Sample records for flood control infrastructure

  1. FLOOD! Engineered Flood Controls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a variety of offerings for a unit on flood engineering controls including background information, outside resources and three learning activities." A number of activities are included which would be useful for environmental engineering students. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

  2. FLOOD! Natural Flood Controls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a set of activities that ask students to investigate the characteristics of drainage basins of rivers in order to understand the relationships between landscape and the movement of water across the landscape surface." Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

  3. Flood enhancement through flood control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, Robert E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2001-10-01

    Flood stages for constant discharge have increased 2 4 m over the past century at numerous locations in the Mississippi River basin. However, no increases are observed on rivers such as the Meramec and the upper Missouri, which have been spared extensive river engineering projects. Flood-stage increases on the middle Mississippi River and lower Missouri River are mostly attributable to channelization.

  4. TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT,

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA DRAFT GENERAL REEVALUATION REPORT May 2013 #12;#12;Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project, Nevada Draft General Reevaluation Report May 2013 Prepared by U Meadows Flood Control Project, Nevada 5/15/2013 Draft General Reevaluation Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  5. Controls on flood and sediment wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Maarten; Lane, Stuart N.; Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of flood wave propagation - celerity and transformation - through a fluvial system is of generic importance for flood forecasting/mitigation. In association with flood wave propagation, sediment wave propagation may induce local erosion and sedimentation, which will affect infrastructure and riparian natural habitats. Through analysing flood and sediment wave propagation, we gain insight in temporal changes in transport capacity (the flood wave) and sediment availability and transport (the sediment wave) along the river channel. Heidel (1956) was amongst the first to discuss the progressive lag of sediment concentration behind the corresponding flood wave based on field measurements. Since then this type of hysteresis has been characterized in a number of studies, but these were often based on limited amount of floods and measurement sites, giving insufficient insight into associated forcing mechanisms. Here, as part of a project concerned with the hydrological and geomorphic forcing of sediment transfer processes in alpine environments, we model the downstream propagation of short duration, high frequency releases of water and sediment (purges) from a flow intake in the Borgne d'Arolla River in south-west Switzerland. A total of >50 events were measured at 1 minute time intervals using pressure transducers and turbidity probes at a number of sites along the river. We show that flood and sediment wave propagation can be well represented through simple convection diffusion models. The models are calibrated/validated to describe the set of measured waves and used to explain the observed variation in wave celerity and diffusion. In addition we explore the effects of controlling factors including initial flow depth, flood height, flood duration, bed roughness, bed slope and initial sediment concentration, on the wave propagation processes. We show that the effects of forcing mechanisms on flood and sediment wave propagation will lead to different temporal and spatial erosion and deposition patterns. Knowledge of these forcing mechanisms and flood and sediment wave propagation in general can be applied in flow management and infrastructural/ecological development along the river. Heidel, S. G. (1956). "The progressive lag of sediment concentration with flood waves." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 37(1): 56-66.

  6. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood risk equation, which is often the most controllable but disregarded element of flood risk management. In addition, results lead to a hypothesized matrix of appropriate flood management strategies for the types of flood events that occur in the hydrogeology and cultural settings of high mountain areas and the lowlands to which they drain.

  7. Chapter 15 Flood Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lake Shasta; Sly Creek Reservoirs; Lake Oroville; French Meadows; Hell Hole Reservoirs; Folsom Lake; Lake McClure; Feather Sacramento; Ñ Export; Anderson Reservoir; Lake Perris; Castaic Lake; Diamond Valley Lake; California Aqueduct

    Floods can be very damaging and costly. In order to lessen the effects, numerous practices aim to reduce flood damages. The construction of levees, dams, and reservoirs are common methods of flood damage reduction in California. Levees confine the water flows within a channel. The integrity of a levee and its maximum design flow capacity, dictate the extent of a

  8. Effectiveness of Water Infrastructure for River Flood Management: Part 2 - Flood Risk Assessment and Its Changes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Gusyev, M.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Khairul, I.; Iwami, Y.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    A case study of Bangladesh presents a methodological possibility based on a global approach for assessing river flood risk and its changes considering flood hazard, exposure, basic vulnerability and coping capacity. This study consists of two parts in the issue of flood change: hazard assessment (Part 1) and risk assessment (Part 2). In Part 1, a hazard modeling technology was introduced and applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basin to quantify the change of 50- and 100-year flood hazards in Bangladesh under the present (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climates. Part 2 focuses on estimating nationwide flood risk in terms of affected people and rice crop damage due to a 50-year flood hazard identified in Part 1, and quantifying flood risk changes between the presence and absence of existing water infrastructure (i.e., embankments). To assess flood risk in terms of rice crop damage, rice paddy fields were extracted and flood stage-damage curves were created for maximum risk scenarios as a demonstration of risk change in the present and future climates. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a tendency of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability such as distributed population and effectiveness of water infrastructure, which suggests that the proposed methodology is applicable anywhere in the world.

  9. Climatic controls on the flood frequency distribution

    E-print Network

    Poggi, Davide

    of the index-flood approach the use of climatic information suggests objective criteria for aggregation not obscured the well known `index flood' method (NERC, 1975), which defines areas with homogeneous (iClimatic controls on the flood frequency distribution V. IACOBELLIS a , P. CLAPS b & M. FIORENTINO

  10. Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ... from Centers for Disease Control Alert: Boil Drinking Water If your water may not be safe, bring ...

  11. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet & Infrastructure Analysis

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    of infrastructure needs based upon various assumptions (extension of GM work) * Conducted literature search on infrastructure activities * Identified most traveled interstate...

  12. Sandbar growth Grand Canyon following controlled flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Picture showing the increased size of the sandbar after the November 2012 controlled flood from the Glen Canyon Dam. This location is 65 miles downstream from Lees Ferry and the view is looking downstream. These and additional photographs depicting the results of the recent controlled floods can be ...

  13. Estimating flood damage to railway infrastructure - the case study of the March River flood in 2006 at the Austrian Northern Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Patric; Schöbel, Andreas; Kundela, Günther; Thieken, Annegret

    2015-04-01

    Models for estimating flood losses to infrastructure are rare and their reliability is seldom investigated although infrastructure losses might contribute considerably to the overall flood losses. In this case study, a statistical modelling approach for estimating direct structural flood damage to railway infrastructure and associated financial losses was developed. Via a combination of empirical data, i.e. photo-documented damage on the Northern Railway in Lower Austria caused by the March river flood in 2006, and simulated flood characteristics, i.e. water levels, flow velocities and combinations thereof, the correlations between physical flood impact parameters and damage occurred to infrastructure were investigated and subsequently rendered into a damage model. After calibrating the loss estimation using recorded repair costs of the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB), the model was applied to three synthetic scenarios with return periods of 30, 100 and 300 years of March river flooding. Finally, the model results were compared to depth-damage curves for the infrastructure sector obtained from literature. In this contribution, the methodology, results and evaluations for the developed flood damage model will be presented and initial conclusions for flood loss estimation to railway transportation will be drawn. This case study is part of the ENHANCE-project, funded by the 7th EU Framework Programme.

  14. How do local stakeholders respond to the uncertain implications of an innovative flood infrastructure project?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoek, Ronald; Brugnach, Marcela; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2013-04-01

    In the 20th century, flood management was dominated by rigid structures - such as dikes and dams - which intend to strictly regulate and control water systems. Although the application of these rigid structures has been successful in the recent past, their negative implications for ecosystems and natural processes is often not properly taken into account. Therefore, flood management practices are currently moving towards more nature-inclusive approaches. Building with Nature (BwN) is such a new approach of nature-inclusive flood management in the Netherlands, which aims to utilize natural dynamics (e.g., wind and currents) and natural materials (e.g., sediment and vegetation) for the realization of effective flood infrastructure, while providing opportunities for nature development. However, the natural dynamics driving a project based on BwN design principles are inherently unpredictable. Furthermore, our factual knowledge base regarding the socio-ecological system in which the BwN initiative is implemented is incomplete. Moreover, in recent years, it is increasingly aimed for by decision-makers to involve local stakeholders in the development of promising flood management initiatives. These stakeholders and other actors involved can have diverging views regarding the project, can perceive unanticipated implications and could choose unforeseen action paths. In short, while a project based on BwN design principles - like any human intervention - definitely has implications for the socio-ecological system, both the extent to which these particular implications will occur and the response of stakeholders are highly uncertain. In this paper, we study the Safety Buffer Oyster Dam case - a BwN pilot project - and address the interplay between the project's implications, the uncertainties regarding these implications and the action paths chosen by the local stakeholders and project team. We determine how the implications of the Safety Buffer project are viewed by local stakeholders, identify the frames and uncertainties related to these implications, and classify these uncertainties according to their nature and level. We describe which action paths are chosen by the local stakeholders and project team regarding the implications identified. Our research shows that there is a correspondence between the level of uncertainty about the implications identified and the action paths chosen by the actors involved. This suggests that the inherent deep uncertainty in projects based on BwN principles calls for more adaptable and flexible strategies to cope with the implications of these initiatives.

  15. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

  16. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

  17. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  18. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  19. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  20. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  1. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  2. A Cloud-Based Global Flood Disaster Community Cyber-Infrastructure: Development and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhanming; Hong, Yang; Khan, Sadiq; Gourley, Jonathan; Flamig, Zachary; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Flood disasters have significant impacts on the development of communities globally. This study describes a public cloud-based flood cyber-infrastructure (CyberFlood) that collects, organizes, visualizes, and manages several global flood databases for authorities and the public in real-time, providing location-based eventful visualization as well as statistical analysis and graphing capabilities. In order to expand and update the existing flood inventory, a crowdsourcing data collection methodology is employed for the public with smartphones or Internet to report new flood events, which is also intended to engage citizen-scientists so that they may become motivated and educated about the latest developments in satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling technologies. Our shared vision is to better serve the global water community with comprehensive flood information, aided by the state-of-the- art cloud computing and crowdsourcing technology. The CyberFlood presents an opportunity to eventually modernize the existing paradigm used to collect, manage, analyze, and visualize water-related disasters.

  3. Flood control in East Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Eusufzai, Mohammad Hossain Sekandar Hayat Khan

    1956-01-01

    the valley floor. The coarser elements were deposited by the great outwashes i'rom the melting glaciers in the Himalayan Nountain Range where the major rivers have their sources. Subsequent great and seasonal floods passing down the rivers, as they have... functions. They now serve simply as part of the overflow flood reservoirs. The Brahma utra: Originating from the glaciers of the northernmost chain of the Himalayas in southern Tibet, the Brahmaputra flows through the mountains i. n Tibet, through Assam...

  4. Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

    2012-12-15

    The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

  5. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  6. Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

    The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

  7. Extending command and control infrastructures to cyber warfare assets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Erbacher

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to identify a framework for the integration of cyber command and control within the classical command and control infrastructure. The advent of cyber resources and military capabilities, as well as additional cyber information, requires that command and control infrastructures be updated to incorporate such cyber infrastructures. While much of these infrastructures will operate in

  8. Extending command and control infrastructures to cyber warfare assets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Erbacher

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to identify a framework for the integration of cyber command and control within the classical command and control infrastructure. The advent of cyber resources and military capabilities, as well as additional cyber information, requires that command and control infrastructures be updated to incorporate such cyber infrastructures. While much of these infrastructures operate in isolation

  9. TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA 17 December 2013

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA 17 December 2013 ABSTRACT: The Truckee Meadows Flood economically infeasible. In 1996, local communities requested that flooding problems in Truckee Meadows-sensitive, and technically feasible flood risk management and related recreation for the Cities of Reno and Sparks, Nevada

  10. Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada

  11. Intelligence in Transportation Infrastructures via Model-Based Predictive Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Negenborn; H. Hellendoorn

    \\u000a In this chapter we discuss similarities and differences between transportation infrastructures like power, road traffic, and\\u000a water infrastructures, and present such infrastructures in a generic framework. We discuss from a generic point of view what\\u000a type of control structures can be used to control such generic infrastructures, and explain what in particular makes intelligent infrastructures intelligent. We hereby especially focus

  12. DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India ROHAN D on the colonial environmental watershed and its hydraulic legacy. It also questions the enthusiasm for flood and practice of flood control in order to anchor their presence in the Orissa Delta. It was principally

  13. Attenuation of Storm Surge Flooding By Wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay: An Integrated Geospatial Framework Evaluating Impacts to Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.; Ferreira, C.

    2014-12-01

    Areas along the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are extremely vulnerable to hurricane flooding, as evidenced by the costly effects and severe impacts of recent storms along the Virginia coast, such as Hurricane Isabel in 2003 and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Coastal wetlands, in addition to their ecological importance, are expected to mitigate the impact of storm surge by acting as a natural protection against hurricane flooding. Quantifying such interactions helps to provide a sound scientific basis to support planning and decision making. Using storm surge flooding from various historical hurricanes, simulated using a coupled hydrodynamic wave model (ADCIRC-SWAN), we propose an integrated framework yielding a geospatial identification of the capacity of Chesapeake Bay wetlands to protect critical infrastructure. Spatial identification of Chesapeake Bay wetlands is derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP). Inventories of population and critical infrastructure are extracted from US Census block data and FEMA's HAZUS-Multi Hazard geodatabase. Geospatial and statistical analyses are carried out to develop a relationship between wetland land cover, hurricane flooding, population and infrastructure vulnerability. These analyses result in the identification and quantification of populations and infrastructure in flooded areas that lie within a reasonable buffer surrounding the identified wetlands. Our analysis thus produces a spatial perspective on the potential for wetlands to attenuate hurricane flood impacts in critical areas. Statistical analysis will support hypothesis testing to evaluate the benefits of wetlands from a flooding and storm-surge attenuation perspective. Results from geospatial analysis are used to identify where interactions with critical infrastructure are relevant in the Chesapeake Bay.

  14. Flood Prevention of the Demer using Model Predictive Control

    E-print Network

    Flood Prevention of the Demer using Model Predictive Control Toni Barjas Blanco, ,1 Patrick Willems Abstract: In order to prevent flooding of a river system the local water administration of the Demer reduced the damage and frequency of flooding events, simulations have shown that a better usage

  15. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  16. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  17. Flood control of the Demer by using Model Predictive Control Maarten Breckpot a,n

    E-print Network

    Flood control of the Demer by using Model Predictive Control Maarten Breckpot a,n , Oscar Mauricio 2013 Keywords: Model Predictive Control Flood control Kalman filter Open channel flow a b s t r a c t It is shown how Model Predictive Control can be used for flood control of river systems modelled with real

  18. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

  19. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... development can change the natural drainage and create brand new flood risks. That's because new buildings, parking ... the NFIP visit www.FloodSmart.gov . Flood Safety Awareness Week is March 16 to 22, find out ...

  20. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section 239.7... Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control....

  1. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section 239.7... Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control....

  2. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239.7 Section 239.7... Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control....

  3. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

  4. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

  5. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. 239...AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage....

  6. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

  7. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small flood control project authority (Section 205...OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section...

  10. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

  11. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

  13. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

  15. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs...Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on TVA...

  16. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24...DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  17. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

  18. Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General Reevaluation Report Volume I ­ Draft Environmental Impact Statement prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District May 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood

  19. Assessing sedimentation issues within aging of flood-control reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flood control reservoirs designed and built by federal agencies have been extremely effective in reducing the ravages of floods nationwide. Yet some structures are being removed for a variety of reasons, while other structures are aging rapidly and require either rehabilitation or decommissioning. ...

  20. Flood control of rivers with nonlinear model predictive control and moving horizon estimation

    E-print Network

    Flood control of rivers with nonlinear model predictive control and moving horizon estimation control (MPC) in combination with moving horizon estimation (MHE) can more effectively be used for flood into account, it uses the buffer capacity of the available flood basins in a more optimal way. Simulation

  1. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  2. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  3. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modifications to non-Federal flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  4. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  5. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  6. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  7. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 ...DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation...

  8. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  9. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  10. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  11. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  12. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  13. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  14. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  15. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  16. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  17. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  18. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  19. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  20. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  1. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  2. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  3. An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment

    E-print Network

    An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment Seehyun Kim and Edward A. This infrastructure is built on top of the Ptolemy environment. I. Introduction Data ow is a powerful representation through output arcs. As a design en- vironment, Ptolemy supports data ow programming for simulation

  4. An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment Seehyun Kim and Edward A precision is introduced. This infrastructure is built on top of the Ptolemy environment. I. Introduction tokens from input arcs, and emit new tokens through output arcs. As a design en­ vironment, Ptolemy

  5. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits and difficulties that a migration to cloud-based computing philosophies has uncovered when compared to the legacy Mission Control Center architecture. The team consists of system and software engineers with extensive experience with the MCC infrastructure and software currently used to support the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle program (SSP).

  6. Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets Robert F. Erbacher Department of command in order to accommodate such changes. Cyber warfare capabilities have the potential to enormously

  7. Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets Robert F. Erbacher Department and the chain of command in order to accommodate such changes. Cyber warfare capabilities have the potential

  8. Controlled Flooding of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The controlled flood of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon can be monitored in real time on the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Web site. Starting on March 26 and continuing for seven days, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) is releasing approximately 45,000 cubic feet of water per second from Glen Canyon Dam. Line graphs of provisional stream flow data at 15 sites in Arizona are being made available in real time on the Internet via satellite telemetry technology. "This controlled flood will provide an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the usefulness of the real-time network during flooding conditions." Historical stream flow data is also available, as are calculated hydrographs, channel sand data, and detailed fact sheets on the rationale of the study and data collection methods. http://wwwdaztcn.wr.usgs.gov/flood.html

  9. Flood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Flood site is an experiment with a stream table to see what happens during a flood. It was originally a joint project between a 6th grade class and the Bureau of Economic Geography. There are explanations and photographs of the experimental set up and of students and their observation of rivers forming and the creation of a flood. There is also a worksheet for experimental notes and a sheet containing the experimental method and instructions.

  10. The Evolution of the 1936 Flood Control Act

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    The Evolution of the 1936 Flood Control Act Joseph . Arno #12;Other Publications by the Office to the Great L,akes: A History of the U.S. Army COY~S of Engineers and the St. L,awrence Seaway, by William H. Floyd (GPO S/N 008-022-00227-8). ON THE COVER Flooding in Wheezing, West Virginia, March 1936. #12;THE

  11. CP corrosion control of municipal infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Since its introduction in 1824, cathodic protection (CP) technology has developed to become a fundamental tool for preventing corrosion on municipal infrastructure. Potable water storage tanks and piping, prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete structures, bridges, parking structures, underground fuel tanks, and effluent treatment clarifiers now benefit from this technology.

  12. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  13. Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States

    E-print Network

    Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

    geographic extent of the river-levee and floodway-levee system, an innovative approach was developed to conduct a rapid economic assessment of an IBWC flood-control infrastructure failure along the Rio Grande. The estimate of the potential damages (or... / at American Dam El Paso, TX. above / below Rio Conchos Rio Grande City, TX. - - River Floodway - total miles of levee 130 93 15.18 102 340.18 - miles at risk of being overtopped 10 12 1.25 38 61.25 - miles subject to encroachment 60 38 1.25 64 163.25a...

  14. INNOVATIONS IN STREAM RESTORATION AND FLOOD CONTROL DESIGN MEETING FLOOD CAPACITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . The Board of Supervisors of the San Luis Obispo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District formed GOALS ON SAN LUIS OBISPO CREEK1 Wayne Peterson 2 1 Presented at the California Riparian Systems Conference; September 22-24, 1988; Davis, California. 2 City Engineer, City of San Luis Obispo, California

  15. Dependability and Security Metrics in Controlling Infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imre Kocsis; György Csertán; Péter László Pásztor; András Pataricza

    2008-01-01

    Large, distributed IT infrastructures providing business-critical services have to protect themselves against internal and external threats and adapt to changing environmental parameters, as workload. Most widely applied, structural resilience mechanisms use some form of local static redundancy deployed to each critical resource for failover. However, recently both large-scale interconnected distributed systems and virtualization enable on-line structural reconfiguration exploiting a globally

  16. Application of hydrological models for flood forecasting and flood control in India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Havnø, K.; Ammentorp, H. C.; Verwey, A.

    A general mathematical modelling system for real-time flood forecasting and flood control planning is described. The system comprises a lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff model, a hydrodynamic model for river routing, reservoir and flood plain simulation, an updating procedure for real-time operation and a comprehensive data management system. The system is presently applied for real-time forecasting of the two 20 000 km 2 (Yamuna and Damodar) catchments in India as well as for flood control modelling at the same two catchments in India. In another project the system is being established for the entire Bangladesh with a coarse discretization and for the South East Region of Bangladesh with a fine model discretization. The objectives of the modelling application in Bangladesh are to enable predictions of the effects of alternative river regulation structures in terms of changes in water levels, inundations, siltration and salinity. The modelling system has been transferred to the Central Water Commission of India and the Master Plan Organization of Bangladesh in connection with comprehensive training programmes. The models are presently being operated by Indian and Bangladeshi engineers in the two countries.

