the accuracy, assurance and integrity of their interdependent data networks. This paper presents the results of the anomaly detection technique using

M. P. Coutinho; G. Lambert-Torres; L. E. B. da Silva; H. G. Martins; H. Lazarek; J. C. Neto

2009-01-01

175

On Integrating Human-In-The-Loop Supervision Into Critical Infrastructure Process Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mortem investigations report that most industrial accidents are due to human error with many having their origin in the lack of effective control system interfaces for human supervision of embedded sensors. The need for more sophisticated human interface facilities based on human usability and human performance design is most pressing. This paper examines this problem as a necessary component

Alex Korzyk; William Yurcik

2002-01-01

176

Reliability Analysis of Infrastructure Networks Using OBDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, civil infrastructure networks have been stressed by significant natural hazards and human errors leading to malfunction. Earthquakes and tsunamis, hurricanes and floods, blackouts and satellite failures have evidenced the vulnerability of these growing networks threatening the business continuity and economy of several communities. Characterization of the performance and reliability analysis of these net- works is the key component to

M. B. Javanbarg

177

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

178

The planned European in-orbit infrastructure and the role of the DLR Manned Space-Laboratories Control Center (MSCC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the In-Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) required to support the Columbus Laboratory payload operations and system control functions as part of the Columbus Program. The Columbus Program and the corresponding ground infrastructure have changed significantly since the Program was first initiated. However, this paper concentrates on the IOI GS in the configuration which was defined at the European Space Agency (ESA) council meeting at Ministerial level held in Granada in November 1992 -- the `Granada Scenario,' and the developments that have taken place since then. The facilities that comprise the IOI GS are introduced and a high level description of the role of each facility is given. However, throughout this paper's particular emphasis will be placed on the role of the Columbus Laboratory Control Center (CL-CC) which includes the European payload operations coordination function and will be located in the MSCC on the site of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. Furthermore, the impact of the redesign of the Space Station Freedom, as initiated by the Clinton Administration, on the IOI Ground Segment is fully detailed. The development of the MSCC and its operational involvement firstly for the highly successful Spacelab D2 mission in April/May 1993, subsequently for the coming Columbus Precursor Missions and finally up to and including the Columbus era is described. The roll of the CL-CC, and its interaction with the NASA centers as well as the other IOI Ground Segment facilities, is then described in more detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the services provided by the payload operations coordination function for the European users with experiments located in the Columbus Laboratory. The architectural design of the CL-CC resulting from the functional analysis of the tasks to be performed for payload operations coordination is presented, and this forms the main body of the paper. The interesting/novel aspects of the proposed physical architecture are addressed, together with the corresponding advantages. In particualr, the largely distributed nature of the architecture, whereby tasks are generally allocated to multiple workstations rather than being hosted by a large mainframe, is discussed. This discussion has not previously been published.

Kehr, Joachim; Salter, Wayne

179

Martian Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Windows to the Universe site provides beginner, intermediate and advanced information about Martian flooding. It includes a NASA image of Mars despicting outflow channels and river valley networks, which provide evidence for two theories about the global Martian water cycle.

Johnson, Roberta

180

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

181

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

182

Managing technology of America's infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Command and control computer systems, usually interconnected, provide the flow of critical information required for the proper operation of the nation's infrastructure. The major critical infrastructures are: (1) energy including electric power generation and distribution, nuclear energy, oil, coal and gas production and distribution; (2) telecommunications which involves the transmission and exchange of electronic communications; including global commerce via satellites

R. Cerveny; S. Stephenson

1999-01-01

183

Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the

Guanhua Yan; David M Nicol; Dong Jin

2010-01-01

184

An event buffer flooding attack in DNP3 controlled SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data

Dong Jin; David M. Nicol; Guanhua Yan

2011-01-01

185

A communication synthesis infrastructure for heterogeneous networked control systems and its application to building automation and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networked control systems the controller of a physically- distributed plant is implemented as a collection of tightly- interacting, concurrent processes running on a distributed execution platform. The execution platform consists of a set of heterogeneous components (sensors, actuators, and con- trollers) that interact through a hierarchical communication network. We propose a methodology and a framework for design exploration and

Alessandro Pinto; Luca P. Carloni; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

2007-01-01

186

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

187

Multi-objective sustainable river management: balancing flood control, bio-pysical restoration and socio-economic factors in a Scottish river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of river corridors requires an understanding of the linkages between geomorphic, hydrologic, ecologic and socio-economic factors across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, in order to be genuinely sustainable, management must ideally be set within a catchment/watershed context. However, in practice, this rarely occurs due to obstacles imposed by fragmented land ownership/governance and an incomplete understanding of bio-physical process linkages. We present our experience on a project with the goal of optimising physical objectives at the catchment scale within a framework influenced by environmental legislation and conflicting land-use pressures. The project was carried out on the Eddleston Water in the Scottish Borders and had the primary objective of providing sustainable flood risk management to settlements on the water course while also providing ecological benefit to the river corridor. These co-objectives had to be met while considering the constraints imposed by land-use (predominantly arable agriculture) and transport infrastructure on the floodplain. The Eddleston Water has been heavily impacted by many human activities for over 200 years although a modified upland drainage, markedly canalised main-stem channel and floodplain disconnection are most significant to present-day physical and ecological processes. Catchment-scale restoration plans aim to restore broad-scale hydrological processes in conjunction with re-naturalisation of the river corridor at the reach-scale (including floodbank set-back, floodplain reconnection, regeneration of riparian vegetation, large wood placement). In addition, these measures also had to accommodate the objective of sustainable flood risk management, through the combination of a re-naturalised run-off regime and the encouragement of floodplain water storage. We present the output from 1D and 2D hydraulic models of a 1km stretch of the Eddleston Water that jointly assesses the benefit to flood hydrograph attenuation and bio-physical processes of a suite of restoration designs within the floodplain. Although the models produced an optimised design based on these environmental objectives, the ‘real world’ situation of constraints imposed by ‘socio-economic’ factors (particularly agricultural and urban infrastructure pressures) subsequently modified this. In this way the project demonstrated the compromises that have to be made in implementing these type of idealised physical objectives.

Moir, H.; Bowles, C.; Campbell, C.; Sawyer, A.; Comins, L.; Werritty, A.

2010-12-01

188

Development of Flood Hazards Policy in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan, 1947–1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since independence in 1947, floods in the Indus River Basin in Pakistan have claimed more than 7,000 lives and caused massive infrastructure and crop losses. To date, flood damage reduction has received limited attention relative to the irrigation and hydropower subsectors in the basin. Nonstructural approaches to flood hazard mitigation have lagged behind engineering approaches. This article retraces the development

Daanish Mustafa; James L. Wescoat Jr

1997-01-01

189

Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2011-01-01

190

Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of Oxford is situated within a narrow valley in the upper reaches of the River Thames in the south of the United Kingdom. Although much of the city sits above the current floodplain of the River Thames, approximately 3600 properties are located within the 1 in 100 year return flood envelope. The floodplain is underlain by a shallow alluvial aquifer in good hydraulic connection with the River Thames and its tributaries. The city suffers from recurrent floods, most recently in July 2007, when a 1 in 20 year event impacted over 200 properties. A significant number of these properties were affected by flooding from rising groundwater which was either the sole cause of flooding or the initial cause prior to inundation from fluvial waters. A study has been undertaken by the British Geological Survey, in collaboration with the environment regulator and linked with the local flood risk management scheme, to assess the role of groundwater in flooding in Oxford. The study has shown that groundwater flooding in the city occurs in low-lying areas protected from direct fluvial flooding, at least in the early stages of an event, by high ground associated with urbanisation. Although direct rainfall recharge associated with extreme events can cause significant groundwater level rise in these low-lying areas, the primary mechanism for groundwater flooding is the movement of water through the permeable subsurface from fluvial flooded zones. Groundwater flooding is often the only form of flooding for the isolated low-lying areas for medium-to-high probability flood events. As a result, measures to increase the conveyance of flood waters through the valley to reduce direct fluvial flood risk have been identified as beneficial in reducing groundwater flood risk as they will limit the head of fluvial flood waters that drive water through the subsurface into the isolated low-lying areas. The study has shown the importance of anthropogenic topographical changes in controlling the extent, timing and nature of flooding within urban floodplain areas.

MacDonald, D.; Peach, D.; Dixon, A.

2009-12-01

191

Phase One Cultural Resource Survey of Proposed Trunk Highway 60 & 169 Bridge Alterations for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Flood Control Project in Mankato, North Mankato and Le Hillier in Blue Earth and Nicollet Counties, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Phase 1 cultural resource survey of two proposed trunk highway bridge crossing modification projects in association with the Mankato Flood Control Project were conducted during August and October 1981. Study areas include the one-quarter mile relocation...

L. D. Peterson

1982-01-01

192

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

Hearn, Paul P., Jr.; Longenecker, Herbert E., III; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

2013-01-01

193

Influence of spreading urbanization in flood areas on flood damage in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage caused by natural disasters in Slovenia is frequently linked to the ignoring of natural factors in spatial planning. Historically, the construction of buildings and settlements avoided dangerous flood areas, but later we see increasing construction in dangerous areas. During the floods in 1990, the most affected buildings were located on ill-considered locations, and the majority was built in more recent times. A similar situation occurred during the floods of September 2007. Comparing the effects of these floods, we determined that damage was always greater due to the urbanization of flood areas. This process furthermore increasingly limits the "manoeuvring space" for water management authorities, who due to the torrential nature of Slovenia's rivers can not ensure the required level of safety from flooding for unsuitably located settlements and infrastructure. Every year, the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia issues more than one thousand permits for interventions in areas that affect the water regime, and through decrees the government allows construction in riparian zones, which is supposedly forbidden by the Law on Water. If we do not take measures with more suitable policies for spatial planning, we will no long have the possibility in future to reduce the negative consequences of floods. Given that torrential floods strike certain Slovene regions every three years on average and that larger floods occur at least once a decade, it is senseless to lay the blame on climate change.

Komac, B.; Natek, K.; Zorn, M.

2008-11-01

194

Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106 m3 over an area of 1.2 km2 surrounded by about 4 km of artificial levees and closed downstream by a concrete dam 15 m high, equipped with 3 movable floodgates. The structure has the purpose to store the excess water in the case of high return period flood events, releasing it downstream at a controlled rate. A stilling basin is located downstream the dam in order to dissipate the kinetic energy of the discharged flow. The stilling basin is made up of 2 m thick concrete slabs, on which 3 dissipating blocks are located. The deposits below the stilling basin are surrounded by a grout wall (20 m deep) with the aim of realizing a confined "box". Groundwater levels inside the box are controlled by a 110 m long drainage trench located upstream the stilling basin, 3 m below its floor. In the perspective of a long-term management of the reservoir, after the completion of the works, a phase of investigation, control and monitoring of the efficiency of the entire system has been carried out, mainly to highlight the interactions between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer. This task was accomplished filling the reservoir at the maximum retaining level by means of capturing the tails of spring 2008 flood events. The aquifer beneath and surrounding the structure has been investigated by means of several tests, such analysis. Moreover, a groundwater monitoring system made up by 44 piezometers with dataloggers and real- time data transmission to a dedicated website has been set up. Monitoring data before, during, and after the infilling of the reservoir show that the aquifer below the structure is multilayered, with prevailing silty gravels and relatively thin silty and clayey strata. The aquifer can be simplified in three layers: a phreatic aquifer (from 0 to 20 m depth), a thin clayey layer (20 to 25 m) and a regional semi-confined aquifer (beneath 25 m), whose level tend to respond to the reservoir levels. The multidisciplinary database collected so far is the basis of a numerical model that is going to be developed to understand the interactions between the reservoir and the aquifer, in different scenarios.

Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Chiapponi, L.; D'Oria, M.; Giuffredi, F.; Lancellotta, R.; Mignosa, P.; Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Remitti, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

2008-12-01

195

Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

2013-06-01

196

Floods and flood management in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most devastating natural hazard in Pakistan and the recent flooding has demonstrated its severeness. Floods are common throughout the country. However, their characteristics differ from region to region. Flooding behavior of the major basins and flood management at the national level are investigated in this article. Monsoon rainfalls are the main source of floods in the Indus Basin, while Mediterranean Waves and Cyclones, which are generated over the Arabian Sea, induce flooding in the Kharan Basin and the Makran Coastal Area. Fluvial floods in the Indus Basin have caused major economic losses. Pakistan's government has spent vast resources on relief operations and flood works since the country came into existence in 1947. A number of provincial and federal acts, ordinances, accords, and treaties shape the national flood policy. Institutional setup for flood hazard and crisis management has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, data show no major reduction in the flood-to-damage ratio. The inter-linkage of structural and non-structural measures and their combined efficiency must be analyzed and optimized for more effective flood management.

Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman; van de Giesen, Nick

197

Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the

Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Meesha Joshi; Acharya Balkrishna

2010-01-01

198

Research on the flood prevention and control system of the Poyang lake area based on WebGIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to promote the economy development of the PoYang Lake Area, simultaneously provide the information of the rain and water state promptly for all levels of departments, which can be used to establish the auxiliary decision information of the flood or the dike burst for the on-spot direction about the flood prevention and resisting disaster, the author firstly explore the WebGIS technology, which includes the definition and speciality and the basic working patterns of WebGIS; secondly, the author design the project for the system, which includes the principles of system design, development environment, interface design, system function design, and so on; thirdly, the author develop and realize the system. With application to the decision of the on-spot direction about the flood prevention and resisting disaster in the PoYang Lake area, the system not only monitors and forecasts the flood disaster, and gives the loss assessment timely and effectively, but also provides the decision basis for the safe and effective transfer of the suffered staff and property and for determining the optimal path for the relief materials mix.

Liu, Xiaosheng; Chen, Youliang; Sun, Qun

2007-08-01

199

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project is to investigate mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy will be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability; is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the first year of this three year contract, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Surfactants studied include alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amount of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed.

Somasundaran, P.

1994-07-01

200

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30 1995  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project was to investigate mechanisms governing adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy have been determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the three years contract period, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride were the surfactants studied. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes in interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amounts of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactants in mixed aggregate leads to shielding of the charge of ionic surfactants which in turn promotes aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution on adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentration in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

Casteel, J. [Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

1996-07-01

201

Flood modelling in complex hydrologic systems with sparsely resolved data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Directive on Assessment and Management of Flood Risks places significant emphasis on establishing tools suitable for simulating the relevant hydrologic processes in areas of high flood risk. Because flood modelling requires relatively detailed spatial and temporal resolutions, the model selection is controlled by the available distributed hydrologic information. The value of data (mainly stage/discharge records) is indisputable, since the quality of calibration and, consequently, the model predictive capacity, depends on the availability of reliable observations at multiple sites. On the other hand, data scarcity is a global problem in hydrologic engineering that is getting increasingly severe as the monitoring infrastructure is shrinking and degraded. It is therefore crucial to build reliable models that are parsimonious. In this vein, we have adapted the HYDROGEIOS model (Efstratiadis et al., 2008), initially developed as a conjunctive surface-groundwater simulation and water management tool at the monthly time scale, to run in daily time steps. In typical flood simulation packages inputs are time series of precipitation, which are resolved in hourly or finer increment, and detailed hydro-morphologic properties of the stream network. In contrast, the enhanced version of HYDROGEIOS only uses daily rainfall depths and a limited number of parameters that are estimated or calibrated on the basis of once-a-day discharge data. The character of HYDROGEIOS as a conjunctive model enables to represent simultaneously the interactions among the surface and sub-surface processes and the human interventions, and to route the runoff across the stream network. Lacking finely resolved precipitation data and for the purpose of flood routing, we have applied a disaggregation technique to analyse the simulated daily hydrographs in finer time steps. Flood routing is implemented via either a kinematic-wave or a Muskingum diffusive-wave scheme, introducing only one or two parameters per stream reach, respectively. The new version of HYDROGEIOS is being tested on the Boeotikos Kephisos River Basin for flood forecasting in real-time, using as input precipitation forecasts from numerical weather prediction simulations (European project FLASH). The basin is heavily modified, with strong physical heterogeneities, involving multiple peculiarities such as significant karst springs, which rapidly contribute to the streamflow, thus reflecting a strong interaction between surface and ground water processes, and a drainage canal and network in the lower basin with extremely small slopes. Reference Efstratiadis, A., I. Nalbantis, A. Koukouvinos, E. Rozos, and D. Koutsoyiannis, HYDROGEIOS: a semi-distributed GIS-based hydrological model for modified river basins, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 989-1006, 2008.

