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1

A Spatial Data Infrastructure for Landslides and Floods in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Geo-Hydrologic Hazard Assessment (IRPI), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), is part of the GIIDA project. GIIDA, an Italian acronym for Integrated and Interoperable Management of Environmental Data, aims at establishing a multi-disciplinary e-infrastructure for the efficient management, processing, and dissemination of Earth and Environmental information resources, including data, services, models, and sensors. GIIDA is compliant to the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) Directive 2007/2/EC promoted by the European Parliament in 2007. For the GIIDA project, IRPI coordinates the thematic area on natural and man-made hazards and risk, focusing on the dissemination of spatial information on landslides and floods in Italy, including catalogues of historical landslide and flood events, inventory maps, landslide hazard zonations, and risk maps. For the purpose, a specific (dedicated) Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) was implemented, using chiefly open source (OS) software, which favors interoperability and adoption to international standards. In the SDI, multiple services have been implemented, including: (i) Web Mapping Services (WMS) for the visualization of geographical data as images, (ii) Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Coverage Services (WCS) for the delivery of geographical information in vector (feature) and raster (coverage) format, and (iii) Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW) for the design and the implementation of digital catalogues of metadata for the published geospatial data and services. Prototypes of Web Processing Processes (WPS) were experimented using pyWPS (http://pywps.wald.intevation.org), a Python implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium WPS standard. In addition, dedicated Web-GIS applications were designed and implemented to allow user-friendly visualization of the geographical information. In our presentation, we describe the SDI infrastructure and the different types of implemented services; and we discuss the problems encountered and the solutions adopted to overcome the problems.

Marchesini, Ivan; Tonelli, Gabriele; Balducci, Vinicio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

2010-05-01

2

Urban Infrastructure, Channel-Floodplain Morphology and Flood Flow Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the channel and the floodplain in urban settings is heavily influenced by (1) altered watershed hydrologic response and frequency distribution of flows, (2) channel enlargement resulting from altered hydrology under conditions of limited sediment supply, (3) direct modification of channels and floodplains for purposes of erosion mitigation, flood protection, commercial development and creation of public amenities, (4)

A. J. Miller; J. A. Smith; C. B. Nelson

2006-01-01

3

A Filtering Approach for an IGMP Flooding Resilient Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advent of the Internet multicast service has enabled a number of successful real-time multimedia applica- tions. However, the wide-scale commercial deployment of multicast has run into signicant challenges, and in particular security. The threats to the multicast infrastructure, whether they are intentional or not, mainly come from the edge. Several attacks arise from the use of group management

Zainab KHALLOUF; Vincent ROCA

4

How do local stakeholders respond to the uncertain implications of an innovative flood infrastructure project?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 20th century, flood management was dominated by rigid structures - such as dikes and dams - which intend to strictly regulate and control water systems. Although the application of these rigid structures has been successful in the recent past, their negative implications for ecosystems and natural processes is often not properly taken into account. Therefore, flood management practices are currently moving towards more nature-inclusive approaches. Building with Nature (BwN) is such a new approach of nature-inclusive flood management in the Netherlands, which aims to utilize natural dynamics (e.g., wind and currents) and natural materials (e.g., sediment and vegetation) for the realization of effective flood infrastructure, while providing opportunities for nature development. However, the natural dynamics driving a project based on BwN design principles are inherently unpredictable. Furthermore, our factual knowledge base regarding the socio-ecological system in which the BwN initiative is implemented is incomplete. Moreover, in recent years, it is increasingly aimed for by decision-makers to involve local stakeholders in the development of promising flood management initiatives. These stakeholders and other actors involved can have diverging views regarding the project, can perceive unanticipated implications and could choose unforeseen action paths. In short, while a project based on BwN design principles - like any human intervention - definitely has implications for the socio-ecological system, both the extent to which these particular implications will occur and the response of stakeholders are highly uncertain. In this paper, we study the Safety Buffer Oyster Dam case - a BwN pilot project - and address the interplay between the project's implications, the uncertainties regarding these implications and the action paths chosen by the local stakeholders and project team. We determine how the implications of the Safety Buffer project are viewed by local stakeholders, identify the frames and uncertainties related to these implications, and classify these uncertainties according to their nature and level. We describe which action paths are chosen by the local stakeholders and project team regarding the implications identified. Our research shows that there is a correspondence between the level of uncertainty about the implications identified and the action paths chosen by the actors involved. This suggests that the inherent deep uncertainty in projects based on BwN principles calls for more adaptable and flexible strategies to cope with the implications of these initiatives.

van den Hoek, Ronald; Brugnach, Marcela; Hoekstra, Arjen

2013-04-01

5

Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ... from Centers for Disease Control Alert: Boil Drinking Water If your water may not be safe, bring ...

6

Optimal Boundary Control in Flood Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In active flood hazard mitigation, lateral flow withdrawal is used to reduce the impact of flood waves in rivers. Through\\u000a emergency side channels, lateral outflow is generated. The optimal outflow controls the flood in such a way that the cost\\u000a of the created damage is minimized. The flow is governed by a networked system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential\\u000a equations,

Martin Gugat

7

Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.  

PubMed

The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

2012-12-15

8

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 ...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations...the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2013-07-01

9

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 ...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are...

2013-07-01

10

A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

Eleutério, J.; Hattemer, C.; Rozan, A.

2013-04-01

11

Social Dimensions of Urban Flood Control Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study of the social variables that are likely to be important in making public decisions about controlling flood waters of local streams was made. In addition to discovery of social factors the objectives included description and measuremen...

W. H. Andrews D. C. Geertsen

1974-01-01

12

Extending command and control infrastructures to cyber warfare assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work is to identify a framework for the integration of cyber command and control within the classical command and control infrastructure. The advent of cyber resources and military capabilities, as well as additional cyber information, requires that command and control infrastructures be updated to incorporate such cyber infrastructures. While much of these infrastructures operate in isolation

Robert F. Erbacher

2005-01-01

13

Extending command and control infrastructures to cyber warfare assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work is to identify a framework for the integration of cyber command and control within the classical command and control infrastructure. The advent of cyber resources and military capabilities, as well as additional cyber information, requires that command and control infrastructures be updated to incorporate such cyber infrastructures. While much of these infrastructures will operate in

R. F. Erbacher

2005-01-01

14

Upper Colorado Region Comprehensive Framework Study. Appendix IX. Flood Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Flood Control Work Group finds that flood problems exist in the Upper Colorado Region and that substantial flood damage can be expected in the future unless adequate flood damage reduction programs are implemented. It is estimated that the total avera...

1971-01-01

15

The Urban Drainage Network and its Control on Flood Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic and hydraulic processes that control urban flooding are examined through analyses of flood response in the Baltimore Metropolitan area. These analyses focus on warm season thunderstorm systems and their impact on Dead Run, a 14.3 km2 tributary of the Gwynns Falls watershed, which is the principal study region of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Field observations of rainfall from a network of 18 rain gage stations and discharge from a network of 6 stream gaging stations have been collected during "warm season" observing periods in 2003, 2004, and 2005. Field observations are used in conjunction with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to examine the spatially and temporally varying hydrological response of Dead Run. Model implementation incorporates a complete representation of the storm drain network (digitized from engineering drawings) and the network of stormwater detention basins. Analyses highlight the role of differences in density and distribution of impervious surfaces and in the urban drainage infrastructure (the storm pipe network and stormwater management facilities) for spatial heterogeneities of flood response.

Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.

2006-05-01

16

Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be executed by different resources of the Grid system. The resulting geospatial services are available in various OGC standards such as KML and WMS. Currently, the Grid infrastructure integrates the resources of several geographically distributed organizations, in particular: Space Research Institute NASU-NSAU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 (htpp://www.globus.org) and gLite 3 (http://glite.web.cern.ch) middleware, access to geospatial data and a Grid portal; Institute of Cybernetics of NASU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes (SCIT-1/2/3 clusters) based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to computational resources (approximately 500 processors); Center of Earth Observation and Digital Earth Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE-CAS, China) with deployed computational nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to geospatial data (approximately 16 processors). We are currently adding new geospatial services based on optical satellite data, namely MODIS. This work is carried out jointly with the CEODE-CAS. Using workflow patterns that were developed for SAR data processing we are building new workflows for optical data processing.

Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

2010-05-01

17

A stochastic approach to the flood control problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a stochastic model in conjunction with reliability analysis concepts to improve estimates for the protection volume that should be allocated in a reservoir to control a flood wave. In this approach, the inflow that reaches the reservoir during a flood is considered to be a load, and the reservoir capacity to control this flood is considered to be

Marinho G. Andrade; M. D. Fragoso; A. A. F. M. Carneiro

2000-01-01

18

The dilemma of flood control in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of increasing annual expenditures for flood control, losses from flooding continue to rise in the United States. This seeming contradiction arises from overdependence on federally supported structural solutions to flood problems. Nonstructural controls are initiated reluctantly at local levels of government because of constitutional questions, restrictions of local tax bases, lack of federal subsidies for nonstructural solutions, and

John E. Costa

1978-01-01

19

Geo-Information Technology for Infrastructural Flood Risk Analysis in Unplanned Settlements: A Case Study of Informal Settlement Flood Risk in the Nyabugogo Flood Plain, Kigali City, Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The main objective of this research was to improve flood mitigation within Rwanda’s rapidly growing Kigali City using Geo-Information\\u000a Technology (GIT) to identify flood hazard zones, analyze flood exposure and vulnerability, and suggest planning interventions.\\u000a Multiple sources of data and methods were utilized including a very high resolution Quickbird image, Global Positioning Systems,\\u000a interviews and a survey that aided flood

Jean Pierre Bizimana; Michele Schilling

20

Applications of ASFCM(Assessment System of Flood Control Measurement) in Typhoon Committee Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to extreme weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risks of having flood damage has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. Therefore, it became necessary to consider modifying climate change, flood damage and its scale to the previous dimension measurement evaluation system. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and integrated system to evaluate the most optimized measures for flood control through eliminating uncertainties of socio-economic impacts. Assessment System of Structural Flood Control Measures (ASFCM) was developed for determining investment priorities of the flood control measures and establishing the social infrastructure projects. ASFCM consists of three modules: 1) the initial setup and inputs module, 2) the flood and damage estimation module, and 3) the socio-economic analysis module. First, we have to construct the D/B for flood damage estimation, which is the initial and input data about the estimation unit, property, historical flood damages, and applied area's topographic & hydrological data. After that, it is important to classify local characteristic for constructing flood damage data. Five local characteristics (big city, medium size city, small city, farming area, and mountain area) are classified by criterion of application (population density). Next step is the floodplain simulation with HEC-RAS which is selected to simulate inundation. Through inputting the D/B and damage estimation, it is able to estimate the total damage (only direct damage) that is the amount of cost to recover the socio-economic activities back to the safe level before flood did occur. The last module suggests the economic analysis index (B/C ratio) with Multidimensional Flood Damage Analysis. Consequently, ASFCM suggests the reference index in constructing flood control measures and planning non-structural systems to reduce water-related damage. It is possible to encourage flood control planners and managers to consider and apply the socio-economic analysis results. ASFCM was applied in Republic of Korea, Thailand and Philippines to review efficiency and applicability. Figure 1. ASFCM Application(An-yang Stream, Republic of Korea)

Kim, C.

2013-12-01

21

Comprehensive flood control involving citizens in a Japanese watershed.  

PubMed

In July 2009, the city of Fukuoka, Japan experienced a flood disaster along the Hii River, which runs through densely populated, concrete-covered areas of the city. The drainage system was overwhelmed and the river overflowed due to heavy rainfall and rapid runoff. The event led citizens in its watershed to plan and implement comprehensive flood control. The plan aims not only to mitigate floods but also to revitalize the river environment and populated communities in urban areas. This study reports the activities led by the citizens. They organized and carried out civic forums, workshops, and fieldwork to share views as to how the flood disaster was caused, how floods in the watershed should be controlled, and how the river environment should be rehabilitated. This study illuminates how people, including the flood victims and municipal engineers, can change drastically and communicate effectively in the course of discussing and implementing the comprehensive flood control measures. PMID:23985508

Yamashita, Sampei; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Ryoichi; Moriyama, Toshiyuki; Minagawa, Tomoko; Kakudo, Kumiko; Yamashita, Terukazu

2013-01-01

22

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

23

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... flood insurance coverage. Flood Outreach Toolkit Materials FEMA Publications If you require more information about any of ... architects, engineers, builders, code officials and homeowners. Other Publications National Weather Service Hurricane Flooding: A Deadly Inland ...

24

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

2008-01-01

25

Fusion of Remote Sensing and Non-authoritative Data for Flood Disaster and Transportation Infrastructure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most frequently occurring natural hazard on Earth; with catastrophic, large scale floods causing immense damage to people, property, and the environment. Over the past 20 years, remote sensing has become the standard technique for flood identification because of its ability to offer synoptic coverage. Unfortunately, remote sensing data are not always available or only provide partial or incomplete information of an event due to revisit limitations, cloud cover, and vegetation canopy. The ability to produce accurate and timely flood assessments before, during, and after an event is a critical safety tool for flood disaster management. Furthermore, knowledge of road conditions and accessibility is crucial for emergency managers, first responders, and residents. This research describes a model that leverages non-authoritative data to improve flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation networks during all phases of a flood disaster. Non-authoritative data can provide real-time, on-the-ground information when traditional data sources may be incomplete or lacking. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its effective integration with established data and methods. Although this model will not replace existing flood mapping and disaster protocols, as a result of fusing heterogeneous data of varying spatial and temporal scales, it allows for increased certainty in flood assessment by "filling in the gaps" in the spatial and temporal progression of a flood event. The research model and its application are defined by four case studies of recent flood events in the United States and Canada. The model illustrates how non-authoritative, authoritative, and remote-sensing data can be integrated together during or after a flood event to provide damage assessments, temporal progressions of a flood event, and near real-time flood estimations.

Schnebele, Emily K.

26

Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits and difficulties that a migration to cloud-based computing philosophies has uncovered when compared to the legacy Mission Control Center architecture. The team consists of system and software engineers with extensive experience with the MCC infrastructure and software currently used to support the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle program (SSP).

Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

2009-01-01

27

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

2012-05-01

28

33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24... CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

2013-07-01

29

76 FR 6809 - Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control Works, DAP 9524.3  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control Works, DAP 9524.3 AGENCY...Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control Works. DATES: Comments...fund repairs to certain levees and other flood control works under the...

2011-02-08

30

33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section...203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required...

2013-07-01

31

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban...

2013-07-01

32

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, or hurricanes can cause ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

33

Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

2008-12-01

34

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2013-07-01

35

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2013-07-01

36

33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2013-07-01

37

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2013-07-01

38

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2013-07-01

39

33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. 203.45 Section 203.45 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2013-07-01

40

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2009-07-01

41

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

2010-07-01

42

75 FR 17393 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the “Flood Control, Mississippi...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...alternative plans to provide flood control and develop and discuss...Federal agency concerns and will formulate alternatives that manage flood risks in the project...authorized in the Flood Control Act of 1946, and subsequently...

2010-04-06

43

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

Stottler, Gary

2012-02-08

44

A control system testbed to validate critical infrastructure protection concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Mississippi State University SCADA Security Laboratory and Power and Energy Research laboratory. This laboratory combines model control systems from multiple critical infrastructure industries to create a testbed with functional physical processes controlled by commercial hardware and software over common industrial control system routable and non-routable networks. Laboratory exercises, functional demonstrations, and lecture material from the testbed

Thomas Morris; Anurag Srivastava; Bradley Reaves; Wei Gao; Kalyan Pavurapu; Ram Reddi

2011-01-01

45

Optimal Reservoir Operation for Flood Control Using Folded Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folded Dynamic Programming (FDP) is adopted for developing optimal reservoir operation policies for flood control. It is applied\\u000a to a case study of Hirakud Reservoir in Mahanadi basin, India with the objective of deriving optimal policy for flood control.\\u000a The river flows down to Naraj, the head of delta where a major city is located and finally joins the Bay

D. Nagesh Kumar; Falguni Baliarsingh; K. Srinivasa Raju

2010-01-01

46

Assessment of Urban Basins Flood Control Measures Using Hydrogis Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of constructing feasible detention dams in urban basins, immediately upstream an urban area, were studied. Comparisons were made between this practice and conventional localized river engineering countermeasures regarding socio-economic aspects. For assesment of the effects of detentions dams, 3 scenarios were tested. To evaluate the scenarios, ARCVIEW GIS with GEO-HMS extension, linked with HEC-HMS as mathematical model were used. The study was conducted in an urban basin in south of IRAN. Upon determination of design flood, the effects of flood magnitude on conveyance canal dimensions, with and without detention dams, were compared. Total costs of both flood control alternatives were estimated and compared. Results showed that incorporation of detention dams in urban basins for flood control purposes was superior to conventional localized Urbam Basin, localized river engineering.

Shokoohi, Ali Reza

47

A Recursive Programing Model for Nonstructural Flood Damage Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with floodplain land use management approaches for urban flood damage control. These alternatives are important because traditional flood control projects, such as levees, channel improvements, and reservoirs, are not always capable of correcting the physical and economic conditions that give rise to flood damage. It is expected that land use management will complement engineering works and lead to more effective use and development of floodplain lands. The paper presents a computational technique for evaluating alternative land use assignments based upon the economic value a community gains from its land. A linear programing model is developed that identifies economically efficient combinations of (1) spatial and temporal planning of urban land use, (2) site elevation through landfill, and (3) flood proofing of buildings.

Day, John C.

1970-10-01

48

Monitoring, control and diagnostics using RFID infrastructure.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the developed application for disinfection control by the sensing of chemical agents. The objective was to develop an Automatic Disinfectant Tracker (ADT) that would verify the disinfection of the hands of nurses, doctors, staff, patients, and visitors in hospitals within a required time frame. We have successfully investigated the development of hand disinfection control mechanisms and demonstrated two approaches, both based on the wireless Ultra-High-Frequency-based Radio-Frequency Identification (UHF-RFID) technology. The 100 % efficacy of detecting propanol and ethanol concentration was achieved by using the static disinfectant control (SDC-ADT) method. The time domain response provides an accurate determination of their performance in practice simply by measuring the applied disinfectant concentration and the duration of application. The present paper resulted from the measurements of a capacitive chemical sensor fabricated in the Laboratory for Microelectronics, (LMFE) and on measurements, based on a commercially available resistive type of sensor. A graphic user interface (IDS-GUI) is designed to successfully set the logger parameters and display the results. PMID:22438102

Pleteršek, Anton; Sok, Miha; Trontelj, Janez

2012-12-01

49

Pan-European flood frequency distributions and hydrological controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of an adequate frequency distribution is a crucial step in flood regionalisation studies. In some cases it is even based on traditional practice or familiarity to some kind of function and not on the comparison of the statistical properties of the theoretical curve and the flood peaks sample. This study reports the analysis of a new database of higher order L moment ratios from more than 4000 individual annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flow, compiled by joining national datasets among 15 European countries. The position of this dataset on an L-moment-ratio diagram together with other recommended flood frequency distributions is discussed, resulting the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution the closest one to the sample Weighted Moving Average (WMA). This suggested its potential use as a pan-European flood frequency distribution. However, a more detailed investigation of a subset of the database (Austria, Italy and Slovakia) with catchment area and mean annual precipitation (MAP) as hydrologic controls was conducted through a novel representation on L-moment-ratio diagrams. This investigation confirmed the usefulness of the GEV distribution, but also showed that for dry (low MAP) medium sized catchments, the three parameter log normal (LN3) distribution is a more appropriate choice. Two parameter distributions were found not to provide a representation of the dataset as good as the three parameter ones. In this study, lower L-Cv and L-Cs for bigger catchments was found due to the smoothing effect of non-linearities in flood generation with increasing catchment area. Also, for drier catchments (lower MAP), bigger L-Cv and L-Cs was reported due to the higher variability of annual flood peaks in more arid regions; both of these results are coherent with previous data-based studies on a country scale, which extracted similar relationships of catchment size and precipitation with product moments.

Salinas, Jose Luis; Castellarin, Attilio; Kohnová, Silvia; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.

2013-04-01

50

Climatic control on the peak discharge of glacier outburst floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes impounded by natural ice dams occur in many glacier regions. Their sudden emptying along subglacial paths can unleash ~1 km3 of floodwater, but predicting the peak discharge of these subglacial outburst floods (`jökulhlaups') is notoriously difficult. To study how environmental factors control jökulhlaup magnitude, we use thermo-mechanical modelling to interpret a 40-year flood record from Merzbacher Lake in the Tian Shan. We show that the mean air temperature during each flood modulates its peak discharge, by influencing both the rate of meltwater input to the lake as it drains, and the lake-water temperature. The flood devastation potential thus depends sensitively on weather, and this dependence explains how regional climatic warming drives the rising trend of peak discharges in our dataset. For other subaerial ice-dammed lakes worldwide, regional warming will also promote higher-impact jökulhlaups by raising the likelihood of warm weather during their occurrence, unless other factors reduce lake volumes at flood initiation to outweigh this effect.

Ng, Felix; Liu, Shiyin; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Wang, Yanguo

2007-11-01

51

Risk based adaptation of infrastructures to floods and storm surges induced by climate change.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal natural hazards are changing in frequency and intensity associated to climate change. These extreme events combined with an increase in the extent of vulnerable societies will lead to an increase of substantial monetary losses. For this reason, adaptive measures are required to identify the effective and adequate measures to withstand the impacts of climate change. Decision strategies are needed for the timing of investments and for the allocation of resources to safeguard the future in a sustainable manner. Adapting structures to climate change requires decision making under uncertainties. Therefore, it is vital that risk assessments are generated on a reliable and appropriate evaluation of the involved uncertainties. Linking a Bayesian network (BN) to a Geographic Information System (GIS) for a risk assessment enables to model all the relevant parameters, their causal relations and the involved uncertainties. The integration of the probabilistic approach into a GIS allows quantifying and visualizing uncertainties in a spatial manner. By addressing these uncertainties, the Bayesian Network approach allows quantifying their effects; and facilitates the identification of future model improvements and where other efforts should be concentrated. The final results can be applied as a supportive tool for presenting reliable risk assessments to decision-makers. Based on this premises, a case study was performed to assess how the storm surge magnitude and flooding extent of an event with similar characteristics to the Sandy Super storm will occur in 2050 and 2090.

Luna, Byron Quan; Garrè, Luca; Hansen, Peter Friis

2014-05-01

52

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the discoveryschool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on how flooding can occur due to different types of soil and how soils are able to retain rainwater. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

53

BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA  

EPA Science Inventory

In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

54

76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ]...

2011-07-05

55

Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

2012-01-01

56

River Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

57

The Urban Drainage Network and its Control on Extreme Floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban watersheds, where first order streams have been truncated and replaced by subsurface storm drain networks and vegetation has been replaced by impervious surface, overland travel velocities and runoff volumes are much greater than in predevelopment conditions. Management facilities, such as detention and retention basins, are used to mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization, including increasing flood peaks and runoff volumes. We present analyses of hydrologic response in Dead Run, a 14.3 sq. km. watershed in the Baltimore metropolitan area, based on a detailed, digital reconstruction of the storm drain network, hydrologic observations in the basin and a hydrologic/hydraulic modeling system. Analyses center on a storm which produced record flooding in Dead Run on 7 July 2004. Model analyses directly incorporate the hydrologic and hydraulic controls of the drainage network (both the surface drainage network and the storm drain system) and those of detention basins. Analyses utilize rainfall observations derived from weather radar and a network of 19 rain gages, as well as stream gaging observations (at 1 - 5 minute time interval) from 6 stations. The effectiveness of the storm drain network to quickly and efficiently remove storm runoff from the ground surface, in conjunction with the stormwater management basin's ability to attenuate flood peaks, is examined at both the local and watershed scale. Analyses focus on events, like the 7 July 2004 event, which have long return intervals.

Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

2004-12-01

58

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch

G. Thomas; A. Brown

1997-01-01

59

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country's infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams. Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one

Graham H. Thomas; Albert E. Brown

1998-01-01

60

Dynamic control of flood limited water level for reservoir operation by considering inflow uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAccording to the Chinese Flood Control Act, reservoir water levels generally are not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season in order to offer adequate storage for flood prevention. However, the operation rules based on the current FLWL have neglected meteorological and real-time flood forecasting information and give too much priority to low probability floods. For floodwater utilization, dynamic control of reservoir FLWL is a valuable and effective methodology to compromise between flood control and conservation for reservoir operation during the flood season. The dynamic control bound is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation. In this paper, a dynamic control operation model that considers inflow uncertainty, i.e. the inflow forecasting error and uncertainty of the flood hydrograph shape is proposed and developed. The model consists of three modules: the first one is a pre-release module, which is used to estimate the upper boundary of dynamic control bound on basis of inflow forecasting results; the second one is a refill operation module, which is used to retain recession flood, and the third one is a risk analysis module, which is used to assess flood risk. The acceptable flood control operation risk constraints and quantificational analysis methods are given, and the dynamic control bound of reservoir FLWL is estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The China's three gorges reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study. A multiple-input single-output linear systematic model is chosen for inflow forecasting of the TGR, and the future inflows are derived from gauged records by assuming that the inflow forecasting error follows a normal distribution. The application results show that the dynamic control of reservoir FLWL can effectively increase hydropower generation and the floodwater utilization rate without increasing flood control risk.

Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Chen, Guiya

2010-09-01

61

Nonstructural Flood Control Measures: A Sociological Study of Innovation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four of the major flood plain management measures--insurance, zoning, flood proofing, and warning systems--are discussed from the social perspective. An overview of the causes and effects of the various measures on policy agents, flood plain occupants, an...

A. B. Motz

1983-01-01

62

The Paradoxes of Change and Control in Digital Infrastructures: The Mobile Operating Systems Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the smartphone as a highly complex technology has been accompanied by mobile operating systems, large communities of developers, diverse content providers, and increasingly complex networks, jointly forming digital infrastructures. The multi-faceted and relational character of such digital infrastructures raises issues around how change and control can be conceptualized and understood. We discuss how change and control are

David Tilson; Carsten Sorensen; Kalle Lyytinen

2011-01-01

63

CORROSION CONTROL STRATEGY IN THE ELECTRICAL NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the impact of effects resulting from the biunivocal relationship infrastructure-environment over military operations to maintain peace or to implement post-conflict programmes, a particular attention has to be paid to the management of corrosion issues, the most common degradation process of metallic and non-metallic materials in the composition of installations of electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure. The paper describes the

Doina Frumuselu

64

The Model Development of Real-Time Flood Control for Tsen-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer and fall, typhoons are the most frequently disasters in Taiwan. Because spare volume of reservoir can be used to reduce the peak flow, developing management models of flood operation for reservoirs becomes a good approach to reduce the impact of flooding. This study proposes a real-time flood control model which contains two major elements, an optimal flood control planning model and a real-time inflow predictor. First, the optimal flood control planning model contains the Genetic algorithms (GA), HEC-RAS and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The objective function of GA maximizes the reduction of flood damage at the downstream area and also minimizes the gap between target stage and final stage for reservoir. The HEC-RAS is used to simulate the river stage after reservoir releasing and the ANN instead of HEC-RAS simulation is used to reduce the computational burden of river routing simulation. The optimal flood control planning model can provide optimal solutions of reservoir release under pre-define of inflow data. Second, the real-time inflow predictor predicts the reservoir inflow based on the real-time inflow observations and the historical record of typhoon events. Therefore, the real-time flood control model optimizes the flood control operation of the reservoir based on the forecast inflow. This study area is at Tseng-wen Reservoir and using forty historical typhoon events to develop methodology. Six typhoon events are used to verify the proposed model. These typhoons include SEPAT (2007), KORSA (2007), KALMAEGI (2008), FUNG-WONG (2008), SINLAKU (2008) and JANGMI (2008).The results show that the developed model can reduce the duration of flood at the downstream area significantly The performance of using the proposed model for KORSA and SINLAKU can reduce the duration of flooding 4 hours and 3 hours respectively. Based on the above, the proposed model can be a useful tool for the real-time flood control of reservoirs.

Chang, H.; Chang, L.; Chang, Y.

2012-12-01

65

First Elements of the Decision Support System for Flood Control in the Red - Thai Binh River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red - Thai Binh River System is the second biggest river system in Vietnam, after Mekong River. In recent years, big floods frequently happened in Vietnam, and flood disaster causes massive losses of human life and immense damages. To reduce these damages caused by floods, for short -term and long-term flood prevention and control in the Red - Thai Binh

Nguyen Van Diep; Ngo Huy Can; Hoang Van Lai; Nguyen Hong Khanh

66

STUDY ON THE FLOOD CONTROL ABILITY OF A DRY DAM USED AS A FLOOD RETARDING BASIN IN A RIVER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest to construct small scale dry dams in a river instead of a large scale dam in order to prevent a flood disaster and preserve a natural environment. In recent years, a flood control dam without a slide gate in spillway, known as a ’dry dam’, has been reviewed, planned and built in some sites. In this study, the effects of some slide gates in a bottom spillway which can be opened and closed automatically depending on hydraulic pressure called ’pressure gate’ for a dry dam are examined. In addition, width of a crest spillway gate is discussed to reduce rapid increase of flow discharge in the situation of overflowing. It is demonstrated that a dry dam has an additional ability to reduce damage from a flood surge. Small scale dry dams must be regarded as a flood retarding basin fitting to a natural environment. Therefore, construction of small scale dry dams is one of the powerful options to adapt a natural environment and global warming.

Oshikawa, Hideo; Imamura, Tomohiko; Komatsu, Toshimitsu

67

Identifying Effects of Forecast Uncertainty on Flood Control Decision - A Hydro-economic Hedging Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different from conventional studies developing reservoir operation models and treating forecast as input to obtain operation decisions case by case, this study issues a hydro-economic analysis framework and derives some general relationships between optimal flood control decision and streamflow forecast. By analogy with the hedging rule theory for water supply, we formulate reservoir flood control with a two-stage optimization model, in which the properties of flood damage (i.e., diminishing marginal damage) and the characteristics of forecast uncertainty (i.e., the longer the forecast horizon, the larger the forecast uncertainty) are incorporated to minimize flood risk. We define flood conveying capacity surplus (FCCS) variables to elaborate the trade-offs between the release of current stage (i.e., stage 1) and in the release of future stage (i.e., stage 2). Using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, the flood risk trade-off between the two stages is theoretically represented and illustrated by three typical situations depending on forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude. The analytical results also show some complicated effects of forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude on real-time flood control decision: 1) When there is a big flood with a small FCCS, the whole FCCS should be allocated to the current stage to hedge against the more certain and urgent flood risk in the current stage; 2) when there is a medium flood with a moderate FCCS, some FCCS should be allocated to the future stage but more FCCS still should be allocated to the current stage; and 3) when there is a small flood with a large FCCS, more FCCS should be allocated to the future stage than the current stage, as a large FCCS in the future stage can still induce some flood risk (distribution of future stage forecast uncertainty is more disperse) while a moderate FCCS in the current stage can induce a small risk. Moreover, this study also presents a hypothetical case study to analyze the flood risk under Pseudo probabilistic streamflow forecast (pPSF, deterministic forecast with variance) and Real probabilistic streamflow forecast (rPSF, ensemble forecast) forecast uncertainties, which shows ensemble forecast techniques are more efficient on mitigating flood risk.

Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

2011-12-01

68

78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Use of Storage Allocated for Flood Control and Navigation at Non-Corps Projects...Use of Storage Allocated for Flood Control and Navigation at Non-Corps Projects...of the Army in the interest of flood control and navigation. * * * * *...

2013-12-23

69

Expected shortage based pre-release strategy for reservoir flood control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Taiwan, an increase in the frequency of severe flooding over the past decade has prompted demand for improved reservoir operation to control flood-related damage. Flood protection of reservoir can be enhanced by pre-releasing its storage to more adequately accommodate an impending flood. A procedure is proposed in this paper to evaluate the impact of pre-releases of flood control operation on water supply. A basic criterion used is that the pre-release of reservoir storage should not cause intolerable increment of water shortage risk. The shortage risks for different pre-release scenarios are simulated according to the uncertainties of storm rainfall and post-flood ordinary inflow till the end of next dry season. Two operational objectives are provided to help determining the target pre-released level. One of which identifies the minimum allowable pre-released threshold. The other seeks the pre-released level which maximizes the probability that the reservoir release during flood is below the non-damaging discharge and the end-of-operation storage target can still be achieved. This paper evaluated the operations of Tsengwen Reservoir of southern Taiwan during four typhoons from 2007 to 2012 to illustrate the significant contribution of pre-releases in reducing downstream flood potential.

Chou, Frederick N.-F.; Wu, Chia-Wen

2013-08-01

70

75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-04-09

71

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton in a Flood Control Reservoir and Tailwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zooplankton, when available, may be an important food source for fish fry in lotic habitats. The effects of flood control reservior operation on the downstream transport of reservior zooplankton (both microcrustaceans and rotifers) were quantified by exam...

J. R. Novotny R. D. Hoyt

1983-01-01

72

Urban Drainage and Flood Control Projects Economic, Legal and Financial Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for evaluating minor and major Urban Drainage and Flood Control (UDFC) Projects are described. Economic, political, engineering, financial and legal problems must be faced prior to implementation of proper levels of these projects. The measurem...

N. S. Grigg L. H. Botham L. Rice W. J. Shoemaker L. S. Tucker

1976-01-01

73

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. Mouth of Colorado River, Texas. (Navigation, Flood Control).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway - Mouth of the Colorado River, Texas, provides for shallow-draft navigation and flood control improvements, enhancement of fish and wildlife, and development of outdoor recreation in the lower 7 mile reach of the Colorado Ri...

1971-01-01

74

Communal peeing: a new mode of flood control in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavioral response of the obligate bamboo-nesting ant Cataulacus muticus to nest flooding was studied in a perhumid tropical rainforest in Malaysia and in the laboratory. The hollow internodes of giant bamboo, in which C. muticus exclusively nests, are prone to flooding by heavy rains. The ants showed a two-graded response to flooding. During heavy rain workers block the nest entrances with their heads to reduce water influx. However, rainwater may still intrude into the nest chamber. The ants respond by drinking the water, leaving the nest and excreting water droplets on the outer stem surface. This cooperative 'peeing' behavior is a new survival mechanism adaptive to the ants' nesting ecology. Laboratory experiments conducted with two other Cataulacus species, C. catuvolcus colonizing small dead twigs and C. horridus inhabiting rotten wood, did not reveal any form of water-bailing behavior.

Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, J.

75

Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

2014-05-01

76

Flooding and Flood Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Floodsmart.gov The official site of the National Flood Insurance Program Call toll free: 1-888-379- ... Flood Facts Media Resources Toolkits Email Updates Flooding & Flood Risks What is a Flood? Anywhere it rains, ...

77

Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of the entire optimization problem. This study applies the developed methodology to Tseng-wun Reservoir. Forty typhoon events are collected as the historical database and six typhoon events are used to verify the proposed model. These typhoons include Typhoon Sepat and Typhoon Korsa in 2007 and Typhoon Kalmaegi, Typhoon Fung-Wong, Typhoon Sinlaku and Typhoon Jangmi in 2008. The results show that the proposed model can reduce the flood duration at the downstream area. For example, the real-time flood control model can reduce the flood duration by four and three hours for Typhoon Korsa and Typhoon Sinlaku respectively. This results indicate that the developed model can be a very useful tool for real-time flood control operation of reservoirs.

Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

2012-04-01

78

Newton's Apple: Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

79

Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore

2012-01-01

80

A combined hydrologic and hydraulic modeling approach for testing efficiency of structural flood control measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity of estimating the degree and spatial extent of positive impacts with regard to protecting communities and properties\\u000a through potential flood control projects can be considered one of the main reasons for performing flood modeling. This paper\\u000a presents an overall systematic approach based on the simulation of some extreme event conditions, using a hydrological model\\u000a to generate the resulting

Gülay Onu?luel Gül; Nilgün Harmanc?o?lu; Ali Gül

2010-01-01

81

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

2009-04-01

82

Flood information for flood-plain planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

Bue, Conrad D.

1967-01-01

83

Using field data and HSR imagery to downscale vulnerability assessment of buildings and local infrastructure facing hazards from floods and hyperconcentrated flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study is the analysis of post-flood conditions along the Venezuela channel in the large city of Arequipa, south Peru, in order to identify the parameters determining vulnerability of buildings and infrastructure. Two tributaries draining a c. 11.9 km2 large catchment feed the Venezuela channel. Before joining the main Rio Chili valley to the West, it crosses the city from NE to SW. Over a total length of 5.2 km, channel depth ranges from 1.3 to 6.3 m and c. 40% of the channel sections do not exceed 5 m in width. On 8 February 2013, 123 mm of rainfall within 3 hours (monthly mean: 29.3 mm) triggered a flashflood inundating at least 0.4 km2 of urban settlements along the channel. The flood damaged 14 buildings, 23 among 53 bridges, and led to the partial collapse of main road sections paralyzing central parts of the city for at least one week. This research relies on (1) analyzing post-flood conditions and assessing damage types caused by the 8 February 2013 flood; (2) mapping of the channel characteristics (slope, wetted section, sinuosity, type of river banks, bed roughness, etc.) and buildings, bridges, and contention walls potentially exposed to inundation. Data collection and analysis have been based on high spatial resolution (HSR) images (SPOT5 2007, Google Earth Pro and BINGMAP 2012, PLEIADES 2012-2013). Field measurements (GPS, laser and geomorphologic mapping) were used to ground truth channel width, depth, as well as building outlines, contention walls and bridge characteristics (construction material, opening size, etc.). An inventory of 25 city blocks (1500 to 20000 m2; 6 to 157 houses per block) has been created in a GIS database in order to estimate their physical vulnerability. As many as 717 buildings have been surveyed along the affected drainage and classified according to four building types based on their structural characteristics. Output vulnerability maps show that the varying channel characteristics, i.e. bank type, bed roughness, and the variable width-depth ratio of rectangular or trapezoidal channel sections determine in great part site-specific vulnerability. The sub-metric spatial resolution and GIS data analysis using PLEIADES imagery has enabled vulnerability assessment of individual features of few meters in size. However, this study shows that fieldwork remains essential for (1) completing measurements in areas where channel is < 5 m in width or partially hidden by 2-5-storey buildings; (2) assessing the type and construction material of contention walls and thus their susceptibility to fail after they are scoured; and (3) determining the opening height of bridges potentially obstructing flow and leading to inundation as a consequence of overspill.

Ettinger, Susanne; Manrique Llerena, Nélida Victoria; Thouret, Jean-Claude

2014-05-01

84

Toward Digital Ecologies: Intelligent Agent Networks Controlling Interdependent Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal, intelligent and multifunctional devices controlling power distribution and measurement will become the enabling technology of the ICT-driven SmartGrid. In this paper we discuss a design and simulation environment which provides a virtual model of such devices and at the same time enables their interoperability and configurability. The solution is based on the combination of IEC 61850 interoperable communication and

Valeriy Vyatkin; Gulnara Zhabelova; Mihaela Ulieru; Donald McComas

2010-01-01

85

Green Infrastructure for CSO Control in Kansas City, Missouri  

EPA Science Inventory

Kansas City Water Services Department (WSD) conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system over the last 5 years, for submittal of its long term control plan to EPA. These studies and recent funding opportunities have provided the impetus for sele...

86

Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

87

The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic changes have occurred at and downstream from ephemeral tributaries that contribute large volumes of sediment.

Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-01-01

88

Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

89

Mobility Control in Oil Recovery by Chemical Flooding: State-of-the-ART Review: Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding (polymer, micellar-polymer, and alkaline-polymer) can be achieved through the use of low-concentration water-soluble polymers in water or in chemical slugs. Since the late 1950's, water-soluble polymer...

H. W. Gao

1987-01-01

90

Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

2009-05-01

91

[Technical features and roles of cobalt-57 flood sources for daily quality control of gamma cameras].  

PubMed

Quality control (QC) detects changes in the performance of gamma cameras that could adversely affect interpretations of clinical studies. We used plate and sheet (57)Co flood sources to measure extrinsic uniformity during daily QC. Each source, when placed on the top of a collimated detector, allowed the acquisition of uniform images from both detectors, thus reducing the amount of time needed to perform daily QC. No serious problems with the gamma camera system were revealed by visual checks, and changes in detector sensitivity were rapidly determined by observing daily variations in the measured values of extrinsic uniformity. Furthermore, (57)Co flood sources confer advantages in that they shorten the time required for preparation of flood sources and reduce the consequent exposure of medical staff to radiation. PMID:24573229

Wagatsuma, Kei; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Miyaji, Noriaki; Umeda, Takuro; Murata, Taisuke; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Mitsuru

2014-02-01

92

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01...storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation at reservoirs...in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section 208.11...

2013-07-01

93

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2009-07-01...storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation at reservoirs...in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section 208.11...

2009-07-01

94

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01...storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation at reservoirs...in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section 208.11...

2010-07-01

95

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01...storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation at reservoirs...in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section 208.11...

2012-07-01

96

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01...storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation at reservoirs...in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208.11 Section 208.11...

2011-07-01

97

Access Control Meets Public Key Infrastructure, Or: Assigning Roles to Strangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A new approach to the deployment of public key infrastructure is presented, based on a separation between,the issuing of certificates and the usage of certificates.Certificates are signed assertions by the issuer about the subject of the certificate (holder of correspondingsecret key), not necessarily identifying the subject. Typical use of certificate is for access control decisions, to determine whether,the subject

Amir Herzberg; Yosi Mass; Joris Mihaeli; Dalit Naor; Yiftach Ravid

2000-01-01

98

Deriving flood-control release rules on a reservoir operation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide the optimal real-time releases for operators on a multi-reservoir system during typhoon, the study proposes the methodology to extract a set of optimal multi-reservoir operation rules for flood control. The two classification technologies, namely decision-tree algorithm (C5.0) and neural-based decision-tree algorithm (NDT) are employed in the extracting rules. The tasks involves four parts: (1) collection of data, (2) development of the model of optimal flood control operation and solution of optimal release patterns, (3) building of the model of the decision-tree algorithm and neural-based decision-tree algorithm and extraction of the decision trees, and (4) comparison of the developed rules and the current rules. The developed methodology is applied to Shihmen reservoir located in the Tahan river basin in northern Taiwan. The optimal flood-control operation rules involve rules with respect to peak-flow-preceding stage and peak-flow-proceeding stage. In order to generate the optimal data, the reservoir operation optimization model for flood control is applied to the Shihmen reservoir system. This optimization model can identify the best amount of water released at each flood period. Data of 36 typhoons (1987-2004) are available. The generated optimal results of the total 1438 hourly data (36 typhoons), including 335 records of the peak-flow- preceding stage and 1103 records of the peak-flow- proceeding stage, can then serve as the training and testing datasets of the NDT model. The application of the Shihmen reservoir operation verifies the superior performance of the NDT model in contrast to the traditional decision-tree algorithm (C5.0) and current operating rules. Consequently, the developed methodology demonstrates its feasibility.

Wei, C.

2008-12-01

99

A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

Murch, Austin M.

2008-01-01

100

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

Usgs

101

Poldering vs compartmentalization: The choice of flood control techniques in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of flood control techniques in Bangladesh is reviewed in the context of a case study on the impact of a small-scale polder, the Dhaka-Narayanganj-Demra (DND) Project. The results of a questionnaire survey among the urban floodplain residents, who have settled inside the polder and a control population from outside the polder, indicate that the project has achieved significant flood alleviation but has also induced considerable environmental degradation due to stagnation of water within the enclosed embankment. The project also experienced numerous problems of structural instability of embankments during major flood events. An attempt is made to extrapolate some of these adverse environmental impacts of the polder to the compartmentalization scheme, which has been proposed by a UNDP-sponsored Flood Policy Study as an innovative technique for floodplain management in Bangladesh. The findings of the study, however, do not provide an adequate basis for assessing viability of the proposed compartmentalization scheme. Nonetheless, the study illustrates the usefulness of questionnaire surveys among floodplain residents for obtaining data for project evaluation.

Rasid, Harun; Mallik, Azim

1993-01-01

102

Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

2005-01-01

103

STUDY ON FLOOD CONTROL PROPERTIES OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT USING SATURATED-UNSATURATED SEEPAGE ANALYSIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement have been attracted attention as a control measure of flood and an environmental improvement measure in urban areas. However, rainfall infiltration of permeable pavement is unsteady flow and strongly dependent on the behavior of unsaturated zones in the pavement. Moreover, the wet condition of subbase course also has a great influence on the rainfall infiltration of the pavement. That's why previous studies have not made clear the precise the facility of permeable pavement as a flood control. In this paper, experimental studies and simulated analyses were performed to measure the overflow from the pavement under various conditions of rainfall intensities and estimate the rainfall infiltration of the pavement using the measurement data and unsaturated infiltration characteristics of porous asphalt materials. It is clear that this study shows the methods to have a quantitative estimation of the rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement.

Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nakashima, Shinichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Wada, Minoru

104

Measurements, patterns, and controls of nitrogen flux in a cranberry bed during the harvest flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for cranberry production but also a source of freshwater eutrophication in southeastern Massachusetts. Surface application of N fertilizer is pervasive throughout the cranberry industry, accounting for 93% of total annual N export from farms. The agricultural practice of "wet harvesting", involving the flooding of farms with ~1 ft of water, may promote the vertical transport and transformation of nitrogen in cranberry beds. A cranberry bed at the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station (East Wareham, MA) has been instrumented with a network of hydrological monitoring equipment for quantifying patterns and controls of nitrogen dynamics during the harvest flood. Here, data of (1) hydraulic head gradient between floodwater and groundwater (J), (2) hydraulic conductivity (K), and (3) N concentration in groundwater (C) collected from multiple points on the cranberry bed will be presented, and used to evaluate the patterns and controls N fluxes (f = JKC) in the cranberry bed.

Kennedy, C. D.

2012-12-01

105

Geomorphic controls on post-flood water quality on a coastal floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes in estuarine water quality following flood events are influenced by the duration of floodwater-floodplain contact and the dynamics of floodwater recession as controlled by floodplain geomorphology. Episodic large-scale deoxygenation events causing mass mortality of benthic and aquatic biota can follow these events. This study examines the timing and sources of poor quality water entering a sub-tropical coastal estuary

Vanessa NL Wong; Scott G Johnston; Richard T Bush; Leigh A Sullivan; Chrisy Clay

2009-01-01

106

Mobility control experience in the Joffre Viking miscible CO[sub 2] flood  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses mobility control in the Joffre Viking field miscible CO[sub 2] flood. Since 1984, three injection strategies have been tried: water-alternating-CO[sub 2] (WACO[sub 2]), continuous CO[sub 2], and simultaneous CO[sub 2] and water. The studies showed that simultaneous injection results in the best CO[sub 2] conformance. CO[sub 2]-foam injection has also been investigated.

Luhning, R.W. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Stephenson, D.J.; Graham, A.G.

1993-08-01

107

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

108

The Effects of Variations in Turbidity on Cycles of Planktonic and Benthic Organisms in Flood Control Reservoirs of Northern Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plankton populations, turbidity and other physicochemical parameters were sampled in four flood control reservoirs of northern Mississippi. Numbers of organisms were compared with turbidity and other concomitant variables. High turbidity was deleterious t...

Y. J. McGaha J. P. Steen

1974-01-01

109

The Effects of Variations in Turbidity on Cycles of Planktonic and Benthic Organisms in Flood Control Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of turbidity on plankton and macrobenthos cycles in four northern Mississippi flood control reservoirs were studied. Turbidity measurements in part per million SiO2 were analyzed with other concomitant physiochemical data to ascertain the effe...

