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1

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure—much of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, M.J.

2

TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT,  

E-print Network

the Pre- construction Engineering and Design (PED) phase when changes in real estate costs madeTRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA DRAFT GENERAL REEVALUATION REPORT May 2013 #12;#12;Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project, Nevada Draft General Reevaluation Report May 2013 Prepared by U

US Army Corps of Engineers

3

Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.  

PubMed

The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

2012-12-15

4

Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

5

Flood control in East Pakistan  

E-print Network

of the river. Ths Oovernmsnt of East Bengal (East pakistan) has recently secured a good number of dredgers of both bucket and suction type which could be profitably utilised in the operation of this project, Since sufficient hydrologic snd other data ars...&19RARv 6 A N CutiE&& OF ~ PLOOD CONTROL EAST PAKISTAN A Thesis By H. R. S, R. K, EUSVPZAI Submitted to the Craduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Eusufzai, Mohammad Hossain Sekandar Hayat Khan

1956-01-01

6

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under...

2012-07-01

7

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under...

2013-07-01

8

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2010-07-01

9

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

...false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2014-07-01

10

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2012-07-01

11

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2011-07-01

12

33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inspection of Federal flood control works. 203.43 Section 203.43 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2013-07-01

13

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under...

2014-07-01

14

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under...

2011-07-01

15

Applications of ASFCM(Assessment System of Flood Control Measurement) in Typhoon Committee Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to extreme weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risks of having flood damage has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. Therefore, it became necessary to consider modifying climate change, flood damage and its scale to the previous dimension measurement evaluation system. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and integrated system to evaluate the most optimized measures for flood control through eliminating uncertainties of socio-economic impacts. Assessment System of Structural Flood Control Measures (ASFCM) was developed for determining investment priorities of the flood control measures and establishing the social infrastructure projects. ASFCM consists of three modules: 1) the initial setup and inputs module, 2) the flood and damage estimation module, and 3) the socio-economic analysis module. First, we have to construct the D/B for flood damage estimation, which is the initial and input data about the estimation unit, property, historical flood damages, and applied area's topographic & hydrological data. After that, it is important to classify local characteristic for constructing flood damage data. Five local characteristics (big city, medium size city, small city, farming area, and mountain area) are classified by criterion of application (population density). Next step is the floodplain simulation with HEC-RAS which is selected to simulate inundation. Through inputting the D/B and damage estimation, it is able to estimate the total damage (only direct damage) that is the amount of cost to recover the socio-economic activities back to the safe level before flood did occur. The last module suggests the economic analysis index (B/C ratio) with Multidimensional Flood Damage Analysis. Consequently, ASFCM suggests the reference index in constructing flood control measures and planning non-structural systems to reduce water-related damage. It is possible to encourage flood control planners and managers to consider and apply the socio-economic analysis results. ASFCM was applied in Republic of Korea, Thailand and Philippines to review efficiency and applicability. Figure 1. ASFCM Application(An-yang Stream, Republic of Korea)

Kim, C.

2013-12-01

16

Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be executed by different resources of the Grid system. The resulting geospatial services are available in various OGC standards such as KML and WMS. Currently, the Grid infrastructure integrates the resources of several geographically distributed organizations, in particular: Space Research Institute NASU-NSAU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 (htpp://www.globus.org) and gLite 3 (http://glite.web.cern.ch) middleware, access to geospatial data and a Grid portal; Institute of Cybernetics of NASU (Ukraine) with deployed computational and storage nodes (SCIT-1/2/3 clusters) based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to computational resources (approximately 500 processors); Center of Earth Observation and Digital Earth Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE-CAS, China) with deployed computational nodes based on Globus Toolkit 4 middleware and access to geospatial data (approximately 16 processors). We are currently adding new geospatial services based on optical satellite data, namely MODIS. This work is carried out jointly with the CEODE-CAS. Using workflow patterns that were developed for SAR data processing we are building new workflows for optical data processing.

Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

2010-05-01

17

TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA 17 December 2013  

E-print Network

the Pre-construction Engineering and Design phase when changes in real estate costs made the projectTRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA 17 December 2013 ABSTRACT: The Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project was authorized under the Water Resources Development Act 1988, but was deferred during

US Army Corps of Engineers

18

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

19

Operational flood control of a low-lying delta system using large time step Model Predictive Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of low-lying deltas is threatened not only by riverine flooding but by storm-induced coastal flooding as well. For the purpose of flood control, these deltas are mostly protected in a man-made environment, where dikes, dams and other adjustable infrastructures, such as gates, barriers and pumps are widely constructed. Instead of always reinforcing and heightening these structures, it is worth considering making the most of the existing infrastructure to reduce the damage and manage the delta in an operational and overall way. In this study, an advanced real-time control approach, Model Predictive Control, is proposed to operate these structures in the Dutch delta system (the Rhine-Meuse delta). The application covers non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and the structures. To deal with the non-linearity, a linearization scheme is applied which directly uses the gate height instead of the structure flow as the control variable. Given the fact that MPC needs to compute control actions in real-time, we address issues regarding computational time. A new large time step scheme is proposed in order to save computation time, in which different control variables can have different control time steps. Simulation experiments demonstrate that Model Predictive Control with the large time step setting is able to control a delta system better and much more efficiently than the conventional operational schemes.

Tian, Xin; van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Negenborn, Rudy R.; van de Giesen, Nick

2015-01-01

20

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... resources to educate and inform communities about the importance of flood safety awareness. After The Flood Fact Sheet Outreach Toolkit Materials As a leader in public information response to emergency situations, the ...

21

Optimum Reservoir Operation for Flood Control and Conservation Purposes  

E-print Network

of the state is characterized by extremes of floods and droughts. Reservoirs are necessary to control and utilize the highly variable streamflow. Due to a number of economic, environmental, institutional, and political factors, construction of additional new...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Cabezas, L. Morris; Tibbets, Michael N.

22

An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment  

E-print Network

An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment Seehyun Kim and Edward A precision is introduced. This infrastructure is built on top of the Ptolemy environment. I. Introduction tokens from input arcs, and emit new tokens through output arcs. As a design en­ vironment, Ptolemy

California at Berkeley, University of

23

An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment  

E-print Network

An Infrastructure for Numeric Precision Control in the Ptolemy Environment Seehyun Kim and Edward A. This infrastructure is built on top of the Ptolemy environment. I. Introduction Data ow is a powerful representation through output arcs. As a design en- vironment, Ptolemy supports data ow programming for simulation

24

Controlled Flooding of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The controlled flood of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon can be monitored in real time on the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Web site. Starting on March 26 and continuing for seven days, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) is releasing approximately 45,000 cubic feet of water per second from Glen Canyon Dam. Line graphs of provisional stream flow data at 15 sites in Arizona are being made available in real time on the Internet via satellite telemetry technology. "This controlled flood will provide an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the usefulness of the real-time network during flooding conditions." Historical stream flow data is also available, as are calculated hydrographs, channel sand data, and detailed fact sheets on the rationale of the study and data collection methods. http://wwwdaztcn.wr.usgs.gov/flood.html

1997-01-01

25

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

2012-05-01

26

RoadRunner: Infrastructure-less vehicular congestion control  

E-print Network

RoadRunner is an in-vehicle app for traffic congestion control without costly roadside infrastructure, instead judiciously harnessing vehicle-to-vehicle communications, cellular connectivity, and onboard computation and ...

Gao, Jason Hao

27

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. (a) Intent. The intent of...

2013-07-01

28

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. (a) Intent. The intent of...

2011-07-01

29

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2010-07-01

30

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. (a) Intent. The intent of...

2014-07-01

31

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2011-07-01

32

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Scope of work. The...

2014-07-01

33

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Scope of work. The...

2013-07-01

34

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2012-07-01

35

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2014-07-01

36

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Scope of work. The...

2012-07-01

37

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Scope of work. The...

2011-07-01

38

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...guidelines for non-Federal flood control works. (a) Intent. The intent of...

2012-07-01

39

33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. 203.42 Section 203.42 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Required inspections....

2013-07-01

40

33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation...Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works. (a) Scope of work. The...

2010-07-01

41

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... when a levee is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often ... lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are no guarantees of safety during ...

42

Automatic regulator for channel flow control on flooded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low efficiency water control provided by sluice gates and weirs used in the flooded rice tillage system in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, have caused significant water losses. Such devices are utilized to control the water flow from the main to the secondary channels. The water flow through the gates is highly influenced by the water depth fluctuation in

Luís G. H. do Amaral; Afranio A. Righes; Paulo da S. e Souza Filho; Rafael Dalla Costa

2005-01-01

43

Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project  

E-print Network

-construction Engineering and Design (PED) phase when changes in real estate costs made the project economically infeasibleDRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General Control Project Nevada General Reevaluation Report Volume I ­ Draft Environmental Impact Statement

US Army Corps of Engineers

44

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Safe From Drowning in Flooded Areas Avoiding Carbon Monoxide Poisoning During a Power Outage Driving Through Water After a Disaster Preventing Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Identification and Treatment of Hypothermia Related to Exposure While Working in Cold Water General Information about ...