Efstratiadis, A.; Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2009-04-01

202

Flood peak distributions for the eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual maximum peak discharge time series from 572 stations with a record of at least 75 years in the eastern United States are used to examine flood peak distributions from a regional perspective. The central issues of this study are (1) "mixtures" of flood peak distributions, (2) upper tail properties of flood peaks, (3) scaling properties of flood peaks, (4) spatial heterogeneities of flood peak distributions, and (5) temporal nonstationarities of annual flood peaks. Landfalling tropical cyclones are an important element of flood peak distributions throughout the eastern United States, but their relative importance in the "mixture" of annual flood peaks varies widely, and abruptly, in space over the region. Winter-spring extratropical systems and warm season thunderstorm systems also introduce distinct flood peak populations, with spatially varying control of flood frequency distributions over the eastern United States. We examine abrupt changes in the mean and variance of flood peak distributions through change point analyses and temporal trends in the flood peak records through nonparametric tests. Abrupt changes, rather than slowly varying trends, are typically responsible for nonstationarities in annual flood peak records in the eastern United States, and detected change points are often linked to regulation of river basins. Trend analyses for the 572 eastern United States gaging stations provide little evidence at this point (2009) for increasing flood peak distributions associated with human-induced climate change. Estimates of the location, scale, and shape parameters of the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution provide a framework for examining scaling properties of flood peaks and upper tail properties of flood distributions. It is shown that anomalously large values of the GEV shape parameter estimates are linked to the role of tropical cyclones in controlling the upper tail of flood distributions. Scaling analyses of flood peaks highlight the heterogeneities in flood magnitudes over the region with maxima in scaled flood magnitudes in the high-elevation Appalachian Mountains and minima in the low-gradient Coastal Plain.

Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.

2010-06-01

203

Flood Peak Distributions for the Eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual maximum peak discharge time series from 572 stations with a record of at least 75 years in the eastern United States are used to examine flood peak distributions from a regional perspective. The central issues of this study are: i) "mixtures" of flood peak distributions, ii) upper tail properties of flood peaks, iii) scaling properties of flood peaks, iv) spatial heterogeneities of flood peak distributions and v) temporal non-stationarities of annual flood peaks. Landfalling tropical cyclones are an important element of flood peak distributions throughout the eastern US, but their relative importance in the "mixture" of annual flood peaks varies widely, and abruptly, in space over the region. Winter-spring extratropical systems and warm season thunderstorm systems also introduce distinct flood peak populations, with spatially varying control of flood frequency distributions over the eastern US. We examine abrupt changes in the mean and variance of flood peak distributions through change-point analyses and temporal trends in the flood peak records through non-parametric tests. Abrupt changes, rather than slowly varying trends, are typically responsible for non-stationarities in annual flood peak records in the eastern US and detected change points are often linked to regulation of river basins. Trend analyses for the 572 eastern US gaging stations provide little evidence at this point (2009) for increasing flood peak distributions associated with human-induced climate change. Estimates of the location, scale and shape parameters of the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution provide a framework for examining scaling properties of flood peaks and upper tail properties of flood distributions. It is shown that anomalously large values of the GEV shape parameter estimates are linked to role of tropical cyclones in controlling the upper tail of flood distributions. Scaling analyses of flood peaks highlight the heterogeneities in flood magnitudes over the region with maxima in scaled flood magnitudes in the high-elevation Appalachian Mountains and minima in the low-gradient Coastal Plain.

Villarini, G.; Smith, J. A.

2009-12-01

204

Federal Emergency Management Agency's National Flood Insurance Program: Call for Issues Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For decades the national response to flood disasters was generally limited to constructing flood control works, such as dams, levees, and seawalls, and providing disaster relief to flood victims. This approach did not reduce losses or discourage unwise de...

2000-01-01

205

Estimating extreme flood probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the exceedance probabilities of extreme floods are needed for the assessment of flood hazard at Department of Energy facilities. A new approach using a joint probability distribution of extreme rainfalls and antecedent soil moisture conditions, along with a rainfall runoff model, provides estimates of probabilities for floods approaching the probable maximum flood. This approach is illustrated for a

T. A. Fontaine; K. W. Potter; C. A. Rodgers

1994-01-01

206

Water management controls net carbon exchange in drained and flooded agricultural peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Draining peatlands for agricultural cultivation creates an ecosystem shift with some of the fastest rates and largest magnitudes of carbon loss attributable to land-use change, yet peatland drainage is practiced around the world due to the high economic benefit of fertile soil. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained at the end of the 19th century for agriculture and human settlement, and as a result, has lost 5-8m of peat soil due to oxidation. To reverse subsidence and capture carbon, there is increasing interest in converting drained agricultural land-uses back to flooded conditions to inhibit further peat oxidation. However, this method remains relatively untested at the landscape-scale. This study analyzed the short-term effects of drained to flooded land-use conversion on the balance of carbon, water, and energy over two years at two landscapes in the Delta. We used the eddy covariance method to compare CO2, CH4, H2O, and energy fluxes under the same meteorological conditions in two different land-use types: a drained pasture grazed by cattle, and a flooded newly-converted rice paddy. By analyzing differences in the fluxes from these two land-use types we determined that water management and differences in the plant canopy both play a fundamental role in governing the seasonal pattern and the annual budgets of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at these two sites. While the pasture was a source of carbon to the atmosphere in both years, the rice paddy captured carbon through NEE, even after considering losses from CH4. Especially during the fallow winter months, flooding the soil at the rice paddy inhibited loss of CO2 through ecosystem respiration when compared with the carbon exchange from the drained pasture.

Hatala, J.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2011-12-01

207

Critical Infrastructure and Interdependency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructure supports the economy, public health and welfare, and security, sometimes in ways that are not apparent. Depending on how infrastructure is defined, it contributes directly to about 10 percent (perhaps more) of the gross domestic product. Infrastructure assets in the United States have been valued at several trillion dollars, or even tens of trillions. The security of infrastructure has

Rae Zimmerman

2006-01-01

208

11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

209

10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ON THE PRESSURE CULVERT, LOOKING NORTH. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

210

Climate Change Impacts on Runoff Generation for the Design of Sustainable Stormwater Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change over the Pacific Northwest is expected to alter the hydrological cycle, such as an increase in winter flooding potential due to more precipitation falling as snow and more frequent rain on snow events. Existing infrastructure for stormwater...

E. Ottenbreit G. Karlovits J. Adam J. V. Wie M. Barik

2011-01-01

211

Long-term effects of flooding on mortality in England and Wales, 1994-2005: controlled interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Limited evidence suggests that being flooded may increase mortality and morbidity among affected householders not just at the time of the flood but for months afterwards. The objective of this study is to explore the methods for quantifying such long-term health effects of flooding by analysis of routine mortality registrations in England and Wales. Methods Mortality data, geo-referenced by postcode of residence, were linked to a national database of flood events for 1994 to 2005. The ratio of mortality in the post-flood year to that in the pre-flood year within flooded postcodes was compared with that in non-flooded boundary areas (within 5 km of a flood). Further analyses compared the observed number of flood-area deaths in the year after flooding with the number expected from analysis of mortality trends stratified by region, age-group, sex, deprivation group and urban-rural status. Results Among the 319 recorded floods, there were 771 deaths in the year before flooding and 693 deaths in the year after (post-/pre-flood ratio of 0.90, 95% CI 0.82, 1.00). This ratio did not vary substantially by age, sex, population density or deprivation. A similar post-flood 'deficit' of deaths was suggested by the analyses based on observed/expected deaths. Conclusions The observed post-flood 'deficit' of deaths is counter-intuitive and difficult to interpret because of the possible influence of population displacement caused by flooding. The bias that might arise from such displacement remains unquantified but has important implications for future studies that use place of residence as a marker of exposure.

2011-01-01

212

Flood profiles for Cypress Creek, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood profiles are included for selected recurrence-interval floods in west-central Florida for a 27-mile reach of Cypress Creek, for a 4-mile tributary reach, and for a 1.2-mile distributary reach. The procedure for constructing flood profiles is based on flood heights computed in a step-backwater analysis using the following data: 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year flood-peak discharges; data for 53 Cypress Creek channel cross sections, 11 tributary cross sections, and 7 distributary cross sections (including roughness coefficients); and stage-discharge relations. Computed flood heights are judged to be generally accurate to plus-or-minus 0.5 foot. Flood data presented can be used to delineate areal extent of flooding on topographic maps. This information can be used by local governmental agencies to control flood-plain development. (Woodard-USGS)

Murphy, W. R., Jr.

1978-01-01

213

Controlling factors of environmental flooding, soil pH and Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil feeding in citrus: Larval survival and larval growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying influences of soil flooding, pH level and soil-inhabiting Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil larval feeding in citrus were examined in two separate greenhouse studies, rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (RFD) and liming×rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (LRFD). Our objectives were to determine the combined effects of soil flooding and pH level on survival and growth of Diaprepes root weevil larvae to gain insights of insect-environmental relations

Hong Li; Clay W. McCoy; James P. Syvertsen

2007-01-01

214

An aggregative fuzzy risk analysis for flood incident management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation of loss or damage is the prime focus in flood incident management (FIM). Emergency response program, a key element\\u000a in flood incident management can fail in multiple ways; however it can be mainly attributed to failure of infrastructure and\\/or\\u000a failure of human institutions. Characterization and quantification of various risk factors in emergency response is a difficult\\u000a task because responses

Samiran Das; Rehan Sadiq; Solomon Tesfamariam

2011-01-01

215

Strategically placing green infrastructure: cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain.  

PubMed

Green infrastructure approaches have attracted increased attention from local governments as a way to lower flood risk and provide an array of other environmental services. The peer-reviewed literature, however, offers few estimates of the economic impacts of such approaches at the watershed scale. We estimate the avoided flood damages and the costs of preventing development of floodplain parcels in the East River Watershed of Wisconsin's Lower Fox River Basin. Results suggest that the costs of preventing conversion of all projected floodplain development would exceed the flood damage mitigation benefits by a substantial margin. However, targeting of investments to high-benefit, low-cost parcels can reverse this equation, generating net benefits. The analysis demonstrates how any flood-prone community can use a geographic-information-based model to estimate the flood damage reduction benefits of green infrastructure, compare them to the costs, and target investments to design cost-effective nonstructural flood damage mitigation policies. PMID:23544743

Kousky, Carolyn; Olmstead, Sheila M; Walls, Margaret A; Macauley, Molly

2013-04-01

216

TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE  

SciTech Connect

This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

2005-12-01

217

Reconstruction of the 1945 Wieringermeer Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state-of-the-art in flood risk assessment focuses on breach models, flood propagation models, and economic modelling of flood damage. However, models need to be validated with real data to avoid erroneous conclusions. Such reference data can either be historic data, or can be obtained from controlled experiments. The inundation of the Wieringermeer polder in the Netherlands in April 1945 is one of the few examples for which sufficient historical information is available. The objective of this article is to compare the flood simulation with flood data from 1945. The context, the breach growth process and the flood propagation are explained. Key findings for current flood risk management addresses the importance of the drainage canal network during the inundation of a polder, and the uncertainty that follows from not knowing the breach growth parameters. This case study shows that historical floods provide valuable data for the validation of models and reveal lessons that are applicable in current day flood risk management.

Hoes, O. A. C.; Hut, R. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Boomgaard, M.

2013-03-01

218

46 CFR 62.35-10 - Flooding safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding safety. 62.35-10 Section 62...Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-10 Flooding safety. (a) Automatic bilge pumps...requirements. (b) Remote controls for flooding safety equipment must remain...

2010-10-01

219

Flood Management Strategies for a Holistic Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living with floods and managing rather than controlling them is becoming the norm. Integrated flood management (IFM) strategies are needed for holistic sustainable developments in the floodplains. A combination of structural and nonstructural measures (IFM) is the key to manage flooding risks to life and property, reduce susceptibility, and preserve ecological diversity and integrity, natural resources and values of the

Ashok K. Katyal; Ioana G. Petrisor

2011-01-01

220

Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss

S. Förster; B. Kuhlmann; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; A. Bronstert

2008-01-01

221

Riverine flood plains: present state and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Natural flood plains are among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems on earth. Globally, riverine flood plains cover ? 2 ? 106 km2, however, they are among the most threatened ecosystems. Floodplain degradation is closely linked to the rapid decline in freshwater biodiversity; the main reasons for the latter being habitat alteration, flow and flood control, species invasion

Klement Tockner; Jack A. Stanford

2002-01-01

222

Critical infrastructure protection.  

PubMed

Current government policies for protecting the nation's critical infrastructure are described in this article which focuses on hospital disaster planning and incident management and the significant role of Security in infrastructure protection PMID:22970630

Deitz, Kim M

2012-01-01

223

Fermilab Data Storage Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consist...

J. Bakken E. Berman C. H. Huang A. Moibenko D. Petravick M. Zalokar

2003-01-01

224

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPAâ??s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

225

Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park through use of controlled floods in conjunction with typical amounts and grain sizes of sand supplied by the tributaries that enter the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam.

Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

2010-01-01

226

Improveed Efficiency of Miscible CO(2) Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO(2) Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs.  

SciTech Connect

A new grant, `Improved Efficiency of Miscible C0{sub 2} Floods and Enhanced Prospects for C0{sub 2} Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs`, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-97BC 15047, has been awarded and started on June 1, 1997. This work will examine three major areas in which C0{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery.

Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

1997-07-15

227

Flood Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flood problems in India, regional variabilityof the problem, present status of the ongoing management measures, their effectiveness and futureneeds in flood management are covered. Flood problems in India are presented by four zonesof flooding, viz. (a) Brahmaputra River Basin, (b) Ganga River Basin, (c) North-WestRivers Basin, and (d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin. Some special problems,related

P. K. Mohapatra; R. D. Singh

2003-01-01

228

Infrastructure for microsystem production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

1999-03-01

229

Rehabilitating agriculture and promoting food security following the 2010 Pakistan floods: Insights from South Asian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent floods in Pakistan have had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA 2010) estimates that, as of early September 2010, more than 20 million people had been displaced by the flood and by some estimates the damage to crops, housing, other buildings, roads, and irrigation infrastructure now reaches $6.5

Paul Dorosh; Sohail Malik; Marika Krausova

2010-01-01

230

Analysis of the 2002 flood in Austria - facts, conclusions and mitigation measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2002 Austria was affected - like other European countries e.g. Germany, Czech Republic or Romania - by an extreme flood event, which occurred in Central Europe and brought rainfall of extraordinary extent and flood recurrence intervals from several years to more than 1000 years. Losses of human life and livestock and damages of infrastructure, buildings, public and private

H. Formayer; H. Habersack; H. Holzmann; A. Moser; P. Seibert

2003-01-01

231

August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

2003-04-01

232

Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in hospitals: A Consensus Panel report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific basis for claims of efficacy of nosocomial infection surveillance and control programs was established by the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control project. Subsequent analyses have demonstrated nosocomial infection prevention and control programs to be not only clinically effective but also cost-effective. Although governmental and professional organizations have developed a wide variety of useful recommendations and

William E. Scheckler; Dennis Brimhall; Alfred S. Buck; Barry M. Farr; Candace Friedman; Richard A. Garibaldi; Peter A. Gross; Jo-Ann Harris; Walter J. Hierholzer; William J. Martone; Linda L. McDonald; Steven L. Solomon

1998-01-01

233

Flood of September 2008 in Northwestern Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During September 12-15, 2008, rainfall ranging from 2 to more than 11 inches fell on northwestern Indiana. The rainfall resulted in extensive flooding on many streams within the Lake Michigan and Kankakee River Basins during September 12-18, causing two deaths, evacuation of hundreds of residents, and millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, six counties in northwestern Indiana were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at four locations recorded new record peak streamflows as a result of the heavy rainfall. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, annual exceedance probabilities, and recurrence intervals are tabulated in this report for 10 USGS streamgages in northwestern Indiana. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at six streamgages. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Munster, Dyer, Hammond, Highland, Gary, Lake Station, Hobart, Schererville, Merrillville, Michiana Shores, and Portage, high-water-park data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available.

Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.

2010-01-01

234

Building Flood Resilience: From Theory to Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban floods cannot be managed in isolation at the city scale and responses to build and increase resilience are complicated by interlinked political, socio-economic and environmental changes. However, there are significant opportunities to make buildings and infrastructure more flood resilient through synergistic interventions. Given the pace of climate and other changes and the need to refurbish the existing building stock, there is tremendous challenge to incorporate flexible, adaptable and more flood resilient measures by synergistic inclusion within refurbishment and renovation programmes. This needs to be recognised and become mainstream, so that inclusion of such measures becomes the norm. Failure to do this in this decade will miss vital and unique opportunities to harness a significant fraction of our Western cities against the increasing treat of flooding . This is illustrated in the paper by recent studies in the Netherlands that have mapped urban flood vulnerabilities and identified where these opportunities can best be targeted at the current building stock through refurbishment, renewal and regeneration. In this paper it will be shown that local-scale pioneering is essential in this process to encourage the cultivation of resilience through synergistic interventions.

Zevenbergen, C.

2012-04-01

235

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

236

Design for Resilience of Networked Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any critical infrastructure is controlled and managed by networked information and communication technologies (ICT) systems. Tremendous progress in the emerging area of ubiquitous, pervasive and tangible computing enables hardware and software to be integrated to a degree that makes possible a technological revolution in which ICT systems merged with physical infrastructure will be transformed together into a vast intelligence network,

Mihaela Ulieru

2007-01-01

237

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

238

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO(2) Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO(2) Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs.  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to improve the efficiency of miscible C0{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This objective was accomplished through experimental and modeling research in three task areas: (1) foams for selective mobility control in heterogeneous reservoirs,( 2) reduction of the amount of C0{sub 2} required in C0{sub 2} floods, and (3) low IFT processe and the possibility of C0{sub 2} flooding in fractured reservoirs. This report provides results from the three-year project for each of the three task areas.

Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

1997-08-01

239

Extreme Rainfall and Flooding in Urban Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) has provided an exceptional laboratory for examining the coupled hydrometeorological, hydrologic and hydraulic processes that control extreme floods in urban environments. In this paper, we survey the major conclusions drawn from this \\

J. A. Smith

2006-01-01

240

The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider reaching Alameda Creek Historical Ecology Study has assessed overall watershed conditions prior to significant Euro-American modification, including historical patterns of sediment transport and storage in the Livermore Valley. These two studies provide context for a focused three-year study to determine the flow of water and sediment into and out of Zone 7 facilities; determine characteristics, rates, and causes of sedimentation; and map and characterize channel modification and mitigation opportunities. The program has begun measuring suspended load and bedload during high flow events at three sites that constrain the management area which will continue into water year 2012, and has begun mapping hillslope sediment processes. Next phases will include an assessment of channel depositional processes and causes and a more detailed evaluation of historical channel function at the reach scale building upon the existing watershed scale knowledge. This study provides further opportunity to integrate historical understanding of watershed functions with current geomorphic research to more effectively inform resource management decisions and can be and has been a model for other watersheds in California and beyond.

Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

2011-12-01

241

Developing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in the New York City Infrastructure-Shed: Process, Approach, Tools, and Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and ...

A. LeBlanc C. Faris C. Rosenzweig D. Major E. Sussman G. Yohe K. Jacob L. Patrick M. Bowman M. Linkin M. O'Grady R. Blake R. Horton R. Leichenko R. Zimmerman V. Gornitz W. D. Solecki

2010-01-01

242

Aggradation in response to extreme flooding and watershed management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998, the San Marcos River, located along the Balcones Escarpment in Central Texas, experienced the largest flood in its recorded history. The San Marcos is a heavily managed watershed containing flood control dams, reaches of channelized flow, and a man made lake. This study examines changes to the fluvial system as a result of the combination of an extreme flow event and watershed management practices. The flood caused mass wasting and channel bed aggradation. Since the flood, watershed management practices and flood retention structures have reduced the ability of the flows to transport sediment through the channel. Results indicate that since flood control measures were implemented, only two flood events could have produced any significant transport of material in the study reach. The lasting effect has been an increase in the width to depth ratio in the downstream portion of the river and the creation of a large sediment bar in the upstream channel reach.

Engel, F. L.; Curran, J. C.

2006-12-01

243

Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years  

PubMed Central

Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B.; Buntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H.; Schar, Christoph; Beer, Jurg; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

2013-01-01

244

Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.  

PubMed

Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change. PMID:24067733

Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

2013-09-26

245

Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms  

PubMed Central

There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2011-01-01

246

Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

2012-04-01

247

Regional flood probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1\\/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number

Brent M. Troutman; Michael R. Karlinger

2003-01-01

248

sSCADA: Securing SCADA Infrastructure Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed control systems (DCS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems were developed to reduce labor costs, and to allow system-wide monitoring and remote control from a central location. Control systems are widely used in critical infrastructures such as electric grid, natural gas, water, and wastewater industries. While control systems can be vulnerable to a variety of types of

Yongge Wang; Bei-Tseng Chu

2004-01-01

249

Root responses to flooding.  

PubMed

Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding. PMID:23608517

Sauter, Margret

2013-04-19

250

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area ( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Météo France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommières, famous for it's flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it's method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. After more than 100 events observed and analysed in South of France, the experience gained, allowed PREDICT Services to better anticipate phenomena and also to better manage them. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned on risk management.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

251

Flood management selections for the Yangtze River midstream after the Three Gorges Project operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irregular fluvial processes occurred after the Three Gorges Project (TGP) closed the Yangtze River. Present flood-control capacity is lower than previously estimated. Two different control schemes of TGP are recommended to remedy the possibility of flood.

Fang, Hongwei; Han, Dong; He, Guojian; Chen, Minghong

2012-04-01

252

Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

2008-03-31

253

Smart Valley Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

Maule, R. William

1994-01-01

254

Infrastructure Survey 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

255

The RETSINA MAS Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

RETSINA is an implemented Multi-Agent System infrastructure that has been developed for several years and applied in many domains ranging from financial portfolio management to logistic planning. In this paper, we distill from our experience in developing MASs to clearly define a generic MAS infrastructure as the domain independent and reusable substratum that supports the agents' social interactions. In addition,

Katia P. Sycara; Massimo Paolucci; Martin Van Velsen; Joseph A. Giampapa

2003-01-01

256

Smart Valley Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

Maule, R. William

1994-01-01

257

Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy infrastructure faced with deregulation and coupled with interdependencies with other critical infrastructures and increased demand for high-quality and reliable electricity for our digital economy is becoming more and more stressed. The occurrence of several cascading failures in the past 40 years has helped focus attention on the need to understand the complex phenomena associated with these interconnected systems and

MASSOUD AMIN

2005-01-01

258

ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE AND SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about safeguarding key infrastructures (such as energy, communications, banking, and roads) from deliberate attack are long-standing, but since the end to the cold war, emphasis has turned to the possible impacts of terrorism. Activities to address these concerns are sometimes called critical infrastructure protection (CIP), a concept that is somewhat different from the one of \\

Alexander E. Farrell; Hisham Zerriffi; Hadi Dowlatabadi

2004-01-01

259

76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `?ao Stream Flood Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...significant impacts associated with impairment of groundwater recharge, sediment loading impacts to native aquatic species...grade control structures; stilling basin areas; groundwater infiltration areas; natural erosion...

2011-04-08

260

Green Infrastructure Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Green Infrastructure:  An adaptable term used to describe an array of products, technologies, and practices that use natural systems - or engineered systems that mimic natural processes - to enhance overall environmental quality and provide utility services. As a general principal, Green Infrastructure techniques use soils and vegetation to infiltrate, evapotranspirate, and/or recycle stormwater runoff. When used as components of a stormwater management system, Green Infrastructure practices such as green roofs, porous pavement, rain gardens, and vegetated swales can produce a variety of environmental benefits. In addition to effectively retaining and infiltrating rainfall, these technologies can simultaneously help filter air pollutants, reduce energy demands, mitigate urban heat islands, and sequester carbon while also providing communities with aesthetic and natural resource benefits.   From Green Infrastructure Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "green infrastructure"

2011-05-24

261

Advances in Regionalising Flood Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Flood regionalisation methods are used to estimate floods of a given excedance probability, such as the 100-year flood, in\\u000a ungauged catchments, i.e. catchments, where no local streamflow data are available. They can also be used to improve flood\\u000a estimates from local data in gauged catchments. The main idea of flood regionalisation methods is to transfer flood information\\u000a from hydrologically similar

Ralf Merz

262

Alluvial Fan Flooding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses a wide range of issues related to alluvial fan flooding. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to why identification of alluvial fan flooding hazards is controversial and the problems of definitions. Chapter 2 looks in more depth at fan...

1996-01-01

263

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA's National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams.

Spangler, Tim

2006-11-01

264

Detecting SYN Flooding Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple and robust mechanism for de- tecting SYN flooding attacks. Instead of monitoring the ongoing traffic at the front end (like firewall or proxy) or a victim server itself, we detect the SYN flooding attacks at leaf routers that con- nect end hosts to the Internet. The simplicity of our detection mechanism lies in its statelessness and

Haining Wang; Danlu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2002-01-01

265

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

266

Flash floods in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief description of the magnitude and nature of floods in Indian rivers, this paper describes the existing flood forecasting organisation in the country and the proposed plans to augment its services. The occurrence of intense, short duration rainfall during the south­ west monsoon period is then examined with respect to the regions of occurrence, frequency and magnitude. It

Pritam Singh; A. S. Ramanathan; V. G. Ghanekar

267

The National Database of Hospital-based Cancer Registries: A Nationwide Infrastructure to Support Evidence-based Cancer Care and Cancer Control Policy in Japan.  

PubMed

Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice. PMID:23448800

Higashi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Akiko; Emori, Yoshiko; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

2013-02-28

268

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Météo France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommières, famous for it’s flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it’s method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

269

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species and so...

P. Somasundaran

1994-01-01

270

Communication and Information Systems Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a conceptualization of a communication and information system's infrastructure in order to help campus leaders plan more effectively. Discusses its elements, creating access to information, infrastructure maturity, infrastructure assessment, and technology planning for higher education. (EV)

Maughan, George R.

2001-01-01

271

[Attributes of forest infrastructure].  

PubMed

This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management. PMID:17763742

Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

2007-06-01

272

Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

273

Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines flood risk perceptions of individuals in the Netherlands using a survey of approximately 1000 homeowners. Perceptions of a range of aspects of flood risk are elicited. Various statistical models are used to estimate the influence of socioeconomic and geographical characteristics, personal experience with flooding, knowledge of flood threats, and individual risk attitudes on shaping risk belief. The study shows that in general, perceptions of flood risk are low. An analysis of the factors determining risk perceptions provides four main insights relevant for policy makers and insurers. First, differences in expected risk are consistently related to actual risk levels, since individuals in the vicinity of a main river and low-lying areas generally have elevated risk perceptions. Second, individuals in areas unprotected by dikes tend to underestimate their risk of flooding. Third, individuals with little knowledge of the causes of flood events have lower perceptions of flood risk. Fourth, there is some evidence that older and more highly educated individuals have a lower flood risk perception. The findings indicate that increasing knowledge of citizens about the causes of flooding may increase flood risk awareness. It is especially important to target individuals who live in areas unprotected by dike infrastructure, since they tend to be unaware of or ignore the high risk exposure faced.

Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.

2009-10-01

274

Seasonal Flood Forecasts and Dynamic Flood Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in predicting seasonal flood peaks\\/volumes conditioned on ocean, atmospheric and land surface conditions offer the scope for dynamic flood risk management. We address a deficiency of the traditional assumption that flood series are stationary, independent and identically distributed (iid). In this study, we evaluate a semi-parametric methodology based on local likelihood estimation for estimating the flood quantiles based

S. Arumugam; U. Lall

2004-01-01

275

Contaminated sediment transport during floods  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions.

Fontaine, T.A.

1992-06-01

276

INSC Security Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The INSC project was an international collaborative research and development activity established under an MOU among eight NATO nations to investigate and demonstrate a secure IPv6 network infrastructure capable of supporting a multi-national military coa...

S. Zeber

2004-01-01

277

In Orbit Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic approach to space activity by using a standardized automated multipurpose system of transportation and accomodation to, in, and from orbit, called In-Orbit Infrastructure (IOI) is discussed. The IOI needs of commercial space platforms for Ear...

J. Lacaze

1983-01-01

278

Cyber Infrastructure Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is intended to address important issues in the security and protection of information systems and network infrastructure. This includes the strategic implications of the potential failure of our critical network and information systems infrastru...

J. L. Jordan T. Saadawi

2011-01-01

279

A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

Buntinas, Darius [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Watson, Gregory R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2008-01-01

280

Hazard Management with DOORS: Rail Infrastructure Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

LOI is a major rail infrastructure project that will contribute to a modernised transport system in time for the 2012 Olympic\\u000a Games. A review of the procedures and tool infrastructure was conducted in early 2006, coinciding with a planned move to main\\u000a works. A hazard log support tool was needed to provide: an automatic audit trial, version control and support

Dave Hughes; Amer Saeed

2009-01-01

281

Intrusion-Tolerant Protection for Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Today’s critical infrastructures like the Power Grid are essentially physical processes controlled by computers connected by networks. They are usually as vulnerable as any other interconnected computer system, but their failure has a high socio-economic impact. The paper describes a new construct for the protection of these infrastructures, based on distributed algorithms and mechanisms,implemented,between a set of devices called

Alysson Neves Bessani; Paulo Sousa; Miguel Correia; Ferreira Neves; Paulo Verissimo

2007-01-01

282

Re?imagining Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior executive of Booz Allen Hamilton and co?author of a business bestseller called Megacommunities argues that the United States is locked into an obsolete pattern of dealing with infrastructure investment, even as the country's population growth and technology have raced ahead. Three of America's basic “lifeline” infrastructures—energy, transportation, and water—are nearing the end of their useful operating lives and

Mark Gerencser

283

Re?imagining Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior executive of Booz Allen Hamilton and co?author of a business bestseller called Megacommunities argues that the United States is locked into an obsolete pattern of dealing with infrastructure investment, even as the country's population growth and technology have raced ahead. Three of America's basic “lifeline” infrastructures—energy, transportation, and water—are nearing the end of their useful operating lives and

Mark Gerencser

2011-01-01

284

Road assessment after flood events using non-authoritative data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research proposes a methodology that leverages non-authoritative data to augment flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation infrastructure. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its integration with established data and methods. Crowdsourced photos and volunteered geographic data are fused together using a geostatistical interpolation to create an estimation of flood damage in New York City following Hurricane Sandy. This damage assessment is utilized to augment an authoritative storm surge map as well as to create a road damage map for the affected region.