C. M. Cooper J. W. Burris Y. J. McGaha

1976-01-01

110

Ex post analysis of flood control: Benefit-cost analysis and the value of information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two analytical tools which aid decision making flood control design, ex post benefit-cost analysis and the ex post value of information, are presented for the case study of Rushford, Minnesota. The ex post analysis is conducted using a coincident frequency analysis which provides a more accurate description of discharge rates and flood levels. The ex post benefit-cost analysis shows that the Corps of Engineers substantially underestimated the value of potential property damage. The ex post value of information model provides an analysis of the project sensitivity to stream discharge. In addition, the optimum project size is determined under risk of project destruction. The results illustrate that net benefits are sensitive to changes in discharge information but less sensitive to project size and the risk of project destruction. This leads us to recommend more sensitivity analyses on information structures, project size, and the probability of project destruction in ex ante benefit-cost analysis.

Ramirez, Jorge; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.; Easter, K. William; Graham-Tomasi, Theodore

1988-08-01

111

Flood Cleanup  

MedlinePLUS

... here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Flood Cleanup Flood Cleanup During a flood cleanup, the indoor air ... flood and how to prevent indoor air problems: Flood Cleanup and the Air In Your Home Booklet ...

112

Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

2012-04-01

113

Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

2012-07-01

114

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the salt marsh radiation budget, surface energy balance, and CO2 flux. Analysis contrasted flooded and nonflooded and day and night effects. The salt marsh surface energy balance was similar to that of a heating-dominated sparse crop during nonflooded periods but similar to that of an evaporative cooling-dominated, well-watered grassy lawn during flooding. Observed increases in latent heat flux and decreases in net ecosystem exchange during flooding were proportional to flood depth and duration, with complete CO2 flux suppression occurring above some flood height less than the canopy height. Flood-induced changes in the salt marsh energy balance were dominated by changes in sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, and surface water heat storage. Parameters suitable for predicting the salt marsh surface energy balance were obtained by calibrating common models (e.g., Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and pan coefficient). Biophysical controls on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange were identified following calibration of models describing the coupling of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the salt marsh. The effects of flooding on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange are temporary but strongly affect the marsh water, carbon, and energy balance despite their short duration.

Moffett, Kevan B.; Wolf, Adam; Berry, Joe A.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2010-10-01

115

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

116

Use of Green Infrastructure Integrated with Conventional Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control: Kansas City, MO  

EPA Science Inventory

Advanced design concepts such as Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Solutions (or upland runoff control techniques) are currently being encouraged by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a management practice to contain and control stormwater at the lot ...

117

Control of microbiologically induced corrosion and accumulation of solids in a seawater flood system  

SciTech Connect

Control of sessile bacteria (mainly sulfate reducers) is important for controlling microbiologically-induced corrosion (MIC) and suspended solids in a large seawater flood system. Bactericide treatments and mechanical cleaning are the major bacteria control methods; when combined with oxygen removal, pH control, and flow maintenance, they permit relatively troublefree operation in terms of corrosion and water quality. Coupon corrosion rates decreased from monthly averages as high as 0.5 mm/y down to <0.05 mm/y when the sessile sulfate reducing bacteria counts decreased from about 4 x 10/sup 5/ cells/cm/sup 2/ down to 6 x 10/sup 2/. A suitable monitoring program is required for a timely detection of potential problems and for treatment evaluations. Sessile bacteria counts and bactericide demand are two of the techniques found useful.

Dewar, E.J.

1986-07-01

118

Implementing a Geospatial Health Data Infrastructure for Control of Asian Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China and the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on implementing a geospatial health infrastructure for control of schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections in Southeast Asia, with special focus on the People's Republic of China and the Philippines, using a model working group approach. Health workers have lagged in utilization of geospatial analysis and widely available, low-cost spatial data resources for epidemiological modelling and control programme

John B. Malone; Guo-Jing Yang; Lydia Leonardo; Xiao-Nong Zhou

2010-01-01

119

Relatorio da Comissao Interministerial de Estudos para Controle das Enchentes do Rio Sao Francisco (Report of Interministerial Study Commission on Sao Francisco River Flood Control).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes problems of flooding by the Sao Francisco River. The solution proposed calls for the construction of reservoirs and dams, including local levees and soil use control. Civil defense authorities and ecological agencies are also called u...

1980-01-01

120

The Effectiveness of Flood Control Structures of the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flood protective structures in the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District, properly planned and constructed, are economical in providing protection against potential floods from the Minnesota River only for existing installations. New construction in th...

1970-01-01

121

Development of novel EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Foams for mobility control in surfactant flooding  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam as a novel method for mobility control in surfactant flooding was investigated. This report presents an initial evaluation of the potential application of foam as a mobility control agent behind a low concentration surfactant flood. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process involves the injection of alternate slugs of gas and surfactant solution as drive fluids behind the active surfactant slug front as an alternative to the use of polymers in order to eliminate unfavorable surfactant-polymer interactions. Experiments were performed to determine in situ foam generation and propagation using varying concentrations of surfactants in a Berea sandstone core. An apparatus was designed and built to accurately measure differential pressures along sections of the core. Bottle or shake tests using the various concentrations of surfactants and experiments to determine the effect of foam flow on reducing mobility and involved steady-state measurement of differential pressures in the presence of foam were performed. Coreflood displacement experiments in the presence of oil were performed using varying concentrations of surfactants to compare various injection modes and oil recovery efficiency. 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Llave, F.M.; Sturm, J.M.; Olsen, D.K.

1989-01-01

122

Impact of Austrian hydropower plants on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical analysis of daily water level data from four gauging stations along the Hungarian Danube reach has been carried out with the purpose of analysing the impact of the Austrian hydropower plants on the floods of the river. Conditional probability distribution functions of annual flood load maxima and annual number of floods were generated for the periods 1957-1976 and 1977-1996.

I. ZSUFFA

1999-01-01

123

Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to create an environment for innovation in FRe technology, using new approaches that will reduce the risks involved in function, deployment, performance. The paper will describe how alliances of manufacturers, test houses and research organizations can bring about innovation. (Reference; Zevenbergen C, et al, C22 Book, Urban Flood Management, 2010)

Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

2012-04-01

124

Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, USA, in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer—resource interactions were not necessarily congruent with the dominant organic matter flows. Our study illustrates the value of detailed food web analysis for elucidating pathways by which dam management may alter production and strengths of species interactions in river food webs. We suggest that controlled floods may increase production of nonnative rainbow trout, and this information can be used to help guide future dam management decisions.

Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Donner, Kevin C.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O. Jr.; Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rogers, R. Scott

2011-01-01

125

Mobility Controlled Flooding (MCF) Technology for Enhanced Sweeping and NAPL Remediation in Heterogeneous Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are bypassed when remedial fluid is injected into heterogeneous systems. The contaminant in the bypassed areas is therefore untouched by the remedial fluid, which can prolong the remediation operations significantly. Methods of forcing fluids into low-permeability flow paths have been developed and widely implemented to solve the heterogeneity-induced bypassing problem encountered during oil recovery in the petroleum industry over the past 40 years. Since the intent of the petroleum reservoir engineers is to control the mobility of the injected fluid in the high-permeable zones so that the fluid can be pushed through the low-permeable zones to contact and mobilize the remaining oil in these zones, this method are referred as mobility controlled flooding (MCF) technology in the petroleum engineering literature. Two methods of mobility control have been developed. One method is to use a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injectate so that the in situ pore pressure is raised, and cross-flow between layers with different permeability occurs. The other method is to use surfactant-foam flood to generate foam in high permeable zones in situ; therefore, the injected fluid is forced into the low-permeable areas. A water-soluble polymer, xanthan gum, and surfactant MA-80 was used to formulate MCF remedial fluids to remediate nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated heterogonous systems in two-dimensional (2-D) flow-cell (40 by 50 by 5 cm) experiments. It was demonstrated that the MCF technology is capable of sweeping the low-permeability flow paths. The bypassing of low-permeable zones was significantly reduced. The removal of NAPL trapped in the low-perm zones was remarkable enhanced attributed to more efficient NAPL mobilization. The results also indicate that the MCF technology is able to manage the fluid density effects. The unfavorable irregular displacing front observed during the plain surfactant solution remediation flood due to the density difference between the resident and remedial fluids disappeared when the MCF surfactant-polymer solution was used.

Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T.

2005-12-01

126

Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America.

2010-01-01

127

Improving riparian wetland conditions through evaluation of infiltration and drainage behavior during and after a controlled flood event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting an observational and modeling study of a riparian wetland system adjacent to the Tuolumne River, downstream of the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in Yosemite National Park. The study area is located along the bottom of Poopenaut Valley, a 25 hectare region that contains a diverse mixture of soil, vegetation, and wetland types. The Hetch Hetchy reservoir is part of a water supply system for 2.4 million residents in the San Francisco Bay area. Spring and summer releases of excess water from the reservoir can benefit riparian wetlands within the Poopenaut Valley, but little is known about how shallow wetland soils in the valley respond to rapid inundation and exposure associated with a controlled flood hydrograph. Instruments were deployed within wetlands, along and adjacent to a 300-m stretch of the Tuolumne River in the Poopenaut Valley, to assess soil and shallow wetland response to a controlled flood in Spring 2009. Instruments included stream stage recorders, shallow piezometers, water content sensors, and vertical thermal probe arrays used to assess streambed seepage. Instruments were arranged in vertical clusters along profiles oriented perpendicular and parallel to the river channel. The controlled flood lasted for about four weeks, and increased channel discharge from about 4 cms to a peak near 225 cms, with typical flood discharge of 30 cms. Water content sensors show the influence of soil inundation and penetration of a wetting front within the upper 1 m of soil. Piezometers show a water table response to shallow ground water recharge. Thermal probes show river water seeping into the streambed at the upstream end of the instrumented stretch, and returning to the channel at the downstream end of the stretch, prior to the flood. During the flood event, stream seepage was downward at both locations. We are completing soil grain size analyses in preparation for numerical modeling of unsaturated-saturated conditions to assess controls on the infiltration and ground water response to controlled flooding in this area. One metric for wetland functionality is maintenance of saturated conditions to a depth of 40 cm for 12.5% of the growing season in five of every 10 years. Our model will be used to assess what kinds of controlled flood events (duration, hydrograph shape, integrated volume of release) will satisfy this requirement.

Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Roche, J. W.

2009-12-01

128

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section 211.6 Navigation...granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control property. (a) Leases....

2013-07-01

129

Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential

Donald R. Baer; Mark H. Engelhard; Dan J. Gaspar; Alan S. Lea; Charles F. Windisch

2002-01-01

130

Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

2014-05-01

131

Control of downward migration of dense nonaqueous phase liquid during surfactant flooding by design simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sand tank experiments have been used to study a surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process during which downward migration of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) has been observed in some of these experiments. Through numerical simulation of one particular sand tank experiment conducted at Sandia National Laboratories we show in this paper that this downward migration of DNAPL can be anticipated and controlled even in a very difficult geosystem environment. The results indicate that design simulations play a significant role in the design of either laboratory column experiments or field SEAR application and that surfactant flooding can be accomplished without loss of hydraulic control of DNAPL under typical alluvial aquifer/aquitard conditions and with only minor vertical mobilization within the aquifer (i.e., <1% of the DNAPL present). The design simulations are considered as a sensitivity analysis exercise in which the heterogeneity in the permeability field and DNAPL saturation and other critical variables are varied to produce a robust design. The simulation results indicate that the significant downward mobilization of DNAPL as observed in the Sandia sand tank experiment is a result of the use of high-permeability materials, weak viscous (horizontal) forces, and low surfactant solubilization potential. The downward mobilization of DNAPL is a design issue to be evaluated and controlled rather than an inevitable consequence of the use of surfactants to remove DNAPL.

Jin, Minquan; Hirasaki, George J.; Jackson, Richard E.; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Pope, Gary A.

2007-01-01

132

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

133

Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

2013-01-01

134

Flood Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Floodsmart.gov The official site of the National Flood Insurance Program Call toll free: 1-888-379- ... Flood Facts Media Resources Toolkits Email Updates Resources - Flood Facts In the past 5 years, all 50 ...

135

Pakistan Flooding  

article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     ... parts of Baluchistan. According to the Associated Press, the floods have affected about one-fifth of the country. Tens of thousands of ... and Aug 11, 2010 Images:  Pakistan Flood location:  Asia thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-16

136

A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

137

75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio...Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee...

2010-02-19

138

Implementing a geospatial health data infrastructure for control of Asian schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China and the Philippines.  

PubMed

This review focuses on implementing a geospatial health infrastructure for control of schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections in Southeast Asia, with special focus on the People's Republic of China and the Philippines, using a model working group approach. Health workers have lagged in utilization of geospatial analysis and widely available, low-cost spatial data resources for epidemiological modelling and control programme management. The critical limitation on development of useful health applications to date has not been the availability of geospatial data and methods. Rather, the key barriers have been the speed of adoption of geospatial analysis tools by health scientists and the quality of geographic information system (GIS)-friendly medical databases. Regional GIS applications on Asian schistosomiasis are reviewed to illustrate recent geospatial health analysis applications. A model programme is presented for implementation of training programmes and establishment of regional working groups to facilitate development and use of geospatial health infrastructure resources by health workers in Southeast Asia. PMID:20627140

Malone, John B; Yang, Guo-Jing; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2010-01-01

139

Flood Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

2010-08-02

140

Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

2010-01-01

141

Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is < 0.2 m s-1 in a lentic reach. We estimated temporal change in the lotic:lentic stream length ratio by relating beaver pond length (determined by the upstream lentic-lotic boundary position) to dam size, and coupling that to the dam-size frequency distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to < 3:1 after 7 years of flows favourable for beaver. We investigated the dam failure-flood intensity relationship in three independent trials (experimental floods) featuring peak discharge ranging from 37 to 65 m3 s-1. Major damage (breach ??? 3-m wide) occurred at ??? 20% of monitored dams (n = 7-86) and a similar or higher proportion was moderately damaged. We detected neither a relationship between dam size and damage level nor a flood discharge threshold for initiating major damage. Dam constituent materials appeared to control the probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Andersen, D. C.; Shafroth, P. B.

2010-01-01

142

Adaptive Power Control and Selective Radio Activation for Low-Power Infrastructure-Mode 802.11 LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated dual approach to reduce power consumption in infrastructure-mode 802.11 wireless LANs. A novel distributed power control algorithm adaptively adjusts the transmit power of the 802.11 radio\\/NIC to achieve power savings in the presence of mobility and RF noise. An adaptive radio activation algorithm selectively sleeps the 802.11 radio\\/NIC to reduce idle power consumption. We analyze the

Anmol Sheth; Richard Han

2003-01-01

143

Voice of Experience International Research Infrastructure and the Impact of Export Control Regulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research today has become very complex, often involving international collaborations among multidisciplinary teams. Many institutions, especially those in less economically developed countries, have a great deal of expertise to contribute to these collaborations, but often lack the instrumentation, training, and research management infrastructure

Kulakowski, Elliott C.; Chronister, Lynne; Molfese, Victoria; Slocum, Michael; Studman, Cliff; Waugaman, Paul

2007-01-01

144

Configuring enterprise public key infrastructures to permit integrated deployment of signature, encryption and access control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence and widespread use of digital technology at all levels, from strategic bases and infrastructures down to the soldier on the ground, security of these systems and the networks that they connect to has taken on paramount importance. The past decade has seen widespread development, innovation, and growth within the DoD, Government, and commercial communities of public key

C. K. Williams

2005-01-01

145

Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.  

PubMed

Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders. PMID:20537459

McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

2010-09-01

146

Three-dimensional mapping of geomorphic controls on flood-plain hydrology and connectivity from aerial photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nyack flood plain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, MT, USA is a 9-km anastomosed alluvial montane flood plain. Upstream from the flood plain, the river is unregulated and the catchment virtually pristine. A patchy mosaic of vegetation and channels exists on the flood-plain surface. The surface and subsurface geomorphic structures of the flood plain facilitate high hydrologic connectivity

Geoffrey C. Poole; Jack A. Stanford; Christopher A. Frissell; Steven W. Running

2002-01-01

147

Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The method was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were analysed to capture the flood signal. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen inferred vegetation dynamics. The results suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. After 4500-4000 cal BP, the record shows a shift toward increased flood frequency. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed after ca. 4500/4000 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use probably partially control the flood activity.

Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

2013-05-01

148

Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in Northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The automatic counting of flood deposits was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were processed to capture the flood signal. Automatic quantification was compared with naked-eye counting. Counts were performed twice on the proximal and distal cores to provide an objective and reproducible record of flood frequency. Geophysical and geochemical analyses made it possible to distinguish event deposits from background sedimentation. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen dynamics inferred from vegetation data. The data suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. The last third of the Holocene is characterised by a shift toward increased flood frequency at ca. 4500-4000 cal BP. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed at ca. 4500 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. The role of climate as the main forcing factor in flood activity is supported by the lake-level records: the major lake-level rises are synchronous with flood frequency increases. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use are indicated by pollen and archaeological data. These human activities have clearly affected the sediment record of flood activity, and they can partially explain the amplitude of the increases in flood activity.

Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

2012-09-01

149

Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

2014-06-01

150

Comparison of Sediment-Transport and Bar-Response Results From the 1996 and 2004 Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sediment-transport paradigm for the regulated Colorado River in Grand Canyon (GC) prior to the 7-day 45,000 ft3/s 1996 controlled-flood experiment was that, under normal releases from Glen Canyon Dam, tributary-supplied sand would accumulate in the channel over multiple years and could then be transferred from the channel bed to eddies during controlled floods, increasing both the area and volume of eddy sandbars. Work conducted during and after the 1996 flood indicates that this paradigm was based on assumptions that were either false or only partially true (Rubin et al., EOS, 2002). First, sand did not accumulate in the channel over years. Second, sand deposited at higher elevations in eddy sandbars during the 1996 flood was derived mostly from the lower parts of these bars (not from the channel bed) resulting in bars that were smaller in area and volume (although they did contain more sand at higher elevations). Tributary inputs of sand were low in the year preceding the 1996 flood and dam releases were moderate to high. Thus, the 1996 flood was conducting during a period when the Colorado River in GC was relatively sand-depleted. The design of the 2004 controlled-flood experiment was to: (1) keep dam releases relatively low (<10,000 ft3/s) in Sept.-Nov. 2004 to allow accumulation and retention of new tributary sand in the channel, and (2) after retention of >800,000 metric tons of new sand in Marble Canyon (the first 99 km of GC), release a 60-hr flow of 41,000 ft3/s from the dam to transfer this sand from the channel bed into the eddies. More sand, silt, and clay were present in Marble Canyon (MC) during the 2004 experiment than during the 1996 experiment. At the lower end of MC, suspended-silt & clay concentrations were 3x higher and suspended-sand concentrations were ~30% higher than during the 1996 flood. Furthermore, during the 2004 flood, sand concentrations were higher in the upstream half of MC than in the downstream half of MC. In contrast, during the 1996 flood, sand concentrations likely increased downstream throughout MC. The spatial pattern in concentration during the 2004 flood resulted from effective retention of tributary-supplied sand in the upstream half of MC during the lower releases preceding the flood. The response of the eddy sandbars during the 2004 flood correlates with this observed spatial pattern in sand concentration. About 2/3 of the bars surveyed in the upstream half of MC were larger than they were after the 1996 flood, whereas only 1/3 of the bars surveyed in the downstream half of MC were larger in both area and volume than they were after the 1996 flood. In contrast, less sand was present in GC downstream from MC during the 2004 flood than during the 1996 flood. At 2 gaging stations located 43- and 260-km downstream from MC, sand concentrations were ~30% lower than during the 1996 flood. As in MC, the response of eddy sandbars in this downstream reach also reflects the difference in sand concentration between the two experiments, with fewer surveyed bars being larger after the 2004 flood than after the 1996 flood. Therefore, it appears that the 800,000 metric tons of new sand in retention prior to the 2004 flood was sufficient to result in substantial increases in sandbar area and volume in only the first 50 km (i.e., the upstream half of MC) of the 400-km long reach of the Colorado River in GC.

Topping, D. J.; Rubin, D. M.; Schmidt, J. C.; Hazel, J. E.; Wright, S. A.; Melis, T. S.; Kaplinski, M.

2005-12-01

151

Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types  

SciTech Connect

The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential of the specimen is as uniform as possible. However, experiments involving both flood gun use and specimen grounding, demonstrate that peak broadening and shifting can occur when two (or more) potentials are present in the region of analysis. Finally, the ability of interface charge to shift specimen potentials and measured binding energies demonstrates fundamental limitations to the absolute accuracy of binding energy measurements, but also remind us that charging phenomena can be used to obtain important information about the sample.

Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Lea, Alan S.; Windisch, Charles F.

2002-10-01

152

Evaluation method to floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season for hyperconcentration rivers and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The severe soil erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau has resulted in high sediment concentration in runoff, which can cause tremendous pressure to the development and utilization of regional floodwater resources as well as the regional flood control and disaster mitigation. The floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season (FADCUFS) is an important part of the available amount of surface water resources. It also has a critical role in the sustainable development of water resources, especially for those hyperconcentration rivers (HRs) in the Loess Plateau. The evaluation of FADCUFS for HRs is an important issue in the field of hydrology and water resources. However, the understandings of its connotation, evaluation method, and nature are limited. Combined engineering measures with non-engineering ones, the evaluation method of FADCUFS for HRs was presented based on the angles of water quantity and quality. The method divides the FADCUFS into two parts in terms of the flood control operation characteristics of reservoir in HR and the relationship between water resources utilization and sediment in runoff, respectively. One is the amount of difficult regulation-control floodwater (DRCF), and the other is the volume of difficult utilization floodwater (DUF). A case study of the Bajiazui Reservoir, located in the typical Jinghe River (the second tributary of the Chinese Yellow River with high sediment concentration) was performed. Three typical years, wet year (1988), average year (1986), and dry years (1995 and 2000), were employed. According to the daily optimal operation model of Bajiazui Reservoir, the DRCF occurs for only the wet year instead of the average and the dry years. There are four times of DRCF with the amount of 26.74 m3/s (July 14), 14.58 m3/s (August 5), 10.27 m3/s (August 9), and 1.23 m3/s (August 12) in 1988, respectively, with a total amount of 4.56 million m3. A certain close relationship exists between the amount of DRCF and the flood inflows to Bajiazui. When the events of DRCF occur, there must be big flood inflows several days ago. And the outflows from the daily optimal operation model exceed their permitted limits of discharges. In addition, they are close to the measured runoffs from the Bajiazui Hydrological Station downstream the dam. It indicates that the presented daily optimal operation model has a high accuracy and can achieve credible results. On the other hand, the maximum grade approach is used to achieve the coefficients of surplus floodwater in flood season in terms of the daily outflows from the daily optimal operation model and the corresponding sediment concentration in runoffs. When the water resources utilization limit of sediment concentration in runoff is set as 10%, the volume of DUF in flood season of 1988 is then calculated as 108.29 million m3. So the value of FADCUFS can be determined as 112.85 (=4.56+108.29) million m3, accounting for 78.06% of the total discharge of reservoir in flood season. The study deepens the understandings of the connotation and the evaluation method of FADCUFS. It offers a new and reliable approach to assess the FADCUFS for HRs. The results are beneficial to the sustainable development of regional water resources.

Li, X.