  17. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while viability of the vehicle requires an expected level of cost, comfort, safety and operation, especially driving range, that consumers require. This presents a classic 'chicken and egg' problem, which Ford believes can be solved with thoughtful implementation plans. The eighteen Ford Focus FCV vehicles that were operated for this demonstration project provided the desired real world experience. Some things worked better than expected. Most notable was the robustness and life of the fuel cell. This is thought to be the result of the full hybrid configuration of the drive system where the battery helps to overcome the performance reduction associated with time related fuel cell degradation. In addition, customer satisfaction surveys indicated that people like the cars and the concept and operated them with little hesitation. Although the demonstrated range of the cars was near 200 miles, operators felt constrained because of the lack of a number of conveniently located fueling stations. Overcoming this major concern requires overcoming a key roadblock, fuel storage, in a manner that permits sufficient quantity of fuel without sacrificing passenger or cargo capability. Fueling infrastructure, on the other hand, has been problematic. Only three of a planned seven stations were opened. The difficulty in obtaining public approval and local government support for hydrogen fuel, based largely on the fear of hydrogen that grew from past disasters and atomic weaponry, has inhibited progress and presents a major roadblock to implementation. In addition the cost of hydrogen production, in any of the methodologies used in this program, does not show a rapid reduction to commercially viable rates. On the positive side of this issue was the demonstrated safety of the fueling station, equipment and process. In the Ford program, there were no reported safety incidents.

  18. Risk of the residents, infrastructure and water bodies by flash floods and sediment transport - assessment for scale of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Bauer, Miroslav; Strouhal, Lud?k; Jáchymová, Barbora; Devátý, Jan; David, Václav; Koudelka, Petr; Do?kal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Pluvial and flash floods, related to massive sediment transport become phenomenon nowadays, under conditions of climate changes. Storm events, related to material damages appear at unexpected places and their effective control is only possible in form of prevention. To apply preventive measures, there have to be defined localities with reasonable reliability, which are endangered by surface runoff and sediment transport produced in the subcatchments, often at agriculturally used landscape. Classification of such localities, concerning of potential damages and magnitude of sediment transport shall be also included within the analyses, to design control measures effectively. Large scale project for whole territory of the Czech Republic (ca 80.000 km2) has therefore been granted b the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, with the aim to define critical points, where interaction between surface runoff connected to massive sediment transport and infrastructure or vulnerable water bodies can occur and to classify them according to potential risk. Advanced GIS routines, based on analyses of land use, soil conditions and morphology had been used to determine the critical points - points, where significant surface runoff occurs and interacts with infrastructure and vulnerable water bodies, based exclusively on the contributing area - flow accumulation. In total, ca 150.000 critical points were determined within the Czech Republic. For each of critical points, its subcatchment had then been analyzed in detail, concerning of soil loss and sediment transport, using simulation model WATEM/SEDEM. The results were used for classification of potential risk of individual critical points, based on mean soil loss within subcatchment, total sediment transport trough the outlet point and subcatchment area. The classification has been done into 5 classes. The boundaries were determined by calibration survey and statistical analysis, performed at three experimental catchments area of 100 km2 each. Concentrated flow trajectory had then been analyzed trough urban areas and potential vulnerability of incident structures has been determined. Total hazard of infrastructure has been classified again into 5 categories for each individual critical point using risk matrix, combining threat and vulnerability features. Generalized control measures (changes in land-use, changes in agrotechnology, diverting linear measures or retention structures) were then introduced into mathematical model WATEM/SEDEM in number of scenarios, to allow effective design of control measures against surface runoff and sediment transport for each individual critical point. Result of the project will be public available by WEB application and shall be useful for government, local decision makers, for planning of development of communities and also optimization of effective design of flash floods control measures. The research has been supported by the research project VG20122015092.

  19. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when a levee is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often ... lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are no guarantees of safety during ...

  20. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  1. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the...Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ]...

  2. BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

  3. Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood control in the Coatesville subbasin would provide an additional 1 to 3 percent reduction. Although flood control in the Modena subbasin would have little effect on reducing the 100-year flood peak, it would provide an additional 5 percent reduction in the peak discharge, for a total reduction of 30 percent, when combined with the three flood controls in the Coatesville subbasin.

  4. Flooding and Flood Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... based on a number of factors: rainfall, river-flow and tidal-surge data, topography, flood-control measures, and changes due to building and development. Flood-hazard maps have been created to show different degrees of ...

  5. Failure of infrastructure embankments induced by flooding and seepage: a neglected source of hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, M.; Lollino, P.

    2011-12-01

    The risk of failure of transportation embankments due to seepage induced by temporary and occasional impoundments taking place on the upstream side as a consequence of exceptional rainfalls is frequently underestimated. These failure events result from a combination of three main factors, i.e. the flooding event, the hydraulic weakness and the geotechnical weakness of the embankment. Based on the case study of a railway embankment in Southern Italy that collapsed in 2005 due to an upstream impoundment that occurred after few hours of a very intense rainfall, the paper describes a methodological approach aimed at assessing hazard of failure of transportation embankments induced by flooding and seepage. In particular, according to hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical studies performed to define the factors affecting the process of the embankment failure, three subsequent activities are proposed: the historical analysis of flood damages at the watershed scale; and the assessment of the upstream peak impoundment based on hydrological analysis and the embankment stability analysis, these latter to be carried out at the site specific scale. The approach here proposed is planned to be further validated and improved by means of the application to other case studies, characterised by different contexts and embankment structures.

  6. Flood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the discoveryschool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on how flooding can occur due to different types of soil and how soils are able to retain rainwater. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  7. Monitoring, control and diagnostics using RFID infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Pleteršek, Anton; Sok, Miha; Trontelj, Janez

    2012-12-01

    This work demonstrates the developed application for disinfection control by the sensing of chemical agents. The objective was to develop an Automatic Disinfectant Tracker (ADT) that would verify the disinfection of the hands of nurses, doctors, staff, patients, and visitors in hospitals within a required time frame. We have successfully investigated the development of hand disinfection control mechanisms and demonstrated two approaches, both based on the wireless Ultra-High-Frequency-based Radio-Frequency Identification (UHF-RFID) technology. The 100 % efficacy of detecting propanol and ethanol concentration was achieved by using the static disinfectant control (SDC-ADT) method. The time domain response provides an accurate determination of their performance in practice simply by measuring the applied disinfectant concentration and the duration of application. The present paper resulted from the measurements of a capacitive chemical sensor fabricated in the Laboratory for Microelectronics, (LMFE) and on measurements, based on a commercially available resistive type of sensor. A graphic user interface (IDS-GUI) is designed to successfully set the logger parameters and display the results. PMID:22438102

  8. River Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

  9. Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing Techniques

    E-print Network

    Do, Hyunsook

    Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing@cse.unl.edu January 18, 2004 Abstract Where the development, understanding, and assessment of software testing infrastructure to support controlled experimentation with software testing and regression testing techniques

  10. Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing Techniques

    E-print Network

    Do, Hyunsook

    Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing@cse.unl.edu April 13, 2005 Abstract Where the development, understanding, and assessment of software testing infrastructure to support controlled experimentation with software testing and regression testing techniques

  11. Development of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System: Historical Perspective

    E-print Network

    Singer, Michael

    to Frequent, Extensive Flooding The Central or Great Valley is comprised of the Sacramento Valley to the northDevelopment of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System: Historical Perspective L. Allan James1 and Michael B. Singer2 Abstract: Natural physical conditions and the politics of flood management

  12. Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Thomas; A. Brown

    1997-01-01

    Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch

  13. Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Thomas; Albert E. Brown

    1998-01-01

    Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country's infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams. Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one

  14. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  15. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  16. 76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `?ao Stream Flood Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S...Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI. This effort is being proposed under Section...CEPOH-PP-C), Building 230, Fort Shafter, HI 96858- 5440. Submit electronic...

  17. Only way to manage a desert: Utah's liability immunity for flood control

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Background material on private suits and county flood control authority, state liability immunity for property damage caused by control measures, and the state engineer's activities focus on the impact of flooding in the Great Salt Lake area. Appropriate management of Utah's water resources is linked to the state's economic future and its immunity for damage caused by flood control activities. The author concludes that the state had no legal obligation to control the Lake's rising level, although the situation made some governmental intervention necessary. Unless the state has immunity, it faces potential liability for any incidental property damage.

  18. Controlled Flooding Search In a Large Network Nicholas B. Chang, Mingyan Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, Mingyan

    strategies where query/search packets are broadcast and propagated in the network until a preset TTL (time flooding search, wireless networks, randomized strategy, best worst-case performance, competitive ratio I1 Controlled Flooding Search In a Large Network Nicholas B. Chang, Mingyan Liu Electrical

  19. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  20. Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing Techniques

    E-print Network

    Rothermel, Gregg

    the impact that this infrastructure has and can be expected to have. 1 Introduction Testing is an importantInfrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing, understanding, and assessment of software testing and regression testing techniques are concerned, controlled

  1. FINAL CONTENT SUBJECT TO CHANGE CONTROLLED HYDROGEN FLEET AND INFRASTRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    with hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles to allow a commercialization decision by 2015. In the past, efforts and egg" dilemma of which comes first; in this case, hydrogen infrastructure or hydrogen vehicles hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel cell

  2. THE WILDCAT-SAN PABLO CREEK FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    THE WILDCAT-SAN PABLO CREEK FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE FLOOD MANAGEMENT PLANS1 A. L. Riley 2 1 Presented at the California Riparian Systems type of joint federal and local flood control project on Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks in North Richmond

  3. Optimum Reservoir Operation for Flood Control and Conservation Purposes 

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Cabezas, L. Morris; Tibbets, Michael N.

    1985-01-01

    and conservation purposes. Increasing needs for providing water for various uses and reducing flood damages necessitate that limited reservoir storage capacity be used as beneficially as possible. Consequently, consideration of the interactions and tradeoffs...

  4. Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity 

    E-print Network

    Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

    2005-02-17

    major flood events. A computer program named REOS was created to perform the computations to develop risk-based EOS. The computational algorithm in REOS is divided in three major components: (1) synthetic streamflow generation, (2) mass balance...

  5. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B of Climate Change on Storms...............................................33 Effects of Climate Change Appendix A: Climate Change Scenario Effects on New Bullards Bar................73 Appendix B: Climate

  7. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...maintenance on the project. The effects of structures on, over, or under the flood control work, such as buried fiber optic cables, gas pipelines, etc., will be evaluated for impact on the stability of the structure. (4) Other...

  8. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control...

  9. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control...

  10. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control...

  11. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...recent maintenance on the project. The effects of structures on, over, or under the flood control work, such as buried fiber optic cables, gas pipelines, etc., will be evaluated for impact on the stability of the structure. (4) Other structural...

  12. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...recent maintenance on the project. The effects of structures on, over, or under the flood control work, such as buried fiber optic cables, gas pipelines, etc., will be evaluated for impact on the stability of the structure. (4) Other structural...

  13. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...recent maintenance on the project. The effects of structures on, over, or under the flood control work, such as buried fiber optic cables, gas pipelines, etc., will be evaluated for impact on the stability of the structure. (4) Other structural...

  14. Store and Haul: Improving Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Connectivity through Repeated Controlled Flooding

    E-print Network

    Thedinger, Robert Tyson

    2010-06-15

    This work investigates the benefits and drawbacks of repeating controlled flooding at different intervals in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) to overcome episodic connectivity. Specifically, the thesis examines the efficiencies ...

  15. A-SMART: An Advanced Controlled-Flooding Routing with Group Structures for Delay Tolerant Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinxia Wu; Neng Wang

    2010-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a network in which end-to-end connectivity may not be guaranteed because of the frequent and long duration partitions. SMART routing, which is a selective controlled-flooding scheme, utilizes travel companions of the destinations and improves the delivery opportunities, but its flooding overhead can be further controlled. In this paper, we propose A-SMART routing which combines the

  16. Infrastructure for numeric precision control in the ptolemy environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seehyun Kim; Edward A. Lee

    1999-01-01

    An abstract algorithm specification with idealizedarithmetic must be made concrete with realisticarithmetic in the final phase of the "algorithm-toimplementation" design process in order to assess powerconsumption, hardware cost, and execution speed. In thispaper, an infrastructure for refining an idealized modelto get an architecture-dependent specification with finiteprecision is introduced. This infrastructure is built on topof the Ptolemy environment.I. IntroductionDataflow is a

  17. Supporting Controlled Experimentation with Testing Techniques: An Infrastructure and its Potential Impact

    E-print Network

    Do, Hyunsook

    the impact that this infrastructure has had and can be expected to have. Keywords: software testingSupporting Controlled Experimentation with Testing Techniques: An Infrastructure and its Potential Impact Hyunsook Do, Sebastian Elbaum, Gregg Rothermel Department of Computer Science and Engineering

  18. The measure of national infrastructure project performance auditing risk's controllability: Based on Chinese experiences empirical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Ai Dong; Zhao Jin Ling

    2010-01-01

    The performance auditing of national infrastructure project is the important regulatory measure to improve the project's performance, and risk aversion of audit could improve the auditing's quality effectively. The paper conducted investigation in-depth based on the existing research, designed a set of measuring scale for national infrastructure project performance auditing risk's controllability, conducted the crossed empirical study taking 248 effective

  19. Newton's Apple: Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

  20. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  1. Communal peeing: a new mode of flood control in ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, J.

    The behavioral response of the obligate bamboo-nesting ant Cataulacus muticus to nest flooding was studied in a perhumid tropical rainforest in Malaysia and in the laboratory. The hollow internodes of giant bamboo, in which C. muticus exclusively nests, are prone to flooding by heavy rains. The ants showed a two-graded response to flooding. During heavy rain workers block the nest entrances with their heads to reduce water influx. However, rainwater may still intrude into the nest chamber. The ants respond by drinking the water, leaving the nest and excreting water droplets on the outer stem surface. This cooperative 'peeing' behavior is a new survival mechanism adaptive to the ants' nesting ecology. Laboratory experiments conducted with two other Cataulacus species, C. catuvolcus colonizing small dead twigs and C. horridus inhabiting rotten wood, did not reveal any form of water-bailing behavior.

  2. WristQue : a personal sensor wristband for smart infrastructure and control

    E-print Network

    Mayton, Brian D. (Brian Dean)

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of computers beyond desktop systems into devices and systems in the environment around us, the control interfaces to these systems are often basic and inadequate, particularly for infrastructure ...

  3. Supporting Controlled Experimentation with Testing Techniques: An Infrastructure and its Potential Impact

    E-print Network

    Rothermel, Gregg

    Supporting Controlled Experimentation with Testing Techniques: An Infrastructure and its Potential Impact Hyunsook Do, Sebastian Elbaum, Gregg Rothermel Department of Computer Science and Engineering Where the creation, understanding, and assessment of software testing and regression testing techniques

  4. Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

  5. Model driven security: From UML models to access control infrastructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Basin; Jürgen Doser; Torsten Lodderstedt

    2006-01-01

    We present a new approach to building secure systems. In our approach, which we call model driven security, designers specify system models along with their secu- rity requirements and use tools to automatically generate system architectures from the models including complete, configured security infrastructures. Rather than fixing one particular modeling language for this process, we propose a schema for construct-

  6. Assessing and optimising flood control options along the Arachthos river floodplain (Epirus, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosou, Athina; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Lykou, Archontia; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Mamassis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    We present a multi-criteria simulation-optimization framework for the optimal design and setting of flood protection structures along river banks. The methodology is tested in the lower course of the Arachthos River (Epirus, Greece), downstream of the hydroelectric dam of Pournari. The entire study area is very sensitive, particularly because the river crosses the urban area of Arta, which is located just after the dam. Moreover, extended agricultural areas that are crucial for the local economy are prone to floods. In the proposed methodology we investigate two conflicting criteria, i.e. the minimization of flood hazards (due to damages to urban infrastructures, crops, etc.) and the minimization of construction costs of the essential hydraulic structures (e.g. dikes). For the hydraulic simulation we examine two flood routing models, named 1D HEC-RAS and quasi-2D LISFLOOD, whereas the optimization is carried out through the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modeling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method.

  7. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Inner shelf topographical control on flood sediment transport: Example from Hidaka shelf, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehara, K.; Katayama, H.; Tsujino, T.; Inoue, T.; Suga, K.; Sagayama, T.; Irino, T.; Omura, A.

    2006-12-01

    Flood event is an event to supply large amount of terrigenous materials to marine environments. Thus, it is very important process for sea bottom environments, material cycles in the ocean, and strata formation. Mode of dispersion and deposition of flood sediments and its controlling factor is not fully clarified yet. In August 2003, hard rain by the typhoon 200310 occurred in Hidaka area, Pacific coast of Hokkaido, northern Japan. Many land slides occurred by this hard rain, and large amount of terrigenous sand and mud supplied to ocean through rivers. Local government of Hokkaido investigated nearshore area of two rivers, and reported 20-40 cm thick flood mud deposition at offshore of river mouths. Repeated surveys by the local government indicated that the flood mud changed their thickness with time within a few months timescale. Our surveys were conducted on September-October, 2005 and July, 2006. Two types of mud distribution related to different inner shelf topography were recognized. That is, shore-normal type found at off Saru-gawa and Atsubetsu-gawa Rivers, and inner shelf type found at off Niikappu-gawa River. Carbon isotope of sedimentary organic matter and C/N ratio, and content of freshwater diatoms indicated that mud is flood origin. Transportation processes of two types might be different each other. Flood mud found only in small and shallow depressions, which are buried incised valleys of paleo-Saru-gawa and Atsubetsu-gawa Rivers. Clean very fine sand with parallel to wavy lamination occurred just below flood mud. Also, 3D bedforms were observed in the depressions. These evidences suggest that the flood sediments supplied from two rivers were transported as density currents through the depressions. Thick flood mud deposition on the slope off Saru-gawa River might be occurred by this density-current transport. On the other hand, there is no depression off Niikappu-gawa River. Turbid water supplied from the river might diverse near the river mouth and decrease its velocity and deposit quickly. Repeated floods recorded as alternation of sand and mud of sediments. Therefore, the inner shelf topography controls dispersal and depositional pattern of the flood sediments, and is very important for strata formation.

  9. Network information attacks on the control systems of power facilities belonging to the critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, E. L.; Raikov, A. N.

    2015-04-01

    The most large-scale accidents occurred as a consequence of network information attacks on the control systems of power facilities belonging to the United States' critical infrastructure are analyzed in the context of possibilities available in modern decision support systems. Trends in the development of technologies for inflicting damage to smart grids are formulated. A volume matrix of parameters characterizing attacks on facilities is constructed. A model describing the performance of a critical infrastructure's control system after an attack is developed. The recently adopted measures and legislation acts aimed at achieving more efficient protection of critical infrastructure are considered. Approaches to cognitive modeling and networked expertise of intricate situations for supporting the decision-making process, and to setting up a system of indicators for anticipatory monitoring of critical infrastructure are proposed.

  10. Application of stochastic differential equation to reservoir routing with probabilistic inflow forecasting and flood control risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2012-04-01

    Real-time flood control of a reservoir system involves various uncertainties including the prediction uncertainty of inflow flood events, uncertainties in boundary conditions such as the reservoir storage curve, release capacity curve, and the uncertainty within the reservoir flood routing model itself. In this study, the hydrologic uncertainty processor (PUB) under the framework of Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted to quantify the uncertainty of flood prediction, providing with the probabilistic forecasting for real-time flood events. A Gaussian form of distribution is used to describe uncertainty of reservoir storage or release capacity; parameters of the distribution are estimated by historical measurements. In order to route the flood hydrograph with probability feature, i.e. a probabilistic forecasting flood event, stochastic differential equation (SDE) is introduced to build the reservoir flood routing model. By introducing a Gaussian white noise term, the traditional reservoir's water balance equation is altered to a kind of Ito stochastic differential equation. The solutions of Ito equation provide a probabilistic form of forecasting for reservoir stage process and outflow hydrograph. Both the analytical and numerical approaches are applied to solve the Ito stochastic differential equation, and their applicability for reservoir stochastic flood routing is testified. By assigning a specific flood limit level or reservoir beginning water level on which a real-time flood event is started to route through using the SDE, a corresponding probabilistic reservoir stage processes can be forecasted. For a designed control water level (DCWL), the risk rate or the largest probability that the forecasted reservoir stage excesses DCWL can be computed. Setting a series of flood limit levels, for a forecasted probabilistic inflow hydrograph, there obtains the corresponding reservoir stage processes, and in turn the risk rate of flood protection. By checking if the risk rate is less than a preassigned acceptable risk or flood control standard, a reasonable flood limit water level is determined to raise the utilization ratio of flood resources. As an example, the approach is applied to Dahuofang reservoir, which is located on Hun river in Northeast China. A typical flood event occurred in the flooding season of 2005 is analyzed to demonstrate the application of proposed procedure.

  11. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL TRENDS IN SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY IMPOUNDED WITHIN A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR: GRENADA LAKE, MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sedimentation issues were examined in a relatively large flood control reservoir in a highly unstable, cultivated watershed. Collected sediment cores were analyzed for 137Cs and texture, which demarcated the as-built reservoir timeline, and the bulk chemistry of the sediments. The concentrations of ...

  12. Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Triplet; Pierre Yésou

    2000-01-01

    Triplet, P. & Yésou, P. 2000. Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment? Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 106–111.The delta of the Senegal river (320 000 ha) has been gradually dammed, mostly during the 1970–80s. From 1986, the Diama dam has stopped any backflow of salt water from the sea into most

  13. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    locations in the inter-tied water system of California are analyzed. Increasing winter flows and decreasing setback for height and flood levee re-design rules are first analyzed under static climatic and economic to Professor Michael R. Caputo for his valuable helps on optimal control. Thanks go to Dr. Marion W. Jenkins

  14. ACOUSTIC IMAGING OF SEDIMENT IMPOUNDED WITHIN USDA-NRCS FLOOD CONTROL DAMS, WISCONSIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1948, the USDA-NRCS has constructed nearly 11,000 upstream flood control dams in 2000 watersheds in 47 states, most with a design life of 50 years. But many of these reservoirs are filling with sediment. At the direct request of the USDA-NRCS in Wisconsin, two reservoirs, White Mound Lake an...