Schnebele, E.; Cervone, G.; Waters, N.

2013-08-01

285

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-28

286

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

287

Building safeguards infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclelland - Kerr, John [NNSA/NA-242

2009-01-01

288

Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Second annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this laboratory work is to develop improved mobility control agents that are more effective than the commercial polymers currently used in this process. During the second year of the project, the baseline testing of commercial products was completed. These baseline tests with polymers include studies on mobility control, retention, and shear degradation in Berea cores, the effect of common ions on rheological properties, thermal stability, microbial degradation, and surfactant-polymer interactions. These data are used for comparison of the commercial agents at standardized sets of conditions, and are also used to evaluate new, modified, or improved polymers. Work was also initiated on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new and modified polymers. Testing of these analogs provides systematic correlations of polymer performance with polymer structure. This preliminary testing consists of measurements of shear degradation and viscosity loss in NaCl brines by the use of a simplified screening procedure. To date, a number of potential structure-utility relationships have been observed. Solution viscosities of all nonionic polymers tested are essentially insensitive to changes in NaCl concentration. Increasing the charge-to-mass ratio (degree of hydrolysis) of either polyacrylamides or N-alkyl analogs enhances the ability of these polymers to build viscosity in low salinity NaCl brines. However, such polymers are increasingly subject to viscosity loss as the salinity is increased. Above a certain critical molecular weight, polymers become more susceptible to shear degradation. Many of the polymers that possess stiffer backbones exhibit improved brine and shear stability. The results of these studies will be used to develop an improved mobility control polymer in the next phase of this project.

Martin, F.D.; Donaruma, L.G.; Hatch, M.J.

1981-04-01

289

Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. First annual report, September 29, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1: Based on a literature survey and input solicited from industry, academic, and government sources, inadequacies of the currently used mobility control materials were assessed. Phase 2: Baseline screening of commercially available polymers began in January 1979. Rheological measurements and mobility control test in Berea cores have been completed on Dow Pusher 700, Betz Hi Vis, Nalco Nal-flo, Cyanamid 960S, Kelco Xanflood, and Abbott Xanthan Broth. Similar tests were completed for Pusher 500, Pusher 1000, Amoco Sweepaid 103, and Pfizer Flocon Biopolymer 1035. Shear degradation tests in Berea core plugs have been completed for one acrylamide-type polymer and one xanthan polymer in 0.3% NaCl. Similar tests in 3% NaCl plus 0.3% CaCl/sub 2/ are in progress. Viscosity and screen factor data have been collected for most of the commercially available polymers. Long-term thermal stability tests with one polyacrylamide polymer and one xanthan polymer have been initiated. Phase 3: The polymer synthesis phase of the program is in progress. A series of N-alkyl (N-methyl, N-isopropyl, and N-butyl) acrylamide homopolymers and copolymers with acrylic acid has been synthesized. Variations of the substituents on the acrylamide nitrogen atom did not substantially change the properties of the parent compound. Increasing the molecular weight tends to impart increased shear sensitivity. Degree of hydrolysis also affects performance of the modified polymer. 25 figures, 40 tables.

Martin, F.D.

1980-05-01

290

Effectiveness of monsoon floods on the Tapi River, India: role of channel geometry and hydrologic regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphic effects of floods are a function of several controlling factors, such as magnitude, frequency, rate of sediment movement, flood power, duration of effective flows, sequence of events and the channel geometry. In this paper, these measures of effectiveness have been evaluated for the monsoon-dominated, flood-controlled and incised Tapi River, India by defining four flow categories: low flows, moderate flows,

Vishwas S Kale; Pramodkumar S Hire

2004-01-01

291

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

292

ECOWAS's infrastructure : a regional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructure improvements boosted growth in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) by one percentage point per capita per year during 1995-2005, primarily thanks to growth in information and communication technology. Deficient power infrastructure held growth back by 0.1 percent. Raising the region's infrastructure to the level of Mauritius could boost growth by 5 percentage points. Overall, infrastructure in

Rupa Ranganathan; Vivien Foster

2011-01-01

293

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

1999-10-15

294

The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.

2010-12-01

295

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993December 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species and solids of relevant mineralogy will also be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used

Somasundaran

1994-01-01

296

Hydrologic connectivity of oxbow lakes along the lower Guadalupe River, Texas: The influence of geomorphic and climatic controls on the "flood pulse concept"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative indices establish distinctive signatures of hydrologic connectivity for different types of oxbow lakes. "Flood pulse concept" inadequate to define the connectivity dynamics for old oxbows if examined only with discharge data. Oxbow lake response to extreme hydrologic conditions caused by ENSO for the northwestern Gulf Coastal Plain. Results inform "integrated floodplain management" along meandering river floodplains.

Hudson, Paul F.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Leitch, Maraigh B.

2012-01-01

297

A Large-Scale Experiment to Determine the Effectiveness of Controlled Floods and Tamarisk Removal in Rehabilitating the Green River, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale field experiment is underway on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore to evaluate the effectiveness of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) removal and increased magnitude and duration of floods released from Flaming Gorge Dam (FGD) for the purpose of increasing active channel width and increasing entrainment rates on gravel bars where there are large proportions of fines. Results

J. C. Schmidt; D. J. Cooper; G. P. Larson

2002-01-01

298

Neural Network based Intrusion Detection System for critical infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and nuclear plant's in today's world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly

Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

2009-01-01

299

Thirty Years Later: Reflections of the Big Thompson Flood, Colorado, 1976 to 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years ago, over 300 mm of rain fell in about 4 to 6 hours in the middle reaches of the Big Thompson River Basin during the devastating flash flood on July 31, 1976. The rainstorm produced flood discharges that exceeded 40 m3/s/km2. A peak discharge of 883 m3/s was estimated at the Big Thompson River near Drake streamflow-gaging station. The raging waters left 144 people dead, 250 injured, and over 800 people were evacuated by helicopter. Four-hundred eighteen homes and businesses were destroyed, as well as 438 automobiles, and damage to infrastructure left the canyon reachable only via helicopter. Total damage was estimated in excess of $116 million (2006 dollars). Natural hazards similar to the Big Thompson flood are rare, but the probability of a similar event hitting the Front Range, other parts of Colorado, or other parts of the Nation is real. Although much smaller in scale than the Big Thompson flood, several flash floods have happened during the monsoon in early July 2006 in the Colorado foothills that reemphasized the hazards associated with flash flooding. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts flood research to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson flood. A summary of hydrologic conditions of the 1976 flood, what the 1976 flood can teach us about flash floods, a description of some of the advances in USGS flood science as a consequence of this disaster, and lessons that we learned to help reduce loss of life from this extraordinary flash flood are discussed. In the 30 years since the Big Thompson flood, there have been important advances in streamflow monitoring and flood warning. The National Weather Service (NWS) NEXRAD radar allows real-time monitoring of precipitation in most places in the United States. The USGS currently (2006) operates about 7,250 real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the United States that are monitored by the USGS, the NWS, and emergency managers. When substantial flooding occurs, the USGS mobilizes personnel to collect streamflow data in affected areas. Streamflow data improve flood forecasting and provide data for flood-frequency analysis for floodplain management, design of structures located in floodplains, and related water studies. An important lesson learned is that nature provides environmental signs before and during floods that can help people avoid hazard areas. Important contributions to flood science as a result of the 1976 flood include development of paleoflood methods to interpret the preserved flood-plain stratigraphy to document the number, magnitude, and age of floods that occurred prior to streamflow monitoring. These methods and data on large floods can be used in many mountain-river systems to help us better understand flood hazards and plan for the future. For example, according to conventional flood-frequency analysis, the 1976 Big Thompson flood had a flood recurrence interval of about 100 years. However, paleoflood research indicated the 1976 flood was the largest in about the last 10,000 years in the basin and had a flood recurrence interval in excess of 1,000 years.

Jarrett, R. D.; Costa, J. E.; Brunstein, F. C.; Quesenberry, C. A.; Vandas, S. J.; Capesius, J. P.; O'Neill, G. B.

2006-12-01

300

Assessment of large-scale flood events by different indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of real large-scale flood events reveals that there is considerable variation in the return periods of the discharges within a river basin. The assessment of the return period of the whole event has thus to be evaluated on the basis of the overall impact of the event. For example, a frequency analysis of a series of annual flood damages (loss accumulation) would enable us to assign an exceedance probability to each event. However, in practise, time series of losses or other impact variables are hardly available or their usage is limited due to changes in time of the land use of the areas prone to inundation and their assets (building values, assets of companies and infrastructure). Using a reach at the River Rhine between the gauges Maxau and Rees as an example, a probabilistic model for the calculation of flood risks has been set up. The model is based on a flood classification at the river Rhine, which is then combined with flood frequency, correlation and regression analyses. Inundation areas are calculated by means of a hydraulic transformation. In the framework of a Monte-Carlo-Simulation 100 flood scenarios were derived and different impact parameters were determined, i.e. the total inundated area, the inundated settlement and industrial area, the exposed population as well as the potential damage to residential buildings as estimated by the loss model FLEMOps. The impact analyses were further used to construct a frequency distribution of each impact variable. By these the return periods of a number of historical flood events and a few static flood scenarios that were used for hazard mapping were estimated. The results will be discussed in the context of risk transfer systems and risk communication issues.

Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.; Apel, H.

2009-04-01

301

Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, four scenarios were used to quantify the balance between the benefits of levees for flood protection\\u000a and their potential to increase flood risk using Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard flood-loss software and hydraulic modeling of the\\u000a Middle Mississippi River (MMR). The goals of this study were (1) to quantify the flood exposure under different flood-control\\u000a configurations and (2) to

Jonathan W. F. RemoMegan; Megan Carlson; Nicholas Pinter

302

Modeling critical infrastructure requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructures in industrialized nations form a highly interdependent network that must be protected against both intrinsic defects and active attacks. This requires local as well as joint situational awareness based on current, accurate, and semantically unambiguous data as well as simulations, particularly of attack scenarios, necessitating in turn automated information sharing measures that can span transitive dependency networks. Since

Stephen D. Wolthusen

2004-01-01

303

Iceland's National Information Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses Iceland's national information infrastructure in the year 2000. It focuses on the current information policy and legislation of the country. It looks at this policy as it is presented in government publications from the last 5 years and evaluates its effects, with particular regard to the education, culture and health sectors. It describes the foundation of a

SVEINN OLAFSSON

1999-01-01

304

Public health information infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public health infrastructure is a set of agencies and organizations whose mission is to create the environment in which we can be healthy. This broadest of definitions includes state and local health departments, selected federal agencies, and a wide range of other governmental, nonprofit, and for-profit agencies and organizations. This report will limit itself to state and local health

JOEL L. NITZKIN; CHRISTOPHER BUTTERY

2008-01-01

305

Infrastructure Survey 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

306

Trust Assertion XML Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trust Assertion XML Infrastructure (TAXI) is described. TAXI is a PKI research project that had the objective of developing technology that would assist the deployment of PKI. Parts of the TAXI architecture have since been realized in open standards, notably the X KMS (X KMS) and SAML (SAML) specifications, ot her parts of the T AXI arc hitecture s

Phillip Hallam-Baker

307

Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

NONE

2006-06-15

308

Flood Plain Management Information Report, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Development of Flood Plains; Why Flood Plain Management, What is Good Flood Plain Management; Sample Flood Plain Regulations; Responsibility of State, County, and Local Governments; What Information is Available; What Local Action can be Taken b...

1973-01-01

309

78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-09

310

78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-16

311

78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

312

78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-12

313

77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-05-18

314

78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1296] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-03-06

315

77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-08-02

316

77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1254] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-05-08

317

77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1282] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-12-28

318

78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

319

77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-07-30

320

77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1261] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-07-30

321

78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-04

322

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2013-01-01

323

78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

324

77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1267] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-09-21

325

78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-31

326

77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1266] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-09-11

327

78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-13

328

78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

329

77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1236] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-03-28

330

78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-09-19

331

78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-09

332

Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

2013-04-01

333

Security Infrastructure for On-demand Provisioned Cloud Infrastructure Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing consistent security services in on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services is of primary importance due to multi-tenant and potentially multi-provider nature of Clouds Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) environment. Cloud security infrastructure should address two aspects of the IaaS operation and dynamic security services provisioning: (1) provide security infrastructure for secure Cloud IaaS operation, (2) provisioning dynamic security services, including

Yuri Demchenko; Canh Ngo; Cees de Laat; Tomasz Wiktor Wlodarczyk; Chunming Rong; Wolfgang Ziegler

2011-01-01

334

River Flooding and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Dupre, Bill

335

Flood monitoring over the Mackenzie River Basin using passive microwave data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding over the Mackenzie River Basin, which is situated in northwestern Canada, is a complex and rapid process. This process is mainly controlled by the occurrence of ice jams. Flood forecasting is of very important in mitigating social and economic damage. This study investigates the potential of a rating curve model for flood forecasting. The proposed approach is based on

Marouane Temimi; Robert Leconte; Francois Brissette; Naira Chaouch

2005-01-01

336

Biogeochemistry and cycling of zinc and copper in a dyked seasonally flooded savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is very little information on the cycling of heavy metals in natural savannas. Venezuelan flooded savannas are characterised by acid soils with redox conditions which might induce Zn and Cu solubilisation. In those flooded savannas a network of small dykes has been constructed to control floods. The biomass accretion after dyking and the abundance of clay particles in the

Danilo López-Hernández

2008-01-01

337

Modeling Dependencies In Critical Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a model for expressing critical infrastructure dependencies. The model addresses the limitations of existing approaches with respect to clarity of definition, support for quality and the influence of operating states of critical infrastructures and environmental factors.

Nieuwenhuijs, Albert; Luiijf, Eric; Klaver, Marieke

338

Agent-based infrastructure modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investiga...

M. J. North

2000-01-01

339

Research on Submarine Maneuverability of Flooded Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper establishes the emergency recovery maneuver motion model. According to the characteristic of hydrodynamics coefficients on flooded submarine, attaining hydrodynamics coefficients of different angle of attack by limited ship model hydrodynamics experiment of large angle of attack. A sensitivity index is introduced to evaluate submarine's controllability. The experiment results are regressed to two kinds of hydrodynamic coefficients for big

Liu Hui; Pu Jinyun; Jin Tao

2009-01-01

340

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams. Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corro...

G. Thomas A. Brown

1997-01-01

341

Fault tree analysis for urban flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to the overall flood probability. This paper gives the results

J. A. E. Ten Veldhuis; F. H. L. R. Clemens

2008-01-01

342

Feedback on flood risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To

K. Moreau; A. Roumagnac

2009-01-01

343

Building green infrastructure via citizen participation - a six-year study in the Shepherd Creek  

EPA Science Inventory

Green infrastructure at the parcel scale provides critical ecosystem goods and services when these services (such as flood mitigation) must be provided locally. Here we report on an approach that encourages suburban landowners to mitigate impervious surfaces on their properties t...

344

Repairing Your Flooded Home.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Step 1: Take Care of Yourself First; Step 2: Give Your Home First Aid; Step 3: Get Organized; Step 4: Dry Out Your Home; Step 5: Restore the Utilities; Step 6: Clean Up; Step 7: Check on Financial Assistance: Step 8: Rebuild and Flood proof; and...