2013-05-01

153

Assessing the Determinants of Willingness to Pay for Urban Flood Control: The Role of Locational, Demographic and attitudinal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urbanization of urban watersheds can influence flooding risks. Traditional Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood risk maps identify 100 year floodplains. These maps are updated infrequently. However, as a community urbanizes, flood risks can change, especially for downstream residents. Thus, one would expect that the willingness to pay (WTP) to prevent the worsening of flooding risk would depend in

David E. Clark; Robert Griffin; Vladimir Novoty

2005-01-01

154

Flash vaporization forecast and control in the heavy oil production well by steam flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production process of heavy oil production well by steam flooding, local pressure drop is caused by the suction of pump when the oil-water mixture flows through the fixed valve, which causes flash vaporization in the pump. Flash vaporization in the pump will cause pump air lock, tubing and pump damage, fluid production decreased. Based on borehole temperature, pressure

Chunsheng Wang; Shuren Yang; Guoshuai Ju

2010-01-01

155

Extreme flood abatement in large dams with gate-controlled spillways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the flood abatement effect at dams with gated spillways under a wide range of extreme floods is analysed (100 < return period <10,000 years). A group of integrated models (rainfall generator, hydrological model and dam operation model) interacting within a Monte Carlo simulation framework is used for producing numerous hydrologic events at 21 sites across mainland Spain, and the hydrologic response applied to 81 configurations of dams and reservoirs. Common behavioural patterns are identified and dimensionless coefficients classified, based on the hydrologic variables and the dam and reservoir characteristics. The relationships between these coefficients are analysed, with a significant degree of correlation both among the cases and the varying magnitude of floods being obtained. Finally, models that enable evaluation of the abatement capacity of a dam with a gated spillway in the event of a flood with Tr between 500 and 10,000 years are offered. In addition, they allow the frequency curve of such a maximum flow to be obtained, something which could serve of use not only during the design phase but also in the evaluation of the hydrologic safety of dams.

Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, M. Dolores; Castillo, Luis G.

2013-08-01

156

Hydrologic Controls of Large Floods in a Small Basin: Central Appalachian Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports the results of empirical and model-based analysis of extreme flood events observed in a small basin. The study catchment, WE38 Mahantango Creek (7.2km2), is situated in the North Appalachian Valley and Ridge province of Eastern Pennsylv...

P. A. Troch J. A. Smith E. F. Wood F. P. DeTroch

1994-01-01

157

In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvac?k Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by taking inflow, elevation, precipitation and snow water equivalent into consideration to propose alternative simulations as a decision support system. After that, the releases are subjected to user-defined rules. Thus, previous year reservoir simulations are compared with observed reservoir levels and releases. Hypothetical flood scenarios are tested in case of different storm event timing and sizing. Numerical weather prediction data of Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) can be used for temperature and precipitation forecasts that will form the inputs for a hydrological model. The estimated flows can be used for real time short term decisions for reservoir simulation based on variable guide curve and user defined rules.

Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

2012-04-01

158

Evaluation of the Relative Influence of Climate Variability and Human Activities on Flood Risk in Moderately Impaired Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard procedures for forecasting flood risk involve estimating the recurrence interval associated with observed annual maximum flood (AMF) events using an assumed theoretical probability distribution. The magnitude of a needed design event (i.e., the 100-year event) is then determined for use in floodplain delineation, land-use planning and management, design and operation of water-use and water-control structures, and design of transportation infrastructure such as bridges and roads. These procedures assume annual maximum flood series are stationary, meaning the distribution of flood flows is not significantly affected by climatic trends or cycles. Historical flood events are thus considered to be representative of future flood occurrences, and the flood risk associated with a given magnitude of flow is modeled as constant over time. This represents a significant limitation of current flood frequency models as results of previous studies indicate AMF series are non-stationary even in unimpaired watersheds. Moreover, as the majority of streams are located in areas of increasing human activity, relative and coupled impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors need to be considered such that non-stationary flood frequency models can be developed for flood risk forecasting over relevant planning horizons for large scale water resources planning and management. Large-scale climate patterns -- El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) - have been identified as influencing factors on annual maximum flood series for a number of unimpaired watersheds throughout the US. In addition, strong correlation exists between the magnitude and timing of annual maximum flood peaks and leading precipitation and temperature series, respectively, for unimpaired sites within the Upper Midwest and Northeastern US. In this study, similar analyses are conducted to identify possible climatic/meteorological sources of nonstationarity in the flood series observed at moderately impaired sites throughout the Upper Midwest and Northeastern US. Efforts are also made to distinguish the effects of human activities on flood response from the influence of natural climatic variation.

Griffis, V. W.; Salvadori, N.

2013-12-01

159

Flood Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

Svs, Nasa G.; Nasa

160

Teaching floods and flooding quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

Baer, Eric

2007-01-01

161

Decomposing the rainfall control on flash flood hydrograph shape into spatial, temporal and storm motion components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-time variability of rainfall, drainage network structure and local runoff generation properties, including land use/cover and geologic characteristics, shape the catchment response to storms. A way to describe the complexity of the interaction between these factors is to quantify their relative contribution on flood hydrograph shape. Quantifying the contribution of each factor is of great importance because this can identify which sources of variability are crucial for understanding and predicting catchment response. In this work we focus our analysis on the role of space-time variability of rainfall and drainage structure on flash flood hydrographs. An extended version of the concept of "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" which accounts for hillslope/channel velocity differentiation forms the basis of the analytical framework used in our analysis. The framework is used to quantify the contribution of each source of variability in flood response for eight extreme flash flood-inducing storms occurred in Europe in the period 2002 to 2008. The storms were selected from the HYDRATE project database, where high resolution radar rainfall data were integrated with post event surveys. The location of the events covers a range of climatic regions (Mediterranean, Alpine, Continental). Comparison between scenarios of uniform and variable (spatially) rainfall, showed that the effect of spatial variability of rainfall on mean runoff time is apparent only for basin scales > 100km2 . The difference in mean runoff time, relative to original rainfall, ranges from -5 to +10%. Corresponding investigation on the effect of rainfall spatial variability on variance of runoff time showed no apparent scale dependence and a relative difference of +/- 20%. Regarding the effect of drainage structure, an interesting result is that event-wise the importance of drainage network follows a well-defined scale dependence. Finally, examination on the relative importance of storm motion shows that its contribution is generally low (<10%) suggesting that storm velocity had a minor effect on the hydrograph shape for the cases examined.

Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Anagnostou, Emmanouil

2013-04-01

162

Chemical flooding and controlled pressure pulse fracturing process for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from subterranean formations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for producing hydrocarbon fluids from a subterranean formation into which at least one injection well and at least one production well have been drilled, respectively, the method comprising the steps of: injecting fluid into the formation through the injection well to form a flood front extending toward at least one production well; terminating injection of the fluid; placing gas generating means in the injection well and generating a relatively high pressure pulse of gas in the injection well to create multiple fractures in the formation extending substantially radially from the injection well but not beyond the flood front; injecting a surfactant into the injection well after creating the multiple fractures to form a generally uniformly expanding flood front in the formation extending toward at least one production well; and injecting a drive fluid into the injection well to drive the slug of surfactant and hydrocarbon fluids toward at least one production well for the production of the hydrocarbon fluids.

Pathak, P.; Salter, S.J.

1987-08-04

163

Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

164

An assessment of the importance of water stress in seasonally flooded C. dactylon on the Pongolo River floodplain in the formulation of guidelines for controlled flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily variation in water potential was measured inCynodon dactylon in seasonally flooded areas of the Pongolo river floodplain. Soil moisture declined during the dry winter season when the plants were exposed, causing them to experience increasing water stress. Fog and mist appeared to relieve stress but it is concluded that water stress is sufficient to reduce production during exposure. The

H. D. Furness; C. M. Breen

1986-01-01

165

A novel multi-objective electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm with applications in reservoir flood control operation.  

PubMed

Reservoir flood control operation (RFCO) is a complex problem that involves various constraints and purposes, which include the safety of the dam, watershed flood control and navigation. These objectives often conflict with each other. Thus, traditional methods have difficulty in solving the multi-objective problem efficiently. In this paper, a multi-objective self-adaptive electromagnetism-like mechanism (MOSEM) algorithm is introduced in the local searching operation of the proposed method. To enhance the optimization ability of EM, a self-adaptive parameter is applied in the local search operation of MOSEM for adjusting the values of parameters dynamically. Moreover, MOSEM is tested by several benchmark test problems and compared with some well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithms. A case study is also used for solving RFCO problems of the Three Georges Reservoir by using the multi-objective cultured differential evolution (MOCDE), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and proposed MOSEM methods. The study results reveal that MOSEM can provide alternative Pareto-optimal solutions (POS) with better convergence properties and diversification. PMID:24647182

Ouyang, Shuo; Zhou, Jianzhong; Qin, Hui; Liao, Xiang; Wang, Hao

2014-01-01

166

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain: 1. Hydraulic controls on water elevation, inundation extent, and river-floodplain discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the routing of flood waters across large floodplains is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls from complex geomorphology, vegetation, and multiple water sources. In this study, we analyzed the topographic and hydrologic controls of inundation dynamics of a large floodplain unit (2440 km2) along the lower Amazon River. We combined land topography derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with underwater topography derived from an extensive echo-sounding survey to generate a seamless digital elevation model (DEM). Floodplain inundation was simulated using LISFLOOD-FP, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. For the first time, accurate simulation of filling and drainage of an Amazon floodplain was achieved with quantification of changes in water elevation, flooding extent, and river-floodplain exchange. We examined the role of diffuse overbank versus channelized flows on river-floodplain exchange. Diffuse overbank flows represent 93% of total river to floodplain discharge and 54% of floodplain to river discharge. Floodplain discharge during high-water was four times higher than field observation values when the SRTM v.4 DEM with no correction was used for simulation because of a -4.4 m elevation bias originating from residual motion errors of the SRTM interferometric baseline.

Rudorff, Conrado M.; Melack, John M.; Bates, Paul D.

2014-01-01

167

Modeling infiltration process of regulating reservoir built for flood-control based on site-characterization using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulating reservoir built for flood-control in the Shougawa alluvial fan of Toyama prefecture, Japan, was designed to have a high permeable bottom to maintain smooth infiltration of flood water pouring from a river. The infiltration process in the permeable ground was surveyed by sensors, such as piezometers set inside the observation boreholes installed in the reservoir. The observation showed that not only the temperature of the water but also the existence of pore air and heterogeneity in the ground essentially effects on the infiltration behavior beneath the reservoir. To clarify this infiltration process, we conducted 3D-Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey and time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling. 3D-GPR was applicable to detecte less permeable zone with rich clay in sand gravel basement, which control infiltration of reservoir. Time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling could estimate infiltration rate in vadose zone. Based on these results we built unsaturated-saturated water flow model considering subsurface heterogeneity and its effect. This model will contribute the management to maintain its permeability and help understanding the effect of reservoir on surrounding water environment. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25294117 and 30343768.

Kuroda, S.; Tatsuya, S.; Sudani, G.; Ikeda, S.; Satoshi, T.; Kenichi, W.; Tagashira, H.; Masukawa, S.

2013-12-01

168

Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab.  

PubMed

The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17?million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900?kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces. PMID:22337059

Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R

2012-02-16

169

Recognition of debris flow, debris flood and flood hazard through watershed morphometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debris flows, debris floods and floods in mountainous areas are responsible for loss of life and damage to infrastructure, making it important to recognize these hazards in the early stage of planning land developments. Detailed terrain information is seldom available and basic watershed morphometrics must be used for hazard identification. An existing model uses watershed area and relief (the Melton

D. J. Wilford; M. E. Sakals; J. L. Innes; R. C. Sidle; W. A. Bergerud

2004-01-01

170

An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

2012-12-01

171

Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

2011-01-01

172

Stream Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

Huff, Warren

2000-11-03

173

Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized adaptive management efforts in the world to manage resources under growing environmental uncertainty as climate change and global warming continues.

Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

2013-12-01

174

The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In both systems, controlled floods are generally effective at enhancing channel relief through fine sediment redistribution. Yet, controlled floods may also exacerbate the fine sediment deficit, and their long-term efficacy thus requires a detailed understanding of sediment mass balance.

Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

2013-12-01

175

Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including ? OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, ? Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, ? Control plane software release, ? Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, ? Network Virtualization architecture, ? Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Lehman, Tom [USC] [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM] [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID] [UCAID

2010-08-31

176

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Tingle, Alex; Nasa; Maps, Google; Self-Published

177

Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Summerhill, Richard

2009-08-14

178

On Integrating Human-In-The-Loop Supervision Into Critical Infrastructure Process Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mortem investigations report that most industrial accidents are due to human error with many having their origin in the lack of effective control system interfaces for human supervision of embedded sensors. The need for more sophisticated human interface facilities based on human usability and human performance design is most pressing. This paper examines this problem as a necessary component

Alex Korzyk; William Yurcik

2002-01-01

179

The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a manned spacecraft. These systems include spacecraft navigation and attitude control, propulsion, automated docking, vehicle health management and life support. ISAACC can integrate local critical subsystem health management with subsystems performing long term health monitoring. The ISAACC system and its relationship to ISHM will be presented.

Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

2005-01-01

180

Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

Heidari, A.

2009-01-01

181

The Global Flood Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage, the core specifications and reference version of the GFM will be licensed free. - for commercial use, users (such as software companies, engineering companies and business or risk management consultancies) will pay an annual fee, contributing to upkeep and maintenance. The GFM demonstrator will be shown and discussed. The initiative is seeking active involvement of the academic community.

Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

2012-04-01

182

Living With Floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk management in the lower Rhine River basin (downstream from Cologne) relies on flood control by dikes for many centuries. This has resulted in an ever in- creasing sense of safety and, subsequently, in increased investments in the protected areas. In the long term, however, this causes an increase in vulnerability to flood- ing and a recurrent call to further control the floods, with many negative impacts on natural and cultural landscape values, and eventually also on society at large. The ob- jective of the project was to design and evaluate alternative flood risk management strategies which are applicable for the long-term (50-100 years) and better take into account the uncertainties that are inherent to lowland rivers. Two different strategies were elaborated, based on the principle of resilience and living with floods: compart- mentalisation for detentionS and Sgreen rivers for dischargeS. It was found that these ´ alternative strategies have many advantages from a sustainability point of view, but are difficult to implement. They require huge investments and have enormous impact on local and regional scales, whereas the advantages are obvious primarily from a long-term point-of-view and in a larger spatial-scale frame.

van Buuren, M.; Vis, M.; Klijn, F.

183

Master-Slave Control Scheme in Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure  

PubMed Central

WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging.

Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

2014-01-01

184

Master-slave control scheme in electric vehicle smart charging infrastructure.  

PubMed

WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

2014-01-01

185

Salt marsh–atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh–atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the

Kevan B. Moffett; Adam Wolf; Joe A. Berry; Steven M. Gorelick

2010-01-01

186

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the

Kevan B. Moffett; Adam Wolf; Joe A. Berry; Steven M. Gorelick

2010-01-01

187

Living on the Edge of Stagnant Water: An Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Construction-Phase Drainage Congestion Along Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental impacts of the construction-phase drainage congestion along the Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment were assessed by a pilot questionnaire survey (in 1991) among the target population adjacent to the embankment. The results of the survey indicated that, despite significant alleviation of river flooding, the majority of the respondents experienced a new type of flood problem in the form of stagnant water inside the embankment, immediately following its construction. Not only had this stagnant water flooded and damaged their property, it had exposed them to a number of other environmental problems, such as accumulation of municipal sewage, foul odors, mosquitoes, and growth of water hyacinth. The study found that the respondents’ assessments of these environmental problems differed significantly according to the magnitude of the impact of stagnant water upon two subgroups within the target population. A postsurvey follow-up in 1994 indicated that this problem of drainage congestion had largely been alleviated by completing the construction of a number of drainage regulators. The study concludes by stressing the importance of synchronizing the construction of drainage structures with that of the embankment systems and by underlining policy implications for flood-vulnerable land use adjacent to embankments.

Rasid, Harun; Mallsk, Azim U.

1996-01-01

188

Managing technology of America's infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Command and control computer systems, usually interconnected, provide the flow of critical information required for the proper operation of the nation's infrastructure. The major critical infrastructures are: (1) energy including electric power generation and distribution, nuclear energy, oil, coal and gas production and distribution; (2) telecommunications which involves the transmission and exchange of electronic communications; including global commerce via satellites

R. Cerveny; S. Stephenson

1999-01-01

189

Practical application of historical flood information to flood estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent UK legislation requires assessment of 100-year return period flood levels for flood plain planning control. Typical gauged data lengths give an unreliable estimate and the merits of regionalization and the use of historic data are discussed. Typically, existing methods of incorporating historic data require the assessment of event discharges when often all that can be assessed from available sources

DAVID ARCHER

1999-01-01

190

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2009-07-01...control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES...control works from urban drainage. Covered...

2009-07-01

191

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01...control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES...control works from urban drainage. Covered...

2010-07-01

192

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

2001-01-01

193

Flood mapping with multitemporal MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most devastating and frequent disasters resulting in loss of human life and serve damage to infrastructure and agricultural production. Flood is phenomenal in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam. It annually lasts from July to November. Information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics is thus important for planners to devise successful strategies for flood monitoring and mitigation of its negative effects. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for weekly mapping flood dynamics with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data in MRD using the water fraction model (WFM). The data processed for 2009 comprises three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time series of the difference in the values (DVLE) between land surface water index (LSWI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) flood derivation using WFM, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data, which were constructed from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. As several error sources, including mixed-pixel problems and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, could lower the level of classification accuracy, the comparisons indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracy of 80.5% and Kappa coefficient of 0.61, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived flood area and that of the ground reference map at the provincial level, with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93. Considering the importance of remote sensing for monitoring floods and mitigating the damage caused by floods to crops and infrastructure, this study eventually leads to the realization of the value of using time-series MODIS DVLE data for weekly flood monitoring in MRD with the aid of EMD and WFM. Such an approach that could provide quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics for monitoring purposes was completely transferable to other regions in the world.

Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru

2014-05-01

194

Rainfall and Flood Frequency Analysis Using High-Resolution Radar Rainfall Fields and Stochastic Storm Transposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall fields, and their interactions with surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties, are important drivers of flood response. 'Design storms,' which are commonly used for flood risk assessment, however, are assumed to be uniform in space and either uniform or highly idealized in time. The impacts of these and other common assumptions on estimates of flood risk are poorly understood. We present an alternative framework for flood risk assessment based on stochastic storm transposition (SST). In this framework, "storm catalogs" are derived from a ten-year high-resolution (15-minute, 1 km2) bias-corrected radar rainfall dataset for the region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. SST-based rainfall frequency analyses are developed by resampling from these storm catalogs to synthesize the regional climatology of extreme rainfall. SST-based intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) estimates are driven by the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from weather radar observations, are specifically tailored to the chosen catchment, and do not require simplifying assumptions of storm structure. We are able to use the SST procedure to reproduce IFD estimates from conventional methods for small urban catchments in Charlotte. We further demonstrate that extreme rainfall can vary substantially in time and in space, with important flood risk implications that cannot be assessed using conventional techniques. When coupled with a physics-based distributed hydrologic model, the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model, SST enables us to examine the full impact of spatial and temporal rainfall variability on flood response and flood frequency. The interactions of extreme rainfall with spatially distributed land use, soil properties, and stormwater management infrastructure are assessed for several nested urban catchments in Charlotte. Results suggest that these interactions, which cannot be fully accounted for using standard frequency analysis techniques, are important controls on flood response. We compare the results of SST-based flood frequency analyses to peak streamflow observations and to the results of other frequency analysis techniques.

Wright, Daniel; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn

2013-04-01

195

An Innovative, Basinwide Approach to Flood Mitigation: The Waffle Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding on the Red River of the North in 1997 was severe and established the need for a new approach to flood protection in this region to augment existing flood control measures. One strategy being investigated by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is the feasibility of temporary storage of springtime runoff to augment existing flood control structures and

Bethany Bolles; Xixi Wang; Lynette de Silva; Heith Dokken; Gerald Groenewold; Wesley Peck; Edward Steadman

196

Urban infrastructure and longitudinal stream profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban streams usually are highly engineered or modified by human activity and are conventionally thought of as being geometrically, and thus hydraulically, simple. The work presented here, a contribution to NSF CNH Project 0709659, is designed to capture the influence of urban infrastructure on the character of longitudinal profiles and flow hydraulics along streams in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Detailed topographic data sets are derived from LiDAR supplemented by total-station surveys of the channel bed and low-flow water surface. These in turn are used to drive 2D depth-averaged hydraulic models comparing flow conditions over a range of urban development patterns and stormwater management regimes. Results from stream surveys of 1-2 km length indicate that channels in older, highly urbanized areas typically have straight planforms and strongly stepped profiles characterized by a series of deep, stagnant pools with short intervening riffles or runs. This pattern is associated with frequent interruption of the channel profile by bridges, culverts, road embankments and other artificial structures. In one survey reach of the Dead Run watershed, 50 percent of cumulative channel length has zero gradient at low flow, and 50 percent of cumulative head loss is accounted for by only 4 percent of channel length. In the suburban Red Run watershed recent development has occurred under strict stormwater management regulations with minimal encroachment on the riparian zone. Although their average gradients are similar, the Red Run survey reach is steeper than the Dead Run reach over most its length but has a smaller fraction of total head loss caused by local slope breaks. Modeling results indicate that these differences in stream morphology are associated with differences in velocity, flow pattern, and residence time at base flow; the stepped nature of the profile in the older urban area becomes less pronounced at intermediate to high flows, but the controlling influence of infrastructure may become dominant again during large floods. Because flashy urban streams have lower and more persistent low flows as well as more extreme flood flows, these hydraulic patterns may have implications for both biogeochemical cycling at base flow and transport and deposition of sediment and other constituents during flood periods. Continuing research will develop a typology of urban streams in terms of the influence of engineering practices on flow patterns and material transport.

Lindner, G. A.; Miller, A. J.

2009-12-01

197

COMBINED FLOOD ROUTING AND FLOOD LEVEL FORECASTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a proposed modeling approach which uses unsteady flow hydraulic modelllng for both flood routing and flood level determination. The onerous data requirements of hydraulic models In the flood routing applicatlon are overcome through the use of a \\

J. BlackburnA; F. E. HicksB

198

Combined flood routing and flood level forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a proposed modeling approach which uses unsteady flow hydraulic modeling for both flood routing and flood level determination. The onerous data requirements of hydraulic models in the flood routing application are overcome through the use of a \\

J. Blackburn; F. E. Hicks

2002-01-01

199

Rivers and Flooding Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

Senft, Laurel

200

1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.

Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

2014-05-01

201

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

202

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

2002-01-01

203

Martian Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Windows to the Universe site provides beginner, intermediate and advanced information about Martian flooding. It includes a NASA image of Mars despicting outflow channels and river valley networks, which provide evidence for two theories about the global Martian water cycle.

Johnson, Roberta

204

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

205

Uncertainty compliant design flood estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

infrastructures are commonly designed with reference to target values of flood peak, estimated using probabilistic techniques, such as flood frequency analysis. The application of these techniques underlies levels of uncertainty, which are sometimes quantified but normally not accounted for explicitly in the decision regarding design discharges. The present approach aims at defining a procedure which enables the definition of Uncertainty Compliant Design (UNCODE) values of flood peaks. To pursue this goal, we first demonstrate the equivalence of the Standard design based on the return period and the cost-benefit procedure, when linear cost and damage functions are used. We then use this result to assign an expected cost to estimation errors, thus setting a framework to obtain a design flood estimator which minimizes the total expected cost. This procedure properly accounts for the uncertainty which is inherent in the frequency curve estimation. Applications of the UNCODE procedure to real cases leads to remarkable displacement of the design flood from the Standard values. UNCODE estimates are systematically larger than the Standard ones, with substantial differences (up to 55%) when large return periods or short data samples are considered.

Botto, A.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Claps, P.

2014-05-01

206

Floods: Too Much of a Good Thing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on flooding and the natural and man-made factors that influence floods. Students will learn the properties of soils that may influence flooding, describe factors that affect the flow of rivers, research factors that result in floods, describe the effects of land-use practices on flood control, and learn to identify their own watersheds on a map. The module consists of seven lessons in which the students will learn vocabulary, perform internet-based activities, and see a video on flooding. They will also perform historical research on flooding, use modeling software to model a flood, and perform a lab activity in which they test different types of soil for water-retaining capacity. (works best in the firefox browser)

207

The Next Step in Central Valley Flood Management: Connecting Costs and Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, large expanses of California's low-lying Central Valley flooded nearly every winter. Over the past 150 years, individuals, communities, and state and national agencies have increasingly altered the landscape with levees, reservoirs, and bypasses to support agriculture and urban centers. The Central Valley's flood protection infrastructure and the institutions that manage flood risks have coevolved as risks and local needs

Kaveh Madani; Dana Rowan; Jay Lund

208

Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2011-01-01

209

1996 Grand Canyon Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Manone, Northern Arizona University Summary Analyze the effect of a 1996 controlled flood on a sandbar in Grand Canyon. This exercise uses Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst Context Type and level of course ...