  15. HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    reservoir typically requires water level to be kept at minimum design level to store as much energy as flood control, drinking water, agricultural water supply, hydro power generation, recreation and others spillage at dam. The stored energy in the reservoir gradually increases cumulatively with the rise in water

  16. Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

  17. [Technical features and roles of cobalt-57 flood sources for daily quality control of gamma cameras].

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Kei; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Miyaji, Noriaki; Umeda, Takuro; Murata, Taisuke; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2014-02-01

    Quality control (QC) detects changes in the performance of gamma cameras that could adversely affect interpretations of clinical studies. We used plate and sheet (57)Co flood sources to measure extrinsic uniformity during daily QC. Each source, when placed on the top of a collimated detector, allowed the acquisition of uniform images from both detectors, thus reducing the amount of time needed to perform daily QC. No serious problems with the gamma camera system were revealed by visual checks, and changes in detector sensitivity were rapidly determined by observing daily variations in the measured values of extrinsic uniformity. Furthermore, (57)Co flood sources confer advantages in that they shorten the time required for preparation of flood sources and reduce the consequent exposure of medical staff to radiation. PMID:24573229

  18. Using field data and HSR imagery to downscale vulnerability assessment of buildings and local infrastructure facing hazards from floods and hyperconcentrated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettinger, Susanne; Manrique Llerena, Nélida Victoria; Thouret, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of post-flood conditions along the Venezuela channel in the large city of Arequipa, south Peru, in order to identify the parameters determining vulnerability of buildings and infrastructure. Two tributaries draining a c. 11.9 km2 large catchment feed the Venezuela channel. Before joining the main Rio Chili valley to the West, it crosses the city from NE to SW. Over a total length of 5.2 km, channel depth ranges from 1.3 to 6.3 m and c. 40% of the channel sections do not exceed 5 m in width. On 8 February 2013, 123 mm of rainfall within 3 hours (monthly mean: 29.3 mm) triggered a flashflood inundating at least 0.4 km2 of urban settlements along the channel. The flood damaged 14 buildings, 23 among 53 bridges, and led to the partial collapse of main road sections paralyzing central parts of the city for at least one week. This research relies on (1) analyzing post-flood conditions and assessing damage types caused by the 8 February 2013 flood; (2) mapping of the channel characteristics (slope, wetted section, sinuosity, type of river banks, bed roughness, etc.) and buildings, bridges, and contention walls potentially exposed to inundation. Data collection and analysis have been based on high spatial resolution (HSR) images (SPOT5 2007, Google Earth Pro and BINGMAP 2012, PLEIADES 2012-2013). Field measurements (GPS, laser and geomorphologic mapping) were used to ground truth channel width, depth, as well as building outlines, contention walls and bridge characteristics (construction material, opening size, etc.). An inventory of 25 city blocks (1500 to 20000 m2; 6 to 157 houses per block) has been created in a GIS database in order to estimate their physical vulnerability. As many as 717 buildings have been surveyed along the affected drainage and classified according to four building types based on their structural characteristics. Output vulnerability maps show that the varying channel characteristics, i.e. bank type, bed roughness, and the variable width-depth ratio of rectangular or trapezoidal channel sections determine in great part site-specific vulnerability. The sub-metric spatial resolution and GIS data analysis using PLEIADES imagery has enabled vulnerability assessment of individual features of few meters in size. However, this study shows that fieldwork remains essential for (1) completing measurements in areas where channel is < 5 m in width or partially hidden by 2-5-storey buildings; (2) assessing the type and construction material of contention walls and thus their susceptibility to fail after they are scoured; and (3) determining the opening height of bridges potentially obstructing flow and leading to inundation as a consequence of overspill.

  19. Guidelines for Industrial Ethernet infrastructure implementation: A control engineer's guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rojas; P. Morell

    2010-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to make their organizations more efficient and flexible, manufacturers are rapidly migrating to Industrial Ethernet technology to network their industrial automation and control systems. The use of standard Ethernet technology enables organizations to control costs by moving from costly plant-optimized networks to a proven technology that is simpler to integrate, requires widely available skills,

  20. Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

    2005-01-01

    Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

  1. Optimal timing control in game modeling of an energy project infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey A. Krasovskii; Ivan V. Matrosov; Alexander M. Tarasyev

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study an optimal infrastructure of a system of international gas pipelines competing for a gas market. We suggest a game-dynamic model of the operation of several interacting gas pipeline projects treated as players in the game. The model treats the projects’ commercialization times as major players’ controls. Current quantities of gas supply are

  2. Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example. The project will have a major in...

  3. Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

  4. Multi-phase intelligent decision model for reservoir real-time flood control during typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2015-03-01

    This study applies an Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and a Real-Time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN) with an optimized reservoir release hydrograph using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) from historical typhoon events to develop a multi-phase intelligent real-time reservoir operation model for flood control. The flood control process is divided into three stages: (1) before flood (Stage I); (2) before peak flow (Stage II); and (3) after peak flow (Stage III). The models are then constructed with either three phase modules (ANFIS-3P and RTRLNN-3P) or two phase (Stage I + II and Stage III) modules (ANFIS-2P and RTRLNN-2P). The multi-phase modules are developed with consideration of the difference in operational decision mechanisms, decision information, release functions, and targets between each flood control stage to solve the problem of time-consuming computation and difficult system integration of MILP. In addition, the model inputs include the coupled short lead time and total reservoir inflow forecast information that are developed using radar- and satellite-based meteorological monitoring techniques, forecasted typhoon tracks, meteorological image similarity analysis, ANFIS and RTRLNN. This study uses the Tseng-Wen Reservoir basin as the study area, and the model results showed that RTRLNN outperformed ANFIS in the simulated outcomes from the optimized hydrographs. This study also applies the models to Typhoons Kalmaegi and Morakot to compare the simulations to historical operations. From the operation results, the RTRLNN-3P model is better than RTRLNN-2P and historical operations. Further, because the RTRLNN-3P model combines the innovative multi-phase module with monitored and forecasted decision information, the operation can simultaneously, effectively and automatically achieve the dual goals of flood detention at peak flow periods and water supply at the end of a typhoon event.

  5. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS

    This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

  6. Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

    Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

  7. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  8. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  9. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL] [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  10. Green Infrastructure for CSO Control in Kansas City, Missouri

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kansas City Water Services Department (WSD) conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system over the last 5 years, for submittal of its long term control plan to EPA. These studies and recent funding opportunities have provided the impetus for sele...

  11. Incorporating Daily Flood Control Objectives Into a Monthly Stochastic Dynamic Programing Model for a Hydroelectric Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druce, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A monthly stochastic dynamic programing model was recently developed and implemented at British Columbia (B.C.) Hydro to provide decision support for short-term energy exports and, if necessary, for flood control on the Peace River in northern British Columbia. The model establishes the marginal cost of supplying energy from the B.C. Hydro system, as well as a monthly operating policy for the G.M. Shrum and Peace Canyon hydroelectric plants and the Williston Lake storage reservoir. A simulation model capable of following the operating policy then determines the probability of refilling Williston Lake and possible spill rates and volumes. Reservoir inflows are input to both models in daily and monthly formats. The results indicate that flood control can be accommodated without sacrificing significant export revenue.

  12. Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

  13. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...CFR Part 208 Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U...rules regarding use and administration of Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado...

  14. The planned European in-orbit infrastructure and the role of the DLR Manned Space-Laboratories Control Center (MSCC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Kehr; Wayne Salter

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the In-Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) required to support the Columbus Laboratory payload operations and system control functions as part of the Columbus Program. The Columbus Program and the corresponding ground infrastructure have changed significantly since the Program was first initiated. However, this paper concentrates on the IOI GS in the configuration which was defined at

  15. Access Control Meets Public Key Infrastructure, Or: Assigning Roles to Strangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Herzberg; Yosi Mass; Joris Mihaeli; Dalit Naor; Yiftach Ravid

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A new approach to the deployment of public key infrastructure is presented, based on a separation between,the issuing of certificates and the usage of certificates.Certificates are signed assertions by the issuer about the subject of the certificate (holder of correspondingsecret key), not necessarily identifying the subject. Typical use of certificate is for access control decisions, to determine whether,the subject

  16. River Flood Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

  17. The role of tributary relative timing and sequencing in controlling large floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Lane, Stuart N.; Hardy, Richard J.; Reaney, Sim M.

    2014-07-01

    Hydrograph convolution is a product of tributary inputs from across the watershed. The time-space distribution of precipitation, the biophysical processes that control the conversion of precipitation to runoff and channel flow conveyance processes, are heterogeneous and different areas respond to rainfall in different ways. We take a subwatershed approach to this and account for tributary flow magnitude, relative timing, and sequencing. We hypothesize that as the scale of the watershed increases so we may start to see systematic differences in subwatershed hydrological response. We test this hypothesis for a large flood (T > 100 years) in a large watershed in northern England. We undertake a sensitivity analysis of the effects of changing subwatershed hydrological response using a hydraulic model. Delaying upstream tributary peak flow timing to make them asynchronous from downstream subwatersheds reduced flood magnitude. However, significant hydrograph adjustment in any one subwatershed was needed for meaningful reductions in stage downstream, although smaller adjustments in multiple tributaries resulted in comparable impacts. For larger hydrograph adjustments, the effect of changing the timing of two tributaries together was lower than the effect of changing each one separately. For smaller adjustments synergy between two subwatersheds meant the effect of changing them together could be greater than the sum of the parts. Thus, this work shows that while the effects of modifying biophysical catchment properties diminishes with scale due to dilution effects, their impact on relative timing of tributaries may, if applied in the right locations, be an important element of flood management.

  18. A water quality characterization of a tidally influenced flood control canal of Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-print Network

    Polasek, Jeffrey Steven

    1992-01-01

    b b b b ll I !I "'IIL" "":ill. Gulf of Mexico GALVESTON 8AY GiWW FI1 2004 DIVERSIONARY CANAL 5 2 0 km JONES BAY WEST 0 8AY GALVESTON ISLAND Figure i. The Highland Bayou Diversionary Canal showing sampling stations 1-7, the Alta...A WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF A TIDALLY INFLUENCED FLOOD CONTROL CANAL OF GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by JEFFREY STEVEN POLASEK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  19. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  20. Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.A.; Kaplinski, M.

    2011-01-01

    In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Flood producing mechanism identification in Otava river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Vlasák

    2009-01-01

    Variability of flood causes is strongly determined by geographic environment of catchment area. Identification of unique flood characteristics such as seasonality, precipitation pattern, or typical interference of flood peaks at river confluences could be very useful for flood forecasting and control. Analysis of historical flood causes is proved method to get this knowledge. Paper describes compilation and analysis of Flood

  2. Survey of infection control infrastructure in selected southern and eastern Mediterranean hospitals.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A; Cookson, B D; Scicluna, E

    2007-03-01

    A structured questionnaire concerning hospital infection control (IC) organisation and initiatives was sent to 45 hospitals in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Hospitals bordering the eastern Mediterranean appeared to have more established IC infrastructures than southern Mediterranean hospitals. However, there were no significant differences among hospitals in the two regions in surveillance activities, the presence of an antibiotic policy or feedback of resistance data to prescribers, all of which were at a low level. Only a minority of hospitals had published antimicrobial treatment guidelines or gave feedback on antimicrobial resistance data to prescribers. PMID:17391397

  3. Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States 

    E-print Network

    Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

    2004-01-01

    production values were developed from property assessment records, economic development councils, crop enterprise budgets and cropping patterns, census data, previous U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ flooding studies, etc. Gross economic values of flood...

  4. Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.

    1984-11-01

    The ongoing objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. Section 2 of this report includes the results for capillary desaturation experiments for low tension fluids in Berea. These results show that some residual brine remains during microemulsion flooding even at the highest capillary number obtained in this experiment. Section 2 also includes more extensive results from the dispersion and relative permeability experiments. This section also includes data which extends the dispersion and relative permeability results from the case of two-phase flow to include initial results of three-phase flow at steady state. Section 3 is a complete description of our updated simulator. Section 4 describes and gives the results of an oil recovery experiment. Section 5 compares the results of this oil recovery experiment with our simulator. The agreement is the best obtained so far. Section 6 compares our simulator with a Sloss experiment reported by Gupta. Again, the agreement is good and demonstrates the capability of the improved simulator to account for the separation of alcohol and surfactant. Section 7 contains the results of several 2-D areal simulations involving new features of the 2-D simulator reported last year. Section 8 is a list of some of the major conclusions of this simulation research. Section 9 is an SPE paper combining the results of Senol with Walsh, a Ph.D. student of Lake and Schechter. Her polymer experiments were interpreted using Walsh's geochemical simulator. 133 references, 118 figures, 21 tables.

  5. Impact of Austrian hydropower plants on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. ZSUFFA

    1999-01-01

    Statistical analysis of daily water level data from four gauging stations along the Hungarian Danube reach has been carried out with the purpose of analysing the impact of the Austrian hydropower plants on the floods of the river. Conditional probability distribution functions of annual flood load maxima and annual number of floods were generated for the periods 1957-1976 and 1977-1996.

  6. Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2011-10-18

    The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

  7. Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Donner, Kevin C.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rogers, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, USA, in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer—resource interactions were not necessarily congruent with the dominant organic matter flows. Our study illustrates the value of detailed food web analysis for elucidating pathways by which dam management may alter production and strengths of species interactions in river food webs. We suggest that controlled floods may increase production of nonnative rainbow trout, and this information can be used to help guide future dam management decisions.

  8. Implementing a Geospatial Health Data Infrastructure for Control of Asian Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China and the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Malone; Guo-Jing Yang; Lydia Leonardo; Xiao-Nong Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on implementing a geospatial health infrastructure for control of schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections in Southeast Asia, with special focus on the People's Republic of China and the Philippines, using a model working group approach. Health workers have lagged in utilization of geospatial analysis and widely available, low-cost spatial data resources for epidemiological modelling and control programme

  9. [The dilemma of data flood - reducing costs and increasing quality control].

    PubMed

    Gassmann, B

    2012-09-01

    Digitization is found everywhere in sonography. Printing of ultrasound images using the videoprinter with special paper will be done in single cases. The documentation of sonography procedures is more and more done by saving image sequences instead of still frames. Echocardiography is routinely recorded in between with so called R-R-loops. Doing contrast enhanced ultrasound recording of sequences is necessary to get a deep impression of the vascular structure of interest. Working with this data flood in daily practice a specialized software is required. Comparison in follow up of stored and recent images/sequences is very helpful. Nevertheless quality control of the ultrasound system and the transducers is simple and safe - using a phantom for detail resolution and general image quality the stored images/sequences are comparable over the life cycle of the system. The comparison in follow up is showing decreased image quality and transducer defects immediately. PMID:22945822

  10. Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Baer; Mark H. Engelhard; Dan J. Gaspar; Alan S. Lea; Charles F. Windisch

    2002-01-01

    The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential

  11. Use of Green Infrastructure Integrated with Conventional Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control: Kansas City, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced design concepts such as Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Solutions (or upland runoff control techniques) are currently being encouraged by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a management practice to contain and control stormwater at the lot ...

  12. Managing the Arroyo Seco for Flood Prevention, Erosion Control, Waterway and Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Wang, C; Laurant, J

    2003-02-06

    One of the most important tasks for a site facility manager is to ensure that appropriate channel erosion controls are applied to on-site drainage channels. These erosion controls must minimize risks to the public and structures. Water and sediment loads commonly originate from off-site sources and many of the traditional reactionary measures (installing rip-rap or some other form of bed or bank armor) simply transfer or delay the problem. State and federal agency requirements further complicate the management solution. One case in point is the Arroyo Seco, an intermittent stream that runs along the southwest corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In 2001, LLNL contracted Questa Engineering Corporation to conduct hydraulic, geomorphic, and biological investigations and to prepare an alternatives and constraints analysis. From these investigations, LLNL has selected a water management plan that encompasses overall flood prevention, erosion control, and waterway and habitat restoration and enhancement elements. The most unique aspect of the Arroyo Seco management plan is its use of non-traditional and biotechnical techniques.

  13. Application of Decision Tree to Obtain Optimal Operation Rules for Reservoir Flood Control Considering Sediment Desilting-Case Study of Tseng Wen Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ShiouWei, L.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs are the most important water resources facilities in Taiwan.However,due to the steep slope and fragile geological conditions in the mountain area,storm events usually cause serious debris flow and flood,and the flood then will flush large amount of sediment into reservoirs.The sedimentation caused by flood has great impact on the reservoirs life.Hence,how to operate a reservoir during flood events to increase the efficiency of sediment desilting without risk the reservoir safety and impact the water supply afterward is a crucial issue in Taiwan. ?Therefore,this study developed a novel optimization planning model for reservoir flood operation considering flood control and sediment desilting,and proposed easy to use operating rules represented by decision trees.The decision trees rules have considered flood mitigation,water supply and sediment desilting.The optimal planning model computes the optimal reservoir release for each flood event that minimum water supply impact and maximum sediment desilting without risk the reservoir safety.Beside the optimal flood operation planning model,this study also proposed decision tree based flood operating rules that were trained by the multiple optimal reservoir releases to synthesis flood scenarios.The synthesis flood scenarios consists of various synthesis storm events,reservoir's initial storage and target storages at the end of flood operating. ?Comparing the results operated by the decision tree operation rules(DTOR) with that by historical operation for Krosa Typhoon in 2007,the DTOR removed sediment 15.4% more than that of historical operation with reservoir storage only8.38×106m3 less than that of historical operation.For Jangmi Typhoon in 2008,the DTOR removed sediment 24.4% more than that of historical operation with reservoir storage only 7.58×106m3 less than that of historical operation.The results show that the proposed DTOR model can increase the sediment desilting efficiency and extend the reservoir life.

  14. Toward sustainable stormwater management : overcoming barriers to green infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Hammitt, Sarah A. (Sarah Ann)

    2010-01-01

    With their high concentrations of impervious surface, urban areas generate stormwater runoff that overwhelms existing infrastructure causing flooding, sewer overflows, water pollution, and habitat degradation. Under pressure ...

  15. Virtual Private Infrastructure (VPI) initiative - an industry consortium for unified and secure Web control with embedded devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Sikora; Peter Briigger

    2003-01-01

    Remote maintenance and control is already widely used in industrial automation and building automation and gains acceptance for many other applications, e.g. smart home appliances, consumer electronics, networking devices. Internet and Web-based connectivity is playing a major part in unifying network infrastructure and company information flow. However, a number of different implementations hinder a true interoperability of devices and exchangeability

  16. Update of Estimated Agricultural Benefits Attributable to Drainage and Flood Control in Willacy County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Lacewell, Ronald D.; Freeman, Roger; Petit, David; Rister, Ed; Sturdivant, Allan; Ribera, Luis; Zinn, Michele

    2006-01-01

    for conducting the formal data collection phase of the Focus Group meetings. The producers were shown two overhead transparencies for each crop. The first transparency was designed to collect the flood loss information, and the second, high water table damages... High Water Table Yield Losses......................................................................................16 v TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.) Page Additional Costs Attributable to Flooding...

  17. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

    2009-01-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

  18. Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

  19. Using regression heteroscedasticity to model trends in the mean and variance of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Jory; Vogel, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the frequency of extreme floods have been observed and anticipated in many hydrological settings in response to numerous drivers of environmental change, including climate, land cover, and infrastructure. To help decision-makers design flood control infrastructure in settings with non-stationary hydrological regimes, a parsimonious approach for detecting and modeling trends in extreme floods is needed. An approach using ordinary least squares (OLS) to fit a heteroscedastic regression model can accommodate nonstationarity in both the mean and variance of flood series while simultaneously offering a means of (i) analytically evaluating type I and type II trend detection errors, (ii) analytically generating expressions of uncertainty, such as confidence and prediction intervals, (iii) providing updated estimates of the frequency of floods exceeding the flood of record, (iv) accommodating a wide range of non-linear functions through ladder of powers transformations, and (v) communicating hydrological changes in a single graphical image. Previous research has shown that the two-parameter lognormal distribution can adequately model the annual maximum flood distribution of both stationary and non-stationary hydrological regimes in many regions of the United States. A simple logarithmic transformation of annual maximum flood series enables an OLS heteroscedastic regression modeling approach to be especially suitable for creating a non-stationary flood frequency distribution with parameters that are conditional upon time or physically meaningful covariates. While heteroscedasticity is often viewed as an impediment, we document how detecting and modeling heteroscedasticity presents an opportunity for characterizing both the conditional mean and variance of annual maximum floods. We introduce an approach through which variance trend models can be analytically derived from the behavior of residuals of the conditional mean flood model. Through case studies of urbanizing watersheds, we demonstrate that accounting for trends in both the mean and variance can yield substantially different estimates of time-dependent extreme flood quantiles than only considering trends in the mean. When applied to risk-based optimization, considering trends in the variance strongly influences the flood magnitude for which flood control infrastructure should be designed over a given planning horizon. We demonstrate that this approach can easily be extended to multivariate regression equations that employ physically meaningful covariates, such as impervious cover and extreme precipitation events. Finally, we introduce a statistical tool that enables decision-makers to examine the effects of particular gradually implemented watershed management actions on an annual peak flow probability distribution.