45

Decadal variability in Floods and Extreme Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decadal variability in climate extremes associated with floods is of particular interest for infrastructure development and for insurance programs. From an analysis of US data we note that changes in insurance rates and in the construction of flood control infrastructure emerge soon after a period where there is a high incidence of regional flooding. This leads to the question of whether there is clustering in the incidence of anomalous flooding (or its absence) at decadal scales. The direct examination of this question from streamflow data is often clouded by the modification of flows by the construction of dams and other infrastructure to control floods, especially over a large river basin. Consequently, we explore the answer to this question through the analysis of both extreme rainfall and flood records. Spectral and time domain methods are used to identify the nature of decadal variability and its potential links to large scale climate.

Lall, Upmanu; Cioffi, Francesco; Devineni, Naresh; Lu, Mengqian

2014-05-01

46

33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.  

...RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage...

2014-07-01

47

BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA  

EPA Science Inventory

In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

48

Communication Infrastructures for Distributed Control of Power Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power distribution networks with distributed gener- ators (DGs) can exhibit complex operational regimes which makes conventional management approaches no longer adequate. This paper looks into key communication infrastructure design aspects, and analyzes two representative evolution cases of Active Network Management (ANM) for distributed control. Relevant standard initiatives, communication protocols and technologies are intro- duced and underlying engineering challenges are highlighted.

Qiang Yang; Javier A. Barria; Tim C. Green

2011-01-01

49

Risk based adaptation of infrastructures to floods and storm surges induced by climate change.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal natural hazards are changing in frequency and intensity associated to climate change. These extreme events combined with an increase in the extent of vulnerable societies will lead to an increase of substantial monetary losses. For this reason, adaptive measures are required to identify the effective and adequate measures to withstand the impacts of climate change. Decision strategies are needed for the timing of investments and for the allocation of resources to safeguard the future in a sustainable manner. Adapting structures to climate change requires decision making under uncertainties. Therefore, it is vital that risk assessments are generated on a reliable and appropriate evaluation of the involved uncertainties. Linking a Bayesian network (BN) to a Geographic Information System (GIS) for a risk assessment enables to model all the relevant parameters, their causal relations and the involved uncertainties. The integration of the probabilistic approach into a GIS allows quantifying and visualizing uncertainties in a spatial manner. By addressing these uncertainties, the Bayesian Network approach allows quantifying their effects; and facilitates the identification of future model improvements and where other efforts should be concentrated. The final results can be applied as a supportive tool for presenting reliable risk assessments to decision-makers. Based on this premises, a case study was performed to assess how the storm surge magnitude and flooding extent of an event with similar characteristics to the Sandy Super storm will occur in 2050 and 2090.

Luna, Byron Quan; Garrè, Luca; Hansen, Peter Friis

2014-05-01

50

Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

2012-01-01

51

Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water management, including temporary lower storage basin levels and a reduction in extra investments for infrastructural measures.

van der Zwan, Rene

2013-04-01

52

Dynamic control of flood limited water level for reservoir operation by considering inflow uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAccording to the Chinese Flood Control Act, reservoir water levels generally are not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season in order to offer adequate storage for flood prevention. However, the operation rules based on the current FLWL have neglected meteorological and real-time flood forecasting information and give too much priority to low probability floods. For floodwater utilization, dynamic control of reservoir FLWL is a valuable and effective methodology to compromise between flood control and conservation for reservoir operation during the flood season. The dynamic control bound is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation. In this paper, a dynamic control operation model that considers inflow uncertainty, i.e. the inflow forecasting error and uncertainty of the flood hydrograph shape is proposed and developed. The model consists of three modules: the first one is a pre-release module, which is used to estimate the upper boundary of dynamic control bound on basis of inflow forecasting results; the second one is a refill operation module, which is used to retain recession flood, and the third one is a risk analysis module, which is used to assess flood risk. The acceptable flood control operation risk constraints and quantificational analysis methods are given, and the dynamic control bound of reservoir FLWL is estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The China's three gorges reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study. A multiple-input single-output linear systematic model is chosen for inflow forecasting of the TGR, and the future inflows are derived from gauged records by assuming that the inflow forecasting error follows a normal distribution. The application results show that the dynamic control of reservoir FLWL can effectively increase hydropower generation and the floodwater utilization rate without increasing flood control risk.

Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Chen, Guiya

2010-09-01

53

Uplink Pattern Optimisation and Power Control for Smart Antennas in an Indoor Infrastructure WLAN  

E-print Network

Uplink Pattern Optimisation and Power Control for Smart Antennas in an Indoor Infrastructure WLAN power control for a smart antenna system operating in an infrastructure Wireless Local Area Network introduced by the wireless channel. Smart antennas for infrastructure WLANs have the potential to multiply

Haddadi, Hamed

54

Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... mold from Centers for Disease Control Alert: Boil Drinking Water If your water may not be safe, bring ... diseases. More information on drinking water ( en español ) Drinking water and food: Boiling water information – To kill all ...

55

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.......................................................................6 Chapter III. Climate Change................................................................11 models...........................................................20 Climate change data

Lund, Jay R.

56

Assessing Sedimentation Issues Within Aging Flood Control Reservoirs in Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1948, the USDA-NRCS has constructed nearly 11,000 flood control dams across the United States, and many of the reservoirs are rapidly filling with sediment. To rehabilitate these structures, the impounded sediment must be assessed to determine the volume of accumulated sediment and the potential hazard this sediment may pose if reintroduced to the environment. An assessment of sedimentation issues within two reservoirs, Sugar Creek No. 12, Hinton, Oklahoma, and Sergeant Major No. 4, Cheyenne, Oklahoma, is presented. Sediment cores obtained using a vibracoring system were composed of alternating layers of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Stratigraphic analysis coupled with 137Cs dating techniques enabled the discrimination of pre-construction sediment from post-construction deposition. An acoustic profiling system was unencumbered by the relatively shallow water depth at Sugar Creek No. 12 and the seismic horizons agreed well with the sediment core data. Total sediment volume determined from the acoustic survey and the sediment core data for comparable areas differed by only 1.4 percent. The seismic profiling system worked well in the relatively deeper lake of Sergeant Major No. 4 and showed good correspondence to the collected core data. Detailed chemical analyses showed that overall sediment quality was good at both locations and that chemical composition was spatially invariant. Implementation of these techniques will aid action agencies such as the USDA-NRCS in their assessment and effective management of aging flood control reservoirs.

Bennet, Sean J.; Cooper, Charles M.; Ritchie, Jerry C.; Dunbar, John A.; Allen, Peter M.; Caldwell, Larry W.; McGee, Thomas M.

2002-10-01

57

78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cr--Creek; CS--Control Structure; Div--Diversion...Reservoir. \\2\\ F--Flood Control; N--Navigation...Recreation; Q--Water Quality or Silt Control. \\3\\ FCA--Flood...Cnty PUD 1; CLPC--CT Light & Power Co;...

2013-12-23

58

The Model Development of Real-Time Flood Control for Tsen-Wen Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer and fall, typhoons are the most frequently disasters in Taiwan. Because spare volume of reservoir can be used to reduce the peak flow, developing management models of flood operation for reservoirs becomes a good approach to reduce the impact of flooding. This study proposes a real-time flood control model which contains two major elements, an optimal flood control planning model and a real-time inflow predictor. First, the optimal flood control planning model contains the Genetic algorithms (GA), HEC-RAS and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The objective function of GA maximizes the reduction of flood damage at the downstream area and also minimizes the gap between target stage and final stage for reservoir. The HEC-RAS is used to simulate the river stage after reservoir releasing and the ANN instead of HEC-RAS simulation is used to reduce the computational burden of river routing simulation. The optimal flood control planning model can provide optimal solutions of reservoir release under pre-define of inflow data. Second, the real-time inflow predictor predicts the reservoir inflow based on the real-time inflow observations and the historical record of typhoon events. Therefore, the real-time flood control model optimizes the flood control operation of the reservoir based on the forecast inflow. This study area is at Tseng-wen Reservoir and using forty historical typhoon events to develop methodology. Six typhoon events are used to verify the proposed model. These typhoons include SEPAT (2007), KORSA (2007), KALMAEGI (2008), FUNG-WONG (2008), SINLAKU (2008) and JANGMI (2008).The results show that the developed model can reduce the duration of flood at the downstream area significantly The performance of using the proposed model for KORSA and SINLAKU can reduce the duration of flooding 4 hours and 3 hours respectively. Based on the above, the proposed model can be a useful tool for the real-time flood control of reservoirs.

Chang, H.; Chang, L.; Chang, Y.