2003-01-01

345

After the Flood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

Stanistreet, Paul

2007-01-01

346

STEAMBOAT CREEK FLOOD STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present the development, analy- sis, calibration, and results of a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic study performed for the Steamboat Creek watershed, located in Reno, Nevada. The purpose of the study was to establish accurate Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) in support of a number of residential developments proposed along Steamboat Creek. There had been several studies performed over

Carla Muscarella; Todd Cochran

2007-01-01

347

After the Flood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything…

Stanistreet, Paul

2007-01-01

348

Hydrologic Flood Routing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)|

Heggen, Richard J.

1982-01-01

349

Glacier outburst floods (jökulhlaups) from Kverkfjöll, Iceland: flood routeways, flow characteristics and sedimentary impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jökulhlaups with peak discharges of 10^5 -- 10^6m^3s-1 have occurred during the Holocene along the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river in north-eastern Iceland. Controversy surrounds their source, cause, frequency and characteristics. Kverkfjöll is a glaciated volcano on the northern margin of the Vatnajökull and is a discrete source of meltwater into the Jökulsá á Fjöllum. This study presents evidence of jökulhlaup flows from Kverkfjöll and methods used in their reconstruction. Flow reconstructions will be used to quantify the spatial and temporal variation in jökulhlaup flow characteristics (depth, velocity, shear stress, energy and stream power). Jökulhlaup routeways are distinguished from non-flood surfaces by identifying landforms and sediments diagnostic of jökulhlaups and alternative processes. The geologically controlled topography of the area has significantly influenced the routing of floods from Kverkfjöll. In some localities flows were of a magnitude sufficient to spill over low divides into neighbouring valleys, producing an anastomosing complex of flow routeways. Within channel evidence of jökulhlaups includes erosional features such as dry waterfalls and cataracts, linear grooves, sculpted bedrock bedforms, obstacle scour marks and streamlined hills. Depositional evidence includes bars, terraces and slackwater deposits. Several pits excavated into slackwater deposits reveal multiple floods differentiated by tephra horizons. Differential flood surface weathering and the presence of flood-washed surfaces intercalated with lava flows again suggest multiple jökulhlaups from Kverkfjöll. Imbricated boulder clusters and matrix-supported boulder-rich sedimentary units reflect fluid sedimentation and non-Newtonian flows respectively. Such turbulent and complex flows are partly due to flood generation mechanisms, flood routeway characteristics and variations in sediment availability between and within jökulhlaups. Our study of jökulhlaup flows within this distinctive volcanic landscape may be of use in identification and reconstruction of floods on the flanks of glaciated volcanoes elsewhere. Knowledge of jökulhlaup flow behaviour is crucial for jökulhlaup hazard prediction, management and mitigation.

Carrivick, J. L.; Russell, A. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Knudsen, Ó.

2003-04-01

350

Implementing Trust in Cloud Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's cloud computing infrastructures usually require customers who transfer data into the cloud to trust the providers of the cloud infrastructure. Not every customer is willing to grant this trust without justification. It should be possible to detect that at least the configuration of the cloud infrastructure—as provided in the form of a hypervisor and administrative domain software—has not been

Ricardo Neisse; Dominik Holling; Alexander Pretschner

2011-01-01

351

Smart Monitoring for Physical Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructures are the backbone of today's economies. Physical Infrastructures such as transport and energy networks are vital for ensuring the functioning of a society. They are strained by the ever increasing demand for capacity, the need for stronger integration with other infrastructures, and the relentless push for higher cost efficiency.

Fuchs, Florian; Berger, Michael; Linnhoff-Popien, Claudia

352

Automated infrastructure delivery system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An automatic delivery system for an infrastructure comprising passenger transportation, freight delivery, electrical grid, oil, gas, water pipelines, communication, sewer removal, etc. The automation at the current state of technology is mostly achieved by enclosing the delivery system inside of an enclosure for achieving automatic weather independent transportation and eliminating costs related to protecting the aforementioned infrastructure components from outside elements. In addition, the system is simple enough to avoid traffic and collisions automatically by processing in real time just a single piece of information: a location of each vehicle; as the result, the system is inexpensive since no hardware is necessary for between-vehicles communications, for road condition detection, for GPS, etc. Plus every person will be able to use transportation on-demand with or without sharing a commute and at a desired comfort level including but not limited to entertainment, exercise, working on the go, etc.

2013-06-04

353

Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino-Alto Adige and Campania, and societal flood risk is highest in Piedmont and Sicily.

Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

2010-03-01

354

Cloud Infrastructure Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its\\u000a users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business.\\u000a At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security,

Dimiter Velev; Plamena Zlateva

2010-01-01

355

Comparative flood damage model assessment: towards a European approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a wide variety of flood damage models in use internationally, differing substantially in their approaches and economic estimates. Since these models are being used more and more as a basis for investment and planning decisions on an increasingly large scale, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties involved and develop a harmonised European approach, in particular with respect to the EU Flood Risks Directive. In this paper we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of seven flood damage models, using two case studies of past flood events in Germany and the United Kingdom. The qualitative analysis shows that modelling approaches vary strongly, and that current methodologies for estimating infrastructural damage are not as well developed as methodologies for the estimation of damage to buildings. The quantitative results show that the model outcomes are very sensitive to uncertainty in both vulnerability (i.e. depth-damage functions) and exposure (i.e. asset values), whereby the first has a larger effect than the latter. We conclude that care needs to be taken when using aggregated land use data for flood risk assessment, and that it is essential to adjust asset values to the regional economic situation and property characteristics. We call for the development of a flexible but consistent European framework that applies best practice from existing models while providing room for including necessary regional adjustments.

Jongman, B.; Kreibich, H.; Apel, H.; Barredo, J. I.; Bates, P. D.; Feyen, L.; Gericke, A.; Neal, J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

2012-12-01

356

The Role of Public Policy in Shaping 21st Century Approaches to Flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 100 years, the approach taken by water resource professionals to combat periodic riverine flooding shifted from efforts to control floods through massive engineering projects, through a mix of structural projects and nonstructural activities that brought about a reduction in damages, to a 21st-century approach of managing the risk of floods. The final shift in approach was generated by the failure of engineering projects to solve the flood challenge and public policies that dictated that activity in the floodplain would be based on goals and objectives that reflected the changing values of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Until the mid part of the 20th century, efforts to control devastating floods throughout the United States were focused on engineered flood control. Major flood events worldwide, coupled with the disastrous Great Flood of 1993 on the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers moved much of the flood community to begin close examination of the flood damage reduction approach that had come into use. Taking a lead from the financial and insurance communities, which for centuries had based many of their decisions on the relative risk of the potential outcomes of their decisions, the flood community began to shift slowly to flood risk management as a new approach to dealing with flooding. Instead of focusing on elimination of flooding or the protection of communities from a specified flood event, the flood risk management paradigm acknowledges that absolute protection from flooding is not possible and that, as a result, there will always be a residual risk to those occupying the floodplain. The risk paradigm also introduced to the engineering community the concept of uncertainty and the necessity to base decisions on incomplete information. Changes in societal values expanded the considerations involved in dealing with floods to include attention to the environment, public safety, and social equity. As a result, flood risk management has wrapped its efforts not only around risk-based engineering but also around achievement of the non-engineering objectives demanded by society. Flood-related projects developed since 2007 are substantially different than those prior to Hurricane Katrina and the structure of the work force of the Corps of Engineers has been modified to new disciplines. The education of 21st-century engineers is becoming, by necessity, different than the education of earlier engineers. The previous strong focus on technical competence is being supplemented by the addition of knowledge acquisition in fields beyond engineering. As the nation moves to deal with increasing flood losses, a variety of public policy objectives are substantially modifying what was once an engineering-only approach to dealing with flooding.

Galloway, G. E.

2011-12-01

357

Child malnutrition and recurrent flooding in rural eastern India: a community-based survey.  

PubMed

Objectives This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between exposure to floods and malnutrition in children aged 6-59 months in rural India. Research has focused exclusively on Bangladeshi children, and few controlled epidemiological studies are available. Method A community-based cross-sectional study of child nutritional status was carried out in 14 flooded and 18 non-flooded villages of Jagatsinghpur district (Orissa) within one month of the September 2008 floods, and similarly affected by flooding in August 2006. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 757 households in the flooded villages and 816 in the non-flooded communities. Data used in this study were from those households with children aged 6-59 months. In total, 191 and 161 children were measured, respectively. The association between various malnutrition indicators and the exposure to floods was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Adjusted analyses revealed that children in flooded households were more likely stunted compared with those in non-flooded ones (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.60; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.44). The prevalence of underweight was also higher in children living in the flooded communities (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.86; 95% CI 1.04 to 3.30). Further analyses found that the 26-36-month flooded cohort, thus those children younger than 1 year during the precedent flood in August 2006, attained the largest difference in levels of stunting compared with the unexposed group of the same age. Conclusion Exposure to floods is associated with long-term malnutrition in these rural communities of Orissa, India. Children exposed to floods during their first year of life presented higher levels of chronic malnutrition. Long-term malnutrition prevention programmes after floods should be implemented in flood-prone areas. PMID:22080535

Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shisir; Degomme, Olivier; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2011-01-01

358

Coastal Flooding of Jakarta (Indonesia): Causes and Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and large coastal city located in the northern coast of Java island, with a population of about 9.6 million. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. Coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. In general, based on the Levelling, GPS surveys, and InSAR surveys, conducted since 1982 up to 2011, it is obtained that land subsidence in Jakarta exhibits spatial and temporal variations, with the rates of about 1 to 15 cm/year, and a few locations can have the subsidence rates up to about 20-25 cm/year. Largest subsidence occurred at several areas along the coast. This subsidence is mainly due to natural consolidation of alluvial, excessive groundwater extraction, and load of constructions. During the high tide periods, these subsiding areas used to experience flooding. The sea level rise phenomena in Java sea and high sedimentation rates in 13 rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta have worsen this coastal flooding phenomenon of Jakarta. Based on the linear-term of sea level change for period of 1993 to 2009 as derived from satellite altimetry data, the sea level rise around Jakarta coastal area is about 4-5 mm/year.The impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta are numerous and resulted economic losses are quite significant. Besides causing coastal erosion, the frequent and severe coastal flooding is deteriorating the function of building and infrastructures and decreasing the quality of living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition) in the affected areas. This paper analyzes and discusses the causes and impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta, and proposes the potential mechanism to overcome the problems.

Abidin, H. Z.; Hadi, S.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Nurmaulia, S. L.; Fukuda, Y.

2012-04-01

359

ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

Macduff, M; Egan, D

2004-12-01

360

Summaries of Three Critical Infrastructure Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an investigation intothe information systems used by three critical infrastructure applications: banking andfinance, rail transportation, and air traffic control. In each case, key parts of the systemare described together with minimal information about the underlying computingsystems. For the banking and finance domain, the functionality of the payment systemsis described. For rail transport, the emphasis

John C. Knight; Matthew C. Elder

1997-01-01

361

Union soluble oil flood in El Dorado cores  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of laboratory experiments using Union's soluble oil flood process in El Dorado cores. The core flood is to provide complete information on fluid compositions and phase behavior of the effluents such that adequate core flood match using the chemical flood simulator can be made. This step is essential for evaluating reservoir performance on the South Pattern of the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Project. The results show the caustic preflush in the flood process causes face plugging of the field cores. The problem was controlled by using chelating agents along with the caustic fluid to keep divalent cations in solution. The required amount of chelating agent was determined to be ca 25 times as strong as the original design for the field test. Liquid chromatography analysis of sulfonate provides valuable information on selective fractionation of monosulfonate in the micellar fluid. 10 references.

Chiou, C.S.

1983-02-01

362

High Reliability and the Management of Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisation theorists and practitioners alike have become greatly interested in high reliability in the management of large hazardous technical systems and society's critical service infrastructures. But much of the reliability analysis is centred in particular organisations that have command and control over their technical cores. Many technical systems, including electricity generation, water, telecommunications and other “critical infrastructures,” are not the

Paul Schulman; Emery Roe; Michel van Eeten; Mark de Bruijne

2004-01-01

363

Y2K: Millennial reflections on computers as infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computers have become the control, information storage, and information processing technology of choice in many other, pre?existing infrastructures. This essay argues that historians of computers and information technology should expand their agenda to include the origins and impacts of this phenomenon. Studying computer?based infrastructures could lead to a new historiographical approach focussing on ‘internetworks’. These are very large, integrated, extremely

Paul N. Edwards

1998-01-01

364

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-04-01

365

Surfactant flooding system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for modifying a sulfonate surfactant flooding system and recovering hydrocarbons from an underground formation. The system comprises one or more sulfonate surfactant slugs and a following polymer drive fluid to be injected into an underground hydrocarbon formation to permit the use of increased salinity in the polymer drive fluid without a substantial decrease in recovery efficiency. The method comprises: adding about 0.05% to about 1.0% by weight of a divalent metal cation to the one or more surfactant slugs of the surfactant flooding system to give a total concentration of about 0.1% to about 1.0% by weight of divalent metal cations and injecting the one or more surfactant slugs into the formation; and adding about 0.1% to about 1.5% by weight of a solubilizer compound to the polymer drive fluid and injecting the polymer drive fluid into the formation and recovering hydrocarbons from the formation.

Maddox, J. Jr.

1987-05-26

366

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

367

Flood inundation modeling using MIKE FLOOD and remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, MIKE FLOOD was used to simulate the flood inundation extent and flooding depth in the\\u000a delta region of Mahanadi River basin in India. Initially, the 1D model MIKE 11 was calibrated using river water level and\\u000a discharge data of various gauging sites for the monsoon period (June to October) of the year 2002. Subsequently, the

S. Patro; C. Chatterjee; S. Mohanty; R. Singh; N. S. Raghuwanshi

2009-01-01

368

Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding  

PubMed Central

Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water balance and gas exchange under flooding conditions.

2012-01-01

369

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

Brilly, M.; Polic, M.

2005-04-01

370

Bayesian Non-Stationary Flood Frequency Estimation at Ungauged Basins Using Climate Information and a Scaling Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood frequency statistical analysis most often relies on stationary assumptions, where distribution moments (e.g. mean, standard deviation) and associated flood quantiles do not change over time. In this sense, one expects that flood magnitudes and their frequency of occurrence will remain constant as observed in the historical information. However, evidence of inter-annual and decadal climate variability and anthropogenic change as well as an apparent increase in the number and magnitude of flood events across the globe have made the stationary assumption questionable. Here, we show how to estimate flood quantiles (e.g. 100-year flood) at ungauged basins without needing to consider stationarity. A statistical model based on the well known flow-area scaling law is proposed to estimate flood flows at ungauged basins. The slope and intercept scaling law coefficients are assumed time varying and a hierarchical Bayesian model is used to include climate information and reduce parameter uncertainties. Cross-validated results from 34 streamflow gauges located in a nested Basin in Brazil show that the proposed model is able to estimate flood quantiles at ungauged basins with remarkable skills compared with data based estimates using the full record. The model as developed in this work is also able to simulate sequences of flood flows considering global climate changes provided an appropriate climate index developed from the General Circulation Model is used as a predictor. The time varying flood frequency estimates can be used for pricing insurance models, and in a forecast mode for preparations for flooding, and finally, for timing infrastructure investments and location. Non-stationary 95% interval estimation for the 100-year Flood (shaded gray region) and 95% interval for the 100-year flood estimated from data (horizontal dashed and solid lines). The average distribution of the 100-year flood is shown in green in the right side.

Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01

371

A process typology of regional floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a framework for identifying types of causative mechanisms of floods. The types are long-rain floods, short-rain floods, flash floods, rain-on-snow floods, and snowmelt floods. We adopt a catchment perspective, i.e., the focus is on the catchment state and the atmospheric inputs rather than on atmospheric circulation patterns. We use a combination of a number of process indicators, including the timing of the floods, storm duration, rainfall depths, snowmelt, catchment state, runoff response dynamics, and spatial coherence. On the basis of these indicators and diagnostic regional plots we identify the process types of 11,518 maximum annual flood peaks in 490 Austrian catchments. Forty-three percent of the flood peaks are long-rain floods, only 3% are snowmelt floods, and the relative contribution of the types changes with the flood magnitude. There are pronounced spatial patterns in the frequency of flood type occurrence. For example, rain-on-snow floods most commonly occur in northern Austria. Runoff coefficients tend to increase with rainfall depth for long-rain floods but are less dependent of rainfall depth and exhibit much larger scatter for flash floods. All types exhibit seasonal patterns, both in terms of flood magnitudes and catchment altitudes of flood occurrence. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the flood samples stratified by process type decreases with catchment area for most process types with the exception of flash floods for which CV increases with catchment area.

Merz, R.; BlöSchl, G.

2003-12-01

372

Land Use Interpretation in Flood Damage Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the role of geographic land use interpretation in flood damage estimation. Sample flood data were drawn from the 1998 flood event along San Francisquito Creek in northern Santa Clara County, California. Spatial flood data for the event were collected from the Santa Clara Valley Water District (the District); depth-damage factors and the flood damage equations were both

Sharon Michelle Metzler

2011-01-01

373

Flash flood potential from channel measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge measurements of flash floods add to hydrological knowledge and provide information needed for protection from future floods. But planning for protection cannot be postponed until a serious flood has occurred at each site. Thus methods of estimating flood potential at ungauged sites are needed. A promising method utilizes (1) a relation between a flood characteristic and stream channel size

H. C. Riggs

374

Floods of the Brahmaputra River in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods in the Brahmaputra basin of India are characterized by their extremely large magnitude, high frequency, and extensive devastation. During the last forty years of flood record at Pandu, the highest flood [72,748 cubic meters per second (ms)] occurred in 1962. But, more recently, the 1988 flood, characterized by the maximum flood height so far observed at Pandu, appears to

N. N. Bhattachaiyya; A. K. Bora

1997-01-01

375

Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication\\u000a networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries.\\u000a Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact\\u000a with their human owners, operators, users and with the other

Roberto Setola; Stefano De Porcellinis

2009-01-01

376

Application of 2D hydrodynamic modelling to high-magnitude outburst floods: An example from Kverkfjöll, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-magnitude outburst floods cause rapid landscape change and are a hazard to life, property and infrastructure. However, high-magnitude fluvial processes and mechanisms of erosion, transport and deposition are very poorly understood, and remain largely unquantified. This poor understanding is partly because of the inherent difficulty of directly measuring high-magnitude outburst floods, but also because of the limitations and assumptions of

Jonathan L. Carrivick

2006-01-01

377

A Versatile Flood Frequency Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many observed annual flood series exhibit reverse curvatures when plotted on lognormal probability paper. The occurrence of these curvatures may be attributed to seasonal variation in flood-producing storm types, relative dominance of within-the-channel or floodplain flow, and variability in antecedent soil moisture and cover conditions. A mixed distribution model is needed to analyze such flood series because of the mixed

Krishan P. Singh

1987-01-01

378

Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Science Plan: A Community-based Infrastructure Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The river basin is a fundamental unit of the landscape and water in that defined landscape plays a central role in shaping the land surface, in dissolving minerals, in transporting chemicals, and in determining species distribution. Therefore, the river basin is a natural observatory for examining hydrologic phenomena and the complex interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes that control them. CUAHSI, incorporated in 2001, is a community-based research infrastructure initiative formed to mobilize the hydrologic community through addressing key science questions and leveraging nationwide hydrologic resources from its member institutions and collaborative partners. Through an iterative community-based process, it has been previously proposed to develop a network of hydrologic infrastructure that organizes around scales on the order of 10,000 km2 to examine critical interfaces such as the land-surface, atmosphere, and human impact. Data collection will characterize the stores, fluxes, physical pathways, and residence time distributions of water, sediment, nutrients, and contaminants coherently at nested scales. These fundamental properties can be used by a wide range of scientific disciplines to address environmental questions. This more complete characterization will enable new linkages to be identified and hypotheses to be tested more incisively. With such a research platform, hydrologic science can advance beyond measuring streamflow or precipitation input to understanding how the river basin functions in both its internal processes and in responding to environmental stressors. That predictive understanding is needed to make informed decisions as development and even natural pressures stress existing water supplies and competing demands for water require non-traditional solutions that take into consideration economic, environmental, and social factors. Advanced hydrologic infrastructure will enable research for a broad range of multidisciplinary science questions. The CUAHSI science agenda has evolved through community input and research into several unifying theme areas, or categories. Three example categories are: forcing, internal processing, and evolution. Within each category, coherent (integrated in space and time) physical, chemical and biological data are needed to answer specific science questions. For example, in the case of "forcing": How do patterns in rainfall influence predictability of floods and droughts? Floods and droughts have long been considered random events. However, we now know that there are decadal patterns in rainfall and that rainfall recycles within the basin thereby intensifying floods and droughts. How does the internal state of the system combine with external forcing to determine the occurrence of hydrologic extremes?

Wilson, J. L.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R. P.

2005-12-01

379

The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic were caused by very intensive and large-scale rainfall that hit mainly the southern and western part of the country. There were two following rainfall events, the first on the {6th} and {7th} August and the second on the {11th} and {12th} August. The total sum of areal rainfall was 150 to 200 mm; in mountain areas more than 250 mm and in some localities even more than 300 mm. Such large-scale rainfall amounts are extraordinary for Czech conditions. The first wave of rainfall caused floods in the majority of rivers. There were 10 to 20 year floods, exceptionally 100-year (and more) floods on rivers in the southern and western part of the country. When the second wave of rainfall followed the first one, rivers were already full of water and soils were saturated: therefore the runoff response was rapid and massive. Water levels in all rivers rose very quickly again and they reached their historical maxima in many places. Peak discharges in most streams reached or exceeded a 100-year flood and in some rivers a 1000-year flood. The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Moldau and the Berounka (left hand tributary of the Moldau). The flow in the Moldau River can be partly controlled by operation of many reservoirs in the upstream reaches of the river (the Moldau cascade), the flow in Berounka is not influenced. During the first flood event the major part of the wave was retained by the reservoirs and the discharge in Prague was reduced. During the second event the inflow into the reservoir system was so high that reservoirs were filled before the peak occurred. The peak flow from the Berounka River coincided with the maximum outflow from the Moldau. As a consequence, on 14th August the peak discharge in Prague was about 5200 {m3/s} (the long-term mean discharge is 150 {m3/s}) and is preliminarily judged to be a 500-year flood. The influence of the Moldau cascade on the course of the flood has been analysed. It is clear that the cascade cannot protect Prague during such an extreme flood. Below the confluence of the Moldau and Elbe rivers the flood wave propagated in the Elbe and flooded a large area along the river. Therefore the peak discharge decreased a little. The flood caused enormous damage and losses in all regions including the towns of Budweis, Pilsen and Prague. About 100 towns and villages were completely flooded and 350 were partly flooded. 1.6 million people were affected by the flood, 220 thousand were moved from their houses, 15 people died. The total losses are assessed to be 2 to 3 billion Euro. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is a governmental institution responsible for monitoring and forecasting the weather and hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic. During the flood in August 2002, the CHMI was continually preparing information, forecasts and reports for decision-making bodies, the public and the rescue system. Overall, the flood protection and rescue system worked very well and many protective measures were performed during the flood, including the evacuation of people. In general, the system was more effective than it was during the previous catastrophic flood in 1997 in the Oder basin. The experience from the 1997 event and the adoption of new laws on crisis management and the integrated rescue system had a positive influence the response of people.

Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

2003-04-01

380

The dependence of educational infrastructure on clinical infrastructure.  

PubMed Central

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine needed to assess the growth of its infrastructure for educational computing as a first step to determining if student needs were being met. Included in computing infrastructure are space, equipment, software, and computing services. The infrastructure was assessed by reviewing purchasing and support logs for a six year period from 1992 to 1998. This included equipment, software, and e-mail accounts provided to students and to faculty for educational purposes. Student space has grown at a constant rate (averaging 14% increase each year respectively). Student equipment on campus has grown by a constant amount each year (average 8.3 computers each year). Student infrastructure off campus and educational support of faculty has not kept pace. It has either declined or remained level over the six year period. The availability of electronic mail clearly demonstrates this with accounts being used by 99% of students, 78% of Basic Science Course Leaders, 38% of Clerkship Directors, 18% of Clerkship Site Directors, and 8% of Clinical Elective Directors. The collection of the initial descriptive infrastructure data has revealed problems that may generalize to other medical schools. The discrepancy between infrastructure available to students and faculty on campus and students and faculty off campus creates a setting where students perceive a paradoxical declining support for computer use as they progress through medical school. While clinical infrastructure may be growing, it is at the expense of educational infrastructure at affiliate hospitals.

Cimino, C.

1998-01-01

381

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

382

Improving Antarctic infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noting that U.S. activities in Antarctica “are very well managed but suffer from an aging infrastructure, lack of a capital budget, and the effects of operating in an extremely unforgiving environment,” a 23 July report from the U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel recommends a number of measures to improve the infrastructure, logistics, and other concerns. The panel's recommendations include continued use of the McMurdo, South Pole, and Palmer stations as the primary U.S. science and logistics hubs in Antarctica—because there are no reasonable alternatives, according to the panel—while upgrading or replacing some facilities, restoring the U.S. polar ocean feet, implementing state of-the-art logistics and transportation support, and establishing a long-term facilities capital plan and budget for the U.S. Antarctic Program. “The essence of our findings is that the lack of capital budgeting has placed operations at McMurdo, and to a somewhat lesser extent at Palmer Station, in unnecessary jeopardy—at least in terms of prolonged inefficiency due to deteriorating or otherwise inadequate physical assets,” the panel wrote in the cover letter accompanying the report entitled, More and Better Science in Antarctica Through Increased Logistical Effectiveness. “The Antarctica Blue Ribbon Panel encourages us to take a hard look at how we support Antarctic science and to make the structural changes, however difficult in the current fiscal environment, that will allow us to do more science in the future,” said U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Director Subra Suresh.

Showstack, Randy

2012-07-01

383

Infrastructure web: distributed monitoring and managing critical infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National-scale critical infrastructure protection depends on many processes: intelligence gathering, analysis, interdiction, detection, response and recovery, to name a few. These processes are typically carried out by different individuals, agencies and industry sectors. Many new threats to national infrastructure are arising from the complex couplings that exist between advanced information technologies (telecommunications and internet), physical components (utilities), human services (health, law enforcement, emergency management) and commerce (financial services, logistics). Those threats arise and evolve at a rate governed by human intelligence and innovation, on `internet time' so to speak. The processes for infrastructure protection must operate on the same time scale to be effective. To achieve this, a new approach to integrating, coordinating and managing infrastructure protection must be deployed. To this end, we have designed an underlying web-like architecture that will serve as a platform for the decentralized monitoring and management of national critical infrastructures.

Jiang, Guofei; Cybenko, George; McGrath, Dennis

2001-02-01

384

Flood Plain Study and Model Flood Plain Ordinance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the Flooding problems of the Eastern Coastal Areas of Palm Beach County and offers methods by which the more serious effects of heavy Flooding could be minimized or avoided. Sections of the report are concerned with the patterns of d...

1972-01-01

385

Guidelines for Flash Flood and Small Tributary Flood Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical note, augmenting Manual Chapter E-13, was devised to provide all offices with guidelines for determining the threat and extent of flash floods and other small tributary floods. Basically these involve knowledge of when, how much and how fast...

L. A. Hughes L. L. Longsdorf

1975-01-01

386

A data based mechanistic real-time flood forecasting module for NFFS FEWS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data based mechanistic (DBM) approach for identifying and estimating rainfall to level, and level to level models has been shown to perform well for flood forecasting in several studies. The DELFT-FEWS open shell operational flood forecasting system provides a framework linking hydrological/meteorological real-time data, real-time forecast models, and a human/computer interaction interface. This infrastructure is used by the UK National Flood Forecasting System (NFFS) and the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) among others. The open shell nature of the FEWS framework has been specifically designed to make it easy to add new forecasting models written as FEWS modules. This paper shows the development of the DBM forecast model as a FEWS module and presents results for the Eden catchment (Cumbria UK) as a case study.

Leedal, D.; Weerts, A. H.; Smith, P. J.; Beven, K. J.

2012-06-01

387

The Swiss flood and landslide damage database 1972-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Switzerland, floods, debris flows, landslides and rockfalls cause damage every year affecting property values, infrastructure, forestry and agriculture. As population and settled areas have increased, the damage potential has also become greater. Information about natural hazard events that caused any damage is needed for hazard mapping and further decision making. This is why the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL has been systematically collecting information on flood and mass movement damage in a database since 1972. The estimated direct financial damage as well as fatalities and injured people have been documented using press articles as the main source of information. The database can provide answers to questions related to the temporal and spatial distribution of damage, natural hazard processes and the corresponding weather conditions. This study describes the data collection methods used and the key analyses of data from 1972 to 2007. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of the database are discussed. In Switzerland, naturally triggered floods, debris flows, landslides and rockfalls have caused financial damage amounting to nearly 8000 million Euros in total within the last 36 years (taking inflation into account). These processes have mainly affected pre- and central alpine regions and their total costs of damage are dominated by a few major events. Nearly one quarter of the costs result from August 2005 when large parts of Northern Switzerland were affected by flooding. We must assume that major events like this are not unique and that similar events will occur again in future.

Hilker, N.; Badoux, A.; Hegg, C.

2009-06-01

388

Damages of the Elbe flood 2002 in Germany - a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current estimates put the losses of the August 2002 flooding in central and eastern Europe at around 15 billion, from which 9 billion occurred in Germany. That means this event is not only the most expensive flooding but, regarding the last decades, the most expensive natural hazard in Germany, too. Most of the losses - 6 billion - occurred in Saxony along the Elbe and his tributaries. Losses from infrastructure have amounted to more than 3 billion, losses from private property to more than 2 billion and losses from trade and industry to around 1.7 billion. Due to many affected commercial enterprises - nearly 10,000 in Germany - and the long duration of the flooding, losses from business interruption are important. The presentation will give an overview of the whole damage, the different damage types and will come to more detailed information about damage to private property and commercial enterprises. Some of the key factors for the amount of damage (e.g. water level, pollution with oil caused by unsecured tanks, flow velocity, warning time, duration of the flooding, shifting of riverbeds and erosion) are taken into account.

Mueller, M.

2003-04-01

389

46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping...Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except...the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and...

2009-10-01

390

76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source South Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source South Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

391

77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Kentucky. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects...of Cadiz, Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater...

2012-03-16

392

77 FR 51744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rule that included an erroneous flooding source name for the Town of Livonia...Coupee Parish, Louisiana. The flooding source name of Bayou Fordoche...Incorporated Areas'' addressed several flooding sources, including Bayou...

2012-08-27

393

78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations...South Stevens Street, Rhinelander, WI 54501. Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior William Wildcat Tribal Chippewa Indians....