  20. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  1. Flood Impacts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

  2. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America. PMID:21143865

  3. Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

    2012-09-01

    Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in Northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The automatic counting of flood deposits was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were processed to capture the flood signal. Automatic quantification was compared with naked-eye counting. Counts were performed twice on the proximal and distal cores to provide an objective and reproducible record of flood frequency. Geophysical and geochemical analyses made it possible to distinguish event deposits from background sedimentation. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen dynamics inferred from vegetation data. The data suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. The last third of the Holocene is characterised by a shift toward increased flood frequency at ca. 4500-4000 cal BP. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed at ca. 4500 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. The role of climate as the main forcing factor in flood activity is supported by the lake-level records: the major lake-level rises are synchronous with flood frequency increases. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use are indicated by pollen and archaeological data. These human activities have clearly affected the sediment record of flood activity, and they can partially explain the amplitude of the increases in flood activity.

  4. A Decision-Oriented Approach for Detecting and Modeling Non-Stationary Flood Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J. S.; Vogel, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the frequency of extreme floods have been observed and anticipated in many hydrologic settings in response to numerous drivers of environmental change, including climate, land cover, and infrastructure. To help decision-makers design flood control infrastructure in settings with non-stationary hydrologic regimes, a parsimonious approach for detecting and modeling trends in extreme floods is needed. An approach using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression can accommodate nonstationarity in both the mean and variance of flood series while simultaneously offering a means of (i) analytically evaluating type I and type II trend detection errors, (ii) analytically generating expressions of uncertainty, such as confidence and prediction intervals, (iii) providing updated estimates of the frequency of floods exceeding the flood of record, (iv) accommodating a wide range of non-linear functions through ladder of powers transformations, and (v) communicating hydrologic changes in a single graphical image. Previous research has shown that the two-parameter lognormal distribution can adequately model the annual maximum flood distribution of both stationary and non-stationary hydrologic regimes in many regions of the United States. A simple logarithmic transformation of annual maximum flood series makes an OLS regression modeling approach especially suitable for creating a non-stationary flood frequency distribution with parameters that are conditional upon time or a physically meaningful covariate. While the heteroscedasticity of some OLS models may be viewed as an impediment, it also presents an opportunity for characterizing both the conditional mean and variance of annual maximum floods. Through a case study of an urbanizing watershed, we demonstrate that accounting for trends in both the mean and variance can yield substantially different estimates of time-dependent extreme flood quantiles than only considering trends in the mean. When applied to risk-based optimization, including trends in the variance strongly influences the flood magnitude for which flood control infrastructure should be designed over a given planning horizon. This approach can easily be extended to multivariate regression equations that take physically meaningful covariates into account.

  5. Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

  6. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 ? What is it? What does it do? What doesn?t it do? ? Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control ? GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)...

  7. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  8. Implementing a geospatial health data infrastructure for control of Asian schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Malone, John B; Yang, Guo-Jing; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on implementing a geospatial health infrastructure for control of schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections in Southeast Asia, with special focus on the People's Republic of China and the Philippines, using a model working group approach. Health workers have lagged in utilization of geospatial analysis and widely available, low-cost spatial data resources for epidemiological modelling and control programme management. The critical limitation on development of useful health applications to date has not been the availability of geospatial data and methods. Rather, the key barriers have been the speed of adoption of geospatial analysis tools by health scientists and the quality of geographic information system (GIS)-friendly medical databases. Regional GIS applications on Asian schistosomiasis are reviewed to illustrate recent geospatial health analysis applications. A model programme is presented for implementation of training programmes and establishment of regional working groups to facilitate development and use of geospatial health infrastructure resources by health workers in Southeast Asia. PMID:20627140

  9. Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Lea, Alan S.; Windisch, Charles F.

    2002-10-01

    The ability of charge compensation methods to control the surface potentials for two types of non-homogenous samples is examined. Results demonstrate that two newer types of charge compensation systems have improved performance in relation to some previous flood gun methods and reaffirm the concept that a primary objective of charge compensation is to find conditions for which the surface potential of the specimen is as uniform as possible. However, experiments involving both flood gun use and specimen grounding, demonstrate that peak broadening and shifting can occur when two (or more) potentials are present in the region of analysis. Finally, the ability of interface charge to shift specimen potentials and measured binding energies demonstrates fundamental limitations to the absolute accuracy of binding energy measurements, but also remind us that charging phenomena can be used to obtain important information about the sample.

  10. Crash tests for forward-looking flood control in the city of Zürich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, M.; Andres, N.; Kienzler, P.; Näf-Huber, D.; Marti, C.; Oplatka, M.

    2015-06-01

    Floods in the city of Zürich (Switzerland) were already reported in the 13th century. The most severe threat are floods from the Sihl river (336 km2, including also an hydropower reservoir) with peaks exceeding 350 m3 s-1. An assessment using a rainfall-runoff model has been completed to evaluate extreme flood situations by combining 18 precipitation scenarios with different initial conditions. These scenarios identified deficits for the safety of Zürich. For the improvement of flood management several measures are possible. Crash-tests with 41 472 combinations of measures and scenarios have been evaluated. According to the results, the spillway channel option in the downstream reach of the Sihl is a promising structural measure to ensure flood relief for Zürich. Lowering the artificial reservoir lake before the event consistently increases safety also in the upstream part, but causes financial losses in terms of hydroelectricity. The combination of measures can lead to an optimal safety also in case of unfavourable initial conditions. Pending questions concern the costs, political decisions and the environmental sustainability.

  11. Effect of multiyear drought on upland sediment yield and subsequent impacts on flood control reservoir storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, John A.; Allen, Peter M.; Bennett, Sean J.

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 1950s, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and later the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service has built over 11,000 flood control reservoirs (FCR) in 47 states. FCR built in Texas and Oklahoma in the early 1950s to mid-1950s were impounded during the most severe drought on record in the region. In this study, the sediment trapped in FCR is used to reconstruct the variation in sediment yield through the drought years to the present. New sediment surveys of four FCR in McCulloch County, Texas, are combined with three previous surveys by the SCS. The new surveys are conducted using acoustic profiling to map water depth and sediment thickness in submerged areas of the reservoirs and real-time kinematic GPS in the dry areas. Sediment coring is used to determine sediment dry bulk density. The survey results are used to construct a composite history of the normalized sediment yield for the study area. Normalized sediment yield is the annual sediment yield normalized by the soil erodability factor K and the combined slope length and steepness factor LS of the watershed. The results indicate that sediment yield was lowest during the relatively drought-free period from 1971 to 2007, averaging 4.2 t/ha/yr/unit K/unit LS and over 70 times higher during the early part of the 1950s drought from 1951 to 1953, averaging 300.3 t/ha/yr/unit K/unit LS. These results have important implications for predicting the remaining useful life of FCR in the region and planning for future droughts.

  12. A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

    The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

  13. Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Li; GARY W. ROSENWALD; JUHWAN JUNG; Chen-ching Liu

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview on power infrastructure defense systems. A review of the literature on the subjects of critical infrastructures, threats to the power grids, defense system concepts, and the special protection systems is reported. The proposed Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system methodology is a real-time, wide-area, adaptive protection and control system involving the power, communication,

  14. The Flood Control and the Ground Water Reservoir Construction Effection Analysis of Huanghui River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyong Liu; Baoxiang Zhang; Fanhai Meng; Ruiyong Song

    2011-01-01

    Direct against the constant increase of the water consumption of the regional industry and agriculture in the coastal area and the serious state that the short supply of water resource day by day, we build the retaining and recharging projects in the river to increase the use of the resources of rain water, and prevent flood water from entering the

  15. Flood Visualizations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center SVS

    A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

  16. Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre) and an increase in anxiety in the control group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre). Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285 PMID:20193089

  17. Scientific developments within the Global Flood Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groeve, Tom; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    More than 90 scientists, end users, and decision makers in the field of flood forecasting, remote sensing, hazard and risk assessment and emergency management collaborate in the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). The Partnership, launched in 2014, aims at the development of flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. Scientists collaborate in the GFP in different pillars, respectively focused on (1) development of tools and systems for global flood monitoring (Flood Toolbox), (2) applying the tools for publishing near real-time impact-based flood awareness information (Flood Observatory), and (3) collecting flood maps and impact information in a distributed database (Flood Record). The talk will focus on concrete collaboration results in 2014 and 2015, showing the added value of collaborating under a partnership. These include an overview of 10 services, 5 tools (algorithms or software) and 4 datasets related to global flood forecasting and observation. Through the various results (on interoperability, standards, visualization, integration and system design of integrated systems), it will be shown that a user-centric approach can lead to effective uptake of research results, rapid prototype development and experimental services that fill a gap in global flood response.

  18. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  19. Effects of 500 years of eutrophication and flooding control on lowland lake development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, E.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Heiri, O.; Cremer, H.; Lotter, A. F.

    2009-04-01

    Nutrient enrichment and the ecology of surface waters have been intensively studied in lowland regions. However, detailed palaeolimnological reconstructions of the trophic and flooding history of floodplain lakes are still rare. In the Netherlands dike-breaches caused by high floods of the river Rhine formed a new type of lake since the Middle Ages. These dike-breach lakes were strongly impacted by the development of channel systems in their catchment, agriculture, and repeated flooding events. Here we present a multiproxy palaeolimnological study of past nutrient loading and ecology of the dike-breach lake De Waay which is located on the Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands). The lake was created in A.D. 1496 as a result of damage done to a dike by floating ice and the subsequent dike-breach due to a flooding event. A sediment core of 11.5 m was recovered from Lake De Waay and diatoms, Cladocera, and geochemistry were analyzed in the sediment. From the beginning of the lake's existence to the end of the 18th century diatom-inferred total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were above 300 µg/l, suggesting hypertrophic conditions. Cladoceran assemblages reflect the lake's pioneer stage and suggest a lack of rooted aquatic macrophytes resulting from low water-transparency, possibly caused by frequent floods. Until the late 18th century floods occurred regularly in the area, as shown by the elevated Ti values in the sediments, indicative of high erosion from the floodplain and runoff from the surrounding agricultural catchment. This caused the exceptionally high sedimentation rates and elevated nutrient contents of the lake waters. Since the beginning of the 19th century sewage input and flooding frequency were strongly reduced by the construction of new ditches, canals, and dikes. The improved sewage and dike systems are reflected by decreased TP concentrations of 40-150 µg/l. The increased stability of littoral habitats led to an increased diversity in the Cladocera assemblages. The phase with the lowest inferred TP concentrations lasted from the end of the 19th to the mid-20th century. During this period direct nutrient sources were no longer connected to the lake and TP concentrations consequently decreased to 40 µg/l. Dike construction was highly developed and flooding events no longer affected this region. However, a renewed eutrophication with TP values reaching 100 µg/l was registered in the sediment record since the mid-20th century. The increased TP concentrations are most likely related to increased agricultural activity in the vicinity of the lake. Our results show that Lake De Waay was eutrophic to hypertrophic during much of its history. The lake was formed as a consequence of human activity and never existed in an undisturbed state. Restoration of lakes to an "undisturbed" natural state, as required by the European Water Framework Directive, can therefore not be recommended for strongly modified lowland lakes such as De Waay.

  20. Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

    The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In particular, after the atmospheric events of the April, 1992, November 1998 and September 2000, which caused vast damages, it could be shown that the causes determining the flash flooding, as well as the occurrence of floods with return times of less than 20 years (flow rate of the order of 120 m3/sec) and which are increasing in the last decade, were attributable to four main causes: · deviations and artificial banks along the lower valley, dating from 1400 to 1500, for land reclamation and agriculture; · 15th century alterations and destruction due to anthropic settlements and more extensive agricultural cultivation; · beginning from the year 1900, the building of transversal works to deviate the water for hydroelectric and agricultural purposes with a hydraulic profile rate incompatible with that of the existent hydraulic defenses such as to cause flash floods due to breaking of the banks; · underestimation in measuring the fluvial discharge due to indiscriminate and strong exploitations of the aquifers for agriculture during arid periods.

  1. Decomposing the rainfall control on flash flood hydrograph shape into spatial, temporal and storm motion components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Anagnostou, Emmanouil

    2013-04-01

    Space-time variability of rainfall, drainage network structure and local runoff generation properties, including land use/cover and geologic characteristics, shape the catchment response to storms. A way to describe the complexity of the interaction between these factors is to quantify their relative contribution on flood hydrograph shape. Quantifying the contribution of each factor is of great importance because this can identify which sources of variability are crucial for understanding and predicting catchment response. In this work we focus our analysis on the role of space-time variability of rainfall and drainage structure on flash flood hydrographs. An extended version of the concept of "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" which accounts for hillslope/channel velocity differentiation forms the basis of the analytical framework used in our analysis. The framework is used to quantify the contribution of each source of variability in flood response for eight extreme flash flood-inducing storms occurred in Europe in the period 2002 to 2008. The storms were selected from the HYDRATE project database, where high resolution radar rainfall data were integrated with post event surveys. The location of the events covers a range of climatic regions (Mediterranean, Alpine, Continental). Comparison between scenarios of uniform and variable (spatially) rainfall, showed that the effect of spatial variability of rainfall on mean runoff time is apparent only for basin scales > 100km2 . The difference in mean runoff time, relative to original rainfall, ranges from -5 to +10%. Corresponding investigation on the effect of rainfall spatial variability on variance of runoff time showed no apparent scale dependence and a relative difference of +/- 20%. Regarding the effect of drainage structure, an interesting result is that event-wise the importance of drainage network follows a well-defined scale dependence. Finally, examination on the relative importance of storm motion shows that its contribution is generally low (<10%) suggesting that storm velocity had a minor effect on the hydrograph shape for the cases examined.

  2. Controls on effective settling velocity of suspended sediment in the Eel River flood plume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S Hill; Timothy G Milligan; W. Rockwell Geyer

    2000-01-01

    Bulk effective settling velocities required to explain sinking losses from the Eel River flood plume off the coast of northern California are of order 0.1 mm s?1 for five different helicopter-based sampling surveys conducted in January and February 1998. These effective settling velocities exceed those expected for single-grain sinking and implicate flocculation as an important mechanism for speeding the removal

  3. Teaching Floods and Flooding Quantitatively

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baer, Eric M.

    This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

  4. Chemical flooding and controlled pressure pulse fracturing process for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.; Salter, S.J.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a method for producing hydrocarbon fluids from a subterranean formation into which at least one injection well and at least one production well have been drilled, respectively, the method comprising the steps of: injecting fluid into the formation through the injection well to form a flood front extending toward at least one production well; terminating injection of the fluid; placing gas generating means in the injection well and generating a relatively high pressure pulse of gas in the injection well to create multiple fractures in the formation extending substantially radially from the injection well but not beyond the flood front; injecting a surfactant into the injection well after creating the multiple fractures to form a generally uniformly expanding flood front in the formation extending toward at least one production well; and injecting a drive fluid into the injection well to drive the slug of surfactant and hydrocarbon fluids toward at least one production well for the production of the hydrocarbon fluids.

  5. Study and pilot test on a novel EOR method -- coupling PPG conformance control and surfactant flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammed, Farag Awadh

    The interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods has re-emerged in recent years; however, significant challenges remain for the widespread deployment of these methods. One major downside to the successful application of EOR technologies in mature reservoirs is conformance problems (e.g. heterogeneity). To mitigate these problems, a novel EOR method which couple preformed particle gel (PPGs) conformance treatment with traditional surfactant flooding in one process is introduced. This dissertation provides a comprehensive study for the proposed method. A series of laboratory tests were carried out to understand the chemical interaction between PPGs and surfactants. A new method to evaluate PPGs strength in the oilfield and laboratory was introduced. Core flooding tests were run to investigate to what extent the coupled method can improve oil recovery using fractured carbonate and sandstone cores. Oilfield pilot tests were implemented in several injection wells located in Kansas. The chemical interaction experiments showed that surfactants concentrations influenced the swelling ratio and strength of PPGs. Fractured core flooding tests showed a higher increase in oil recovery through surfactant forced imbibition process by PPGs than a single method. The new PPG strength measurement apparatus provided a reliable technique to quantitatively evaluate PPG properties in the field. Oilfield pilot tests were implemented successfully in several candidate wells. The treatment s effectively increased the injection pressure of injection wells and reduced water production of adjacent production wells. Overall, this method provides a cost-effective approach for improving oil recovery while also reducing excess water production in mature and fractured reservoirs.

  6. Climate change, flooding in South Asia and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Monirul Qader Mirza; Qader Mirza

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of the most flood vulnerable regions in the world. Floods occur often in the region triggered by heavy monsoon\\u000a precipitation and can cause enormous damages to lives, property, crops and infrastructure. The frequency of extreme floods\\u000a is on the rise in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Past extreme floods fall within the range of climate variability but

  7. The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In both systems, controlled floods are generally effective at enhancing channel relief through fine sediment redistribution. Yet, controlled floods may also exacerbate the fine sediment deficit, and their long-term efficacy thus requires a detailed understanding of sediment mass balance.

  8. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...interest. A balanced flood plain management and protection...needed to reduce the flood hazard to a minimum...safeguard public health, welfare, safety...To foster sound flood plain controls...water resources management, the...

  9. Stream Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Warren Huff

    2000-11-03

    This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

  10. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan ranging from governmental organizations, for-profit to and non-profit entities. All vehicles were equipped with a data acquisition system that automatically collected statistically relevant data for submission to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which monitored the progress of the fuel cell vehicles against the DOE technology validation milestones. The Mercedes Team also provided data from Gen-II vehicles under the similar operations as Gen I vehicles to compare technology maturity during program duration.

  11. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-04-23

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included.

  12. Flood Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Tingle

    This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

  13. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

  14. Cost of Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    Floodsmart.gov The official site of the National Flood Insurance Program Call toll free: 1-888-379- ... Term(s): Home What Causes Flooding Coastal Flooding Defining Flood Risks Understanding Flood Maps Undergoing a Map Change ...

  15. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (CAV.) TRIN. EX STEUD. IN FLOOD CONTROL DITCHES IN THE DEPRESSION WETLAND (?U?AWY WI?LANE, NORTHERN POLAND)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrycja BOSZKE; Józef SZMEJA

    The population structure of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. was ex- amined in seven categories of overgrowing flood control ditches, differing on time which had elapsed from the last clean-up. Density, biomass, frequency of development stages, as well as the size and habit of the shoots, were determined in the populations. Site conditions in the ditches and the proportion

  16. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  17. The Research of Information Security Management System for Critical Infrastructure Industrial Control System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuni Lin; Kwo-Jean Farn; Chung-Huang Yang

    With the advance of Information Technology (IT), manufacturing greatly introduces general purpose equipment into the process control system to replace specialized control devices. While enjoying the convenience and benefits of IT, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) encounter the security problems of configuration change, virus, and hacker intrusion, etc. To counteract security problem of IT, it is necessary to develop and apply

  18. The flood event explorer - a web based framework for rapid flood event analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Flood disaster management, recovery and reconstruction planning benefit from rapid evaluations of flood events and expected impacts. The near real time in-depth analysis of flood causes and key drivers for flood impacts requires a close monitoring and documentation of hydro-meteorological and socio-economic factors. Within the CEDIM's Rapid Flood Event Analysis project a flood event analysis system is developed which enables the near real-time evaluation of large scale floods in Germany. The analysis system includes functionalities to compile event related hydro-meteorological data, to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess hazard intensity and to estimate flood damage to residential buildings. A German flood event database is under development, which contains various hydro-meteorological information - in the future also impact information -for all large-scale floods since 1950. This data base comprises data on historic flood events which allow the classification of ongoing floods in terms of triggering processes and pre-conditions, critical controls and drivers for flood losses. The flood event analysis system has been implemented in a database system which automatically retrieves and stores data from more than 100 online discharge gauges on a daily basis. The current discharge observations are evaluated in a long term context in terms of flood frequency analysis. The web-based frontend visualizes the current flood situation in comparison to any past flood from the flood catalogue. The regional flood data base for Germany contains hydro-meteorological data and aggregated severity indices for a set of 76 historic large-scale flood events in Germany. This data base has been used to evaluate the key drivers for the flood in June 2013.

  19. Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: A Consensus Panel report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace Friedman; Marcie Barnette; Alfred S. Buck; Rosemary Ham; Jo-Ann Harris; Peggy Hoffman; Debra Johnson; Farrin Manian; Lindsay Nicolle; Michele L. Pearson; Trish M. Perl; Steven L. Solomon

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America established a consensus panel to develop recommendations for optimal infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology programs in out-of-hospital settings. The following report represents the Consensus Panel’s best assessment of requirements for a healthy and effective out-of-hospital–based infection control

  20. The Design and Implementation of a Real-Time Flood Forecasting System in Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Scott; Pegram, Geoff

    2003-04-01

    In South Africa, five flood events during the period 1994-1996 resulted in the loss of 173 lives, more than 7000 people requiring evacuation and/or emergency shelter and damages to the value of R680 million (White paper on Disaster Management 1998). The South African Disaster management bill provides for "...preventing or reducing the risk of disasters, mitigating the severity of disasters ...". To this end a pilot study funded by the Water Research Commission aims at providing flood forecasts for the Mgeni and Mlazi catchments near the city of Durban in South Africa. The importance and usefulness of flood forecasting is particularly evident in an urban context where the density of population and infrastructure provide great potential for disaster. A reliable flood warning or forecasting system cannot prevent the occurrence of floods, but provides a key tool that can allow decision makers to be proactive rather than reactive in their response to a flooding event. Taking preventative measures before the fact can significantly reduce the social and economic impacts associated with a disaster. The flood forecasting system described here makes use of a "best estimate" spatial rainfield (obtained by combining radar and telemetered rain gauge rainfall estimates) as input to a linear catchment model. The catchment model parameters are dynamically updated in response to measured streamflows using Kalman filtering techniques, allowing improved forecasts of streamflow as the catchment conditions change. Precomputed flood lines and a graphical representation of the spatial rainfield are dynamically displayed on a GIS in the Durban disaster management control center enabling Disaster Managers to be proactive in times of impending floods.