Manone, Mark

210

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

211

Flood risk and flood management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management has been established as a well defined procedure for handling risks due to natural, environmental or man made hazards, of which floods are representative. Risk management has been discussed in many previous papers giving different meanings to the term—a result of the fact that risk management actually takes place on three different levels of actions: the operational level,

Erich J. Plate

2002-01-01

212

GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from

DAVID JUDI; ALFRED KALYANAPU; TIMOTHY MCPHERSON; ALAN BERSCHEID

2007-01-01

213

Assessing grain-size correspondence between flow and deposits of controlled floods in the Colorado River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-deposited sediment has been used to decipher environmental parameters such as variability in watershed sediment supply, paleoflood hydrology, and channel morphology. It is not well known, however, how accurately the deposits reflect sedimentary processes within the flow, and hence what sampling intensity is needed to decipher records of recent or long-past conditions. We examine these problems using deposits from dam-regulated floods in the Colorado River corridor through Marble Canyon–Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A., in which steady-peaked floods represent a simple end-member case. For these simple floods, most deposits show inverse grading that reflects coarsening suspended sediment (a result of fine-sediment-supply limitation), but there is enough eddy-scale variability that some profiles show normal grading that did not reflect grain-size evolution in the flow as a whole. To infer systemwide grain-size evolution in modern or ancient depositional systems requires sampling enough deposit profiles that the standard error of the mean of grain-size-change measurements becomes small relative to the magnitude of observed changes. For simple, steady-peaked floods, 5–10 profiles or fewer may suffice to characterize grain-size trends robustly, but many more samples may be needed from deposits with greater variability in their grain-size evolution.

Draut, Amy;Rubin, David M.

2013-01-01

214

Rural livelihoods and household adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation to flooding is now widely adopted as an appropriate policy option since flood mitigation measures largely exceed the capability of most developing countries. In wetlands, such as the Okavango Delta, adaptation is more appropriate as these systems serve as natural flood control mechanisms. The Okavango Delta system is subject to annual variability in flooding with extreme floods resulting in adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. This study therefore seeks to improve the general understanding of rural household livelihood adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta. Specific objectives are: (1) to assess household access to forms of capital necessary for enhanced capacity to adapt, (2) to assess the impacts of extreme flooding on household livelihoods, and (3) to identify and assess household livelihood responses to extreme flooding. The study uses the sustainable livelihood and the socio-ecological frameworks to analyse the livelihood patterns and resilience to extreme flooding. Results from a survey of 623 households in five villages, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of literature, indicate that access to natural capital was generally high, but low for financial, physical, human and social capital. Households mainly relied on farm-based livelihood activities, some non-farm activities, limited rural trade and public transfers. In 2004 and 2009, extreme flooding resulted in livelihood disruptions in the study areas. The main impacts included crop damage, household displacement, destruction of household property, livestock drowning and mud-trapping, the destruction of public infrastructure and disruption of services. The main household coping strategies were labour switching to other livelihood activities, temporary relocation to less affected areas, use of canoes for early harvesting or evacuation and government assistance, particularly for the most vulnerable households. Household adaptive strategies included livelihood diversification, long-term mobility and training in non-agricultural skills. The study concludes that household capacity to adapt to extreme flooding in the study villages largely depends on access to natural capital. This is threatened by population growth, land use changes, policy shifts, upstream developments, global economic changes and flood variations due to climate variability and change.

Motsholapheko, M. R.; Kgathi, D. L.; Vanderpost, C.

215

Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106 m3 over an area of 1.2 km2 surrounded by about 4 km of artificial levees and closed downstream by a concrete dam 15 m high, equipped with 3 movable floodgates. The structure has the purpose to store the excess water in the case of high return period flood events, releasing it downstream at a controlled rate. A stilling basin is located downstream the dam in order to dissipate the kinetic energy of the discharged flow. The stilling basin is made up of 2 m thick concrete slabs, on which 3 dissipating blocks are located. The deposits below the stilling basin are surrounded by a grout wall (20 m deep) with the aim of realizing a confined "box". Groundwater levels inside the box are controlled by a 110 m long drainage trench located upstream the stilling basin, 3 m below its floor. In the perspective of a long-term management of the reservoir, after the completion of the works, a phase of investigation, control and monitoring of the efficiency of the entire system has been carried out, mainly to highlight the interactions between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer. This task was accomplished filling the reservoir at the maximum retaining level by means of capturing the tails of spring 2008 flood events. The aquifer beneath and surrounding the structure has been investigated by means of several tests, such analysis. Moreover, a groundwater monitoring system made up by 44 piezometers with dataloggers and real- time data transmission to a dedicated website has been set up. Monitoring data before, during, and after the infilling of the reservoir show that the aquifer below the structure is multilayered, with prevailing silty gravels and relatively thin silty and clayey strata. The aquifer can be simplified in three layers: a phreatic aquifer (from 0 to 20 m depth), a thin clayey layer (20 to 25 m) and a regional semi-confined aquifer (beneath 25 m), whose level tend to respond to the reservoir levels. The multidisciplinary database collected so far is the basis of a numerical model that is going to be developed to understand the interactions between the reservoir and the aquifer, in different scenarios.

Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Chiapponi, L.; D'Oria, M.; Giuffredi, F.; Lancellotta, R.; Mignosa, P.; Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Remitti, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

2008-12-01

216

Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods  

SciTech Connect

The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

2013-12-31

217

Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

2011-12-01

218

Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Gartner, J. W.; Ganju, N. K.

2007-01-01

219

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was studied. The aim was to determine the effect of structure on surfactant adsorption at the solid-liquid as well as at the liquid-air interface. Nonionic polyethoxylated alkyl phenols and anionic meta xylene sulfonates (MXS) were the surfactants studied. Electrokinetic behavior was also determined along with adsorption in order to determine the role of electrostatic forces in determining the adsorption. In addition, the effect of varying the number of ethylene oxide groups on the adsorption of polyethoxylated alkyl phenols on silica was determined since the ethoxyl groups offer unique opportunities to control adsorption as well as wettability. Effect of pH was studied both because it is a parameter with first order effect and also because pH effects can help in developing mechanisms.

Somasundaran, P.

1993-05-01

220

The nature of small-scale flooding, muddy floods and retention pond sedimentation in central Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the spatial variation of small-scale flooding and muddy floods in rural areas in a medium sized study area (5516 km2) and the linkage with controlling factors. A questionnaire set up in central Belgium indicates that 43% of the municipalities have to deal from time to time with muddy floods generated from direct runoff from arable land and

Gert Verstraeten; Jean Poesen

1999-01-01

221

77 FR 76494 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Division, Flood Control Supervisors, 105 and Water Conservation East Anapamu District, 123 East Street, Santa...of Division, Flood Control Supervisors, 105 and Water Conservation East Anapamu District, 123 East Street,...

2012-12-28

222

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

Hearn, Paul P., Jr.; Longenecker, Herbert E., III; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

2013-01-01

223

Flood Insurance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Layton, Davis County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study will be used to convert Layton to the regular program of flood insurance by the Federal Emergency

1982-01-01

224

Integrating Flooding Control with Sediment Reduction in the Real-Time Operation Model for Tseng-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons are kind of natural hazards happened most frequently during summer in Taiwan. Typhoons induce the risk of instant damages such as dam break or floods caused by the overflow in downstream area. Besides, high turbidity inflow of reservoirs caused by erosions and mudslides in upstream area during typhoons brings a huge volume of sediments which highly decreases the storage volume of reservoir. Therefore, applying flooding management of reservoirs to increase the release quantities of sediments and to maintain the storage volumes of reservoirs becomes an important issue today. In this study, an optimal flooding operation model with considering sediment reduction which integrates the genetic algorithm (GA), HEC-RAS simulation, artificial neural network (ANN) and reservoir watershed sediment modeling is proposed. The objective function of the proposed model deals with four sub-objects includes water resource, flooding hazard reduction, peak release flow reduction and sediment reduction. The operation results are applied on Tseng-Wen Reservoir during five typhoon events include Typhoon TALIM (2005), SEPAT (2007), KORSA (2007), KALMAEGI (2008), SINLAKU (2008) and JANGMI (2008). Comparison between the results of models with and without sediment reduction, the increase amounts of sediment release for the model with sediment reduction respectively are 27 and 39 tons during Typhoon JANGMI and SINLAKU. Based on the comparison, the proposed model has ability to increase the release quantity of sediment.

chou, Y.; Chang, L.; Hsu, C.

2012-12-01

225

Flood Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... USFA Home Citizens Home Fire Prevention Flood Safety Flood Fire Safety This page may contain links to ... Fire Related Hazards Present During and After a Flood Generators are often used during power outages. Unless ...

226

Floods and flood management in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most devastating natural hazard in Pakistan and the recent flooding has demonstrated its severeness. Floods are common throughout the country. However, their characteristics differ from region to region. Flooding behavior of the major basins and flood management at the national level are investigated in this article. Monsoon rainfalls are the main source of floods in the Indus Basin, while Mediterranean Waves and Cyclones, which are generated over the Arabian Sea, induce flooding in the Kharan Basin and the Makran Coastal Area. Fluvial floods in the Indus Basin have caused major economic losses. Pakistan’s government has spent vast resources on relief operations and flood works since the country came into existence in 1947. A number of provincial and federal acts, ordinances, accords, and treaties shape the national flood policy. Institutional setup for flood hazard and crisis management has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, data show no major reduction in the flood-to-damage ratio. The inter-linkage of structural and non-structural measures and their combined efficiency must be analyzed and optimized for more effective flood management.

Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman; van de Giesen, Nick

227

Flood tolerance of four tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Many seasonally flooded habitats in the tropics are dominated by one or a few tree species. We tested the hypothesis that the inability to tolerate flooding restricts most species from becoming established in flood-prone habitats. We compared morphological and physiological responses to flooding in seedlings of Prioria copaifera Griseb., a species that forms monodominant stands in seasonally flooded habitats, and in three species confined to flood-free sites; namely, Calophyllum longifolium Willd., Virola surinamensis Aubl. and Gustavia superba (H.B.K.) Berg. Flooding reduced photosynthesis at Day 45 in all species by 10-30%. By Day 90, photosynthesis returned to the control rate in Prioria, but not in the other species. Flooding reduced stomatal conductance by 25-35% in all species except Calophyllum, and it reduced leaf area growth by 44% in Virola, but not in the other species. All species survived 90 days of flooding without mortality, leaf chlorosis, leaf necrosis, or leaf abscission. Flooding reduced root:shoot ratio significantly in Gustavia and Calophyllum, but not in the other species, and it reduced maximum root depth by 29% in Prioria, but by 61% or more in the species from flood-free habitats. PMID:12651304

Lopez, Omar R.; Kursar, Thomas A.

1999-12-01

228

TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE  

SciTech Connect

This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

2005-12-01

229

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION...recognize on a NFIP map that a structural flood control measure provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial...

2013-10-01

230

Long-term effects of flooding on mortality in England and Wales, 1994-2005: controlled interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Limited evidence suggests that being flooded may increase mortality and morbidity among affected householders not just at the time of the flood but for months afterwards. The objective of this study is to explore the methods for quantifying such long-term health effects of flooding by analysis of routine mortality registrations in England and Wales. Methods Mortality data, geo-referenced by postcode of residence, were linked to a national database of flood events for 1994 to 2005. The ratio of mortality in the post-flood year to that in the pre-flood year within flooded postcodes was compared with that in non-flooded boundary areas (within 5 km of a flood). Further analyses compared the observed number of flood-area deaths in the year after flooding with the number expected from analysis of mortality trends stratified by region, age-group, sex, deprivation group and urban-rural status. Results Among the 319 recorded floods, there were 771 deaths in the year before flooding and 693 deaths in the year after (post-/pre-flood ratio of 0.90, 95% CI 0.82, 1.00). This ratio did not vary substantially by age, sex, population density or deprivation. A similar post-flood 'deficit' of deaths was suggested by the analyses based on observed/expected deaths. Conclusions The observed post-flood 'deficit' of deaths is counter-intuitive and difficult to interpret because of the possible influence of population displacement caused by flooding. The bias that might arise from such displacement remains unquantified but has important implications for future studies that use place of residence as a marker of exposure.

2011-01-01

231

Prediction of flooding in an absorption column using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the results of a project aimed at predicting the occurrence of flooding in the absorption column of the Rectisol process at Sasol Synthetic Fuels. The flooding predictor was used as a controlled variable in a multivariable controller with an objective function that maximizes the gas throughput. Thus the prediction of flooding was critical to the success of the project.

S. Parthasarathy; H. Gowan; P. Indhar

1999-01-01

232

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

233

Flood of Evidence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is a Why Files report on the increase in "natural" disasters from floods, probably the most destructive type of natural disaster. The article notes that in constant dollars, the cost in 1998 alone exceeded the economic toll of the entire decade of the 1980s. Evidence is cited that inundations reflect human action rather than simply rainfall amounts. The report covers: furious floods (including possible human-induced causes), too many floods (recent flood events), do fewer trees create more floods?, wetlands and floods, and flood prevention: the engineering structure or earthmover approach. Six scientists and researchers were interviewed for this report.

Tenenbaum, David

2000-03-16

234

Strategically placing green infrastructure: cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain.  

PubMed

Green infrastructure approaches have attracted increased attention from local governments as a way to lower flood risk and provide an array of other environmental services. The peer-reviewed literature, however, offers few estimates of the economic impacts of such approaches at the watershed scale. We estimate the avoided flood damages and the costs of preventing development of floodplain parcels in the East River Watershed of Wisconsin's Lower Fox River Basin. Results suggest that the costs of preventing conversion of all projected floodplain development would exceed the flood damage mitigation benefits by a substantial margin. However, targeting of investments to high-benefit, low-cost parcels can reverse this equation, generating net benefits. The analysis demonstrates how any flood-prone community can use a geographic-information-based model to estimate the flood damage reduction benefits of green infrastructure, compare them to the costs, and target investments to design cost-effective nonstructural flood damage mitigation policies. PMID:23544743

Kousky, Carolyn; Olmstead, Sheila M; Walls, Margaret A; Macauley, Molly

2013-04-16

235

Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of single surfactants on silica and alumina as well as the solution behavior of surfactant mixtures was studied during this quarter. The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-liquid interface was correlated with changes in interfacial behavior such as wettability and zeta potential. Surface tension was used to study interactions between surfactant mixtures in solution. Mixed micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl phenoxy polyethoxylated alcohol was found to be non-ideal. Regular solution theory adequately describes the interactions. The adsorption isotherm of a cationic surfactant, tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), on alumina was determined at two values of pH. Changes in the settling rate of alumina suspensions after TTAC adsorption were also followed to describe the evolution of the adsorbed layer. At high surface coverage it was observed that the alumina surface became hydrophilic suggesting the formation of a TTAC bilayer at the surface. Wettability of silica after adsorption of nonyl phenyl polyethoxylated alcohols (with number of polyethylene oxide groups varying from 10-40) was measured using flotation to determine the orientation of the adsorbed layer. Effect of number of ethylene oxide groups was also determined. The amount of silica floated after the nonionic surfactant adsorption was same irrespective of the ethylene oxide chain length.

Somasundaran, P.

1993-08-31

236

A segmentation and classification approach of IKONOS2 imagery for land cover mapping to assist flood risk and flood damage assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various regions in Europe have suffered from severe flooding over the last decennium. Earth observation techniques can contribute toward more accurate flood hazard modelling and they can be used to assess damage to residential properties, infrastructure and agricultural crops. For this study, detailed land cover maps were created by using IKONOS-2 high spatial resolution satellite imagery. The IKONOS-2 image was

C. J. van der Sande; S. M. de Jong; A. P. J. de Roo

2003-01-01

237

Uncertainty in surface water flood risk modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two thirds of the flooding that occurred in the UK during summer 2007 was as a result of surface water (otherwise known as ‘pluvial') rather than river or coastal flooding. In response, the Environment Agency and Interim Pitt Reviews have highlighted the need for surface water risk mapping and warning tools to identify, and prepare for, flooding induced by heavy rainfall events. This need is compounded by the likely increase in rainfall intensities due to climate change. The Association of British Insurers has called for the Environment Agency to commission nationwide flood risk maps showing the relative risk of flooding from all sources. At the wider European scale, the recently-published EC Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks will require Member States to evaluate, map and model flood risk from a variety of sources. As such, there is now a clear and immediate requirement for the development of techniques for assessing and managing surface water flood risk across large areas. This paper describes an approach for integrating rainfall, drainage network and high-resolution topographic data using Flowroute™, a high-resolution flood mapping and modelling platform, to produce deterministic surface water flood risk maps. Information is provided from UK case studies to enable assessment and validation of modelled results using historical flood information and insurance claims data. Flowroute was co-developed with flood scientists at Cambridge University specifically to simulate river dynamics and floodplain inundation in complex, congested urban areas in a highly computationally efficient manner. It utilises high-resolution topographic information to route flows around individual buildings so as to enable the prediction of flood depths, extents, durations and velocities. As such, the model forms an ideal platform for the development of surface water flood risk modelling and mapping capabilities. The 2-dimensional component of Flowroute employs uniform flow formulae (Manning's Equation) to direct flow over the model domain, sourcing water from the channel or sea so as to provide a detailed representation of river and coastal flood risk. The initial development step was to include spatially-distributed rainfall as a new source term within the model domain. This required optimisation to improve computational efficiency, given the ubiquity of ‘wet' cells early on in the simulation. Collaboration with UK water companies has provided detailed drainage information, and from this a simplified representation of the drainage system has been included in the model via the inclusion of sinks and sources of water from the drainage network. This approach has clear advantages relative to a fully coupled method both in terms of reduced input data requirements and computational overhead. Further, given the difficulties associated with obtaining drainage information over large areas, tests were conducted to evaluate uncertainties associated with excluding drainage information and the impact that this has upon flood model predictions. This information can be used, for example, to inform insurance underwriting strategies and loss estimation as well as for emergency response and planning purposes. The Flowroute surface-water flood risk platform enables efficient mapping of areas sensitive to flooding from high-intensity rainfall events due to topography and drainage infrastructure. As such, the technology has widespread potential for use as a risk mapping tool by the UK Environment Agency, European Member States, water authorities, local governments and the insurance industry. Keywords: Surface water flooding, Model Uncertainty, Insurance Underwriting, Flood inundation modelling, Risk mapping.

Butler, J. B.; Martin, D. N.; Roberts, E.; Domuah, R.

2009-04-01

238

Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

2012-12-01

239

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

240

Decision-Support Software for Grid Operators: Transmission Topology Control for Infrastructure Resilience to the Integration of Renewable Generation  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: The CRA team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning on and off entire power lines in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.

None

2012-03-16

241

Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park through use of controlled floods in conjunction with typical amounts and grain sizes of sand supplied by the tributaries that enter the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam.

Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

2010-01-01

242

Global Flood risk and Nuclear risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima accident raised considerable concern around the globe on the overall safety of nuclear power plants against natural hazard induced risks. It appeared that natural hazards, and in particular flooding , are a large threat for the safety of global nuclear power plants. Flooding of coastal and fluvial systems are the most significant natural hazards that modern society and is affecting several million people globally each year. The total population and the economic value of material assets located in zones prone to flooding have increased dramatically over the past decades and are expected to increase further due to: (1) an overall growth in economic assets, infrastructure, population and wealth; and (2) increases in sea-level and flood frequency due to climate change. The Fukushima accident has geared an immediate and coordinated response from IAEA and EU member states, who stated that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be re-assessed on their vulnerability to natural hazards such as floods and earthquakes. This 'stress test' was developed in 2012 together with experts from e.g. the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Guidelines for a stress test were developed according to how nuclear installations can withstand the consequences of various extreme external events and to analyze security threats due to e.g. terrorist acts. Since nuclear power-plants are often located near- or in flood zones from rivers, this research assesses whether nuclear facilities will face increased risk from flooding in the future. The research will contribute to stresstesting nuclear facilities in flood zones and describes how global flood risk may increase in the future using a global hydrological model. This information is used to assess the vulnerability of existing and planned nuclear facilities as to whether they (1) are located in flood prone areas (2) are susceptible to an increase in potential flood inundation and (3) are vulnerable to other natural hazards such as earthquake and tsunami. Based on this assessment, a priority ranking can made showing the potentially most vulnerable nuclear power plants to natural hazards, and in particular flood risk.

Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

243

46 CFR 62.35-10 - Flooding safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding safety. 62.35-10 Section 62...Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-10 Flooding safety. (a) Automatic bilge pumps...requirements. (b) Remote controls for flooding safety equipment must remain...

2010-10-01

244

Riverine flood plains: present state and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Natural flood plains are among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems on earth. Globally, riverine flood plains cover ? 2 ? 106 km2, however, they are among the most threatened ecosystems. Floodplain degradation is closely linked to the rapid decline in freshwater biodiversity; the main reasons for the latter being habitat alteration, flow and flood control, species invasion

Klement Tockner; Jack A. Stanford

2002-01-01

245

Getty's venture flood looks good  

Microsoft Academic Search

Getty Oil Co. is closing in on the objectives set for its C-Block Unit waterflood in Ventura Ave. field, California. Unique at the outset because of the massive formations being flooded, the project has other features that distinguish it. The main goals now, some accomplished and some nearly so, include (1) control of injection profiles; (2) production of large volumes

Bleakley

1972-01-01

246

FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

247

Rehabilitating agriculture and promoting food security following the 2010 Pakistan floods: Insights from South Asian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent floods in Pakistan have had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA 2010) estimates that, as of early September 2010, more than 20 million people had been displaced by the flood and by some estimates the damage to crops, housing, other buildings, roads, and irrigation infrastructure now reaches $6.5

Paul Dorosh; Sohail Malik; Marika Krausova

2010-01-01

248

sSCADA: Securing SCADA Infrastructure Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed control systems (DCS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems were developed to reduce labor costs, and to allow system-wide monitoring and remote control from a central location. Control systems are widely used in critical infrastructures such as electric grid, natural gas, water, and wastewater industries. While control systems can be vulnerable to a variety of types of

Yongge Wang; Bei-Tseng Chu

2004-01-01

249

Flooding in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

Patrick, Ew

250

Steam-flooding  

SciTech Connect

Steam-flooding has become an established recovery technique within the last 20 years. This overview discusses its evolution, methods for selecting and designing steam-floods, constraints, and possible improvements. The term steam-flooding is used here in a general sense. The discussion includes steam soak (cyclic steam injection) and steam drive.

Matthews, C.S.

1983-03-01

251

SMS flood alert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood disaster is considered a norm for Malaysians since Malaysia is located near the Equator. Flood disaster usually happens due to improper irrigation method in a housing area or the sudden increase of water volume in a river. Flood disaster often causes lost of property, damages and life. Since this disaster is considered dangerous to human life, an efficient countermeasure

Noor Hafizah Abdul Aziz

2011-01-01

252

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment asks students to do a flood frequency analysis to determine the size and stage of various floods and determine if the town of Crawford, OH is likely to be flooded or not. Outcomes: learn to work with quantitative data, learn to use Excel, be able to use USGS data.

Roberts, Sheila

253

The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider reaching Alameda Creek Historical Ecology Study has assessed overall watershed conditions prior to significant Euro-American modification, including historical patterns of sediment transport and storage in the Livermore Valley. These two studies provide context for a focused three-year study to determine the flow of water and sediment into and out of Zone 7 facilities; determine characteristics, rates, and causes of sedimentation; and map and characterize channel modification and mitigation opportunities. The program has begun measuring suspended load and bedload during high flow events at three sites that constrain the management area which will continue into water year 2012, and has begun mapping hillslope sediment processes. Next phases will include an assessment of channel depositional processes and causes and a more detailed evaluation of historical channel function at the reach scale building upon the existing watershed scale knowledge. This study provides further opportunity to integrate historical understanding of watershed functions with current geomorphic research to more effectively inform resource management decisions and can be and has been a model for other watersheds in California and beyond.

Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

2011-12-01

254

Effects of seasonal flooding and grazing on the vegetation of former ricefields in the Rhône delta (Southern France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six management regimes were tested during 5 years in 18 abandoned ricefields in the Rh^one delta, France: two artificial floodings for 6 months (winter and summer flooding, 10 cm deep) and a control only flooded by rain, each flooding treatment either with or without grazing by cattle and horses. In the absence of artificial flooding and in presence of grazing by

François Mesléard; Jacques Lepart; Patrick Grillas; André Mauchamp

1999-01-01

255

Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiemnts on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand s...

D. J. Topping D. M. Rubin K. M. Vanaman N. Voichick P. E. Grams R. B. Tusso R. E. Griffiths R. R. McDonald T. A. Sabol

2011-01-01

256

Archaeological Testing and Survey: Testing of Three Sites and Survey of a Road Detour within Proposed Project Construction Zones, Burlington Dam Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This cultural resource survey is of lands to be affected by the proposed Burlington Flood Control Project. The study area is located in north-central North Dakota along the Souris River from approximately two mile north of Burlington to the Canadian borde...

K. N. Good J. L. Hauff

1980-01-01

257

Future trends in flood risk in Indonesia - A probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is one of the 10 most populous countries in the world and is highly vulnerable to (river) flooding. Catastrophic floods occur on a regular basis; total estimated damages were US 0.8 bn in 2010 and US 3 bn in 2013. Large parts of Greater Jakarta, the capital city, are annually subject to flooding. Flood risks (i.e. the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability) are increasing due to rapid increases in exposure, such as strong population growth and ongoing economic development. The increase in risk may also be amplified by increasing flood hazards, such as increasing flood frequency and intensity due to climate change and land subsidence. The implementation of adaptation measures, such as the construction of dykes and strategic urban planning, may counteract these increasing trends. However, despite its importance for adaptation planning, a comprehensive assessment of current and future flood risk in Indonesia is lacking. This contribution addresses this issue and aims to provide insight into how socio-economic trends and climate change projections may shape future flood risks in Indonesia. Flood risk were calculated using an adapted version of the GLOFRIS global flood risk assessment model. Using this approach, we produced probabilistic maps of flood risks (i.e. annual expected damage) at a resolution of 30"x30" (ca. 1km x 1km at the equator). To represent flood exposure, we produced probabilistic projections of urban growth in a Monte-Carlo fashion based on probability density functions of projected population and GDP values for 2030. To represent flood hazard, inundation maps were computed using the hydrological-hydraulic component of GLOFRIS. These maps show flood inundation extent and depth for several return periods and were produced for several combinations of GCMs and future socioeconomic scenarios. Finally, the implementation of different adaptation strategies was incorporated into the model to explore to what extent adaptation may be able to decrease future risks. Preliminary results show that the urban extent in Indonesia is projected to increase within 211 to 351% over the period 2000-2030 (5 and 95 percentile). Mainly driven by this rapid urbanization, potential flood losses in Indonesia increase rapidly and are primarily concentrated on the island of Java. The results reveal the large risk-reducing potential of adaptation measures. Since much of the urban development between 2000 and 2030 takes place in flood-prone areas, strategic urban planning (i.e. building in safe areas) may significantly reduce the urban population and infrastructure exposed to flooding. We conclude that a probabilistic risk approach in future flood risk assessment is vital; the drivers behind risk trends (exposure, hazard, vulnerability) should be understood to develop robust and efficient adaptation pathways.

Muis, Sanne; Guneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

258

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

259

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

260

Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations vegetation such as tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) was damaged, wholesale bed motion necessary to fully clear these surfaces was not evident. In flow recirculation zones, eddy sandbars aggraded one meter or more, increasing the area of bars exposed during typical dam operations. Yet overall, the 2011 flood resulted in a decrease in reach-scale sand storage because bed degradation exceeded bar deposition. The 2011 response is consistent with that of a similar event in 1999, which was followed by sand-bar erosion and sediment accumulation on the bed during subsequent years of normal dam operational flows. Although the 1999 and 2011 floods were exceptional in the post-dam system, they did not exceed the pre-dam 2-year flood, isolating their effects to the modern active channel with minor erosion or reworking of pre-dam deposits stabilized through vegetation encroachment.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

2014-01-01

261

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

262

The national database of hospital-based cancer registries: a nationwide infrastructure to support evidence-based cancer care and cancer control policy in Japan.  

PubMed

Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice. PMID:23448800

Higashi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Akiko; Emori, Yoshiko; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

263

Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy infrastructure faced with deregulation and coupled with interdependencies with other critical infrastructures and increased demand for high-quality and reliable electricity for our digital economy is becoming more and more stressed. The occurrence of several cascading failures in the past 40 years has helped focus attention on the need to understand the complex phenomena associated with these interconnected systems and

MASSOUD AMIN

2005-01-01

264

Infrastructure Survey 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

265

Smart Valley Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

Maule, R. William

1994-01-01

266

Multivariate flood risk assessment: reinsurance perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For insurance and re-insurance purposes the knowledge of the spatial characteristics of fluvial flooding is fundamental. The probability of simultaneous flooding at different locations during one event and the associated severity and losses have to be estimated in order to assess premiums and for accumulation control (Probable Maximum Losses calculation). Therefore, the identification of a statistical model able to describe the multivariate joint distribution of flood events in multiple location is necessary. In this context, copulas can be viewed as alternative tools for dealing with multivariate simulations as they allow to formalize dependence structures of random vectors. An application of copula function for flood scenario generation is presented for Australia (Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria) where 100.000 possible flood scenarios covering approximately 15.000 years were simulated.

Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Ellenrieder, Tobias

2013-04-01

267

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Spangler, Tim

2006-10-10

268

Floods: The Awesome Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâÂÂre caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

2002-01-01

269

Effects of Projected Twenty-First Century Sea Level Rise, Storm Surge, and River Flooding on Water Levels in the Skagit River Floodplain and Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near coastal environments have been identified as some of the most likely to be impacted by climate change. Observed changes in Puget Sound sea level and flood magnitudes are in line with those projected by previous climate change impacts studies. Current understanding of the combined effects of these changes is relatively low and has prompted us to explore the ways in which their co-occurrence will influence near coastal ecosystems and infrastructure. Using numerical simulation models the project examines the projected effects of climate change on water levels and inundation in the lower reaches of the Skagit River in western WA due to the combined effects of changes in storm surge, sea level rise, and riverine flooding. Global climate model simulations from the ECHAM-5 climate model were used as the climate forcings and were 1) statistically downscaled using the hybrid delta method, and 2) dynamically downscaled using the WRF regional climate model. Naturalized flows produced using the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model were used to drive reservoir models that simulate flood control operations and regulated flow during extreme events. Storm surge was calculated using a regression approach that included atmospheric pressure patterns simulated by the WRF model and ENSO. A 2D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit River estuary and floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the daily time step reservoir simulation model and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and storm surge. Combining peak annual storm surge with expected sea level rise, the historic (1970-1999) 100-yr peak tidal anomaly is found to be exceeded every year by the 2020s. By the 2050s, the extrapolated 100-yr riverine flood events are found to increase by 30% and 25% in the Skagit and Nisqually Rivers, respectively. In the Skagit River, the combined effect of sea level rise and larger floods yields increased areal flood inundation up to 80% relative to the present "100-year" flood.

Hamman, J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Grossman, E. E.; Fuller, R.

2012-12-01

270

The human component in flood warning and flood response system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disign of flood warning — flood response systems is often performed as part of the overall engineering analysis of flood damage mitigation schemes. However, an important part of the flood response component of such systems is human perception of the flood hazard and its implication for the responses undertaken. This human dimension is examined from three viewpoints, the perception

I. C. Goulter; N. M. Myska

1987-01-01

271

Mapping Coastal Flood Zones for the National Flood Insurance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created by Congress in 1968, and significantly amended in 1973 to reduce loss of life and property caused by flooding, reduce disaster relief costs caused by flooding and make Federally backed flood insurance available to property owners. These goals were to be achieved by requiring building to be built to resist flood damages,

D. Carlton; C. L. Cook; J. Weber

2004-01-01

272

Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years  

PubMed Central

Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B.; Buntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H.; Schar, Christoph; Beer, Jurg; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

2013-01-01

273

Assessment of vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms.  

PubMed

There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years. PMID:21845165

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2011-07-01

274

Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms  

PubMed Central

There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2011-01-01

275

Flood risk awareness during the 2011 floods in the central United States: showcasing the importance of hydrologic data and interagency collaboration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods have long had a major impact on society and the environment, evidenced by the more than 1,500 federal disaster declarations since 1952 that were associated with flooding. Calendar year 2011 was an epic year for floods in the United States, from the flooding on the Red River of the North in late spring to the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri River basin floods in the spring and summer to the flooding caused by Hurricane Irene along the eastern seaboard in August. As a society, we continually seek to reduce flood impacts, with these efforts loosely grouped into two categories: mitigation and risk awareness. Mitigation involves such activities as flood assessment, flood control implementation, and regulatory activities such as storm water and floodplain ordinances. Risk awareness ranges from issuance of flood forecasts and warnings to education of lay audiences about the uncertainties inherent in assessing flood probability and risk. This paper concentrates on the issue of flood risk awareness, specifically the importance of hydrologic data and good interagency communication in providing accurate and timely flood forecasts to maximize risk awareness. The 2011 floods in the central United States provide a case study of the importance of hydrologic data and the value of proper, timely, and organized communication and collaboration around the collection and dissemination of that hydrologic data in enhancing the effectiveness of flood forecasting and flood risk awareness.

Holmes, Robert R., Jr.; Schwein, Noreen O.; Shadie, Charles E.

2012-01-01

276

Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

2012-04-01

277

A scalable tools communication infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

Buntinas, D.; Bosilca, G.; Graham, R. L.; Vallee, G.; Watson, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Tennessee; ORNL; IBM

2008-07-01

278

A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

Buntinas, Darius [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Watson, Gregory R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2008-01-01

279

An analysis of flood regimes in Austria on the basis of the dependence between peaks and volumes of maximum annual floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the dependence between flood peaks and the corresponding flood volumes in a regional context, with the aim to understand the causal factors controlling this dependence. While Gaál et al. (2012, WRR) analyzed the average dependence between peaks and volumes on the basis of flood time scales, the current work is concerned with the degree of consistency between peaks and volumes (quantified by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and their controls. The analysis is performed for annual maximum floods, using Austria as a case study area, with 330 catchments, ranging from 6 to 500 km² in size. Our hypothesis is that the strength of the dependence between flood peaks and volumes is related to proportions of various flood types in the dataset of annual maximum floods. For instance, if only a single flood type or a dominance of a particular flood type occur in the given catchment, the flood peak-volume relationship is expected to be highly consistent. Nevertheless, annual flood maxima are usually generated by a mixture of different flood processes. In such cases, a lower degree of consistency between flood peaks and volumes, i.e., a lower value of correlation is observed. To sum it up, the particular mix of processes in the dataset of annual maximum floods should demonstrate itself in the type and strength of the relationship between the two variables. The results indicate that climate related factors are more important than catchment related factors in controlling the consistency. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients typically range from about 0.2 in the high alpine catchments to about 0.8 in the lowlands. The weak dependence in the high alpine catchments is due to the mix of flood types, including long duration snowmelt, synoptic floods and flash floods. In the lowlands, the flood durations vary less in a given catchment which is related to different factors: i) long duration snowmelt floods are absent, ii) the catchment filters the distribution of all storms to produce the distribution of flood-producing storms, and iii) the co-evolution of climate, landform, soils and vegetation contributes to a more consistent flood response between events. It is concluded that a mix of different flood types reduces the consistency between flood peaks and volumes. However, this particularly applies to catchments where long duration snowmelt floods are involved. To fully capture the effect on the dependence between peaks and volumes the nature of snow related floods (long duration snowmelt floods in mountains vs. shorter snow related floods in lowlands) needs to be ascertained.

Gaál, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Kohnová, Silvia; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Parajka, Juraj; Viglione, Alberto; Günter, Blöschl

2014-05-01

280

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

281

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

282

CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

283

Integration of Hydrologic, Economic, Ecologic, Social, and Well-Being Factors in Planning Flood Control Measures for Urban Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A well-planned control program requires coordinated implementation of a number of structural and nonstructural measures selected through the evaluation of a variety of hydrologic, economic, ecologic, social preference, and community well-being information...

L. D. James A. C. Benke H. L. Ragsdale

1975-01-01

284

Re?imagining Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior executive of Booz Allen Hamilton and co?author of a business bestseller called Megacommunities argues that the United States is locked into an obsolete pattern of dealing with infrastructure investment, even as the country's population growth and technology have raced ahead. Three of America's basic “lifeline” infrastructures—energy, transportation, and water—are nearing the end of their useful operating lives and

Mark Gerencser

2011-01-01

285

Re?imagining Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior executive of Booz Allen Hamilton and co?author of a business bestseller called Megacommunities argues that the United States is locked into an obsolete pattern of dealing with infrastructure investment, even as the country's population growth and technology have raced ahead. Three of America's basic “lifeline” infrastructures—energy, transportation, and water—are nearing the end of their useful operating lives and

Mark Gerencser

286

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area ( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Météo France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommières, famous for it's flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it's method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. After more than 100 events observed and analysed in South of France, the experience gained, allowed PREDICT Services to better anticipate phenomena and also to better manage them. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned on risk management.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

287

MFC Communications Infrastructure Study  

SciTech Connect

Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

2012-01-01

288

Building safeguards infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclelland - Kerr, John [NNSA/NA-242

2009-01-01

289

CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of critical infrastructures, assessed by the potential consequences of failure or destruction of infrastructures providing essential services to the population. The integration of these two methodologies within a same tool allows the dynamic mapping of human vulnerability according to the characteristics of the flood, and thus produces a precise and reliable evaluation of human risk related to a potential or an ongoing flood. The methodology was successfully applied to two rivers sections exposed to flooding on the suburbs of Quebec City (Canada), which present a diversified land use (industrial areas, residential areas, public facilities, etc.).

Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

2013-12-01

290

The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals, presentations and recommendations with respect to the development of the HFLC.

Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

2005-01-01

291

Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which began on 1 October 1996 and ended on 31 January 1997. In addition, it provides a summary of the entire project.

Romanowski, Gregory J.

1997-01-01

292

Weed control in flooded rice with various herbicide combinations in the Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted during the 1990 and 1991 wet seasons at Badeggi to assess the efficacy of various herbicide combinations for post?emergence and pre?emergence control of a weed flora dominated by Digltaria debilis (Desf.) Willd., Leptochloa caerulescens Steud., Ludwigia spp., Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. and Cyperus difformis L. in direct?seeded and transplanted lowland rice cv. Faro 29. In 1990 post?emergence

P. O. Imeokparia

1994-01-01

293

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

294

Detecting SYN Flooding Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple and robust mechanism for de- tecting SYN flooding attacks. Instead of monitoring the ongoing traffic at the front end (like firewall or proxy) or a victim server itself, we detect the SYN flooding attacks at leaf routers that con- nect end hosts to the Internet. The simplicity of our detection mechanism lies in its statelessness and

Haining Wang; Danlu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2002-01-01

295

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Météo France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommières, famous for it’s flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it’s method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

296

A study of the flood events in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost every year, localised and in some cases more widespread floodings affect parts of Cyprus, causing damages to properties destruction to infrastructure and housing and sometimes the loss of human life. Various factors such as the meteorological situation and type and intensity of precipitation, the geomorphology, the geology and the human intervention to geomorphology are responsible for flood events. In the present study, only the meteorological situation and the associated mechanisms are examined in an attempt to gain the essential knowledge for improvement of local weather forecasts. The study period covers a thirteen-year period, from 1994 to 2006, in which 43 cases of flooding were reported, mainly over urbanized areas. The dominant favorable weather conditions for flood events are either the existence of a depression or weather conditions of convectional type. According to these two factors, the flood events were classified into two categories; the "instability'' category which includes isolated flood events of short duration, and the "depression'' category which includes widespread flood events of long duration.

Savvidou, K.; Nicolaides, K. A.; Michaelides, S. C.; Orphanou, A.; Charalambous, M.; Adamou, S.

2008-07-01

297

Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Second annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this laboratory work is to develop improved mobility control agents that are more effective than the commercial polymers currently used in this process. During the second year of the project, the baseline testing of commercial products was completed. These baseline tests with polymers include studies on mobility control, retention, and shear degradation in Berea cores, the effect of common ions on rheological properties, thermal stability, microbial degradation, and surfactant-polymer interactions. These data are used for comparison of the commercial agents at standardized sets of conditions, and are also used to evaluate new, modified, or improved polymers. Work was also initiated on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new and modified polymers. Testing of these analogs provides systematic correlations of polymer performance with polymer structure. This preliminary testing consists of measurements of shear degradation and viscosity loss in NaCl brines by the use of a simplified screening procedure. To date, a number of potential structure-utility relationships have been observed. Solution viscosities of all nonionic polymers tested are essentially insensitive to changes in NaCl concentration. Increasing the charge-to-mass ratio (degree of hydrolysis) of either polyacrylamides or N-alkyl analogs enhances the ability of these polymers to build viscosity in low salinity NaCl brines. However, such polymers are increasingly subject to viscosity loss as the salinity is increased. Above a certain critical molecular weight, polymers become more susceptible to shear degradation. Many of the polymers that possess stiffer backbones exhibit improved brine and shear stability. The results of these studies will be used to develop an improved mobility control polymer in the next phase of this project.

Martin, F.D.; Donaruma, L.G.; Hatch, M.J.

1981-04-01

298

Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. First annual report, September 29, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1: Based on a literature survey and input solicited from industry, academic, and government sources, inadequacies of the currently used mobility control materials were assessed. Phase 2: Baseline screening of commercially available polymers began in January 1979. Rheological measurements and mobility control test in Berea cores have been completed on Dow Pusher 700, Betz Hi Vis, Nalco Nal-flo, Cyanamid 960S, Kelco Xanflood, and Abbott Xanthan Broth. Similar tests were completed for Pusher 500, Pusher 1000, Amoco Sweepaid 103, and Pfizer Flocon Biopolymer 1035. Shear degradation tests in Berea core plugs have been completed for one acrylamide-type polymer and one xanthan polymer in 0.3% NaCl. Similar tests in 3% NaCl plus 0.3% CaCl/sub 2/ are in progress. Viscosity and screen factor data have been collected for most of the commercially available polymers. Long-term thermal stability tests with one polyacrylamide polymer and one xanthan polymer have been initiated. Phase 3: The polymer synthesis phase of the program is in progress. A series of N-alkyl (N-methyl, N-isopropyl, and N-butyl) acrylamide homopolymers and copolymers with acrylic acid has been synthesized. Variations of the substituents on the acrylamide nitrogen atom did not substantially change the properties of the parent compound. Increasing the molecular weight tends to impart increased shear sensitivity. Degree of hydrolysis also affects performance of the modified polymer. 25 figures, 40 tables.

Martin, F.D.

1980-05-01

299

Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

300

A flood-free period combined with early planting is required to sustain yield of pre-rice sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the responses of sweet sorghum to flooding and the characters associated with flooding tolerance may be a useful strategy for pre-rice production and help meet demand for biofuel feedstock. Three sweet sorghum genotypes (Bailey, Keller and Wray) and five flooding treatments including non-flooding control, continuous flooding extended from 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after emergence to harvest were

A. Promkhambut; A. Polthanee; C. Akkasaeng; A. Younger

2011-01-01

301

Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines flood risk perceptions of individuals in the Netherlands using a survey of approximately 1000 homeowners. Perceptions of a range of aspects of flood risk are elicited. Various statistical models are used to estimate the influence of socioeconomic and geographical characteristics, personal experience with flooding, knowledge of flood threats, and individual risk attitudes on shaping risk belief. The study shows that in general, perceptions of flood risk are low. An analysis of the factors determining risk perceptions provides four main insights relevant for policy makers and insurers. First, differences in expected risk are consistently related to actual risk levels, since individuals in the vicinity of a main river and low-lying areas generally have elevated risk perceptions. Second, individuals in areas unprotected by dikes tend to underestimate their risk of flooding. Third, individuals with little knowledge of the causes of flood events have lower perceptions of flood risk. Fourth, there is some evidence that older and more highly educated individuals have a lower flood risk perception. The findings indicate that increasing knowledge of citizens about the causes of flooding may increase flood risk awareness. It is especially important to target individuals who live in areas unprotected by dike infrastructure, since they tend to be unaware of or ignore the high risk exposure faced.

Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.

2009-10-01

302

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood

M. Brilly; M. Polic

2005-01-01

303

Long-term flood records for flood risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable estimation of flood magnitude\\/frequency relationship is on the basis of flood hazard estimation, and it is the basis of risk assessment and management. Data on flood magnitude and frequency is usually obtained from systematic river level and discharge records, which very seldom cover time periods larger than a century. However, past flood information can also be obtained from non-systematic

G. Benito

304

Robust Flood Frequency Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a robust model is briefly explored. In the context of flood frequency analysis, two necessary properties of a robust model are advanced, namely, resistance and efficiency. Strategies for seeking more robust models are discussed. Because of its versatility, the five-parameter Wakeby distribution can credibly be considered a parent flood distribution. Four regionalized Wakeby parents are employed in simulation studies to search for robust models. These parents were shown by Houghton to be representative of U.S. flood experience in the sense that certain raw flood data characteristics could be reproduced. A limited range of sampling experiments were undertaken. The results suggest that of the site-specific estimators considered, the two-parameter log normal maximum likelihood estimator is most resistant, with Gumbel estimators employing either maximum likelihood or probability-weighted moments displaying comparable resistance. Several estimators which utilize regional flood information were compared. Included were empirical Bayes estimators which are structurally similar to James-Stein rules and regionalized estimators based on the flood index method. These estimators exhibited substantial improvements in aggregate risk performance over their site-specific counterparts, particularly for short record lengths. Regionalized estimators appear to be preferable for short record lengths, while estimators which combine both site and regional flood information are preferable for longer record lengths. When such estimation procedures are considered, other distributional models such as log Pearson type III and Wakeby become practical alternatives to the two-parameter log normal model.

Kuczera, George

1982-04-01

305

Road assessment after flood events using non-authoritative data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research proposes a methodology that leverages non-authoritative data to augment flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation infrastructure. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its integration with established data and methods. Crowdsourced photos and volunteered geographic data are fused together using a geostatistical interpolation to create an estimation of flood damage in New York City following Hurricane Sandy. This damage assessment is utilized to augment an authoritative storm surge map as well as to create a road damage map for the affected region.

Schnebele, E.; Cervone, G.; Waters, N.

2014-04-01

306

The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.  

PubMed

Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

2014-08-01

307

Responses of six Brachiaria spp. accessions to root zone flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some morphophysiological responses of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, cv. Piatã, cv. Arapoty, B163, B166 and B. ruziziensis R124 were compared in plants grown in pots, under flooded and well-drained conditions. Flooding reduced leaf elongation rate in all accessions. Leaf dry mass production was lower under flooding than in the control plants in all the studied accessions, except in cv. Piatã.