2013-02-08

394

Flooding in the Finger Lakes Region, NY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this several week-long introductory geoscience project, students evaluate the potential for flooding in the local region. Students visit the site during the first week of the semester as part of a "Walk in the Watershed" and make observations in order to generate hypotheses about the processes that shape the landscape and control the movement of water. During a later lab period, students return to the same site to determine stream discharge using the flotation and current meter methods and compare and contrast the results from the two methods. In addition, students in the different laboratory sections use their data to compare and contrast reasons for why discharge may have changed over the course of the day or week during the following class meeting. As an in-class exercise, students examine an annual hydrograph and then predict the weather that generated the observed stream discharge. Students test their hypotheses by analyzing precipitation data available on-line in order to correlate flood events with storm types or other causes for major discharge events. Next, students examine historical flood and discharge data of the local stream available on-line at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/ as a homework assignment. In addition to calculating the recurrence interval and probability of occurrence for each event, students determine the discharge and stage of a 1-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year flood, create a rating curve, and generate a floodway map for each of these events. Subsequently, students revisit the site during lab and locate the boundaries of these flood events. Students will make recommendations for building a house in the region based on their analyses.

Curtin, Tara

395

Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

396

Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

Moseley-Braun, Carol

1997-01-01

397

Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

2008-09-01

398

Modeling Dependencies In Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model for expressing critical infrastructure dependencies. The model addresses the limitations of existing\\u000a approaches with respect to clarity of definition, support for quality and the influence of operating states of critical infrastructures\\u000a and environmental factors.

Albert Nieuwenhuijs; Eric Luiijf; Marieke Klaver

2009-01-01

399

Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyâ??s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nationâ??s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

400

Current debates on infrastructure policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the major current debates on infrastructure policy. It reviews the evidence on the macroeconomic significance of the sector in terms of growth and poverty alleviation. It also discusses the major institutional debates, including the relative comparative advantage of the public and the private sector in the various stages of infrastructure service delivery as well

Marianne Fay; Antonio Estache

2007-01-01

401

An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems  

SciTech Connect

US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

2000-03-29

402

Regional flood mapping from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS 1), launched on July 23, 1972, has been used to monitor the extent of inundation of regional floods with varying recurrence intervals. The inundated areas exhibit sharply reduced near-infrared reflectances caused by standing surface water, excessive soil moisture, and stressed vegetation, which persist up to 10–12 days after the flood peak. The amount of

Albert Rango; Vincent V. Salomonson

1974-01-01

403

Bivariate estimation of dam design floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design floods for dams and reservoirs are often estimated on the basis of flood frequency analysis. This method consists of fitting a theoretical extreme-value probability distribution to the maximum annual flow rate data collected at a streamflow gauging station, thus enabling the hydrologist to estimate, via extrapolation, the flow rate or peak discharge corresponding to a given design return period. It is often the case that medium- to large-sized dams are designed by using return periods of up to 10,000 years. Even though fewer dams are under construction nowadays than in the past, it is also necessary to revise design flood from time to time, as new data become available, especially when retrofitting plans are underway. A design flood is fully characterized by a hydrograph, which is routed through the reservoir in order to determine its flood control capacity and the spillway design discharge. Nevertheless, flood frequency analyses often rely upon the estimation of probability distributions associated with peak discharges only. The determination of the design hydrograph is usually made through arbitrary procedures, such as assuming that its form is the same as the one corresponding to the hydrograph of the largest recorded flood. The simplest characterization of a hydrograph must involve, at least, its most important characteristics, namely: peak discharge, time to peak and volume. However, the authors of this paper have performed a sensitivity analysis that shows that the two most important parameters in characterizing a hydrograph, in terms of the response of a reservoir are the peak discharge and the runoff volume. Furthermore, experience demonstrates that the response of some reservoirs may be more sensitive to the flood runoff volume than to its peak discharge. Thus it is highly desirable to address the problem of characterizing the whole design hydrograph in a probabilistic framework. On the basis of these results, a new approach for estimating the design flood of dams and reservoirs has been developed. The method is based on the use of the bivariate extreme-value distribution of peak discharge and volume. Thus, an expression for the joint return period of these two parameters is derived. It is shown that an infinite number of pairs of peak discharge and volume possess a given joint return period. Hence, in order to determine the design flood hydrograph, a nonlinear optimization problem is posed. The solution of this problem represents the combination of values of peak discharge and volume that produces the worst effect on the reservoir for a given joint return period. The worst effect is obtained by choosing the combination of peak discharge and volume that produces the highest level of the water surface and, by correspondence, the highest flow through the spillway. The methodology was applied to the revision of several dams in Mexico finding that some of them are not as safe as it was supposed.

Aparicio, J.; Ramírez, A.; Aldama, Á.

2007-05-01

404

A Real-Time Web Services Hub to Improve Situation Awareness during Flash Flood Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Texas corridor is one of the most flash flood-prone regions in the United States. Over the years, flash floods have resulted in hundreds of flood fatalities and billions of dollars in property damage. In order to mitigate risk to residents and infrastructure during flood events, both citizens and emergency responders need to exhibit proactive behavior instead of reactive. Real-time and forecasted flood information is fairly limited and hard to come by at varying spatial scales. The University of Texas at Austin has collaborated with IBM Research-Austin and ESRI to build a distributed real-time flood information system through a framework that leverages large scale data management and distribution, Open Geospatial Consortium standardized web services, and smart map applications. Within this paradigm, observed precipitation data encoded in WaterML is ingested into HEC-HMS and then delivered to a high performance hydraulic routing software package developed by IBM that utilizes the latest advancements in VLSI design, numerical linear algebra and numerical integration techniques on contemporary multicore architecture to solve fully dynamic Saint Venant equations at both small and large scales. In this paper we present a real-time flood inundation map application that in conjunction with a web services Hub, seamlessly integrates hydrologic information available through both public and private data services, model services and mapping services. As a case study for this project, we demonstrate how this system has been implemented in the City of Austin, Texas.

Salas, F. R.; Liu, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Hodges, B. R.

2011-12-01

405

Adapting to climate: a case study on riverine flood risks in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Climate change may well lead to an increased risk of river floods in the Netherlands. However, the impacts of changes in water management on river floods are larger, either enhancing or reducing flood risks. Therefore, the abilities of water-management authorities to learn that climate and river flows are changing, and to recognize and act upon the implications, are of crucial importance. At the same time, water-management authorities respond to other trends, such as the democratization of decision making, which alter their ability to react to climate change. These complex interactions are illustrated with changes in river flood risk management for the Rhine and the Meuse in the Netherlands over the last 50 years. A scenario study is used to seek insight into the question of whether current water-management institutions and their likely successors are capable of dealing with plausible future flood risks. The scenarios show that new and major infrastructure is needed to keep flood risks at their current level. Such a structural solution to future flood risks is feasible, but requires considerable political will and institutional reform, both for planning and implementation. It is unlikely that reform will be fast enough or the will strong enough. PMID:12836850

Tol, Richard S J; van der Grijp, Nicolien; Olsthoorn, Alexander A; van der Werff, Peter E

2003-06-01

406

Repeated Glacial-Lake Outburst Floods in Patagonia: An Increasing Hazard?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patagonian glaciers are recording one of the fastest glacial retreats on Earth, inferred to be a direct response to recorded climate change in South America. The dynamic response of the region's glaciers to climate change was evident when two self-similar glacial-lake outburst floods occurred in April and October 2008, the largest floods from this glacier on record. On each occasion, the lake Cachet 2, in the Northern Patagonia Ice-Field, dammed by the Colonia glacier, released about 200 million m3 water into the Colonia river. The lake is refilling rapidly, such that further outbreak floods can be expected. This paper anticipates future events, by providing an assessment of the hydraulic properties of the 2008 events. Pipeflow calculations of the subglacial tunnel drainage and hydraulic models of the river flood give consistent results, with an estimated peak discharge of between 2500 and 3000 m3s-1. However, geomorphological analysis of the Colonia valley shows evidence of former catastrophic outburst floods, with flood discharges possibly as high as 16,000 m3s-1. Given the impacts of climate change on glacier dynamics in the area, the frequency and high magnitude jökulhlaups may increase future flood risks for infrastructure and population, particularly relevant in view of the current development of hydropower projects in Chilean Patagonia.

Dussaillant, A.; Benito, G.; Buytaert, W.; Carling, P.; Gonzalez, F.; Link, O.; Meier, C.

2009-04-01

407

A holistic model for coastal flooding using system diagrams and the Source-Pathway-Receptor (SPR) concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal flooding is a problem of increasing relevance in low-lying coastal regions worldwide. In addition to the anticipated increase in likelihood and magnitude of coastal floods due to climate change, there is rapid growth in coastal assets and infrastructure. Sustainable and integrated coastal flood management over large areas and varying coastline types cannot be simply treated as local combinations of flood defences and floodplains. Rather, a system level analysis of floodplains is required to structure the problem as a first step before applying quantitative models. In this paper such a model is developed using system diagrams and the Source-Pathway-Receptor (SPR) concept, to structure our understanding of large and complex coastal flood systems. A graphical systems model is proposed for the assessment of coastal flood systems with regard to individual elements and their topological relationships. Two examples are discussed - a unidirectional model for a large-scale flood system, and a multi-directional model for a smaller-scale system, both based on the Western Scheldt estuary. The models help to develop a comprehensive understanding of system elements and their relationships and provide a holistic overview of the coastal flood system. The approach shows that a system level analysis of floodplains is more effective than simple topographic maps when conveying complex information. The models are shown to be useful as an apriori approach for making the assumptions about flood mechanisms explicit and for informing inputs to numerical models.

Narayan, S.; Hanson, S.; Nicholls, R. J.; Clarke, D.; Willems, P.; Ntegeka, V.; Monbaliu, J.

2012-05-01

408

Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Annual report, April 14, 1994--April 13, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This objective is being accomplished by extending experimental research in three task areas: (1) foams for selective mobility control in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) miscible CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured reservoirs. This report provides results of the first year of the three-year project for each of the three task areas.

Grigg, R.; Heller, J.; Schechter, D.

1995-09-01

409

Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable flooding occurs in the connected forest, while inundation of the disconnected forest occurs only as the result of managed application of water. In semiarid floodplains, water is scarce except during the flood pulse. Ecosystem responses to the flood pulse are related to the IFI and other measures of flooding history that help describe spatial variation in ecosystem function.

Valett, H. M.; Baker, M. A.; Morrice, J. A.; Crawford, C. S.; Molles, Jr. , M. C.; Dahm, C. N.; Moyer, D. L.; Thibault, J. R.; Ellis, L. M.

2005-01-01

410

Flash Flooding and 'Muddy Floods' on Arable Land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash flooding is often associated with upland, grazed catchments. It does, however, occur in lowland arable-dominated areas. In southern England, notable examples have occurred at Rottingdean (Brighton) in 1987, at Faringdon (Oxfordshire) in 1993 and at Breaky Bottom vineyard (near Brighton) in 1987 and 2000. All resulted in damage to nearby property. Runoff was largely from recently cultivated ground. The characteristics of such floods are: Rapid runoff from bare soil surfaces. Saturated excess overland flow is likely in the early parts of storms but high intensity rainfall on loamy soils results in crusting and Hortonian overland flow; High rates of erosion; Sediment transport to downvalley sites causing property damage ('muddy flooding'). Muddy floods are known from several areas of Europe e.g. Belgium, northern France, South Limburg (Netherlands) and Slovakia (Boardman et al 2006). In other areas they occur but have gone unreported or are classified under different terms. The necessary conditions for occurrence are areas of arable land which is bare at times of the year when there is a risk of storms. For muddy floods to cause damage (and hence be reported), vulnerable property must lie downstream from such areas of arable land. In some areas the incidence of muddy floods relates to autumn and early winter rainfall and winter cereal crops (e.g. southern England). In continental Europe, flooding is more common in summer and is associated with convectional storms and land uses including sugar beet, maize and potatoes. Predictions of increased numbers of high-intensity storms with future climate change, suggest that arable areas will continue to generate both flash floods and muddy floods.

Boardman, J.

2012-04-01

411

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report. October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research is to elucidate the mechanisms underling adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) and pentadecylethoxylated nonylphenol (NP-15) mixtures as reported earlier were rather complex and to better understand the interactions involved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration were used during this report period to probe the microstructure of the adsorbed layer and to determine individual surfactant monomer concentration respectively. It was observed that pyrene was solubilized in mixed aggregates (hemimicelles) of a 1:1 TTAC:NP-15 mixture at the alumina-water interface over a wider concentration range than for TTAC alone. It was also observed that the adsorbed aggregate of a 1:1 TTAC:NP-15 mixture is as hydrophobic as the mixed micelle in solution. This is contrary to what was observed for the adsorption of TTAC alone: pyrene was preferentially solubilized in the TTAC micelles rather than the adsorbed aggregate. The preference of pyrene for the mixed adsorbed aggregates over individual aggregates is relevant to the application of surfactant mixtures in enhanced oil recovery and solubilization. The adsorption/desorption behavior of surfactants is directly related to the monomer concentration of the surfactant, hence it is important to monitor changes in monomer concentration during the adsorption and desorption processes. Ultrafiltration techniques were used to monitor the monomer concentration in solution and at the interface to determine the partitioning of the surfactants to the solid-liquid interface.

Somasundaran, P.

1995-03-01

412

Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.  

PubMed

Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (±6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (±1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

2013-10-03

413

The Fermilab data storage infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

Jon A Bakken et al.

2003-02-06

414

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO{sub 2} Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO{sub 2} Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This work will examine three major areas in which CO{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The first full quarter of this project has been completed. We began examining synergistic affects of mixed surfactant versus single surfactant systems to enhance the properties of foams used for improving oil recovery in CO{sub 2} floods. The purpose is to reduce the concentration of surfactants or finding less expensive surfactants. Also, we are examining the effect of oil saturation on the development of foam in CO{sub 2}-surfactant solution systems. CO{sub 2} flooding of low permeability, vugular, and fracture reservoirs are another major thrust of this project. Work conducted this quarter involved simulating gravity stable floods using large core samples; results showed excellent recovery in a low permeability vugular core.

Boyun (Gordon) Guo; David S. Schechter; Jyun-Syung Tsau; Reid B. Grigg; Shih-Hsien (Eric) Chang

1997-10-31

415

Feasible adaptation strategies for increased risk of flooding in cities due to climate change.  

PubMed

Northern Europe is one of the regions where more frequent and more severe storms and storm surges are expected due to climatic changes. In order to maintain an acceptable risk of flooding suitable adaptation strategies must be defined and implemented. Optimum solutions demand collaboration of different professionals and thus simple graphical means must be employed to illustrate the economic impacts of the change in risk of flooding. A case study indicates that urban drainage infrastructure capacity should be upgraded while there is currently no economic incentive to improve protection against sea surges. PMID:19633368

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Fleischer, H S

2009-01-01

416

Clutter flooding with sea clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the statistics of flooded clutter in a sea environment. Clutter flooding occurs when a pulse compression waveform encounters extended clutter causing samples of the clutter to fold over into a given range cell and add vectorially. The statistics of the received radar clutter cross-section is needed to specify the dynamic range requirements of the system. In this paper, a model is presented for sea clutter and the probability distribution of the flooded clutter as a function of the average clutter cross-section.

Parnell, John W.; Stevens, G. H.

417

Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).  

PubMed

Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

Ezell, Barry Charles

2007-06-01

418

Infrastructure Operations Tool Access (IOTA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Infrastructure Operations Tools Access (IOTA) effort is to accomplish development of an advanced architecture for ISR information management. The architecture will be based on a software component framework for information dissemination. Th...

S. Barth J. Muller

2004-01-01

419

Grid Computing Lecture - System Infrastructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~System Infrastructure: Web services, Background information. history, remote procedure calls, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), service registry, WSDL, WSDD, Web service implementation, SOAP, containers, stubs, code ...

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

420

Flood risk model for probabilistic safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes a methodology developed for treating internal flooding. The goal of the methodology is to quantitatively estimate the frequency of flooding and the conditional probability of reactor core damage given that flooding occurs. The method models leak size, component height, watertight volumes, the potential volume of flood sources, water removal systems and recovery of faulted systems, isolation procedures,

Bott

1992-01-01

421

Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of

D. MacDonald; D. Peach; A. Dixon

2009-01-01

422

Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general.