  1. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick O'Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests. This proved to be a major challenge for the project and was ultimately abandoned in favor of a directly wired solution for collecting sensor data at the building. The primary reason for this was the relatively short ranges at which we were able to effectively place the sensor nodes from the central receiving unit. Several different mesh technologies were attempted with similar results. Two hardware devices were created during the original performance period of the project. The first device, the WEB-MC, is a master control unit that has two radios, a CPU, memory, and serves as the central communications device for the WEB-MC System (Currently called the 'BEST Wireless HVAC Maintenance System' as a tentative commercial product name). The WEB-MC communicates with the local mesh network system via one of its antennas. Communication with the mesh network enables the WEB-MC to configure the network, send/receive data from individual motes, and serves as the primary mechanism for collecting sensor data at remote locations. The second antenna enables the WEB-MC to connect to a cellular network ('Long-Haul Communications') to transfer data to and from the NorthWrite Network Operations Center (NOC). A third 'all-in-one' hardware solution was created after the project was extended (Phase 2) and additional resources were provided. The project team leveraged a project funded by the State of Washington to develop a hardware solution that integrated the functionality of the original two devices. The primary reason for this approach was to eliminate the mesh network technical difficulties that severely limited the functionality of the original hardware approach. There were five separate software developments required to deliver the functionality needed for this project. These include the Data Server (or Network Operations Center), Web Application, Diagnostic Software, WEB-MC Embedded Software, Mote Embedded Software. Each of these developments was necessarily dependent on the others. This resulted in a challenging management task - requiring high bandwidth communications among

  2. Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

  3. Resource modelling for control: how hydrogeological modelling can support a water quality monitoring infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Doveri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the physical/chemical processes implied with the exploitation of water bodies for human consumption is an essential tool for the optimisation of the monitoring infrastructure. Due to their increasing importance in the context of human consumption (at least in the EU), this work focuses on groundwater resources. In the framework of drinkable water networks, the physical and data-driven modelling of transport phenomena in groundwater can help optimising the sensor network and validating the acquired data. This work proposes the combined usage of physical and data-driven modelling as a support to the design and maximisation of results from a network of distributed sensors. In particular, the validation of physico-chemical measurements and the detection of eventual anomalies by a set of continuous measurements take benefit from the knowledge of the domain from which water is abstracted, and its expected characteristics. Change-detection techniques based on non-specific sensors (presented by quite a large literature during the last two decades) have to deal with the classical issues of maximising correct detections and minimising false alarms, the latter of the two being the most typical problem to be faced, in the view of designing truly applicable monitoring systems. In this context, the definition of "anomaly" in terms of distance from an expected value or feature characterising the quality of water implies the definition of a suitable metric and the knowledge of the physical and chemical peculiarities of the natural domain from which water is exploited, with its implications in terms of characteristics of the water resource.

  4. 3, 32793319, 2006 Thresholds and flood

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 3279­3319, 2006 Thresholds and flood frequency I. Struthers and M. Sivapalan Title Page of process controls upon flood frequency: role of thresholds I. Struthers 1 and M. Sivapalan 2 1 School. Struthers (struther@sese.uwa.edu.au) 3279 #12;HESSD 3, 3279­3319, 2006 Thresholds and flood frequency I

  5. Social infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Kurlbaum, Ryan E. (Ryan Edward)

    2013-01-01

    Current urbanization patterns and aging transportation infrastructures have marginalized millions of US citizens. The result is that 4 .5 million US residents live within 100 meters of a four-lane highway' and have become ...

  6. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

    2002-01-01

    Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

  7. 1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.

  8. The Role of Sediment Budgets in the Implementation and Evaluation of Controlled Floods to Restore Sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The measurement and prediction of the fine sediment budget for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has been of strong scientific and management interest since erosion of sandbars was first reported in the early 1970s, about 10 years after Glen Canyon Dam began regulating streamflow and eliminated the upstream sediment supply. Efforts to rebuild eroded sandbars have consisted largely of the experimental release of controlled floods, during which sand is redistributed from the bed to eddy sandbars along the channel margin. Flood-aggraded sandbars are, however, inherently unstable and inevitably erode between floods. Thus, sandbars cannot be "preserved," but are dynamic landforms that require periodic rebuilding by recurring floods. Such a strategy, with the goal of achieving a long-term increase in the size and number of sandbars, was recently implemented as a policy initiative of the U.S. Department of the Interior. This High Flow Experiment Protocol is being implemented by a unique collaboration of scientists, engineers, and policy makers and provides a rare example of a case in which management decisions are fully integrated with scientific monitoring. Controlled floods are scheduled based on real-time monitoring of sediment flux, computations of sediment budgets, and use of flow and sediment models. Floods are scheduled to occur within a few weeks of measurement results becoming available, assuming that threshold triggers for sediment accumulation are met. Sandbar building results are evaluated within weeks to months using remotely deployed time-lapse cameras. The protocol has been implemented in fall 2013 and fall 2014. Preliminary results suggest that the program may be resulting in the desired effect of cumulative increases in sandbar size. These results are tentative, because recent years have been relatively favorable, with large fine-sediment inputs and low annual dam-release volumes. Successive years with low fine-sediment supply or above-average dam releases could cause the flood protocol to result in progressive fine-sediment depletion. Ultimately, success depends on factors that cannot be controlled and are difficult to predict. For these reasons, the protocol is designed as a long-term experiment whose success will be evaluated based on implementation and evaluation over 10 to 20 years.

  9. Vision and Control for UAVs: A Survey of General Methods and of Inexpensive Platforms for Infrastructure Inspection.

    PubMed

    Máthé, Koppány; Bu?oniu, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent years. Low-cost platforms using inexpensive sensor payloads have been shown to provide satisfactory flight and navigation capabilities. In this report, we survey vision and control methods that can be applied to low-cost UAVs, and we list some popular inexpensive platforms and application fields where they are useful. We also highlight the sensor suites used where this information is available. We overview, among others, feature detection and tracking, optical flow and visual servoing, low-level stabilization and high-level planning methods. We then list popular low-cost UAVs, selecting mainly quadrotors. We discuss applications, restricting our focus to the field of infrastructure inspection. Finally, as an example, we formulate two use-cases for railway inspection, a less explored application field, and illustrate the usage of the vision and control techniques reviewed by selecting appropriate ones to tackle these use-cases. To select vision methods, we run a thorough set of experimental evaluations. PMID:26121608

  10. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-01-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  11. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, Tom [USC] [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM] [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID] [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including ? OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, ? Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, ? Control plane software release, ? Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, ? Network Virtualization architecture, ? Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  12. On Integrating Human-In-The-Loop Supervision Into Critical Infrastructure Process Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Korzyk; William Yurcik

    2002-01-01

    Post mortem investigations report that most industrial accidents are due to human error with many having their origin in the lack of effective control system interfaces for human supervision of embedded sensors. The need for more sophisticated human interface facilities based on human usability and human performance design is most pressing. This paper examines this problem as a necessary component

  13. Remote control of a multirobot infrastructure for E-learning training sessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Borangiu; F. D. Anton; S. Anton; N. Ivanescu

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a scientific project aiming to build up an R&D collaboration portal and communication platform for robot integration in on demand, flexible manufacturing structures and hands-on team training. The project offer a solution to control remotely a fault tolerant robotized manufacturing cell. The platform is a software product designed to support multiple remote connections with a number of

  14. Efficient Communication Infrastructures for Distributed Control and Decision Making in Networked Stochastic Systems

    E-print Network

    Baras, John S.

    of communication and collaboration graphs in a networked system in the context of a coordination control, a communication graph, and an action (collaboration) graph. The first two graphs describe the information exchange Stochastic Systems John S. Baras and Pedram Hovareshti Abstract-- In networked systems, groups of agents

  15. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  16. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15

    studies included preliminary studies of CO2 and water injection performance in fractured and unfractured cores. These experiments provided a base performance to which the performances of the mobility control attempts were compared. We have applied the same...

  17. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

  18. A NEW APPROACH TO FLOOD PROTECTION DESIGN AND RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    A NEW APPROACH TO FLOOD PROTECTION DESIGN AND RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT1 2 Philip B. Williams, California. Abstract: Conventional engineering methods of flood control design focus narrowly processes. Conse- quently, flood control projects are often environmentally disastrous, expensive

  19. Rivers and Flooding Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurel Senft

    Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

  20. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.

    2015-04-01

    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  1. 1996 Grand Canyon Flood Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Manone

    Mark Manone, Northern Arizona University Summary Analyze the effect of a 1996 controlled flood on a sandbar in Grand Canyon. This exercise uses Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst Context Type and level of course ...

  2. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

  3. Floods: Too Much of a Good Thing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module focuses on flooding and the natural and man-made factors that influence floods. Students will learn the properties of soils that may influence flooding, describe factors that affect the flow of rivers, research factors that result in floods, describe the effects of land-use practices on flood control, and learn to identify their own watersheds on a map. The module consists of seven lessons in which the students will learn vocabulary, perform internet-based activities, and see a video on flooding. They will also perform historical research on flooding, use modeling software to model a flood, and perform a lab activity in which they test different types of soil for water-retaining capacity. (works best in the firefox browser)

  4. Conditional Reliability, Sub-Monthly Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP

    E-print Network

    Salazar, A.A.; Olmos, H.E.; Hoffpauir, R.J.; Wurbs, R.A.

    .................................................................... 9 2.1 Conditional Reliability CR Record ................................................................................. 14 2.2 Beginning of SIM Output CRM File for the CRM Example .......................................... 25 2.3 TABLES Input... for the Pearson Type III Distribution ............................................. 125 5.1 Components of Control Point Inflows and Outflows ..................................................... 138 5.2 Variables from SIM/SIMD Simulation Results...

  5. Manual on Conditional Reliability, Daily Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP (Draft)

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, Ralph

    .................................................................... 9 2.1 Conditional Reliability CR Record ................................................................................. 14 2.2 Beginning of SIM Output CRM File for the CRM Example .......................................... 25 2.3 TABLES Input... for the Pearson Type III Distribution ............................................. 125 5.1 Components of Control Point Inflows and Outflows ..................................................... 138 5.2 Variables from SIM/SIMD Simulation Results...

  6. Flood Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

  7. Flood hazard probability mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve; Folkeson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. Factors such as topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs were analysed in terms of their relative importance for flood generation. The specific objective was to test the methodology using statistical methods to identify factors having a significant role on controlling flooding. A second objective was to generate an index quantifying flood probability value for each cell, based on different weighted factors, in order to provide a more accurate analysis of potential high flood hazards than can be obtained using just a single variable. The ability of indicator covariance to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. By using PCD data, realistic representations of high probability flood regions was made, despite the magnitude of rain events. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  8. Master-Slave Control Scheme in Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-01-01

    WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

  9. Master-slave control scheme in electric vehicle smart charging infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-01-01

    WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

  10. Uncertainty compliant design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, A.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Claps, P.

    2014-05-01

    Hydraulic infrastructures are commonly designed with reference to target values of flood peak, estimated using probabilistic techniques, such as flood frequency analysis. The application of these techniques underlies levels of uncertainty, which are sometimes quantified but normally not accounted for explicitly in the decision regarding design discharges. The present approach aims at defining a procedure which enables the definition of Uncertainty Compliant Design (UNCODE) values of flood peaks. To pursue this goal, we first demonstrate the equivalence of the Standard design based on the return period and the cost-benefit procedure, when linear cost and damage functions are used. We then use this result to assign an expected cost to estimation errors, thus setting a framework to obtain a design flood estimator which minimizes the total expected cost. This procedure properly accounts for the uncertainty which is inherent in the frequency curve estimation. Applications of the UNCODE procedure to real cases leads to remarkable displacement of the design flood from the Standard values. UNCODE estimates are systematically larger than the Standard ones, with substantial differences (up to 55%) when large return periods or short data samples are considered.

  11. Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

  12. Applications of flood depth from rapid post-event footprint generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Naomi; Millinship, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Immediately following large flood events, an indication of the area flooded (i.e. the flood footprint) can be extremely useful for evaluating potential impacts on exposed property and infrastructure. Specifically, such information can help insurance companies estimate overall potential losses, deploy claims adjusters and ultimately assists the timely payment of due compensation to the public. Developing these datasets from remotely sensed products seems like an obvious choice. However, there are a number of important drawbacks which limit their utility in the context of flood risk studies. For example, external agencies have no control over the region that is surveyed, the time at which it is surveyed (which is important as the maximum extent would ideally be captured), and how freely accessible the outputs are. Moreover, the spatial resolution of these datasets can be low, and considerable uncertainties in the flood extents exist where dry surfaces give similar return signals to water. Most importantly of all, flood depths are required to estimate potential damages, but generally cannot be estimated from satellite imagery alone. In response to these problems, we have developed an alternative methodology for developing high-resolution footprints of maximum flood extent which do contain depth information. For a particular event, once reports of heavy rainfall are received, we begin monitoring real-time flow data and extracting peak values across affected areas. Next, using statistical extreme value analyses of historic flow records at the same measured locations, the return periods of the maximum event flow at each gauged location are estimated. These return periods are then interpolated along each river and matched to JBA's high-resolution hazard maps, which already exist for a series of design return periods. The extent and depth of flooding associated with the event flow is extracted from the hazard maps to create a flood footprint. Georeferenced ground, aerial and satellite images are used to establish defence integrity, highlight breach locations and validate our footprint. We have implemented this method to create seven flood footprints, including river flooding in central Europe and coastal flooding associated with Storm Xaver in the UK (both in 2013). The inclusion of depth information allows damages to be simulated and compared to actual damage and resultant loss which become available after the event. In this way, we can evaluate depth-damage functions used in catastrophe models and reduce their associated uncertainty. In further studies, the depth data could be used at an individual property level to calibrate property type specific depth-damage functions.

  13. Flood Cleanup

    MedlinePLUS

    ... epa.gov/naturalevents/hurricanes EPA's Office of Children’s Health - in the Aftermath of Floods - http://yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.nsf/content/ ... Carbon Monoxide Information Natural Emergencies [ en ... Federal Emergency Management Agency ( www.fema.gov ) Hurricane Response and Recovery ...

  14. Flooding Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Nelson

    This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

  15. Infrastructure Net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, provided by Scranton Gillette Communications, contains information on various types of infrastructures. It contains searchable archives of selected articles from four of SGC's publications (Roads & Bridges, Water & Waste Digest, Water Engineering & Management, and Water Quality Products). In addition, a supplier and product directory (unfortunately not searchable) are available.

  16. Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy Management of a Large-scale Industrial Site in Alberta, Canada 

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, R.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure Case Study Suncor Building Management System Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy... interoperability and connectivity • Define specification guidance for all projects • Establish basic integration requirements • Define roles and responsibilities • Ensure compliance to requirements • Streamline system engineering ESL-IE-14-05-27 Proceedings...

  17. Sediment deposition in a flood retention structure after two record floods in southwestern Wisconsin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A., Jr.; Batten, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Sediment deposited in a flood-control structure was measured after record floods in SW Wisconsin on June 17 and June 30-July 1, 1978. The structure is in the Driftless Area, where high relief, erodible soils, and land use contribute to high soil losses. The two floods deposited 4.1 acre-ft of sediment in the structure.-from Authors

  18. Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. Landscape control of stream water aluminum in a boreal catchment during spring flood.

    PubMed

    Cory, Neil; Buffam, Ishi; Laudon, Hjalmar; Köhler, Stephan; Bishop, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    Inorganic aluminum (Al) concentrations are critical for defining the biological effects of acidification. The landscape's role in controlling the spatial variability of Al and its speciation has received only limited attention. We analyzed the speciation of stream Al at 14 sites within a 68 km2 boreal catchment during spring snowmelt, a period of episodic acidity. Three factors that influenced Al at these sites were landscape type (specifically the proportion of wetland areas), stream pH, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Forested catchment sites underlain by mineral soils had higher total Al concentrations and greater inorganic Al proportions than catchments with larger wetland areas, despite significantly higher pH. We suggest that this difference results from source limitation of Al in the peat wetlands. The control of Al solubilitywas dominated by organic complexes, with the organic carrying capacity exceeding Al in the majority of samples. When assessing the inorganic phase, only four percent of the samples were oversaturated with regards to commonly forming secondary Al minerals, with no samples showing supersaturation higher than 10 times with respect to any given solid phase. Inorganic Al rarely exceeded biological thresholds, except for short periods during peak flow in forested areas, despite two-thirds of the streams having minimum pH values below 4.9. Streams with a high percentage of wetland area were associated with lower Al:DOC ratios. The Al:DOC ratios were quite stable in each stream before, during, and after snowmelt, with the exception of isolated spikes in the Al:DOC ratio associated with particulate Al at a downstream site during high flow. PMID:16786685

  20. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID JUDI; ALFRED KALYANAPU; TIMOTHY MCPHERSON; ALAN BERSCHEID

    2007-01-01

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from

  1. A mathematical model for flood loss estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Herath, Srikantha; Musiake, Katumi

    2003-06-01

    This paper introduces an integrated model for flood loss estimation in a river basin. The model is the combination of a physically based distributed hydrologic model and a distributed flood loss estimation model. The hydrologic model considers major processes of the water cycle through physically based governing equations, which are solved to simulate the propagation of water in each of these processes. It is designed to consider the man-made flood control structures, such as river embankments, retarding basins, etc. which affect flooding characteristics. The loss estimation model is formulated based on stage-damage relationships between different flood inundation parameters and landuse features. It calculates the economic loss to different landuse features based on the simulated flood parameters obtained from the hydrologic model for any flood event. A case study illustrates the real world application of the integrated model to a medium size river basin in Japan, which is frequently affected by floods. The simulated river discharge and surface inundation by the flood model show good agreement with the observations. Urban flood loss simulated by the loss estimation model with the simulated flood parameters agrees with the estimated damage using post flood surveyed parameters.

  2. Assessing grain-size correspondence between flow and deposits of controlled floods in the Colorado River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy; Rubin, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Flood-deposited sediment has been used to decipher environmental parameters such as variability in watershed sediment supply, paleoflood hydrology, and channel morphology. It is not well known, however, how accurately the deposits reflect sedimentary processes within the flow, and hence what sampling intensity is needed to decipher records of recent or long-past conditions. We examine these problems using deposits from dam-regulated floods in the Colorado River corridor through Marble Canyon–Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A., in which steady-peaked floods represent a simple end-member case. For these simple floods, most deposits show inverse grading that reflects coarsening suspended sediment (a result of fine-sediment-supply limitation), but there is enough eddy-scale variability that some profiles show normal grading that did not reflect grain-size evolution in the flow as a whole. To infer systemwide grain-size evolution in modern or ancient depositional systems requires sampling enough deposit profiles that the standard error of the mean of grain-size-change measurements becomes small relative to the magnitude of observed changes. For simple, steady-peaked floods, 5–10 profiles or fewer may suffice to characterize grain-size trends robustly, but many more samples may be needed from deposits with greater variability in their grain-size evolution.

  3. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  4. Coiled-coil protein composition of 22 proteomes – differences and common themes in subcellular infrastructure and traffic control

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Annkatrin; Schraegle, Shannon J; Stahlberg, Eric A; Meier, Iris

    2005-01-01

    Background Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffolds that organize membrane systems and tissues, motors, levers, rotating arms, and possibly springs. Mutations in long coiled-coil proteins have been implemented in a growing number of human diseases. Using the coiled-coil prediction program MultiCoil, we have previously identified all long coiled-coil proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and have established a searchable Arabidopsis coiled-coil protein database. Results Here, we have identified all proteins with long coiled-coil domains from 21 additional fully sequenced genomes. Because regions predicted to form coiled-coils interfere with sequence homology determination, we have developed a sequence comparison and clustering strategy based on masking predicted coiled-coil domains. Comparing and grouping all long coiled-coil proteins from 22 genomes, the kingdom-specificity of coiled-coil protein families was determined. At the same time, a number of proteins with unknown function could be grouped with already characterized proteins from other organisms. Conclusion MultiCoil predicts proteins with extended coiled-coil domains (more than 250 amino acids) to be largely absent from bacterial genomes, but present in archaea and eukaryotes. The structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins and their relatives are the only long coiled-coil protein family clearly conserved throughout all kingdoms, indicating their ancient nature. Motor proteins, membrane tethering and vesicle transport proteins are the dominant eukaryote-specific long coiled-coil proteins, suggesting that coiled-coil proteins have gained functions in the increasingly complex processes of subcellular infrastructure maintenance and trafficking control of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:16288662

  5. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  6. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, Paul P.; Longenecker, Herbert E., III; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  7. Flood Plain Management. 

    E-print Network

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1976-01-01

    characteristics fairly representative for the en- tire length of each reach. Flood frequency data for the various streams in the study are developed from dis- charge-frequency relationships based on regionalized hydrologic analyses. Using the peak discharges... Contents Introduction.. .................................... 4 Agricultural Flood Plain Management ............... Flood Hazard Studies ............................. Federal Flood Insurance .......................... 11 Flood Insurance...