Luana Pabla de Souza Caetano; Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

2008-01-01

308

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

309

Incentives, Infrastructure and Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper explores the role of incentives, infrastructure, and institutions in late-industrializing countries. We argue that all three dimensions are critical to understand differences in technological development and industrial trajectories across countries, because they shape government policies and firm strategies in terms of exports, subcontracting, and technology acquisition, among others. Moreover, we explain how recent insights in the theory

Francisco Veloso; Jorge Mario Soto

2001-01-01

310

National Infrastructure Advisory Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIAC chose to initiate this Study in order to provide a strategic-level review of the Sector Partnership Model implementation and set a course for this critically important partnership in anticipation of the coming Presidential Administration transition. The NIAC's objective with the Study was to assess the effectiveness of the public-private partnership for critical infrastructure protection and to identify opportunities

N. W. Washington

2005-01-01

311

Infrastructure Network Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper aims to propose a methodology of analyzing infrastructure network vulnerability in the field of prevention or reduction of the natural disaster consequences. After a state of the art on vulnerability models in the academic literature, the various vulnerability factors are classified and discussed. Eventually, a general model of vulnerability analysis including societal parameters is

Kamissoko Daouda; Zarate Pascale; Pérès Francois

2011-01-01

312

Global Floods 1985�2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

Observatory, Dartmouth F.; College, Dartmouth

313

Multi-objective optimization of reservoir flood dispatch based on MOPSO algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm to solve the multi-objective optimal dispatch problem of reservoir flood control, which take minimum value of the highest water level before dam, minimum value of the releasing peak discharge, and water level after flood season very close to flood control level as the objective functions. By using the

Shuai Wang; Xiaohui Lei; Xiaomin Huang

2012-01-01

314

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

315

Coastal Flooding Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eric B. Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are introduced to Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, and use these tools to perform a flooding analysis for the Long Beach area of California. Context Type and level ...

Grosfils, Eric

316

Flood Resilient Technological Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category because their function do not consist in repelling water, but in preventing damages caused by the watery contact. Finally, others preventive flood resilient technologies could also be considered, since forecasting, near-casting and warning alert are solutions getting more and more involved in flood resilience strategies.

Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

2012-04-01

317

Historical Floods in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site reviews major flooding in the Northeastern United States, as reported by the Northeast River Forecast Center (NERFC), a division of the National Weather Service. It includes photos, rainfall maps, and descriptions of record-breaking floods that occured between the years 1927 and 1996. Descriptions include specific causes of flooding, weather patterns leading up to flooding, as well as results and actions taken due to flooding in the regions discussed.

318

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

319

New Orleans Flooding Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

Mission, Nasa S.; Nasa

320

National Flood Insurance Program: Flood Hazard Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created this helpful set of resources for policymakers, elected officials, journalists, and members of the general public who would like to know more about the world of flood hazard mapping. On this site, visitors can find a host of resources and over a dozen thematic links, such as Coastal Projects, Change My Flood Zone Designation, and User Groups. Each link is preceded by a brief introduction to the resource, along with a description of the various items within each link. Visitors shouldn't miss the Online Tutorials offered here, as they include several multimedia instructional resources designed to provide in-depth training on different facets on these programs.

321

Preventing flooding or regulating flood levels?: Case studies on perception of flood alleviation in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a systematic sample survey among the residents of two contrasting floodplain environments - the Tista floodplain (a shallow flood area) and the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain (a deep flood area) - this study tests a central hypothesis that the floodplain residents of Bangladesh preferred regulation of flood levels as the main flood alleviation measure. The study found that, despite significant

Harun Rasid

1993-01-01

322

Animated Flood Maps For Polderised Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever increasing computer power allows the integration of highly complex computer models, fed by data-sets with very high spatial resolution frequency, to represent complex natural (as well as man-made) processes. One application of this technol- ogy is the generation of retrodictive or predictive animated flood-mapping models. These combine physically correct hydrodynamic computer models, fed with very large high-accuracy/high-frequency data sets, with high resolution (1m) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The Lower Feale Catchment Flood Study (National University of Ireland, Cork, 1997-2001) applied this technology to make a Svirtual water worldT & cedil;in which engineering measures to alleviate flooding in a polderised landscape could be evaluated. To create an integrated computer model that represented all aspects of the hydraulic, hydrodynamic and hydrological response of the catchment, many high resolution and high frequency surveys and measurements were conducted. These in- cluded: topographic measurements of river channels using differential GPS and dig- ital echo sounding surveys; high frequency river flux/water level measurements us- ing state-of-the-art data logging instruments, and high frequency retro-diction of the tide-plus-surge sea levels at the mouth of the main river, using the Proudman Oceano- graphic Laboratorys CS3 model. In addition, a large scale, fully digital aerial survey of the catchment determined the topography of the 200 km2 area on a 1m resolution DEM, and provided extremely high resolution multi-spectral images of the catchment, using the DLR (German Aerospace Centre) HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera) system. Integration of a calibrated hydrological rainfall/runoff model with a hydrody- namic model, yields a complex digital representation of the performance of the catch- mentSs hydraulic infrastructure. By combining this with the DEM and multi-spectral images in a GIS environment, a graphical computer representation of flooding across the entire flood plain has been achieved. While scientific analysis of the hydrodynamic model provides a profound insight into the performance of the complex hydraulic in- frastructure, animated flood maps of historic events give a completely new perspec- tive on the problem. Animations which simulate potential flood alleviation measures, or the situation before the implementation of the existing drainage scheme, show the power of these hydroinformatic tools for building Virtual Water Worlds.

Martin, J.; O'Kane, J. P.

323

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

1999-10-15

324

Inland Flood Hazards: Human, Riparian, and Aquatic Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is an immutable natural fact that floods happen. They have happened throughout Earth's history and, most likely, will continue in perpetuity. Floods and hydrological variability are fundamental natural processes that intimately affect many ecological phenomena. Floods and human society also share common ground—usually the floodplain—but their coexistence is often tenuous, uncertain, and disharmonious. Society's attempts to settle floodplain areas, control floods, and regulate stream flow often have adverse ecologic, aesthetic, and social consequences. These statements characterize the dominant thematic undercurrent that flows throughout Inland Flood Hazards: Human, Riparian, and Aquatic Communities. The book, which was edited by Ellen E. Wohl, is ambitiously comprehensive in scope and includes 19 chapters that focus on wide-ranging topics related to floods. Twenty-two authors contributed to the volume.

House, P. Kyle

325

Smart Monitoring for Physical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infrastructures are the backbone of today’s economies. Physical Infrastructures such as transport and energy networks are\\u000a vital for ensuring the functioning of a society. They are strained by the ever increasing demand for capacity, the need for\\u000a stronger integration with other infrastructures, and the relentless push for higher cost efficiency.

Florian Fuchs; Michael Berger; Claudia Linnhoff-Popien

2010-01-01

326

In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

2011-11-01

327

Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these

Laurence R. Phillips; Andjelka Kelic; Drake E. Warren

2008-01-01

328

Cloud Infrastructure Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its\\u000a users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business.\\u000a At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security,

Dimiter Velev; Plamena Zlateva

2010-01-01

329

Authenticated Modbus Protocol for Critical Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting a nation's critical infrastructure, notably its power grid is crucial in view of increasing threats, such as international terrorism. We focus on the security of the Modbus protocol, a de-facto protocol for distributed control systems popularly used for power plants. Specifically, we analyze the security of a recently proposed authenticated Modbus protocol. We present attacks on the protocol, discuss

Raphael C.-W. Phan

2012-01-01

330

Cyber security and implications for national infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security (or cyber security as it is popularly known) is an increasing problem in the context of the national infrastructure. In the past, most control system were isolated and little understood by the world at large, they are now increasingly connected to other systems, their functionality is more widely known, and they are more often based on standard well-known

P. Davis

2005-01-01

331

India Infrastructure Report 2010: Infrastructure Development in a Sustainable Low Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-designed infrastructure development programmes play a key role in reducing poverty and ensuring environmental sustainability. The India Infrastructure Report 2010 emphasizes the need to align infrastructure projects with the goal of a low-carbon economy. Authoritative and insightful, the report examines: Legal and Regulatory Issues; Financing Infrastructure Development; Energy Infrastructure; Transport Infrastructure; Urban Infrastructure; Rural Infrastructure. It reviews the developments in

iNetwork

332

GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION  

SciTech Connect

A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-17

333

Searching for Resources in MANETs - A Cluster Based Flooding Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a searching service optimized for highly dynamic mobile ad-hoc networks based on a flooding approach. MANETs unreliability and routing costs prevent the use of central servers or global infra-structured services on top of a priori defined virtual overlay networks. A flooding approach over a virtual overlay network created on-demand performs better. Flooding is supported by a light-weight clustering algorithm. The paper compares the relative efficiency of two clustering approaches using 1.5-hop and 2.5-hop neighborhood information, and of a non-clustered approach. It presents a set of simulation results on the clustering efficiency and on searching efficiency for low and high mobility patterns, showing that the 1.5-hop algorithm is more resilient to load and to node movement than the 2.5-hop algorithm.

Oliveira, Rodolfo; Bernardo, Luis; Pinto, Paulo

334

NASA World Wind: Infrastructure for Spatial Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The world has great need for analysis of Earth observation data, be it climate change, carbon monitoring, disaster response, national defense or simply local resource management. To best provide for spatial and time-dependent information analysis, the world benefits from an open standards and open source infrastructure for spatial data. In the spirit of NASA's motto "for the benefit of all" NASA invites the world community to collaboratively advance this core technology. The World Wind infrastructure for spatial data both unites and challenges the world for innovative solutions analyzing spatial data while also allowing absolute command and control over any respective information exchange medium.

Hogan, Patrick

2011-01-01

335

A 2D simulation model for urban flood management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and keep it as large as possible while maintaining the stability of the flow calculations; -Operate on a square grid at any resolution while retaining at least some details of the ground topography of the basic grid, the storage, and the form roughness and conveyance of the ground surface; -Account for the overall average ground slope for particular coarse cells; -Have the facility to refine the grid locally; -Have the facility to treat ponds or lakes as single, irregular cells; -Permit prescribed inflows and arbitrary outflows across the boundaries of the model domain or internally, and sources and sinks at any interior cell; -Simulate runoff for spatial rainfall while permitting infiltration; -Use ground surface cover and soil type indices to determine surface roughness, interception and infiltration parameters; -Present results at the basic cell level; -Have the facility to begin a model run with monitored soil moisture data; -Have the facility to hot-start a simulation using dumped data from a previous simulation; -Operate with a graphics cards for parallel processing; -Have the facility to link directly to the urban drainage simulation software such as SWMM through an Open Modelling Interface; -Be linked to the Netherlands national rainfall database for continuous simulation of rainfall-runoff for particular polders and urban areas; -Make the engine available as Open Source together with benchmark datasets; PriceXD forms a key modelling component of an integrated urban water management system consisting of an on-line database and a number of complementary modelling systems for urban hydrology, groundwater, potable water distribution, wastewater and stormwater drainage (separate and combined sewerage), wastewater treatment, and surface channel networks. This will be a 'plug and play' system. By linking the models together, confidence in the accuracy of the above-ground damage and construction costs is comparable to the below-ground costs. What is more, PriceXD can be used to examine additional physical phenomenon such as the interaction between flood flows and

Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

2014-05-01

336

Y2K: Millennial reflections on computers as infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computers have become the control, information storage, and information processing technology of choice in many other, pre?existing infrastructures. This essay argues that historians of computers and information technology should expand their agenda to include the origins and impacts of this phenomenon. Studying computer?based infrastructures could lead to a new historiographical approach focussing on ‘internetworks’. These are very large, integrated, extremely

Paul N. Edwards

1998-01-01

337

Building green infrastructure via citizen participation - a six-year study in the Shepherd Creek  

EPA Science Inventory

Green infrastructure at the parcel scale provides critical ecosystem goods and services when these services (such as flood mitigation) must be provided locally. Here we report on an approach that encourages suburban landowners to mitigate impervious surfaces on their properties t...

338

Flooding in Bifurcation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edo River to diverge from Tone River on the right side flows away through Tokyo downtown, and into Tokyo Bay. Tone River of main stream flows through the north region of Kanto into Chiba prefecture of rural aria. Tone River originally flowed through present Edo River into Tokyo downtown. So when Tokyo (Edo era) became the political center of Japan 400 years ago, this place had been suffered from flood caused by augmenting downstream flowing of rainfall over watershed catchment area. Edo Government extended near independent small rivers and connected with Tone River and led away most of flood water transportation into Chiba prefecture to be a rural reason. The present rout of the river has been determined in the mass during the 16th century. Created artificial Edo River experimentally divided into 40 percentage and artificial Tone River divided into 60 percentage of flood water transportation. After that Japanese Government confirmed a safety against flood and confirmed to be a safety Tokyo by using SFM (storage function method) and SNFM (steady non-uniform flow method). Japanese Government estimated Plan High Water Discharge 17,500m3/s at upstream of the divergent point and Edo river flowing through 40 percentage (7,000m3/s) of 17,500m3/s which was same ratio as Edo era. But SFM and SNFM could not explain dynamic flow phenomena. We surveyed how many channel storage amount were there in this river by using UFM (unsteady flow method). We reproduce real flowing shape and carried out more detail dynamic phenomena. In this research, we had taken up diverse and various 11floods from 1981. These floods were confirmed that Edo River to be bifurcated less than 40 percentages. Large flood are not always high ratio of diversion in to Edo River. It's almost smaller ratio rather than higher ratio. For example, peak discharge 11,117m3/s, Aug. 1982 flood was bifurcated into Edo river flowing through 20 percentage of 11,117m3/s. Small flood peak discharge 1,030m3/s, Aug. 1992 flood was diverted into Edo river flowing through 33 percentage of 1,030m3/s. The case of these phenomena was arisen from channel storage. In right side of upstream, a lot of spur dike that Japanese Government constructed in 300 years ago invented storage effect. Otherwise, channel storage effect delayed the reach of peak discharge from upstream to Edo River downstream. We realized that channel storage have a ability to make a safe river and save person's life from flood water. We will show you each floods hydrograph at the EGU 2010. It is testified the channel storage that the difference between discharge of upstream and downstream during inverse phenomena which upstream is higher discharge than downstream. And more over, we will show you our UFM equation and current direction graph in design flood.

Aoki, Masakazu; Matumoto, Aoki

2010-05-01

339

Floods in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

1948-01-01

340

Thirty Years Later: Reflections of the Big Thompson Flood, Colorado, 1976 to 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years ago, over 300 mm of rain fell in about 4 to 6 hours in the middle reaches of the Big Thompson River Basin during the devastating flash flood on July 31, 1976. The rainstorm produced flood discharges that exceeded 40 m3/s/km2. A peak discharge of 883 m3/s was estimated at the Big Thompson River near Drake streamflow-gaging station. The raging waters left 144 people dead, 250 injured, and over 800 people were evacuated by helicopter. Four-hundred eighteen homes and businesses were destroyed, as well as 438 automobiles, and damage to infrastructure left the canyon reachable only via helicopter. Total damage was estimated in excess of $116 million (2006 dollars). Natural hazards similar to the Big Thompson flood are rare, but the probability of a similar event hitting the Front Range, other parts of Colorado, or other parts of the Nation is real. Although much smaller in scale than the Big Thompson flood, several flash floods have happened during the monsoon in early July 2006 in the Colorado foothills that reemphasized the hazards associated with flash flooding. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts flood research to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson flood. A summary of hydrologic conditions of the 1976 flood, what the 1976 flood can teach us about flash floods, a description of some of the advances in USGS flood science as a consequence of this disaster, and lessons that we learned to help reduce loss of life from this extraordinary flash flood are discussed. In the 30 years since the Big Thompson flood, there have been important advances in streamflow monitoring and flood warning. The National Weather Service (NWS) NEXRAD radar allows real-time monitoring of precipitation in most places in the United States. The USGS currently (2006) operates about 7,250 real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the United States that are monitored by the USGS, the NWS, and emergency managers. When substantial flooding occurs, the USGS mobilizes personnel to collect streamflow data in affected areas. Streamflow data improve flood forecasting and provide data for flood-frequency analysis for floodplain management, design of structures located in floodplains, and related water studies. An important lesson learned is that nature provides environmental signs before and during floods that can help people avoid hazard areas. Important contributions to flood science as a result of the 1976 flood include development of paleoflood methods to interpret the preserved flood-plain stratigraphy to document the number, magnitude, and age of floods that occurred prior to streamflow monitoring. These methods and data on large floods can be used in many mountain-river systems to help us better understand flood hazards and plan for the future. For example, according to conventional flood-frequency analysis, the 1976 Big Thompson flood had a flood recurrence interval of about 100 years. However, paleoflood research indicated the 1976 flood was the largest in about the last 10,000 years in the basin and had a flood recurrence interval in excess of 1,000 years.

Jarrett, R. D.; Costa, J. E.; Brunstein, F. C.; Quesenberry, C. A.; Vandas, S. J.; Capesius, J. P.; O'Neill, G. B.

2006-12-01

341

76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...borrowers the Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal...

2011-10-17

342

Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, four scenarios were used to quantify the balance between the benefits of levees for flood protection\\u000a and their potential to increase flood risk using Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard flood-loss software and hydraulic modeling of the\\u000a Middle Mississippi River (MMR). The goals of this study were (1) to quantify the flood exposure under different flood-control\\u000a configurations and (2) to

Jonathan W. F. RemoMegan; Megan Carlson; Nicholas Pinter

343

Geomorphic variation in riparian tree mortality and stream coarse woody debris recruitment from record flooding in a coastal plain stream1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large floods are an important process controlling the structure and function of stream ecosystems. One of the ways floods affect streams is through the recruitment of coarse woody debris from stream-side forests. Stream valley geomorphol- ogy may mediate this interaction by altering flood velocity, depth, and duration. Little research has examined how floods and geomosphic features interact to control debris

Brian PALIK; Stephen W. GOLLADAY; P. Charles GOEBEL; Brad W. TAYLOR

344

Evidence for a Late Cainozoic Flood\\/post-Flood Boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flood\\/post-Flood boundary in the geologic column can be determined by investigating geophysical evidence in light of Scripture's record of the Flood. The following evidences are investigated: (1) global sediment and post-Flood erosion, (2) volcanism and climatic impact, (3) changes in the global sea level, (4) formation of the mountains of Ararat, and (5) the formation of fossil fuels. The

ROY D. HOLT

1996-01-01

345

Seasonal flooding, soil salinity and primary production in northern prairie marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic regime is an important control of primary production in wetland ecosystems. I investigated the coupling of flooding, soil salinity and plant production in northern prairie marshes that experience shallow spring flooding. Field experiments compared whitetop (Scolochloa festucacea) marsh that was: (1) nonflooded, (2) flooded during spring with 25 cm water and (3) nonflooded but irrigated with 1 cm water

Christopher Neill

1993-01-01

346

Integration of SRTM DEM and Hydraulic Analysis for Flood Response Planning.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to delineate potential flood inundation areas is one of the most important requirements for flood response planning. Historical hydrologic records and high-resolution topographic data are essential to model flood inundation and to map areas at risk of inundation. For Afghanistan, historical hydrologic data enable the analysis of flood frequency, but the accurate delineation of flood inundation zones is limited by the lack of high- resolution elevation data. This study has developed a method for coupling hydraulic analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to delineate flood risk maps of the Helmand and Kabul drainage basins in Afghanistan. Land surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) were used to create an area-elevation profile with respect to the rivers that flow into these two basins. Using the profile, we computed cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter for each 1-m increment in elevation. Manning's equation was applied to compute river discharge for each 1-m increment in water level using cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and slope of the respective river reach. Results for the gauged river reaches were compared with 25, 50, and 100-year return period floods based on a flood frequency from the historical stream flow data, and associated depths of water were estimated for each return period flood. Peak flows at gauge stations were extrapolated to ungauged river reaches based on upstream drainage area. The estimated depths of water for each river reach were used as thresholds to identify areas subject to flood inundation, using the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with respect to the rivers. The resulting flood inundation polygons were combined in a GIS with roads, infrastructure, settlements, and higher resolution satellite imagery to identify potential hazards due to flooding, and provide detailed information for flood response planning.

Pervez, M.; Asante, K. O.; Smith, J. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

2006-12-01

347

Agile Infrastructure Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

2014-06-01

348

Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

2013-04-01

349

British Columbia flood scars: maximum flood-stage indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood scars, abundant along rivers of heavily forested northern British Columbia, provide records of flood occurrence and magnitude in a region with few and relatively short gaging records. Log transport during floods is episodic and occurs almost immediately preceding and during peak stage. Impact wounds form during this transport stage. Many of these logs are sequestered in bankside vegetation where

Allen S. Gottesfeld

1996-01-01

350

Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale,

Karl Spachinger; Wolfgang Dorner; Rudolf Metzka; Kamal Serrhini; Sven Fuchs

2008-01-01

351

77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-07-30

352

Flood Plain Management Information Report, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Development of Flood Plains; Why Flood Plain Management, What is Good Flood Plain Management; Sample Flood Plain Regulations; Responsibility of State, County, and Local Governments; What Information is Available; What Local Action can be Taken b...

1973-01-01

353

New equation for flooding  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains how the flooding point in packed columns can be solved explicitly for either the gas flow rate or the liquid flow rate, depending upon the given application. The traditional trial-and-error procedure is avoided by using the new equation, as shown by a brief example. Presented equation was obtained from a regression analysis of 16 points taken from the experimental flooding line with the value of the abscissa X in the correlation ranging from 0.01 to 10.0.

Ward, H.C.; Sommerfeld, J.T.

1982-10-01

354

Streamflow and sediment data collected to determine the effects of a controlled flood in March and April 1996 on the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An 8-day period of planned release of water at 1,275 cubic meters per second from Glen Canyon Dam in March and April 1996 provided an opportunity to collect data on river stage, streamflow, water chemistry, and sediment transport at discharges above powerplant releases. The U.S. Geological Survey collected data at five streamflow-gaging stations on the mainstem of the Colorado River and four on tributaries during the controlled flood. River-stage data were collected at an additional 29 locations, and suspended-sediment data were collected at 4 of the 5 mainstem streamflow-gaging stations. In addition, measurements of reach-average flow velocity were made using a dye tracer, and water-surface slope was measured in reaches adjacent to three of the streamflow-gaging stations. Sand-storage changes caused by the controlled flood were documented by measuring bed elevation of the channel at cross sections before and after the controlled releases at the network of 120 monumented locations. This report presents selected data in tabular and graphical form. The data presented in the report are available in electronic form.

Konieczki, Alice D.; Graf, Julia B.; Carpenter, Michael C.

1997-01-01

355

Application of Scenarios and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Tools in Flood Polder Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Effectiveness of technical flood control measures depends strongly on multiple characteristics of floods. Copulas can be applied\\u000a for multivariate statistical descriptions of flood scenarios. However, the parameterisation of these multivariate statistical\\u000a models involves many uncertainties. With regard to these known unknowns the multivariate statistical characteristics of flood\\u000a scenarios can be handled as imprecise probabilities. Such imprecise probabilities can be specified

Andreas H. Schumann; David Nijssen

356

Probably maximum flood of the Sava River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK) situated on the left bank of the Save River close to the border of Croatia. Probably Maximum Flood, on the location of the NEK could result in combination of probably maximum precipitation, sequential storm before PMP or snowmelt on the Sava River watershed. Mediterranean climate characterises very high precipitation and temporary high snow pack. The HBV-96 model as Integrated Hydrological Modelling System (IHMS) used for modelling. Model was calibrated and verification for daily time step at first for time period 1190-2006. Calibration and verification for hourly time step was done for period 1998-1999. The stream routing parameters were calibrated for flood event in years 1998 and 2007 and than verification for flood event in 1990. Discharge routing data analysis shown that possible inundation of Ljubljana and Savinja valley was not properly estimated. The flood areas are protected with levees and water does not spread over flooded areas in events used for calibration. Inundated areas in Ljubljana valley and Savinja valley are protected by levees and model could not simulate properly inundation of PMF. We recalibrate parameters controlled inundation on those areas for the worst scenario. Calculated PMF values drop down tramendosly after recalibration.

Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Raj, Mojca Å.

2010-05-01

357

Flood monitoring network in southeastern Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A flood monitoring network has been established to alert emergency operations personnel and the public about hydrologic conditions in the Amite River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Louisiana Office of Emergency Preparedness (LOEP), has installed a real-time data acquisition system to monitor rainfall and river stages in the basin. These data will be transmitted for use by emergency operations personnel to develop flood control and evacuation strategies. The current river stages at selected gaging stations in the basin also will be broadcast by local television and radio stations during a flood. Residents can record the changing river stages on a basin monitoring map, similar to a hurricane tracking map.