P. J. Webster

2010-01-01

423

Hazard Management with DOORS: Rail Infrastructure Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LOI is a major rail infrastructure project that will contribute to a modernised transport system in time for the 2012 Olympic Games. A review of the procedures and tool infrastructure was conducted in early 2006, coinciding with a planned move to main works. A hazard log support tool was needed to provide: an automatic audit trial, version control and support collaborative working. A DOORS based Hazard Log (DHL) was selected as the Tool Strategy. A systematic approach was followed for the development of DHL, after a series of tests and acceptance gateways, DHL was handed over to the project in autumn 2006. The first few months were used for operational trials and he Hazard Management rocedure was modified to be a hybrid approach that used the strengths of DHL and Excel. The user experience in the deployment of DHL is summarised and directions for future improvement identified.

Hughes, Dave; Saeed, Amer

424

National waste management infrastructure in Ghana.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643

Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J

1998-12-01

425

The development of geospatial infrastructure in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution, the development of geospatial infrastructure for next generation in Korea is introduced. The efforts are initiated by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in Korea through a project titled ¢®¡ÆKorean Land Spatialization¢®¡¾ in 2007. Among the five core research topics of the project, the renovation of the spatial infrastructure is the first one which mainly focused on the development of Unified Control Points and Precise Geoid Determination. The goal, methods, and current activities related to this renovation are discussed. We expect this work would be a base on the construction of ubiquitous society through providing various information such as 3D position, gravity, magnetic, etc. with good accuracy and efficiency. In addition, it would contribute to create a higher value-added business in various spatial scientific fields.

Ji Sun, L.; Bo Mi, L.; Jay Hyoun, K.; Yun Soo, C.

2008-05-01

426

Glacial outburst floods and loess sedimentation documented during Oxygen Isotope Stage 4 on the Columbia Plateau, Washington State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphy and age control of late Pleistocene loess, associated glacial outburst flood deposits and flood-cut unconformities in the Channeled Scabland, Washington State, United States, indicate a significant Cordilleran ice sheet advance during marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 4. Glacial outburst flood deposits from stage 2 (classic Bretz flood deposits, ca 21 to 13 ka) and related features in the Channeled Scabland overlie a widespread layer of loess that contains buried soils and the Mount St. Helens set C tephra (ca 46 ka). This loess in turn overlies deposits of the penultimate episode of giant outburst floods and an unconformity cut by those floods. Regional trends in the thickness, texture, and overall composition of the older loess are strikingly similar to those from the youngest loess, known to be derived from stage 2 flood deposits. We conclude that the older loess also is derived from fine-grained flood deposits. Luminescence ages, tephrochronology, and soil development rates indicate that the bulk of deposition of the older loess occurred during stage 3, following glacial outburst flooding marked by a regional flood-cut unconformity. The apparent cyclical pattern of cold-climate buried soils, flood deposits, and thick loess accumulations demonstrate that sediment supply renewed by flood episodes is a major control on accumulation of loess on glacial timescales.

McDonald, Eric V.; Sweeney, Mark R.; Busacca, Alan J.

2012-06-01

427

Screening for and heritability of flood-tolerance in the Florida (CP) sugarcane breeding population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment screening for flood-tolerance and estimating the heritability of flood-tolerance was conducted on 160 sugarcane clones in the Canal Point, Florida, USA sugarcane breeding population. Clones were grown in two environments, a drained control and a continuous, five-month flood. The test ran for two crop years, plant-cane and first ratoon. A wide range of production was observed, with some

C. W. Deren; G. H. Snyder; J. D. Miller; P. S. Porter

1991-01-01

428

Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.  

PubMed

Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

2011-01-01

429

Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety  

SciTech Connect

The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

2000-01-06

430

Estimation of Flood Inundation Extent Using Hybrid Models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a two-stage procedure underlying CHIM (clustering-based hybrid inundation model), which is composed of the linear regression models and ANNs to build the regional flood inundation estimation model. The two-stage procedure includes data preprocessing and model building stages. In the data preprocessing stage, the K-means clustering is used to categorize the data points of the different flooding characteristics and to identify the control point(s) from individual flooding cluster(s). In the model building stage, three classes of flood depth estimation models are built in each cluster: the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) for each control point, the linear regression models for the grids those have highly linear correlation with the control point, and a multi-grid BPNN for the grids those do not exist highly linear correlation with the control point. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested in the Dacun township in Taiwan. The results show that the CHIM can continuously and adequately provide one-hour-ahead flood inundation maps and effectively reduce 99% CPU time.

Chang, L.; Wang, Y.; Shen, H.

2009-12-01

431

Stress responses of spring rape plants to soil flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress responses of spring rape to soil hypoxia were investigated during 8-days flooding. Soil air-filled porosity decreased from 25-30% to 0%, oxygen diffusion rate - from 2.6-3.5 to 0.34 ?mol O2 m-2 s-1, and redox potential - from 460 to 150mVwithin few hours. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in roots increased up to 7-fold after one day of flooding and then decreased to 170% of control. Superoxide dismutase activity in roots increased by 27% during first 3 days and then dropped to 60% of control; in the leaves superoxide dismutase activity increased in average by 44%. Ascorbate peroxidase activity in leaves increased by 37% during first 3 days and then decreased to control value. Glutathione reductase activity increased by 45% in roots of flooded plants but did not change in leaves. Proline concentration in leaves increased up to 4-fold on the 3d day of flooding and then decreased to control value. Thus soil flooding induces increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity and subsequent increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in roots while the leaves display a few days increase of free proline concentration and ascorbate peroxidase activity, and a long-term increase of superoxide dismutase activity.

Balakhnina, T.; Bennicelli, R.; Stêpniewska, Z.; Stêpniewski, W.; Borkowska, A.; Fomina, I.

2012-10-01

432

Flood of April 2-3, 2005, Neversink River Basin, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavy rain on April 2-3, 2005 produced rainfall amounts of 3 inches to almost 6 inches within a 36-hour period throughout the Delaware River basin. Major flooding occurred in the East and West Branches of the Delaware River and their tributaries, the main stem of the Delaware River and the Neversink River, a major tributary to the Delaware River. The resultant flooding damaged hundreds of homes, caused millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure in Orange and Sullivan Counties, and forced more than 1,000 residents to evacuate their homes. A total of 20 New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas. Some of the most extensive flooding occurred along the Neversink and Delaware Rivers in Orange and Sullivan Counties, New York. Disaster recovery assistance from the April 2005 flooding in New York stood at almost $35 million in 2005, at which time more than 3,400 New Yorkers had registered for Federal aid. All U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Neversink River below the Neversink Reservoir recorded peak water-surface elevations higher than those recorded during the September 2004 flooding. Peak water-surface elevations at some study sites on the Neversink River exceeded the 500-year flood elevation as documented in flood-insurance studies by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Flood peaks at some long-term U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations were the highest ever recorded. Several U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Delaware River also recorded peak water-surface elevations that exceeded those recorded during the September 2004 flooding.

Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.

2006-01-01

433

Floods in a changing climate  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Description: Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. ... prediction include satellite missions, advanced radar, and in- situ networks.

434

Severe Weather 101: Flood Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... shore, when snow melts too fast, or when dams or levees break. Flooding may happen with only ... failure of levees designed to protect the city. Dam failures can send a sudden destructive wall of ...

435

Subglacial floods beneath ice sheets.  

PubMed

Subglacial floods (jökulhlaups) are well documented as occurring beneath present day glaciers and ice caps. In addition, it is known that massive floods have occurred from ice-dammed lakes proximal to the Laurentide ice sheet during the last ice age, and it has been suggested that at least one such flood below the waning ice sheet was responsible for a dramatic cooling event some 8000 years ago. We propose that drainage of lakes from beneath ice sheets will generally occur in a time-periodic fashion, and that such floods can be of severe magnitude. Such hydraulic eruptions are likely to have caused severe climatic disturbances in the past, and may well do so in the future. PMID:16782609

Evatt, G W; Fowler, A C; Clark, C D; Hulton, N R J

2006-07-15

436

Geomorphology: Flood-built land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern US coastline is under threat as land subsides and sea level rises. Measurements of the 2011 Mississippi River flood suggest that the river carries enough sandy sediment to offset some of this coastal drowning.

Kim, Wonsuck

2012-08-01

437

Changing Holocene flooding frequencies along the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Flood-frequency predictions currently in used by hydraulic engineers are calculated from limited historical records and thus implicitly assume that those factors that now affect stream flows will remain constant. As Costa (1978) has suggested and Baker et al (1979) have demonstrated, data from prehistoric fluvial deposits can be used to extend the flood history of a river valley beyond historical records, thus increasing the understanding of variability in large low-frequency flood events. The authors have applied this form of analysis to well-dated fluvial deposits from a Christian-era archaeological site on the upper Columbia River in the state of Washington. It was their expectation that, had flood frequencies remained constant, sedimentation event frequency would conform to an exponential function derived from the Wolman and Leopold (1957) model of vertical floodplain accretion. The author's findings deviate from this model, showing that the average recurrence interval for floods exceeding 532,000 cfs was 84 years between 1870 and 980 years B.P., 34 years between 980 and 560 years B.P. and 137 years thereafter. On the basis of field evidence, one can rule out changing hydraulic geometry, and therefore suggest that climatic conditions are the most probable factors controlling this variation in flood frequency.

Chatters, J.C.; Hoover, K.A.

1985-01-01

438

Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

2012-04-01

439

Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results

J. M. Begovich; J. S. Watson

1976-01-01

440

A geochemical record of flooding on the upper River Severn, UK, during the last 3750 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projected future changes in climate call for more definite information on the magnitude-frequency relationships of major floods than can be obtained from short instrumental or historical records alone. Floodplains represent a sedimentary archive of unrecorded flood events, which can potentially be used to extend existing flood records by centuries or millennia. In this study a c. 3750-year flood record was produced using ln(Zr/Rb) profiles from two 4-m-deep cores through floodplain silts at the Roundabout in the upper Severn catchment, UK. Sediment geochemical profiles were obtained using high resolution (500 ?m) XRF core scanning. Ages were assigned to the flood record using 14C dating and contaminant Pb profiles. Comparison of sediment ln(Zr/Rb) with sediment grain size showed that ln(Zr/Rb) increases with increasing grain size and indicates that it can be used as a grain size proxy at this site. Within the ln(Zr/Rb) flood record, two floods that occurred at c. 235 and c. 10 cal. BC were probably the largest that have occurred at the site during the past 3750 years while the historical flood of A.D. 1795 appears to be the largest since c. AD 200. The record shows that, during the past c. 3750 years, multicentennial periods characterized by the occurrence of high magnitude floods (return periods > c. 30 years) have alternated with periods of similar length without such floods. These periods correspond to large-scale variations in hydroclimate recorded in the North Atlantic region. However, the incidence of the highest magnitude floods appears to be unaffected by changes in catchment land use. This study provides information about flood magnitude-frequency relationships and their controls at a local level that could be used to help catchment managers in assessing future flood risk at a time of rapidly changing climate.

Jones, Anna F.; Macklin, Mark G.; Brewer, Paul A.

2012-12-01

441

Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

North, M. J.

2001-06-01

442

Critical Infrastructure Integration Modeling and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of critical infrastructures, such as electrical power grids, has become a primary concern of many nation states in recent years. Critical infrastructures involve multi-dimensional, highly complex collections of technologies, processes, and people, and as such, are vulnerable to potentially catastrophic failures on many levels. Moreover, cross-infrastructure dependencies can give rise to cascading and escalating failures across multiple infrastructures.

William J. Tolone; David Wilson; Anita Raja; Wei-ning Xiang; Huili Hao; Stuart Phelps; E. Wray Johnson

2004-01-01

443

Vulnerability and Mitigation Studies for Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The summary of this presentation is that: (1) We do end-to-end systems analysis for infrastructure protection; (2) LLNL brings interdisciplinary subject matter expertise to infrastructure and explosive analysis; (3) LLNL brings high-fidelity modeling capabilities to infrastructure analysis for use on high performance platforms; and (4) LLNL analysis of infrastructure provides information that customers and stakeholders act on.

Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Morris, J

2007-08-02

444

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND...

2009-10-01

445

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND...

2010-10-01

446

Identifying the impact of the built environment on flood damage in Texas.  

PubMed

Floods continue to pose the greatest threat to the property and safety of human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the built environment and flood impacts in Texas, which consistently sustains the most damage from flooding of any other state in the country. Specifically, we calculate property damage resulting from 423 flood events between 1997 and 2001 at the county level. We identify the effect of several built environment measures, including wetland alteration, impervious surface, and dams on reported property damage while controlling for biophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Statistical results suggest that naturally occurring wetlands play a particularly important role in mitigating flood damage. These findings provide guidance to planners and flood managers on how to alleviate most effectively the costly impacts of foods at the community level. PMID:18217915

Brody, Samuel D; Zahran, Sammy; Highfield, Wesley E; Grover, Himanshu; Vedlitz, Arnold

2008-03-01

447

The sensitivity of fluvial flood risk in Irish catchments to the range of IPCC AR4 climate change scenarios.  

PubMed

In the face of increased flood risk responsible authorities have set out safety margins to incorporate climate change impacts in building robust flood infrastructure. Using the case study of four catchments in Ireland, this study subjects such design allowances to a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainty inherent in estimates of future flood risk. Uncertainty in flood quantiles is quantified using regionalised climate scenarios derived from a large number of GCMs (17), forced with three SRES emissions scenarios. In terms of hydrological response uncertainty within and between hydrological models is assessed using the GLUE framework. Regionalisation is achieved using a change factor method to infer changes in the parameters of a weather generator using monthly output from the GCMs, while flood frequency analysis is conducted using the method of probability weighted moments to fit the Generalised Extreme Value distribution to ~20,000 annual maximia series. Sensitivity results show that for low frequency events, the risk of exceedence of design allowances is greater than for more frequent events, with considerable implications for critical infrastructure. Peak flows for the five return periods assessed were found to be less sensitive to temperature and subsequently to potential evaporation (PET) than to rainfall. The average width of the uncertainty range for changes in flood magnitude is greater for low frequency events than for high frequency events. In all catchments there is a progressive increase in the peak flows associated with the 5, 25, 50 and 100-year return periods when moving from the 2020s to the 2080s. PMID:21943724

Bastola, Satish; Murphy, Conor; Sweeney, John

2011-09-23

448

Anomalous North Pacific atmospheric circulation and large winter floods in the Southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Specific anomalous atmospheric circulation conditions over the North Pacific are conducive to the occurrence of the largest winter floods ([ge] 10-yr return period) on rivers in six hydroclimatic subregions of Arizona and southern Utah, Nevada, and California. Composite maps of anomalies in daily 700-mb heights indicate that floods in all of the subregions are associated with a low pressure anomaly off the California coast and a high-pressure anomaly in the vicinity of either Alaska or the Aleutian Islands. Of these two major circulation features, the presence of the low is the controlling factor in determining whether large floods will occur. Shifts in the locations of the low and high pressure anomalies over the North Pacific appear to control which subregions experience floods, with high-elevation topographic features and proximity to air masses forming a major influence over the specific atmospheric circulation conditions that generate large floods in each hydroclimatic region. Concerning the interannual variability of flooding in the Southwest, there is an increased frequency of large winter floods during multiple-year periods dominated by negative SOI and a virtual absence of large floods during the intervening periods. This suggests that global-scale climatic anomalies exert a strong influence on the occurrence of severe regional winter floods. 42 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Ely, L.L. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Enzel, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Cayan, D.R. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States))