  8. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2010 vol 4 no 1

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2010 vol 4 no 1 Focusing on - Corps of Engineers Resources for Flood Risk Management Table of Contents CERB.............................. 8 Flood Control & Coastal Emergencies............4 PROSPECT Courses 2011

  9. Polymer floods: A case study of nonlinear wave analysis and of instability control in tertiary oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Daripa; J. Glimm; B. Lindquist; O. McBryan

    1986-01-01

    Polymer flooding in oil reservoir simulation is considered in two space dimensions. The wave structures associated with such a process give rise to interesting phenomena in the nonlinear regime which have direct bearing on the efficiency of oil recovery. These waves influence and can prevent surface instabilities of the fingering mode. In this paper we resolve these waves by a

  10. Polymer floods: A case study of nonlinear wave analysis and of instability control in tertiary oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabir Daripa; James Glimm; Brent Lindquist; Oliver McBryan

    1988-01-01

    Polymer flooding in oil reservoir simulation is considered in two space dimensions. The wave structures associated with such a process give rise to interesting phenomena in the nonlinear regime which have direct bearing on the efficiency of oil recovery. These waves influence and can prevent surface instabilities of the fingering mode. In this paper the authors resolve these waves by

  11. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we measured independently CH4 ebullition and diffusion in the footprint of an eddy covariance system (EC) measuring CH4 emissions in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. We showed a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1), whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emissions was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice as high as during nighttime. Additionally, more than 4800 discrete measurements of CH4 ebullition were performed at a weekly/fortnightly frequency, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems. Methane ebullition varies significantly seasonally and depends mostly on water level change during the warm dry season, whereas no relationship was observed during the cold dry season. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and ranged from 0 to 201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network (ANN) model could explain up to 46% of seasonal variability of ebullition by considering total static pressure (the sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the total static pressure, and bottom temperature as controlling factors. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition on the reservoir scale and performance of gap filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the reservoir (disregarding downstream emissions), suggesting that ebullition is a major pathway in young hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics.

  12. Flood frequency analysis - the challenge of using historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of high flood quantiles are needed for many applications, .e.g. dam safety assessments are based on the 1000 years flood, whereas the dimensioning of important infrastructure requires estimates of the 200 year flood. The flood quantiles are estimated by fitting a parametric distribution to a dataset of high flows comprising either annual maximum values or peaks over a selected threshold. Since the record length of data is limited compared to the desired flood quantile, the estimated flood magnitudes are based on a high degree of extrapolation. E.g. the longest time series available in Norway are around 120 years, and as a result any estimation of a 1000 years flood will require extrapolation. One solution is to extend the temporal dimension of a data series by including information about historical floods before the stream flow was systematically gaugeded. Such information could be flood marks or written documentation about flood events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of using historical flood data for at-site flood frequency estimation. The historical floods were included in two ways by assuming: (1) the size of (all) floods above a high threshold within a time interval is known; and (2) the number of floods above a high threshold for a time interval is known. We used a Bayesian model formulation, with MCMC used for model estimation. This estimation procedure allowed us to estimate the predictive uncertainty of flood quantiles (i.e. both sampling and parameter uncertainty is accounted for). We tested the methods using 123 years of systematic data from Bulken in western Norway. In 2014 the largest flood in the systematic record was observed. From written documentation and flood marks we had information from three severe floods in the 18th century and they were likely to exceed the 2014 flood. We evaluated the added value in two ways. First we used the 123 year long streamflow time series and investigated the effect of having several shorter series' which could be supplemented with a limited number of known large flood events. Then we used the three historical floods from the 18th century combined with the whole and subsets of the 123 years of systematic observations. In the latter case several challenges were identified: i) The possibility to transfer water levels to river streamflows due to man made changes in the river profile, (ii) The stationarity of the data might be questioned since the three largest historical floods occurred during the "little ice age" with different climatic conditions compared to today.

  13. Flood Modelling in Jakarta 

    E-print Network

    Diamantidis, Georgios

    2009-11-26

    Flooding is a major issue that affects the well being of a big part of the global population. This project is concerned with flooding caused by extreme rainfall events. Its aim is the development of a flood prediction ...

  14. 11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  15. 10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ON THE PRESSURE CULVERT, LOOKING NORTH. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  16. Flood Inundation Mapper

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

  17. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  18. INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY DELIVERY & ENERGY RELIABILITY Delivery and Energy Reliability #12;INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY Federal agencies to support waivers and specific response legal authorities #12;INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY

  19. Controlling factors of environmental flooding, soil pH and Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil feeding in citrus: Larval survival and larval growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Li; Clay W. McCoy; James P. Syvertsen

    2007-01-01

    The underlying influences of soil flooding, pH level and soil-inhabiting Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil larval feeding in citrus were examined in two separate greenhouse studies, rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (RFD) and liming×rootstock×flooding×Diaprepes-larvae (LRFD). Our objectives were to determine the combined effects of soil flooding and pH level on survival and growth of Diaprepes root weevil larvae to gain insights of insect-environmental relations

  20. Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy Management of a Large-scale Industrial Site in Alberta, Canada

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, R.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure Case Study Suncor Building Management System Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy... to building, panel to backbone • All modular buildings built to the same standard • Central site server • Common network database using LNS (LonWorks Network Services) and LonMaker Software • Single network management platform for all equipment and devices...

  1. Flood of Evidence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Tenenbaum

    2000-03-16

    This article is a Why Files report on the increase in "natural" disasters from floods, probably the most destructive type of natural disaster. The article notes that in constant dollars, the cost in 1998 alone exceeded the economic toll of the entire decade of the 1980s. Evidence is cited that inundations reflect human action rather than simply rainfall amounts. The report covers: furious floods (including possible human-induced causes), too many floods (recent flood events), do fewer trees create more floods?, wetlands and floods, and flood prevention: the engineering structure or earthmover approach. Six scientists and researchers were interviewed for this report.

  2. Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park through use of controlled floods in conjunction with typical amounts and grain sizes of sand supplied by the tributaries that enter the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam.

  3. Necessity of Flood Early Warning Systems in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, C.; Natesan, U.; Durga Rao, K. H. V.

    2014-12-01

    India is one of the highly flood prone countries in the world. National flood commission has reported that 400,000 km² of geographical area is prone to floods, constituting to twelve percent of the country's geographical area. Despite the reoccurrences of floods, India still does not have a proper flood warning system. Probably this can be attributed to the lack of trained personnel in using advanced techniques. Frequent flood hazards results in damage to livelihood, infrastructure and public utilities. India has a potential to develop an early warning system since it is one of the few countries where satellite based inputs are regularly used for monitoring and mitigating floods. However, modeling of flood extent is difficult due to the complexity of hydraulic and hydrologic processes during flood events. It has been reported that numerical methods of simulations can be effectively used to simulate the processes correctly. Progress in computational resources, data collection and development of several numerical codes has enhanced the use of hydrodynamic modeling approaches to simulate the flood extent in the floodplains. In this study an attempt is made to simulate the flood in one of the sub basins of Godavari River in India using hydrodynamic modeling techniques. The modeling environment includes MIKE software, which simulates the water depth at every grid cell of the study area. The runoff contribution from the catchment was calculated using Nebdor Afstromnings model. With the hydrodynamic modeling approach, accuracy in discharge and water level computations are improved compared to the conventional methods. The results of the study are proming to develop effective flood management plans in the basin. Similar studies could be taken up in other flood prone areas of the country for continuous modernisation of flood forecasting techniques, early warning systems and strengthening decision support systems, which will help the policy makers in developing management plans and policies.

  4. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

  5. Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    #12;JULY 2011 Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California Ann D. Willis operating rules is an important adaptation for climate warming. KEY WORDS Climate change, flood control with changing conditions. A changing climate, along with other changes in floodplain land use and flood warn

  6. SUTTER BASIN, SUTTER & BUTTE COUNTIES, CA FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    SUTTER BASIN, SUTTER & BUTTE COUNTIES, CA FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT 22 October 2013 ABSTRACT the risk to property damage due to flooding to the Sutter Basin area located in the Sutter and Butte Protection Board (CVFPB) and the Sutter Butte Flood Control Agency (SBFCA). The Sutter Basin is a 326-square

  7. Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Edward P.; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Pitt, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel.

  8. Strategically placing green infrastructure: cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain.

    PubMed

    Kousky, Carolyn; Olmstead, Sheila M; Walls, Margaret A; Macauley, Molly

    2013-04-16

    Green infrastructure approaches have attracted increased attention from local governments as a way to lower flood risk and provide an array of other environmental services. The peer-reviewed literature, however, offers few estimates of the economic impacts of such approaches at the watershed scale. We estimate the avoided flood damages and the costs of preventing development of floodplain parcels in the East River Watershed of Wisconsin's Lower Fox River Basin. Results suggest that the costs of preventing conversion of all projected floodplain development would exceed the flood damage mitigation benefits by a substantial margin. However, targeting of investments to high-benefit, low-cost parcels can reverse this equation, generating net benefits. The analysis demonstrates how any flood-prone community can use a geographic-information-based model to estimate the flood damage reduction benefits of green infrastructure, compare them to the costs, and target investments to design cost-effective nonstructural flood damage mitigation policies. PMID:23544743

  9. Flash Flood Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

  10. Getty's venture flood looks good

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bleakley

    1972-01-01

    Getty Oil Co. is closing in on the objectives set for its C-Block Unit waterflood in Ventura Ave. field, California. Unique at the outset because of the massive formations being flooded, the project has other features that distinguish it. The main goals now, some accomplished and some nearly so, include (1) control of injection profiles; (2) production of large volumes

  11. Developing a Risk Analysis Procedure for Post-Wildfire Mass Movement and Flooding in British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jordan; K. Turner; D. Nicol; D. Boyer

    2006-01-01

    Many communities in British Columbia are situated on alluvial fans fed by steep mountain creeks, which are subject to debris flow or flooding hazards. Development on most of these fans has taken place without planning for debris flow hazard. Several severe wildfires in 2003 were followed by incidents of debris flows and flooding, that affected inhabited private property and infrastructure.

  12. Rehabilitating agriculture and promoting food security following the 2010 Pakistan floods: Insights from South Asian experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Dorosh; Sohail Malik; Marika Krausova

    2010-01-01

    The recent floods in Pakistan have had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA 2010) estimates that, as of early September 2010, more than 20 million people had been displaced by the flood and by some estimates the damage to crops, housing, other buildings, roads, and irrigation infrastructure now reaches $6.5

  13. Severe Weather 101: Flood Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe Weather 101 Flood Basics What is flooding? Flooding is an overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry. Floods can happen during heavy rains, when ocean waves come on shore, when snow melts too fast, ...

  14. The Hydroclimatology of Extreme Flooding in the Lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2015-04-01

    The 1927 flood in the lower Mississippi River was the most destructive flood in American history, inundating more than 68,000 square kilometers of land, resulting in approximately 500 fatalities and leaving more than 700,000 people homeless. Despite the prominence of the 1927 flood, hard details on the flood, and the storms that produced the flood, are sparse. We examine the hydrometeorology, hydroclimatolgy and hydrology of the 1927 flood in the lower Mississippi River through empirical analyses of rainfall and streamflow records and through downscaling simulations of the storms that were responsible for cata-strophic flooding. We use 20th Century Reanalysis fields as boundary conditions and initial conditions for downscaling simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We place the hydrometeorological analyses of the 1927 storms in a hydroclimatolog-ical context through analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Analyses are designed to assess the physical processes that control the upper tail of flooding in the lower Missis-sippi River. We compare the 1927 flood in the Lower Mississippi River to floods in 2011, 1937 and 1973 that represent the most extreme flooding in the Lower Mississippi River. Our results show that extreme flooding is tied to anomalous water vapor transport linked to strength and position of the North Atlantic Subtropical High. More generally, the results are designed to provide insights to the hydroclimatology of flooding in large rivers.

  15. USGS Measures Flooding Near Bonnet Carre Spillway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists take streamflow and water quality measurements downstream of the Bonnet Carre Spillway near Norco, La. The Army Corps of Engineers uses USGS streamflow data to help them manage flood control structures....

  16. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO(2) Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO(2) Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the efficiency of miscible C0{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This objective was accomplished through experimental and modeling research in three task areas: (1) foams for selective mobility control in heterogeneous reservoirs,( 2) reduction of the amount of C0{sub 2} required in C0{sub 2} floods, and (3) low IFT processe and the possibility of C0{sub 2} flooding in fractured reservoirs. This report provides results from the three-year project for each of the three task areas.

  17. Recent flooding in Middle Tennessee may have caused immediate problems for beef cattle producers and might still lead to long-term issues in areas where infrastructure has been damaged. The following are some issues to be aware of in the

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    Recent flooding in Middle Tennessee may have caused immediate problems for beef cattle producers caused by a flood can result in a loss of refrigeration for cattle vaccines stored at home or at working as possible, and observe cattle closely during this period. Abruptly Flood Recovery Concerns for Beef Cattle

  18. FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

  19. Souris River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Souris River flooding many homes in Minot, ND. The Souris River went over the large dikes along 5th Ave and Edwards Ave in Minot, ND. Photo taken by USGS personnel during a FEMA Flood Inundation Mapping Project....

  20. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: Bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-03-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial-bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (< 1.5-year return periods) that mobilize channel-bed material and less frequent events that determine bankfull channel (1.5- to 3-year return periods) and macrochannel (10- to 40-year return periods) dimensions; (v) macrochannels with high f values (mostly ? 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize development of alluvial bankfull indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that mixed alluvial-bedrock channels exhibit first-order lithologic controls (lithologic resistance and valley confinement) of channel geometry, second-order hydrologic (flow regime) control of channel dimensions, and third-order sedimentary controls that exert subsidiary influence on channel shape and bed configuration.

  1. FLOOD RESPONSE PLAN River Flood Guide

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    , CCPS Campus Community Police Service 76.0 If flood waters are rising contact Housing to alert Medway, until barricaded. Arrange shuttle from Huron Lot. Notify Parking Manager Campus Community Police Service in the flooded areas (PPD and ITS); f) communicating with the Campus Community concerning disruptions and safety

  2. FLOODS CAUSES, MANAGEMENT AND RELIEF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Adamson

    SYNOPSIS: This paper provides an overview of the flooding problem, flood management and flood relief in Ireland. The paper begins with an examination of the causes of flooding, and in particular, the human activities that can increase flood risk. This leads into a review of the current concepts involved in managing present and future flood risk. The design and implementation

  3. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged records) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 yr and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 yr) has changed over the last 500 yr due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful in providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  4. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  5. Flooding in Virginia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Patrick

    In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

  6. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations vegetation such as tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) was damaged, wholesale bed motion necessary to fully clear these surfaces was not evident. In flow recirculation zones, eddy sandbars aggraded one meter or more, increasing the area of bars exposed during typical dam operations. Yet overall, the 2011 flood resulted in a decrease in reach-scale sand storage because bed degradation exceeded bar deposition. The 2011 response is consistent with that of a similar event in 1999, which was followed by sand-bar erosion and sediment accumulation on the bed during subsequent years of normal dam operational flows. Although the 1999 and 2011 floods were exceptional in the post-dam system, they did not exceed the pre-dam 2-year flood, isolating their effects to the modern active channel with minor erosion or reworking of pre-dam deposits stabilized through vegetation encroachment.

  7. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level ...

  8. Flood Frequency Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sheila Roberts

    This assignment asks students to do a flood frequency analysis to determine the size and stage of various floods and determine if the town of Crawford, OH is likely to be flooded or not. Outcomes: learn to work with quantitative data, learn to use Excel, be able to use USGS data.

  9. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio...transportation, environmental health issues (air quality, noise, public health, and environmental hazards...Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements...Chief, Environmental Management Division, USIBWC,...

  10. Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  11. Diagenetic control on secondary porosity in flood plain deposits: an example of the Lower Triassic of northeastern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Viaene, W.; Dusar, M.

    1992-07-01

    The Lower Triassic sandstones of northeastern Belgium were deposited in channels and by sheet floods. Introduction of clays, formation of iron oxides and alteration of feldspars in these sediments occurred at near-surface conditions. Subsequent calcite precipitation and the replacement of feldspars and quartz occurred at low temperatures (21°-26°C) in meteoric waters with a ? 18O ? - 5.8‰ SMOW. Characteristic is the bleaching of the originally red-coloured sediments. Red coloration was caused by iron oxide pigments in clay coatings around quartz grains. The bleaching is the result of the reduction of these iron oxides, most likely by organic acids. The oxidation-reduction reaction produced carbon dioxide and protons, which altered the feldspars. The underlying Upper Carboniferous strata are a potential source for organic acids released by thermocatalytic degradation of its kerogen. The bleaching took place before a period of important authigenic quartz growth, which occurred after compaction. Feldspars, quartz and calcites have been replaced by dolomite and ankerite. These carbonates could have formed from meteoric waters at relatively low temperatures (e.g. 50°C) as well as from brines at higher temperatures (e.g. 120°C). Following dolomite/ankerite cementation, an intensive dissolution of feldspar took place. The secondary pores have been filled with kaolinite, barite and illite. Primary and secondary porosity is now significantly lower in clay-rich sandstones than in pure sandstones. Early diagenetic replacive calcites have a negative effect on late diagenetic porosity creation. Feldspar grains, which have been replaced by calcites were either slightly or not affected by late diagenetic dissolution.

  12. Floods: The Awesome Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâ??re caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

  13. Flood Frequency Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

  14. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  15. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  16. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years

    PubMed Central

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B.; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H.; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2013-01-01

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change. PMID:24067733

  17. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE Researchers

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    SUPPORTING URBAN GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE Researchers: Jenny Caldwell Catherine Cruz-Ortiz Craig Dsouza are supported at the master's and doctoral levels. #12;Supporting Urban Green Infrastructure Researchers: Jenny for green infrastructure to address needs and opportunities in the State of Delaware. Dr. John Byrne

  18. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  19. Mapping Coastal Flood Zones for the National Flood Insurance Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Carlton; C. L. Cook; J. Weber

    2004-01-01

    The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created by Congress in 1968, and significantly amended in 1973 to reduce loss of life and property caused by flooding, reduce disaster relief costs caused by flooding and make Federally backed flood insurance available to property owners. These goals were to be achieved by requiring building to be built to resist flood damages,

  20. Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

  1. Towards Unified Programmability of Cloud and Carrier Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Stefan

    Towards Unified Programmability of Cloud and Carrier Infrastructure Pontus Sk¨oldstr¨om1, Bal in the characterization of services, as well as on the control and orchestration of both carrier and cloud infrastructure, the cloud-computing project OpenStack [1] provides a platform for infrastructure as a service (IaaS) clouds

  2. CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of critical infrastructures, assessed by the potential consequences of failure or destruction of infrastructures providing essential services to the population. The integration of these two methodologies within a same tool allows the dynamic mapping of human vulnerability according to the characteristics of the flood, and thus produces a precise and reliable evaluation of human risk related to a potential or an ongoing flood. The methodology was successfully applied to two rivers sections exposed to flooding on the suburbs of Quebec City (Canada), which present a diversified land use (industrial areas, residential areas, public facilities, etc.).

  3. ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)

    E-print Network

    ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE) DURING REBUILDING What are the Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFE)? Answer: This is the NEW Base Flood Elevation for rebuilding. It has the same definition of the Base Flood Elevation based on recent storm events. In other words, it is updating the Base Flood

  4. Real Option Cost Vulnerability Analysis of Electrical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prime, Thomas; Knight, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Critical infrastructure such as electricity substations are vulnerable to various geo-hazards that arise from climate change. These geo-hazards range from increased vegetation growth to increased temperatures and flood inundation. Of all the identified geo-hazards, coastal flooding has the greatest impact, but to date has had a low probability of occurring. However, in the face of climate change, coastal flooding is likely to occur more often due to extreme water levels being experienced more frequently due to sea-level rise (SLR). Knowing what impact coastal flooding will have now and in the future on critical infrastructure such as electrical substations is important for long-term management. Using a flood inundation model, present day and future flood events have been simulated, from 1 in 1 year events up to 1 in 10,000 year events. The modelling makes an integrated assessment of impact by using sea-level and surge to simulate a storm tide. The geographical area the model covers is part of the Northwest UK coastline with a range of urban and rural areas. The ensemble of flood maps generated allows the identification of critical infrastructure exposed to coastal flooding. Vulnerability has be assessed using an Estimated Annual Damage (EAD) value. Sampling SLR annual probability distributions produces a projected "pathway" for SLR up to 2100. EAD is then calculated using a relationship derived from the flood model. Repeating the sampling process allows a distribution of EAD up to 2100 to be produced. These values are discounted to present day values using an appropriate discount rate. If the cost of building and maintain defences is also removed from this a Net Present Value (NPV) of building the defences can be calculated. This distribution of NPV can be used as part of a cost modelling process involving Real Options, A real option is the right but not obligation to undertake investment decisions. In terms of investment in critical infrastructure resilience this means that a real option can be deferred or exercised depending on the climate future that has been realised. The real option value is defined as the maximum positive NPV value that is found across the range of potential SLR "futures". Real Options add value in that flood defences may not be built when there is real value in doing so. The cost modelling output is in the form of an accessible database that has detailed real option values varying spatially across the model domain (for each critical infrastructure) and temporally up to 2100. The analysis has shown that in 2100, 8.2% of the substations analysed have a greater than a 1 in 2 chance of exercising the real option to build flood defences against coastal flooding. The cost modelling tool and flood maps that have been developed will help stakeholders in deciding where and when to invest in mitigating against coastal flooding.