McCallum, Brian, E.

1994-01-01

358

A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

2014-02-01

359

Local flood hazards assessed from channel morphometry along the Tisza River in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale flood-control project (the so-called Amended Vásárhelyi Plan) is being implemented along the Hungarian section of the Tisza River. A detailed assessment of the flood hazards along various reaches of the river is needed. In addition to hydrological, sedimentological and geoecological investigations, the contributions from geomorphologists may also be of significance for the estimation of the flood hazard through — the identification of floodplain sections under the strongest human impact; — revealing the extent of modification of channel parameters by channelization; — surveying channel adjustment tendencies; — assisting the allocation of the planned flood reservoirs. Although floods heavily affected the Tisza system even before channelization, a fundamental assumption of the paper is that the restabilization of the low-gradient meandering river channel exerts a beneficial influence on water and sediment transport and reduces the flood hazard. Relationships between flood hazards and channel morphometry (meander belt width and sinuosity) are sought section by section to be employed in flood-control (primarily flood-reservoir) planning. The confinement of the channel, expressed by the distance between dykes is found to be a decisive parameter and has to be taken into account in flood-control strategies, while the interpretation of sinuosity is more complicated. Although no morphometric study in itself is sufficient to comprehensively characterize flood hazards, a morphometric index may significantly contribute to the hydrological assessment of the development and passage of flood waves.

Lóczy, Dénes; Kis, Éva; Schweitzer, Ferenc

2009-12-01

360

78 FR 14318 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

2013-03-05

361

78 FR 43905 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

2013-07-22

362

78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

2013-08-27

363

78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

2013-02-08

364

78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

2013-07-30

365

78 FR 20338 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

2013-04-04

366

78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in the......

2013-04-04

367

Coastal Floods: Urban Planning as a Resilience System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite some research efforts can be found across the literature, FRe system (Flood resilient system) is still a vaguely defined concept. Therefore, a comprehensive presentation of existing FRe systems would provide valuable contribution in order to illuminate objects laying behind this term. A systematical literature review scanning existing FRe objects will submerge us in a melting pot involving an extremely wide and heterogeneous range of elements like land planning, opening barriers, river channeling, rain forecasting… Carrying out an analyze of the resulting matter and focusing on the nature and spatial range of application of each element, a FRe objects comprehensive typology will be sorted out, leading into the end to a better understanding of the ways human societies can improve their resilience against floods. Coastal areas have been characterized by an urban expansion due mainly to the increase and displacement of the population, being this process highly increasing during the last century. On the other hand, climate has been changing leading to the increase of coastal floods, through both sea level rise and several meteorological phenomena accentuation. And also, other longer term local/regional coastal changes, most occasionally favoring floods, interfere leading to more frequent and intense flood risks and damages. As "living with floods" became an objective in many coastal cities, the previous clas-sification will be put into practice focusing on one particular FRe system scale: Urban Flood Resilience. This resilience can be achieved by means of planning procedures and building infrastructures, but in many cases these measures cannot be enough, having to be complemented with different technologies and systems. With suitable applications, Flood Resilience Systems substantially reduce damages, costs and health impacts associated with flood hazards. The importance of the urban planning as a Flood Resilience System in coastal areas will be analyzed in the research project FP7 - SMARTEST by means of different cases study: cold drop floods (Valencia 1776, 1957 and 1982; and Murcia, 1879 and 1997), hurricanes on Caribbean and western North-Atlantic areas, or to typhoons.

Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Esteban, M. D.; Monnot, J. V.; López Gutiérrez, J. S.; Negro Valdecantos, V.; Calderón, E. J.; Márquez Paniagua, P.; Silvestre, J. M.

2012-04-01

368

Water Scarcity in the Northeast Corridor During the Nineteenth Century and its Correlation to Infrastructure Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is an essential component in the successful development and economic growth within a region. Throughout recorded history, civilizations have been modifying and controlling local environments in the pursuit of maximizing water benefits. These efforts include the creation of large waterworks to reduce the uncertainties caused by adverse climatic circumstances such as droughts or floodings as well as supporting local economies. In this study, we contend that the development of water infrastructure in the Northeastern Corridor of the United States was a direct result of the degree of water scarcity within that particular region. In order to test this hypothesis, we have applied various water scarcity metrics to local historical data for cities including Boston, Philadelphia, and New York in order to characterize interactions between water scarcity and water infrastructure development. These metrics are based upon the ratio of consumer water demand to water supply. Our preliminary results show that a correlation does exist. Additionally, we explore how the water footprint of these cities evolved through time and how they impacted the demand for water. We expect that technological advancement allowed the ‘water footprint’ to expand into the Midwest U.S. and eventually the entire globe, allowing the Eastern Seaboard megalopolis to thrive. The history and development of water related infrastructure in this region could serve as an example allowing us to understand the relationship between humans and hydrologic systems. We contend that sustainability lessons from the past can be applied to developing countries or developing urban areas with the expectation of minimizing or avoiding the variety of mistakes that occurred in already developed regions, thus reducing the negative effects on populations and the environment.

Munoz Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.; Adams, L. E.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Green, M. B.; Huang, M.; Wilson, J.; Wollheim, W. M.

2009-12-01

369

Wireless intelligent network: infrastructure before services?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriers' deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. This paper points out WIN characteristics in architecture, flexibility, deployment, and value to customers. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN will contain elements that are foreign to the wireline network. The deployment process is expected to seed with the revenue generated services. Standardization will be achieved by simplifying and incorporating the IS-41C, AIN, and Intelligent Network CS-1 recommendations. Integration of the existing and future systems impose the biggest challenge of all. Service creation has to be complemented with service deployment process which heavily impact the carriers' infrastructure. WIN deployment will likely start from an Intelligent Peripheral, a Service Control Point and migrate to a Service Node when sufficient triggers are implemented in the mobile switch for distributed call control. The struggle to move forward will not be based on technology, but rather on the impact to existing infrastructure.

Chu, Narisa N.

1996-01-01

370

Ten pattern steam flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of 5 yr operation of the Ten Pattern Steam Flood in the Kern River field, California. The project consists of 10 inverted 7-spot injection patterns with 32 producing wells covering 61 acres. Steam injection is confined to a 70-ft sand. Extensive data have been taken, including several hundred temperature profiles from 14 observation wells, several

T. R. Blevins; R. H. Billingslev

1975-01-01

371

SHIP VULNERABILITY TO FLOODING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of a safe ship is by far the most fundamental goal of a naval architect. Determination of what is safe, however, has been the subject of centuries-long and relentless endeavours by the profession as well as relevant lobbies representing diverse interests and public concerns. Flooding of ship void spaces and thus possibly rapid depletion of the physical basis providing

Andrzej Jasionowski; Dracos Vassalos; Strathclyde Andrew Scott

372

Flood Recurrence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity has students use stream discharge data obtained from the USGS Water Resources Division web site in order to calculate recurrence intervals for a local stream. Using the recurrence data generated, the students then make recommendations to the residents of a local town as to what they might do to reduce their loss from the effects of frequent flooding in their community.

Emerson, Norlene

373

New equation for flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains how the flooding point in packed columns can be solved explicitly for either the gas flow rate or the liquid flow rate, depending upon the given application. The traditional trial-and-error procedure is avoided by using the new equation, as shown by a brief example. Presented equation was obtained from a regression analysis of 16 points taken from

H. C. Ward; J. T. Sommerfeld

1982-01-01

374

Hydrologic Flood Routing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

Heggen, Richard J.

1982-01-01

375

After the Flood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

Stanistreet, Paul

2007-01-01

376

Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.

Kreibich, H.; Piroth, K.; Seifert, I.; Maiwald, H.; Kunert, U.; Schwarz, J.; Merz, B.; Thieken, A. H.

2009-10-01

377

Korea Joins International Computing Infrastructure  

NSF Publications Database

... new connections is Korea's Molecular Simulation Grid (MGrid), a component of the National Science ... Grid Middleware Assembly project (PRAGMA), which uses GLORIAD's network infrastructure to create an ...

378

Michigan E85 Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced regional GHG emissions by 375 tons in the first year of station deployment.

Sandstrom, Matthew M.

2012-03-30

379

Floods of November 12, 1974 in the Charlotte Amalie area, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flood on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, of November 12, 1974, was the largest recorded flood in the area from Fort Christian through Charlotte Amalie and Frenchtown to the end of Crown Bay. This flood has a recurrence interval of about 60 years. With the exception of a few narrow beaches, very little flooding occurred outside of the Charlotte Amalie area. The flood boundaries are controlled to a large extent by the prevailing channel and flood-plain conditions. Inundation from future floods may be affected by changes in channel conditions, alteration of waterway openings at roads, changes in runoff characteristics of the stream caused by increased urbanization, and other cultural developments. The areas inundated by the 1974 flood are shown on 2 maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Haire, W. J.; Johnson, K. G.

1977-01-01

380

Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed; what can we conclude and what is the way forward? • The project has evaluated relevant existing interoperable infrastructures revealing a typology of infrastructures that may be useful models for the EGDI; • Planning for the EGDI also need to be integrated with other relevant international initiatives and programs such as GMES, GEO and EPOS, and with legally binding regulations like INSPIRE. The outcomes of these relevant evaluations and activities will contribute to the implementation plan for the EGDI including the prioritization of relevant datasets and the most important functional, technical (design, use of standards), legal and organizational requirements.

van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

2013-04-01

381

Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. Objective The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension) between flood affected and non-affected households. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected) from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. Results The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. Conclusions For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding), flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis.

Bich, Tran Huu; Quang, La Ngoc; Thanh Ha, Le Thi; Duc Hanh, Tran Thi; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2011-01-01

382

Data expansion: the potential of grey literature for understanding floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sophisticated methods have been developed and become standard in analysing floods as well as for assessing flood risk. However, increasingly critique of the current standards and scientific practice can be found both in the flood hydrology community as well as in the risk community who argue that the considerable amount of information already available on natural disasters has not been adequately deployed and brought to effective use. We describe this phenomenon as a failure to synthesize knowledge that results from barriers and ignorance in awareness, use and management of the entire spectrum of relevant content, that is, data, information and knowledge. In this paper we argue that the scientific community in flood risk research ignores event-specific analysis and documentations as another source of data. We present results from a systematic search that includes an intensive study on sources and ways of information dissemination of flood-relevant publications. We obtain 186 documents that contain information on the sources, pathways, receptors and/or consequences for any of the 40 strongest trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. This study therefore provides the most comprehensive metadata collection of flood documentations for the considered geographical space and period. A total of 87.5% of all events have been documented, and especially the most severe floods have received extensive coverage. Only 30% of the material has been produced in the scientific/academic environment, and the majority of all documents (about 80%) can be considered grey literature (i.e. literature not controlled by commercial publishers). Therefore, ignoring grey sources in flood research also means ignoring the largest part of knowledge available on single flood events (in Germany). Further, the results of this study underpin the rapid changes in information dissemination of flood event literature over the last decade. We discuss the options and obstacles of incorporating this data into the knowledge-building process in light of the current technological developments and international, interdisciplinary debates for data curation.

Uhlemann, S.; Bertelmann, R.; Merz, B.

2013-03-01

383

Infrastructure web: distributed monitoring and managing critical infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

National-scale critical infrastructure protection depends on many processes: intelligence gathering, analysis, interdiction, detection, response and recovery, to name a few. These processes are typically carried out by different individuals, agencies and industry sectors. Many new threats to national infrastructure are arising from the complex couplings that exist between advanced information technologies (telecommunications and internet), physical components (utilities), human services (health,

Guofei Jiang; George Cybenko; Dennis McGrath

2001-01-01

384

Cislunar space infrastructure: Lunar technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing its emphasis on the creation of a cisluar infrastructure as an appropriate and cost-effective method of space exploration and development, the University of Colorado explores the technologies necessary for the creation of such an infrastructure, namely (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologes. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by automation and robotics (LOARS). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics have been extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a 'buddy system', these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of lunar resources and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar Environmentally Controlled Life Support System. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the lunar surface. Physiochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and reconfiguration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously initiated, manned Lunar Oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program. The Lunar Oasis will provide support to science, technology, and commerce. It will enable more cost-effective space exploration to the planets and beyond.

Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

1989-01-01

385

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

...8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain...signatory parties to control modification of the Susquehanna River and its tributaries by encroachment. (2) Plan and...

2014-04-01

386

Coastal Flooding of Jakarta (Indonesia): Causes and Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and large coastal city located in the northern coast of Java island, with a population of about 9.6 million. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. Coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. In general, based on the Levelling, GPS surveys, and InSAR surveys, conducted since 1982 up to 2011, it is obtained that land subsidence in Jakarta exhibits spatial and temporal variations, with the rates of about 1 to 15 cm/year, and a few locations can have the subsidence rates up to about 20-25 cm/year. Largest subsidence occurred at several areas along the coast. This subsidence is mainly due to natural consolidation of alluvial, excessive groundwater extraction, and load of constructions. During the high tide periods, these subsiding areas used to experience flooding. The sea level rise phenomena in Java sea and high sedimentation rates in 13 rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta have worsen this coastal flooding phenomenon of Jakarta. Based on the linear-term of sea level change for period of 1993 to 2009 as derived from satellite altimetry data, the sea level rise around Jakarta coastal area is about 4-5 mm/year.The impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta are numerous and resulted economic losses are quite significant. Besides causing coastal erosion, the frequent and severe coastal flooding is deteriorating the function of building and infrastructures and decreasing the quality of living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition) in the affected areas. This paper analyzes and discusses the causes and impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta, and proposes the potential mechanism to overcome the problems.

Abidin, H. Z.; Hadi, S.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Nurmaulia, S. L.; Fukuda, Y.

2012-04-01

387

A process flood typology along an Alpine transect: analysis based on observations and modelling approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of climate changes on river floods requires a better understanding of the control of climate variability on flood regimes. The aim of this work is to identify the process types of causative mechanisms of floods along a longitudinal Alpine transect spanning 200 km from Verona in Italy to lower Germany. The investigation is focused on the analysis of the statistical properties of the various flood typologies, their spatial organization and their relation with the topography of the transect. Along the transect, 34 basins were selected following criteria of basin size (between 50 and 500 km2), amount of hydrometeorological data available and impact of hydraulic structures on runoff regime. Around 20 years of hourly data of discharge, precipitation and temperature were collected for each basin. The three most intense floods occurred each year are considered in the work. Precipitation and temperature follow a sharp gradient across the transect, with both precipitation and temperature low around the main alpine ridge. Four flood types are considered: long-rain floods, flash floods, rain-on-snow floods, and snowmelt floods. For the classification we use a combination of a number of process indicators, including the timing of the floods, storm duration, rainfall depths, snowmelt contribution to runoff, initial catchment state and runoff response dynamics, using a procedure similar to what described in Merz and Blöschl (2003). The indicators for flood classification are derived based on either observed discharge data and model results. Comparison between the two derived flood classifications allows one to analyse the viability of using a model approach to build flood typologies in basins characterized by varying data availability. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by imposing step changes to the precipitation and temperature pattern. The resulting distribution of flood types gives an insight on the possible change in floods distribution as a result to a change in climate properties. Merz, R. and G. Bloschl (2003). A process typology of regional floods. Water Resources Research 39(12): 1340.

Zoccatelli, Davide; Parajka, Juraj; Gaál, Ladislav; Blöschl, Günter; Borga, Marco

2014-05-01

388

Infrastructure web: distributed monitoring and managing critical infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National-scale critical infrastructure protection depends on many processes: intelligence gathering, analysis, interdiction, detection, response and recovery, to name a few. These processes are typically carried out by different individuals, agencies and industry sectors. Many new threats to national infrastructure are arising from the complex couplings that exist between advanced information technologies (telecommunications and internet), physical components (utilities), human services (health, law enforcement, emergency management) and commerce (financial services, logistics). Those threats arise and evolve at a rate governed by human intelligence and innovation, on `internet time' so to speak. The processes for infrastructure protection must operate on the same time scale to be effective. To achieve this, a new approach to integrating, coordinating and managing infrastructure protection must be deployed. To this end, we have designed an underlying web-like architecture that will serve as a platform for the decentralized monitoring and management of national critical infrastructures.

Jiang, Guofei; Cybenko, George; McGrath, Dennis

2001-02-01

389

Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Su?any village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Tren?ín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Ba?ová Mitková, Veronika

2014-05-01

390

Applications of ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS) in the Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site (ARETS). [water management, streamflow rates, flood control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The DCS water-stage data from the USGS streamflow gaging station on the Verde River near Camp Verde furnished information sufficient for the accurate computation of daily mean streamflow rates during the first 2 months of operation. Daily mean flow rates computed from the DCS data agreed with those computed from the digital recorder data within + or - 5% during periods of stable or slowly changing flow and within + or - 10% during periods of rapidly changing high flow. The SRP was furnished near-real time DCS information on snow moisture content and streamflow rates for use in the management and operation of the multiple-use reservoir system. The SRP, by prudent water management and the use of near-real time hydrologic data furnished by microwave and ERTS DCS telemetry, was successful in anticipating the amount of flow into the Salt and Verde Rivers and in the subsequent release of water at rates that did not create flooding in metropolitan Phoenix. Only minor flooding occurred along the Gila River west of Phoenix. According to the Maricopa County Civil Defense agency, wage and salary losses of about $11,400,000 resulted from closing of roads across the Salt River in the winter and spring of 1972-73; however, the number and duration of the closing were minimized by use of DCS data.

Schumann, H. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

391

Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Schwarze, R.; Thieken, A.

2010-08-01

392

Conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to recommend a rapid conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) used to control runoff in a temperate climate. An SFRB is an aesthetically pleasing retention basin predominantly used for flood protection adhering to sustainable drainage and best management practices. The classification model was developed on the basis of a database of 141 SFRB using the River Rhine catchment in Baden (part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany) as a case study. It is based on an agglomerative cluster analysis and is intended to be used by engineers and scientists to adequately classify the following different types of SFRB: Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin, Traditional Flood Retention Basin, Sustainable Flood Retention Wetland, Aesthetic Flood Retention Wetland, Integrated Flood Retention Wetland and Natural Flood Retention Wetland. The selection of classification variables was supported by a principal component analysis. The identification of SFRB in the data set was based on a Ward cluster analysis of 34 weighted classification variables. Scoring tables were defined to enable the assignment of the six SFRB definitions to retention basins in the data set. The efficiency of these tables was based on a scoring system which gave the conceptual model for the example case study sites an overall efficiency of approximately 60% (as opposed to 17% by chance). This conceptual classification model should be utilized to improve communication by providing definitions for SFRB types. The classification definitions are likely to be applicable for other regions with both temperate oceanic and temperate continental climates. PMID:18280029

Scholz, Miklas; Sadowski, Adam J

2009-01-01

393

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-08-01

394

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-04-01

395

Internet infrastructure security: a taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive and ubiquitous nature of the Internet coupled with growing concerns about cyber terrorism demand immediate solutions for securing the Internet infrastructure. So far, the research in Internet security primarily focused on. securing the information rather than securing the infrastructure itself. Given the prevailing threat situation, there is a compelling need to develop architectures, algorithms, and protocols to realize

Anirban Chakrabarti; G. Manimaran

2002-01-01

396

The infrastructure problem in HCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

HCI endeavors to create human-centered computer systems, but underlying technological infrastructures often stymie these efforts. We outline three specific classes of user experience difficulties caused by underlying technical infrastructures, which we term constrained possibilities, unmediated interaction, and interjected abstractions. We explore how prior approaches in HCI have addressed these issues, and discuss new approaches that will be required for future

W. Keith Edwards; Mark W. Newman; Erika Shehan Poole

2010-01-01

397

A theory of infrastructure provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey of research in the area of infrastructure provision. A body of research from regional development, development economics, and regional systems of innovation has embraced questions of regional innovation as a topic of study. This literature, as of yet, has not examined the character of infrastructure provisioning, preferring instead to focus on the social and economic

S. W. Cunningham; J. H. Kwakkel

2009-01-01

398

Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

Moseley-Braun, Carol

1997-01-01

399

Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

400

Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

2000-03-20

401

Data Updating Methods for Spatial Data Infrastructure that Maintain Infrastructure Quality and Enable its Sustainable Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese government, local governments and businesses are working closely together to establish spatial data infrastructures in accordance with the Basic Act on the Advancement of Utilizing Geospatial Information (NSDI Act established in August 2007). Spatial data infrastructures are urgently required not only to accelerate computerization of the public administration, but also to help restoration and reconstruction of the areas struck by the East Japan Great Earthquake and future disaster prevention and reduction. For construction of a spatial data infrastructure, various guidelines have been formulated. But after an infrastructure is constructed, there is a problem of maintaining it. In one case, an organization updates its spatial data only once every several years because of budget problems. Departments and sections update the data on their own without careful consideration. That upsets the quality control of the entire data system and the system loses integrity, which is crucial to a spatial data infrastructure. To ensure quality, ideally, it is desirable to update data of the entire area every year. But, that is virtually impossible, considering the recent budget crunch. The method we suggest is to update spatial data items of higher importance only in order to maintain quality, not updating all the items across the board. We have explored a method of partially updating the data of these two geographical features while ensuring the accuracy of locations. Using this method, data on roads and buildings that greatly change with time can be updated almost in real time or at least within a year. The method will help increase the availability of a spatial data infrastructure. We have conducted an experiment on the spatial data infrastructure of a municipality using those data. As a result, we have found that it is possible to update data of both features almost in real time.

Murakami, S.; Takemoto, T.; Ito, Y.

2012-07-01

402

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

403

Cyber Security Infrastructure in India: A Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Need for cyber security infrastructure to protect the evolving ICT infrastructure in modern information society does not need any emphasis. ICT infrastructure is the thread through which all critical national infrastructures are woven together. Existence of a trustworthy cyber security infrastructure is a precondition for all E-governance and E- commerce initiatives being taken world over. Attempt is being made in

M M Chaturvedi; MP Gupta; Jaijit Bhattacharya

404

Cerberus Flood Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

16 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined landforms carved by catastrophic floods that occurred in the eastern Cerberus region, some time in the distant martian past.

Location near: 15.1oN, 193.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

2005-01-01

405

Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

2013-09-01

406

The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow conditions, by providing base flows during drought conditions. Ongoing research using hydrological datasets aims to assess how these features function during low flow conditions and how storage ponds could be used as irrigation ponds in arable areas. To allow for effective implementation and upkeep of NFM measures on the ground, demonstration sites have been developed through a process of iterative stakeholder engagement. Coupled with the use of novel visualisation techniques, results are currently being communicated to a wider community of local landowners and catchment managers. The approach of using networks of interception bunds and offline storage areas in the rural landscape could potentially provide a cost effective means to reduce flood risk in small responsive catchments across Europe. As such it could provide an alternative or addition to traditional engineering techniques, while also effectively managing catchments to achieve multiple environmental objectives.

Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

2014-05-01

407

Technology tames midwest floods  

SciTech Connect

Millions glued to television sets across the nation watched as record breaking floods on the giant Missouri and Mississippi rivers rampaged through the Midwest. The summer saw heavy, unprecedented storms, pelting unrelenting rainfall on Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Illinois, and Missouri. During June and July heavy rains fell 39 out of 54 days. Tributary reservoirs in Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa filled. Tens of thousands of volunteers worked round the clock piling sandbags into makeshift levees. The Missouri and Mississippi, sometimes destroying and washing away everything in their paths, crested at all time highs. The same satellite transmitting technology that let television viewers see storm fronts moving across the Midwest creating the disaster is also responsible for saving untold lives and mitigating flood losses estimated at more than $6 billion in the Missouri River Basin alone. A network of hundreds of automated Satellite Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) interfaced with self-reporting gauges, used to measure such crucial data as rainfall and river levels, to provide fast, reliable realtime weather and flood data.

Not Available

1993-12-01

408

Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern WWTPs can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using systems thinking. As modern society becomes increasingly complex and interdependent this approach

Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

2012-01-01