  5. Artificial neural networks applied to flow prediction scenarios in Tomebamba River - Paute watershed, for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Felipe; Veintimilla, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this research is to create a model of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) that allows predicting the flow in Tomebamba River both, at real time and in a certain day of year. As inputs we are using information of rainfall and flow of the stations along of the river. This information is organized in scenarios and each scenario is prepared to a specific area. The information is acquired from the hydrological stations placed in the watershed using an electronic system developed at real time and it supports any kind or brands of this type of sensors. The prediction works very good three days in advance This research includes two ANN models: Back propagation and a hybrid model between back propagation and OWO-HWO. These last two models have been tested in a preliminary research. To validate the results we are using some error indicators such as: MSE, RMSE, EF, CD and BIAS. The results of this research reached high levels of reliability and the level of error are minimal. These predictions are useful for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador

  6. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  7. Changes in flood response of the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota-Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Jeffrey E.; Frink, Dale L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of large floods that have occurred in recent years in the basin of the Red River of the North have caused concern that land-use changes and manmade drainage have increased flooding. This study was undertaken to determine whether any changes in flood response of the basin could be documented. A review of the hydrologic setting, previous floods, flood-control measures, and probable effects of land-use changes shows that the flooding problem of the Red River basin is complex hydrologically, highly variable historically, and follows a regional pattern. Therefore, a change in flood response of the basin is difficult to identify. The flood-frequency, normalized-hydrograph, double-mass, and regression analyses show little indication of significant change in flood response of the Red River basin at locations on the main stem. However, the large variation in flood discharges may mask or dwarf small changes in response.

  8. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  9. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the flooding scenarios that can be defined by the RASOR end user to support risk management in each area. Ongoing work for three more case studies (Haiti, Po valley in Italy and Jakarta, Indonesia) will also be discussed.

  10. Flash Flood Case Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2007-06-26

    This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

  11. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  12. The national database of hospital-based cancer registries: a nationwide infrastructure to support evidence-based cancer care and cancer control policy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Akiko; Emori, Yoshiko; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice. PMID:23448800

  13. Using the infrastructure of a conditional cash transfer program to deliver a scalable integrated early child development program in Colombia: cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Attanasio, Orazio P; Fernández, Camila; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Meghir, Costas; Rubio-Codina, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of an integrated early child development intervention, combining stimulation and micronutrient supplementation and delivered on a large scale in Colombia, for children’s development, growth, and hemoglobin levels. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial, using a 2×2 factorial design, with municipalities assigned to one of four groups: psychosocial stimulation, micronutrient supplementation, combined intervention, or control. Setting 96 municipalities in Colombia, located across eight of its 32 departments. Participants 1420 children aged 12-24 months and their primary carers. Intervention Psychosocial stimulation (weekly home visits with play demonstrations), micronutrient sprinkles given daily, and both combined. All delivered by female community leaders for 18 months. Main outcome measures Cognitive, receptive and expressive language, and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley scales of infant development-III; height, weight, and hemoglobin levels measured at the baseline and end of intervention. Results Stimulation improved cognitive scores (adjusted for age, sex, testers, and baseline levels of outcomes) by 0.26 of a standard deviation (P=0.002). Stimulation also increased receptive language by 0.22 of a standard deviation (P=0.032). Micronutrient supplementation had no significant effect on any outcome and there was no interaction between the interventions. No intervention affected height, weight, or hemoglobin levels. Conclusions Using the infrastructure of a national welfare program we implemented the integrated early child development intervention on a large scale and showed its potential for improving children’s cognitive development. We found no effect of supplementation on developmental or health outcomes. Moreover, supplementation did not interact with stimulation. The implementation model for delivering stimulation suggests that it may serve as a promising blueprint for future policy on early childhood development. Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN18991160. PMID:25266222

  14. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory. PMID:25563862

  15. Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

    Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

  16. The hurricane-flood-landslide continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Negri, A.J.; Burkardt, N.; Golden, J.H.; Halverson, J.B.; Huffman, G.J.; Larsen, M.C.; McGinley, J.A.; Updike, R.G.; Verdin, J.P.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the US Geological Survey (USGS), as well as other government agencies and academic institutions convened in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The purpose of the HFLC is to develop and integrate the multidisciplinary tools needed to issue regional guidance products for floods and landslide associated with major tropical rain systems with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can notify vulnerable populations and protect infrastructure. The workshop sought to initiate discussion among these agencies about their highly complementary capabilities, and to establish a framework to leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed, it could be adapted for use in regions that have a high frequency of tropical disturbances.

  17. Effects of forcing uncertainties in the improvement skills of assimilating satellite soil moisture retrievals into flood forecasting models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floods have negative impacts on society, causing damages in infrastructures and industry, and in the worst cases, causing loss of human lives. Thus early and accurate warning is crucial to significantly reduce the impacts on public safety and economy. Reliable flood warning can be generated using ...

  18. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals, presentations and recommendations with respect to the development of the HFLC.

  19. Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanowski, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which began on 1 October 1996 and ended on 31 January 1997. In addition, it provides a summary of the entire project.

  20. Advances in Regionalising Flood Probabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Merz

    \\u000a Flood regionalisation methods are used to estimate floods of a given excedance probability, such as the 100-year flood, in\\u000a ungauged catchments, i.e. catchments, where no local streamflow data are available. They can also be used to improve flood\\u000a estimates from local data in gauged catchments. The main idea of flood regionalisation methods is to transfer flood information\\u000a from hydrologically similar

  1. Effectiveness of monsoon floods on the Tapi River, India: role of channel geometry and hydrologic regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishwas S Kale; Pramodkumar S Hire

    2004-01-01

    Geomorphic effects of floods are a function of several controlling factors, such as magnitude, frequency, rate of sediment movement, flood power, duration of effective flows, sequence of events and the channel geometry. In this paper, these measures of effectiveness have been evaluated for the monsoon-dominated, flood-controlled and incised Tapi River, India by defining four flow categories: low flows, moderate flows,

  2. Operation of water supply reservoirs for flood mitigation : hydrologic and institutional considerations 

    E-print Network

    Craney, Patrick Wayne

    1996-01-01

    of water supply storage for flood control purposes. Lake Limestone in Central Texas serves as the case study. The highly variable conditions of the watershed commonly exhibit both hydrologic extremes, floods and droughts. The agency responsible...

  3. Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Second annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Donaruma, L.G.; Hatch, M.J.

    1981-04-01

    The objective of this laboratory work is to develop improved mobility control agents that are more effective than the commercial polymers currently used in this process. During the second year of the project, the baseline testing of commercial products was completed. These baseline tests with polymers include studies on mobility control, retention, and shear degradation in Berea cores, the effect of common ions on rheological properties, thermal stability, microbial degradation, and surfactant-polymer interactions. These data are used for comparison of the commercial agents at standardized sets of conditions, and are also used to evaluate new, modified, or improved polymers. Work was also initiated on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new and modified polymers. Testing of these analogs provides systematic correlations of polymer performance with polymer structure. This preliminary testing consists of measurements of shear degradation and viscosity loss in NaCl brines by the use of a simplified screening procedure. To date, a number of potential structure-utility relationships have been observed. Solution viscosities of all nonionic polymers tested are essentially insensitive to changes in NaCl concentration. Increasing the charge-to-mass ratio (degree of hydrolysis) of either polyacrylamides or N-alkyl analogs enhances the ability of these polymers to build viscosity in low salinity NaCl brines. However, such polymers are increasingly subject to viscosity loss as the salinity is increased. Above a certain critical molecular weight, polymers become more susceptible to shear degradation. Many of the polymers that possess stiffer backbones exhibit improved brine and shear stability. The results of these studies will be used to develop an improved mobility control polymer in the next phase of this project.

  4. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  5. Flooded Wild Rice River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild Rice River at Great Bend North Dakota, streamflow 1,890 cubic feet per second.  Photograph taken during spring 2010 flooding looking downstream of the bridge which was clogged with debris.  The river also had flooded over the road approaching the bridge....

  6. Caustic steam flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tiab; C. U. Okoye; M. M. Osman

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the potential of improving tertiary oil recovery of intermediate to heavy oils by using caustic soda as a chemical additive in water flooding and steam flooding. Seven aspects of this study were examined. In all the cases, the process was started with a fresh and similarly water and oil saturated sandpack. The results

  7. Detecting SYN Flooding Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haining Wang; Danlu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

    2002-01-01

    We propose a simple and robust mechanism for de- tecting SYN flooding attacks. Instead of monitoring the ongoing traffic at the front end (like firewall or proxy) or a victim server itself, we detect the SYN flooding attacks at leaf routers that con- nect end hosts to the Internet. The simplicity of our detection mechanism lies in its statelessness and

  8. Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.

    2009-10-01

    This study examines flood risk perceptions of individuals in the Netherlands using a survey of approximately 1000 homeowners. Perceptions of a range of aspects of flood risk are elicited. Various statistical models are used to estimate the influence of socioeconomic and geographical characteristics, personal experience with flooding, knowledge of flood threats, and individual risk attitudes on shaping risk belief. The study shows that in general, perceptions of flood risk are low. An analysis of the factors determining risk perceptions provides four main insights relevant for policy makers and insurers. First, differences in expected risk are consistently related to actual risk levels, since individuals in the vicinity of a main river and low-lying areas generally have elevated risk perceptions. Second, individuals in areas unprotected by dikes tend to underestimate their risk of flooding. Third, individuals with little knowledge of the causes of flood events have lower perceptions of flood risk. Fourth, there is some evidence that older and more highly educated individuals have a lower flood risk perception. The findings indicate that increasing knowledge of citizens about the causes of flooding may increase flood risk awareness. It is especially important to target individuals who live in areas unprotected by dike infrastructure, since they tend to be unaware of or ignore the high risk exposure faced.

  9. Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. First annual report, September 29, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    Phase 1: Based on a literature survey and input solicited from industry, academic, and government sources, inadequacies of the currently used mobility control materials were assessed. Phase 2: Baseline screening of commercially available polymers began in January 1979. Rheological measurements and mobility control test in Berea cores have been completed on Dow Pusher 700, Betz Hi Vis, Nalco Nal-flo, Cyanamid 960S, Kelco Xanflood, and Abbott Xanthan Broth. Similar tests were completed for Pusher 500, Pusher 1000, Amoco Sweepaid 103, and Pfizer Flocon Biopolymer 1035. Shear degradation tests in Berea core plugs have been completed for one acrylamide-type polymer and one xanthan polymer in 0.3% NaCl. Similar tests in 3% NaCl plus 0.3% CaCl/sub 2/ are in progress. Viscosity and screen factor data have been collected for most of the commercially available polymers. Long-term thermal stability tests with one polyacrylamide polymer and one xanthan polymer have been initiated. Phase 3: The polymer synthesis phase of the program is in progress. A series of N-alkyl (N-methyl, N-isopropyl, and N-butyl) acrylamide homopolymers and copolymers with acrylic acid has been synthesized. Variations of the substituents on the acrylamide nitrogen atom did not substantially change the properties of the parent compound. Increasing the molecular weight tends to impart increased shear sensitivity. Degree of hydrolysis also affects performance of the modified polymer. 25 figures, 40 tables.

  10. Flood Regulation by means of Model Predictive T. Barjas Blanco, P. Willems, P-K. Chiang, K. Cauwenberghs, B. De

    E-print Network

    Flood Regulation by means of Model Predictive Control T. Barjas Blanco, P. Willems, P-K. Chiang, K. Cauwenberghs, B. De Moor and J. Berlamont Abstract In this chapter flooding regulation of the river Demer flooding events. Therefore, the local water administration provided the river with flood reservoirs

  11. Holocene flood plain soil formation in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Implications for the interpretation of alluvial paleosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aslan; W. J. Autin

    1992-01-01

    Holocene Mississippi River flood soils representing different depositional environments and ages were sampled along three east-west transects between Vicksburg, MS and Baton Rouge, LA. Flood plain soil development is primarily controlled by episodic flood plain sedimentation and ground water table fluctuations as evidenced by relatively thick cumulative soil profiles with abundant mottles, nodules, and slickensides. Within flood plain deposits of

  12. Benefits of green infrastructure Benefits of green infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Benefits of green infrastructure 1 #12;Benefits of green infrastructure 2 #12;Benefits of green infrastructure 3 Benefits of green infrastructure Report to Defra and CLG October 2010 Prepared by Land The report should be cited as: Forest Research (2010). Benefits of green infrastructure. Report to Defra

  13. SCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR EXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATIONIONIONION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR EXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATIONIONIONION :::: OVERVIEW used to compute extreme flood risk for dam spillway design, in particular by EDF. Since its origins

  14. Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vision > Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions As flooding continues to expand across ... lens wearers to avoid exposure to flood-related eye infections and complications Avoid contact with flood waters. ...

  15. Location, agglomeration and infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip McCann; Daniel Shefer

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss the relationships between transportation infrastructure, firm location, agglomeration and regional development. We will argue that the spatial transaction costs faced by modern firms have changed over recent decades, and that this has changed the ways in which transportation infrastructure contributes to form location behaviour and regional economic development. Therefore, in order to analyse these issues,

  16. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  17. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  18. 75 FR 67989 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...in a timely manner.'' DHS designated IP to lead these efforts. Given that the vast...sectors are privately owned or controlled, IP's success in achieving the homeland...

  19. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  20. Evaporation from the free water surface of a flooded forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A.; Keim, R.; Hiscox, A.

    2011-12-01

    Controls on evaporation rates from the free water surface of flooded forests have received little attention despite being an important component of the water balance in wetlands. In flooded forests, the tree canopy reduces solar radiation and turbulent exchange, so evaporation rates are lower than from an open water body. We measured evaporation from the free water surface in a flooded cypress/tupelo forest in southern Louisiana, USA, using both Bowen-ratio energy balance and eddy covariance methods. We compare results, which to our knowledge comprise the first experimental data set of evaporation rates in a flooded forest, to rates predicted by a simple empirical model.

  1. Fews-Risk: A step towards risk-based flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Daniel; Eilander, Dirk; de Leeuw, Annemargreet; Diermanse, Ferdinand; Weerts, Albrecht; de Bruijn, Karin; Beckers, Joost; Boelee, Leonore; Brown, Emma; Hazlewood, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Operational flood prediction and the assessment of flood risk are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within operational flood management. However, the information provided for decision support is restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in a model-based flood forecasting system. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. The idea of FEWS-Risk is the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. Thus, additional information is provided to the decision makers, such as: • Location, timing and probability of failure of defined sections of the flood defence line; • Flood spreading, extent and hydraulic values in the hinterland caused by an overflow or a breach flow • Impacts and consequences in case of flooding in the protected areas, such as injuries or casualties and/or damages to critical infrastructure or economy. In contrast with purely hydraulic-based operational information, these additional data focus upon decision support for answering crucial questions within an operational flood forecasting framework, such as: • Where should I reinforce my flood defence system? • What type of action can I take to mend a weak spot in my flood defences? • What are the consequences of a breach? • Which areas should I evacuate first? This presentation outlines the additional required workflows towards risk-based flood forecasting systems. In a cooperation between HR Wallingford and Deltares, the extended workflows are being integrated into the Delft-FEWS software system. Delft-FEWS provides modules for managing the data handling and forecasting process. Results of a pilot study that demonstrates the new tools are presented. The value of the newly generated information for decision support during a flood event is discussed.

  2. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA, Oc-gok Basin in Republic of Korea and the haor region of Bangladesh. Keywords: flood index, flood risk management, flood characteristics

  3. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  9. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Kolan River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  10. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River. Pioneer River at Mirani Contained in this document is information about: (Last updated April 2014) Flood

  11. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Moonie River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  12. Global Floods 1985?2006

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

  13. Flood: Farming and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  14. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  15. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  16. Aggradation in response to extreme flooding and watershed management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Engel; J. C. Curran

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, the San Marcos River, located along the Balcones Escarpment in Central Texas, experienced the largest flood in its recorded history. The San Marcos is a heavily managed watershed containing flood control dams, reaches of channelized flow, and a man made lake. This study examines changes to the fluvial system as a result of the combination of an extreme

  17. USGS Scientist Interviewed by Media in Flooded Minot

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist Chris Laveau is interviewed by media from the Broadway Bridge in downtown Minot, N.D. Dikes on the right of the photograph help control flooding in the downtown area. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing...

  18. A scalable tools communication infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, D.; Bosilca, G.; Graham, R. L.; Vallee, G.; Watson, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Tennessee; ORNL; IBM

    2008-07-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  19. A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, Darius [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Watson, Gregory R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2008-01-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  20. Modeling tools for the assessment of microbiological risks during floods: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collender, Philip; Yang, Wen; Stieglitz, Marc; Remais, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Floods are a major, recurring source of harm to global economies and public health. Projected increases in the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events under future climate change, coupled with continued urbanization in areas with high risk of floods, may exacerbate future impacts of flooding. Improved flood risk management is essential to support global development, poverty reduction and public health, and is likely to be a crucial aspect of climate change adaptation. Importantly, floods can facilitate the transmission of waterborne pathogens by changing social conditions (overcrowding among displaced populations, interruption of public health services), imposing physical challenges to infrastructure (sewerage overflow, reduced capacity to treat drinking water), and altering fate and transport of pathogens (transport into waterways from overland flow, resuspension of settled contaminants) during and after flood conditions. Hydrological and hydrodynamic models are capable of generating quantitative characterizations of microbiological risks associated with flooding, while accounting for these diverse and at times competing physical and biological processes. Despite a few applications of such models to the quantification of microbiological risks associated with floods, there exists limited guidance as to the relative capabilities, and limitations, of existing modeling platforms when used for this purpose. Here, we review 17 commonly used flood and water quality modeling tools that have demonstrated or implicit capabilities of mechanistically representing and quantifying microbial risk during flood conditions. We compare models with respect to their capabilities of generating outputs that describe physical and microbial conditions during floods, such as concentration or load of non-cohesive sediments or pathogens, and the dynamics of high flow conditions. Recommendations are presented for the application of specific modeling tools for assessing particular flood-related microbial risks, and model improvements are suggested that may better characterize key microbial risks during flood events. The state of current tools are assessed in the context of a changing climate where the frequency, intensity and duration of flooding are shifting in some areas.

  1. Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2010-08-31

    Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

  2. Historical Floods in the Northeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site reviews major flooding in the Northeastern United States, as reported by the Northeast River Forecast Center (NERFC), a division of the National Weather Service. It includes photos, rainfall maps, and descriptions of record-breaking floods that occured between the years 1927 and 1996. Descriptions include specific causes of flooding, weather patterns leading up to flooding, as well as results and actions taken due to flooding in the regions discussed.

  3. Flood Response Along a Drainage Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

    2007-12-01

    Flooding in urban areas is complex. As water overtops stream banks, it comes into contact with structural obstacles on the land surface, such as bridge constrictions, that dominate flow pathways. Furthermore, at small, or local, spatial scales, other hydraulic controls such as pipe surcharge and stormwater management ponds play a significant role in flood response. A major obstacle towards a better understanding of how these controls impact flood response is the scarcity of data available to characterize them. One watershed where both hydraulic and hydrologic data is available is the Dead Run watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland. Dead Run is a research watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), part of the Long Term Ecological Research network established by the National Science Foundation. Dead Run geospatial data is available through the BES and Baltimore County; hydrologic data was collected by the authors during field campaigns in the 2003-2005 field seasons; and hydraulic information including storm drain pipes, stormwater management ponds, and bridge constrictions was digitized by the author. The availability of this data in Dead Run allows us to detail not only the impact of impervious surfaces and hydrologic forcing on flood response, but also structural aspects of the urban drainage network. In this study, we integrate the three types of observations - geospatial, hydrologic, and hydraulic - to characterize drainage network structure along Dead Run's tributaries. We use these characterizations and the Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Management Model (EPA SWMM) to estimate the 10- and 100-year floods over the drainage network. Analyses focus on two extreme floods in Dead Run: the 7 July 2004 and 28 June 2005 events. Results highlight the importance of incorporating drainage network structure into the models we use to predict flooding in urban environments.

  4. Preventing flooding or regulating flood levels?: Case studies on perception of flood alleviation in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harun Rasid

    1993-01-01

    Based on a systematic sample survey among the residents of two contrasting floodplain environments - the Tista floodplain (a shallow flood area) and the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain (a deep flood area) - this study tests a central hypothesis that the floodplain residents of Bangladesh preferred regulation of flood levels as the main flood alleviation measure. The study found that, despite significant

  5. The Impact of a Flood Retarding Structure on Watershed Runoff Under Dry, Average, and Wet Climatic States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. van Liew

    2002-01-01

    Flood damage to agricultural lands during the late 1930s and early 1940s prompted passage of the Federal Flood Control Act of 1944 (P.L. 78-534) and the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (P.L. 83-566) of 1953. As a result of these flood abatement programs, the USDA SCS constructed about 2,500 flood retarding structures (FRSs) in the State of Oklahoma to

  6. Souris River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Souris River flooding a road near Sherwood, North Dakota.On June 23, 2011, USGS personnel were there to measure the streamflow. Streamflow was approximately 27,100 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 27.98 feet....

  7. Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

  8. Coastal Flooding Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Grosfils

    Eric B. Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are introduced to Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, and use these tools to perform a flooding analysis for the Long Beach area of California. Context Type and level ...

  9. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  10. Ice Age Floods Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

  11. New Orleans Flooding Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

  12. Single dosage of doxycycline for prophylaxis against leptospiral infection and leptospirosis during urban flooding in southern Thailand: a non-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chusri, Sarunyou; McNeil, Edward B; Hortiwakul, Thanaporn; Charernmak, Boonsri; Sritrairatchai, Somporn; Santimaleeworagun, Wichai; Pattharachayakul, Sutthiporn; Suksanan, Paritasana; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the protective efficacy of a single dosage of 200 mg doxycycline against leptospiral infection and leptospirosis and associated risk factors among residents exposed to flooding in southern Thailand. Of 641 participants, 600 received doxycycline while 41 did not. Twenty two participants were infected with Leptospira and six developed leptospirosis. Having a laceration wound was significantly associated with leptospiral infection (odds ratio [OR] = 37.20; P < 0.001) and leptospirosis (OR = 18.24; P = 0.003) whereas exposure to flood more than 3 h per day was associated with only leptospiral infection (OR = 3.70; P = 0.038). Seventeen participants who received doxycycline and five who did not, were infected with Leptospira, resulting a protective efficacy of 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 34.3%-92.0%). Four who received doxycycline and two who did not, developed leptospirosis, resulting a protective efficacy of 86.3% (CI = -9.8%-98.2%). Among the participants with laceration wound, the protective efficacy for leptospiral infection was 92.0% (CI = 81.2%-96.6%) and for leptospirosis was 95.6% (CI = 78.2%-99.3%). Among the participants exposed to flood water less than or equal to 3 h per day, the protective efficacy for leptospiral infection was 89.2% (95% CI 63.6%-96.67%). A single dosage of 200 mg doxycycline for prophylaxis might be effective for preventing leptospirosis among flood victims with laceration wound after recent flood exposure. PMID:25172777

  13. 44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective...i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated...e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i)...

  14. Modeling the Performance of Flooding in Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Obraczka, Katia

    of flooding is that it may result in redundant broadcasts. These re-broadcasts can cause serious contentionModeling the Performance of Flooding in Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks Kumar Viswanath protocols for wireless mobile ad hoc networks, or MANETs, is the need to flood control messages network

  15. Flood Risk Management As Being Practiced in Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom,

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    .1.4 Preparation of Charts and Index to Assist Examination of Flood Control-Related Climate Change Adaptation#12;#12;Flood Risk Management Approaches As Being Practiced in Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom.........................................................................................................2 1.3 Flood Risk Management, A Conceptual Framework

  16. Sensor Selection for IT Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paljak, Gergely János; Kocsis, Imre; Égel, Zoltán; Tóth, Dániel; Pataricza, András

    Supervisory control is the main means to assure a high level performance and availability of large IT infrastructures. Applied control theory is used in physical and virtualization based clustering, autonomic-, self-healing and cloud computing, but similar problems arise in any distributed environment.

  17. Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

  18. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    SciTech Connect

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  19. Smarter Physical Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, D.

    2013-01-01

    Smarter Physical Infrastructure Unleashing Information Technology in the Built Environment David Bartlett, IBM Vice President, Smarter Physical Infrastructure ESL-IC-13-10-57 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced... Building Operations, Montreal, Quebec, October 8-11, 2013 Bending the Spoon ESL-IC-13-10-57 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Montreal, Quebec, October 8-11, 2013 Data Points ESL-IC-13-10-57 Proceedings...

  20. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  1. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclelland - Kerr, John [NNSA/NA-242

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  2. Analysis of a Flooded Heat Exchanger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Aaron H.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Flooded heat exchangers are often used in industry to reduce the required heat-transfer area and the size of utility control valves. These units involve a condensing vapor on the hot side that accumulates as a liquid phase in the lower part of the vessel. The heat transfer occurs mostly in the vapor space, but the condensate becomes somewhat…

  3. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cassidy, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    NASA policy concerning the commercial infrastructure of the Space Station is examined. Plans for receiving and evaluating unsolicited proposals to provide commercial infrastructure are outlined. The guidelines for development of the commercial infrastructure and examples of opportunities for industry are listed. Also, a program for industry feedback concerning the commercial infrastructure policy is discussed.

  4. Infrastructure, transport costs and trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spiros Bougheas; Panicos O. Demetriades; Edgar L. W. Morgenroth

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the role of infrastructure in a bilateral trade model with transport costs. Transport costs are assumed to depend inversely on the level of infrastructure. The accumulation of infrastructure, however, is subject to a resource cost technology which includes both fixed and variable components. It is shown that, depending on geography and endowments, equilibria with or without infrastructure

  5. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK in the more generalised RASP project (DEFRA and the Environment Agency), and in line with the expressed needs of the ABI (Association of British Insurers) and National Flood Forum. The detailed data produced will also support improved flood risk assessment for the provision of affordable insurance.

  6. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  7. Hydrologic analysis of a flood based on a new Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

    2015-06-01

    These The present study aims to simulate the hydrologic processes of a flood, based on a new, highly accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, and has a spatial resolution of five meters. It was generated by the new National Project in 2012. The Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is used to simulate the hydrologic process of a flood of the Onga River in Iizuka City, Japan. A large flood event in the typhoon season in 2003 caused serious damage around the Iizuka City area. Precise records of rainfall data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) were input into the HEC-HMS. The estimated flood area of the simulation results by HEC-HMS was identical to the observed flood area. A watershed aggregation map is also generated by HEC-HMS around the Onga River.

  8. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  9. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1292] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1261] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1276] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1342] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1254] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1258] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1266] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1332] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1301] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1256] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1282] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  8. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1243] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1267] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1323] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1236] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1272] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground...Unincorporated Areas of Mono County, California...Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) Location...the west. Unnamed flooding source (flooding Approximately...

  1. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  2. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  3. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  4. 76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow Creek...flooding sources: Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow Creek...Branch confluence. Gum Creek Flooding Effects...Railroad. Little Red...

  5. Variation in flooding-induced morphological traits in natural populations of white clover (Trifolium repens) and their effects on plant performance during soil flooding

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heidrun; Jacobs, Elke; Visser, Eric J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Soil flooding leads to low soil oxygen concentrations and thereby negatively affects plant growth. Differences in flooding tolerance have been explained by the variation among species in the extent to which traits related to acclimation were expressed. However, our knowledge of variation within natural species (i.e. among individual genotypes) in traits related to flooding tolerance is very limited. Such data could tell us on which traits selection might have taken place, and will take place in future. The aim of the present study was to show that variation in flooding-tolerance-related traits is present among genotypes of the same species, and that both the constitutive variation and the plastic variation in flooding-induced changes in trait expression affect the performance of genotypes during soil flooding. Methods Clones of Trifolium repens originating from a river foreland were subjected to either drained, control conditions or to soil flooding. Constitutive expression of morphological traits was recorded on control plants, and flooding-induced changes in expression were compared with these constitutive expression levels. Moreover, the effect of both constitutive and flooding-induced trait expression on plant performance was determined. Key Results Constitutive and plastic variation of several morphological traits significantly affected plant performance. Even relatively small increases in root porosity and petiole length contributed to better performance during soil flooding. High specific leaf area, by contrast, was negatively correlated with performance during flooding. Conclusions The data show that different genotypes responded differently to soil flooding, which could be linked to variation in morphological trait expression. As flooded and drained conditions exerted different selection pressures on trait expression, the optimal value for constitutive and plastic traits will depend on the frequency and duration of flooding. These data will help us understanding the mechanisms affecting short- and long-term dynamics in flooding-prone ecosystems. PMID:18713824

  6. Coupling of a hydrodynamic numerical model, extreme value analysis and climate change for a flooding assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Garrè, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The effects of climate change for future flooding events are one of the most debated issues for risk managers and spatial planners today. It is essential to incorporate the expected impacts of climate change and information of past events in order to assess the flood hazard where long term infrastructure has been planned or has been installed. In this study, an integrated procedure for detailed analysis of river flooding in a localized area was developed and applied. This was achieved by coupling hydrodynamic (using LIDAR data) and statistical (extreme values) modeling, that allowed to obtain flood probabilities for the near and distant future. This was done via a regression line which allowed the inclusion of genuinely recorded flooding measurements together with model-generated flooding occurrences. A better reproduction of the flooding behavior in the tail of the extreme distribution was achieved, and by virtue of this, some shortcomings of extreme value extrapolation encountered in the present application were surpassed. The procedure was applied to measurements of flooding in the Rhine river in The Netherlands and provides useful flooding information for the development of hazard maps and future adaptation measures.

  7. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

  8. Glacier outburst floods (jökulhlaups) from Kverkfjöll, Iceland: flood routeways, flow characteristics and sedimentary impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Russell, A. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Knudsen, Ó.

    2003-04-01

    Jökulhlaups with peak discharges of 10^5 -- 10^6m^3s-1 have occurred during the Holocene along the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river in north-eastern Iceland. Controversy surrounds their source, cause, frequency and characteristics. Kverkfjöll is a glaciated volcano on the northern margin of the Vatnajökull and is a discrete source of meltwater into the Jökulsá á Fjöllum. This study presents evidence of jökulhlaup flows from Kverkfjöll and methods used in their reconstruction. Flow reconstructions will be used to quantify the spatial and temporal variation in jökulhlaup flow characteristics (depth, velocity, shear stress, energy and stream power). Jökulhlaup routeways are distinguished from non-flood surfaces by identifying landforms and sediments diagnostic of jökulhlaups and alternative processes. The geologically controlled topography of the area has significantly influenced the routing of floods from Kverkfjöll. In some localities flows were of a magnitude sufficient to spill over low divides into neighbouring valleys, producing an anastomosing complex of flow routeways. Within channel evidence of jökulhlaups includes erosional features such as dry waterfalls and cataracts, linear grooves, sculpted bedrock bedforms, obstacle scour marks and streamlined hills. Depositional evidence includes bars, terraces and slackwater deposits. Several pits excavated into slackwater deposits reveal multiple floods differentiated by tephra horizons. Differential flood surface weathering and the presence of flood-washed surfaces intercalated with lava flows again suggest multiple jökulhlaups from Kverkfjöll. Imbricated boulder clusters and matrix-supported boulder-rich sedimentary units reflect fluid sedimentation and non-Newtonian flows respectively. Such turbulent and complex flows are partly due to flood generation mechanisms, flood routeway characteristics and variations in sediment availability between and within jökulhlaups. Our study of jökulhlaup flows within this distinctive volcanic landscape may be of use in identification and reconstruction of floods on the flanks of glaciated volcanoes elsewhere. Knowledge of jökulhlaup flow behaviour is crucial for jökulhlaup hazard prediction, management and mitigation.

  9. 78 FR 65593 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...Infrastructure Requirements for the 2010 Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality...infrastructure requirements for the 2010 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) NAAQS. DATES...control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Recordkeeping and...

  10. 78 FR 49409 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...Infrastructure Requirements for the 2010 Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality...infrastructure requirements for the 2010 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) NAAQS. DATES...control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Reporting and...

  11. FLOOD! Emergency Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

  12. River Flooding and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Dupre

    Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

  13. Changes in Benefits of Flood Protection Standard under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W. H.; Koirala, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding potential risk of river flooding under future climate scenarios might be helpful for developing risk management strategies (including mitigation, adaptation). Such analyses are typically performed at the macro scales (e.g., regional, global) where the climate model output could support (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014). To understand the potential benefits of infrastructure upgrading as part of climate adaptation strategies, it is also informative to understand the potential impact of different flood protection standards (in terms of return periods) on global river flooding under climate change. In this study, we use a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and CMIP5 model output (historic and future periods) to drive a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011) and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the potential risk of river flooding and changes in the benefits of flood protection standard (e.g., 100-year flood of the baseline period) from the past into the future (represented by the representative concentration pathways). In this presentation, we show our preliminary results. References: Arnell, N.W, Gosling, S., N., 2014. The impact of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change 122: 127-140, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. Hirabayashi et al., 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate Change 3: 816-821, doi: 10.1038/nclimate1911. Yamazaki et al., 2011. A physically based description of floodplain inundation dynamics in a global river routing model. Water Resources Research 47, W04501, doi: 10.1029/2010wr009726.

  14. A process flood typology along an Alpine transect: analysis based on observations and modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Parajka, Juraj; Gaál, Ladislav; Blöschl, Günter; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the effects of climate changes on river floods requires a better understanding of the control of climate variability on flood regimes. The aim of this work is to identify the process types of causative mechanisms of floods along a longitudinal Alpine transect spanning 200 km from Verona in Italy to lower Germany. The investigation is focused on the analysis of the statistical properties of the various flood typologies, their spatial organization and their relation with the topography of the transect. Along the transect, 34 basins were selected following criteria of basin size (between 50 and 500 km2), amount of hydrometeorological data available and impact of hydraulic structures on runoff regime. Around 20 years of hourly data of discharge, precipitation and temperature were collected for each basin. The three most intense floods occurred each year are considered in the work. Precipitation and temperature follow a sharp gradient across the transect, with both precipitation and temperature low around the main alpine ridge. Four flood types are considered: long-rain floods, flash floods, rain-on-snow floods, and snowmelt floods. For the classification we use a combination of a number of process indicators, including the timing of the floods, storm duration, rainfall depths, snowmelt contribution to runoff, initial catchment state and runoff response dynamics, using a procedure similar to what described in Merz and Blöschl (2003). The indicators for flood classification are derived based on either observed discharge data and model results. Comparison between the two derived flood classifications allows one to analyse the viability of using a model approach to build flood typologies in basins characterized by varying data availability. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by imposing step changes to the precipitation and temperature pattern. The resulting distribution of flood types gives an insight on the possible change in floods distribution as a result to a change in climate properties. Merz, R. and G. Bloschl (2003). A process typology of regional floods. Water Resources Research 39(12): 1340.

  15. Child malnutrition and recurrent flooding in rural eastern India: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan-Dash, Shisir; Degomme, Olivier; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between exposure to floods and malnutrition in children aged 6–59?months in rural India. Research has focused exclusively on Bangladeshi children, and few controlled epidemiological studies are available. Method A community-based cross-sectional study of child nutritional status was carried out in 14 flooded and 18 non-flooded villages of Jagatsinghpur district (Orissa) within one month of the September 2008 floods, and similarly affected by flooding in August 2006. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 757 households in the flooded villages and 816 in the non-flooded communities. Data used in this study were from those households with children aged 6–59?months. In total, 191 and 161 children were measured, respectively. The association between various malnutrition indicators and the exposure to floods was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Adjusted analyses revealed that children in flooded households were more likely stunted compared with those in non-flooded ones (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.60; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.44). The prevalence of underweight was also higher in children living in the flooded communities (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.86; 95% CI 1.04 to 3.30). Further analyses found that the 26–36-month flooded cohort, thus those children younger than 1?year during the precedent flood in August 2006, attained the largest difference in levels of stunting compared with the unexposed group of the same age. Conclusion Exposure to floods is associated with long-term malnutrition in these rural communities of Orissa, India. Children exposed to floods during their first year of life presented higher levels of chronic malnutrition. Long-term malnutrition prevention programmes after floods should be implemented in flood-prone areas. PMID:22080535

  16. Data expansion: the potential of grey literature for understanding floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Bertelmann, R.; Merz, B.

    2013-03-01

    Sophisticated methods have been developed and become standard in analysing floods as well as for assessing flood risk. However, increasingly critique of the current standards and scientific practice can be found both in the flood hydrology community as well as in the risk community who argue that the considerable amount of information already available on natural disasters has not been adequately deployed and brought to effective use. We describe this phenomenon as a failure to synthesize knowledge that results from barriers and ignorance in awareness, use and management of the entire spectrum of relevant content, that is, data, information and knowledge. In this paper we argue that the scientific community in flood risk research ignores event-specific analysis and documentations as another source of data. We present results from a systematic search that includes an intensive study on sources and ways of information dissemination of flood-relevant publications. We obtain 186 documents that contain information on the sources, pathways, receptors and/or consequences for any of the 40 strongest trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. This study therefore provides the most comprehensive metadata collection of flood documentations for the considered geographical space and period. A total of 87.5% of all events have been documented, and especially the most severe floods have received extensive coverage. Only 30% of the material has been produced in the scientific/academic environment, and the majority of all documents (about 80%) can be considered grey literature (i.e. literature not controlled by commercial publishers). Therefore, ignoring grey sources in flood research also means ignoring the largest part of knowledge available on single flood events (in Germany). Further, the results of this study underpin the rapid changes in information dissemination of flood event literature over the last decade. We discuss the options and obstacles of incorporating this data into the knowledge-building process in light of the current technological developments and international, interdisciplinary debates for data curation.

  17. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Proserpine River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  18. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  19. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  20. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  1. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  2. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  3. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  9. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  10. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  11. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  12. Feedback on flood risk management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Moreau; A. Roumagnac

    2009-01-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To

  13. Math Fights Flooding Niels Besseling

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    in the coming years, the charac- teristics of the rainfall will change. This can potentially cause floodingMath Fights Flooding Niels Besseling Onno Bokhove Alla Kolechkina Jaap Molenaar§ Ronald van Nooyen those taxes for its own use. One of its main tasks is to protect the inhabitants against flooding

  14. Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods

    E-print Network

    Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

  15. Climate and change: simulating flooding impacts on urban transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Dawson, Richard

    2015-04-01

    National-scale climate projections indicate that in the future there will be hotter and drier summers, warmer and wetter winters, together with rising sea levels. The frequency of extreme weather events is expected to increase, causing severe damage to the built environment and disruption of infrastructures (Dawson, 2007), whilst population growth and changed demographics are placing new demands on urban infrastructure. It is therefore essential to ensure infrastructure networks are robust to these changes. This research addresses these challenges by focussing on the development of probabilistic tools for managing risk by modelling urban transport networks within the context of extreme weather events. This paper presents a methodology to investigate the impacts of extreme weather events on urban environment, in particular infrastructure networks, through a combination of climate simulations and spatial representations. By overlaying spatial data on hazard thresholds from a flood model and a flood safety function, mitigated by potential adaptation strategies, different levels of disruption to commuting journeys on road networks are evaluated. The method follows the Catastrophe Modelling approach and it consists of a spatial model, combining deterministic loss models and probabilistic risk assessment techniques. It can be applied to present conditions as well as future uncertain scenarios, allowing the examination of the impacts alongside socio-economic and climate changes. The hazard is determined by simulating free surface water flooding, with the software CityCAT (Glenis et al., 2013). The outputs are overlapped to the spatial locations of a simple network model in GIS, which uses journey-to-work (JTW) observations, supplemented with speed and capacity information. To calculate the disruptive effect of flooding on transport networks, a function relating water depth to safe driving car speed has been developed by combining data from experimental reports (Morris et al., 2011) safety literature (Great Britain Department for Transport, 1999), analysis of videos of cars driving through floodwater, and expert judgement. A preliminary analysis has been run in the Tyne & Wear (in North-East England) region to demonstrate how the analysis can be used to assess the disruptions for commuter journeys due to flooding and will be demonstrated in this paper. The research will also investigate the effectiveness of adaptation strategies for extreme rainfall events, such as permeable surfaces and roof storages for buildings. Multiple scenarios (from the every-day-rainfall to the extreme weather phenomena) will be modelled, with different rainfall rates, rainfall durations and return periods. The comparison between the scenarios in which no interventions are adopted and those improved by one of the adaptation option will be compared to determine the cost-effectiveness of the solution considered. Integrating spatial analysis of transport use with an urban flood model and flood safety function enables the investigation of the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks. Further work will develop the analysis in a number of ways (i) testing a range of flood events with different severity and frequency, (ii) exploration of the influence of climate and socio-economic change (iii) analysis of multiple hazard events and (iv) consideration of cascading disruption across different infrastructure networks.

  16. Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, H.; Piroth, K.; Seifert, I.; Maiwald, H.; Kunert, U.; Schwarz, J.; Merz, B.; Thieken, A. H.

    2009-10-01

    Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Flooding in Southeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switanek, Matt; Truhetz, Heimo; Reszler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Floods in southeastern Austria can cause significant damage to life, property and infrastructure. These flood events are often the result of extreme precipitation from small-scale convective storms. In order to more accurately model the changes to flood magnitude and frequency, Regional Climate Models (RCMs) must be able to simulate small-scale convective storms similar to those that have been observed. Even as computational resources have increased, RCMs are just now achieving the high spatial and temporal scales necessary to physically resolve the processes that govern small-scale convection. With increased resolution, RCMs can rely on their internal physics to model convective precipitation and need not depend on parameterization. This study uses historical and future scenarios of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) run at a spatial scale of 3 km and temporal scale of 1 hr. In order to subsequently force a hydrological flood model, the sub-daily precipitation and temperature data from the RCMs are first bias corrected. A newly proposed bias correction method is presented and compared to the commonly used quantile mapping. The proposed bias correction method performs better in its ability to preserve the model projected climate change signal (measured by changes in mean and variance). Lastly, the changes in the quantity and frequency of projected extreme precipitation, at the watershed level, are analyzed with respect to the historic time period. With these improvements in dynamical modeling and bias correction methods, a clearer picture emerges revealing the more likely impacts climate change will have on floods in southeastern Austria.

  18. COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES-2008-1

    E-print Network

    · Infrastructure systems performance · Natural hazards E h kEarthquake Flooding Climate changeClimate change · Non networking 1Gbit networking Free super-computer access Full research, technical and administrative support (EQUALS) EPSRC Earthquake SimulatorEPSRC Earthquake Simulator (Shaking Table) Prof Colin Taylor BSc Ph

  19. Building green infrastructure via citizen participation - a six-year study in the Shepherd Creek

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure at the parcel scale provides critical ecosystem goods and services when these services (such as flood mitigation) must be provided locally. Here we report on an approach that encourages suburban landowners to mitigate impervious surfaces on their properties t...

  20. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Becerici, Neslihan; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.