2012-12-01

59

Controls on Groundwater Flood Generation in Chalk Catchments - Insights from Monitoring and Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the winter of 2000-01 widespread flooding occurred in northern France, Belgium and southern England. In Chalk catchments these floods persisted because of the major contribution of groundwater: in southern England the floods lasted for up to a month but parts of the Somme Valley, France, were inundated for six months. The occurrence and duration of the flooding is controlled by a number of factors including catchment characteristics, lithology, geological structure and, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties. Monitoring of suctions in the deep (>20m) Chalk unsaturated zone has shown significant differences in its role in controlling the response of the water table to rainfall and the onset of groundwater flooding. Observations from two, intensively instrumented, research catchments have highlighted the inadequacy of existing groundwater models for predicting extreme groundwater floods and led to recommendations for an improved representation of the processes operating within Chalk aquifers.

Jackson, C.; Adams, B.; Gallagher, A.; Hughes, A.; Peach, D.; Vounaki, T.; Williams, A.

2009-12-01

60

Shades of Green: Flood control study focused on Duluth, Minnesota  

EPA Science Inventory

In the aftermath of the economically and environmentally painful flood of 2012, the city of Duluth and the CSC examined ecologically based options to reduce runoff velocities and flood volume in the watershed with assistance and input of Minnesota Duluth's Natural Resources Resea...

61

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

62

Early-season flooding for insect pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

63

Bristol Floods 1968. Controlled Survey of Effects on Health of Local Community Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the health of people in Bristol flooded in July 1968 was made by means of a controlled survey and a study of mortality rates. There was a 50% increase in the number of deaths among those whose homes had been flooded, with a conspicuous rise in deaths from cancer.Surgery attendances rose by 53%, referrals to hospital and

Glin Bennet

1970-01-01

64

STUDY ON THE FLOOD CONTROL ABILITY OF A DRY DAM USED AS A FLOOD RETARDING BASIN IN A RIVER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest to construct small scale dry dams in a river instead of a large scale dam in order to prevent a flood disaster and preserve a natural environment. In recent years, a flood control dam without a slide gate in spillway, known as a ’dry dam’, has been reviewed, planned and built in some sites. In this study, the effects of some slide gates in a bottom spillway which can be opened and closed automatically depending on hydraulic pressure called ’pressure gate’ for a dry dam are examined. In addition, width of a crest spillway gate is discussed to reduce rapid increase of flow discharge in the situation of overflowing. It is demonstrated that a dry dam has an additional ability to reduce damage from a flood surge. Small scale dry dams must be regarded as a flood retarding basin fitting to a natural environment. Therefore, construction of small scale dry dams is one of the powerful options to adapt a natural environment and global warming.

Oshikawa, Hideo; Imamura, Tomohiko; Komatsu, Toshimitsu

65

Identifying Effects of Forecast Uncertainty on Flood Control Decision - A Hydro-economic Hedging Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different from conventional studies developing reservoir operation models and treating forecast as input to obtain operation decisions case by case, this study issues a hydro-economic analysis framework and derives some general relationships between optimal flood control decision and streamflow forecast. By analogy with the hedging rule theory for water supply, we formulate reservoir flood control with a two-stage optimization model, in which the properties of flood damage (i.e., diminishing marginal damage) and the characteristics of forecast uncertainty (i.e., the longer the forecast horizon, the larger the forecast uncertainty) are incorporated to minimize flood risk. We define flood conveying capacity surplus (FCCS) variables to elaborate the trade-offs between the release of current stage (i.e., stage 1) and in the release of future stage (i.e., stage 2). Using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, the flood risk trade-off between the two stages is theoretically represented and illustrated by three typical situations depending on forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude. The analytical results also show some complicated effects of forecast uncertainty and flood magnitude on real-time flood control decision: 1) When there is a big flood with a small FCCS, the whole FCCS should be allocated to the current stage to hedge against the more certain and urgent flood risk in the current stage; 2) when there is a medium flood with a moderate FCCS, some FCCS should be allocated to the future stage but more FCCS still should be allocated to the current stage; and 3) when there is a small flood with a large FCCS, more FCCS should be allocated to the future stage than the current stage, as a large FCCS in the future stage can still induce some flood risk (distribution of future stage forecast uncertainty is more disperse) while a moderate FCCS in the current stage can induce a small risk. Moreover, this study also presents a hypothetical case study to analyze the flood risk under Pseudo probabilistic streamflow forecast (pPSF, deterministic forecast with variance) and Real probabilistic streamflow forecast (rPSF, ensemble forecast) forecast uncertainties, which shows ensemble forecast techniques are more efficient on mitigating flood risk.

Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

2011-12-01

66

Flooding and Flood Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... to serious flooding. Learn More Understanding flood maps FEMA conducts a Flood Insurance Study and uses this ... Flood risk can and does change over time. FEMA frequently updates flood hazard maps. Learn More Flood ...

67

Testing control of saltcedar seedlings using fall flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because germination requirements of the exotic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) and native cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizenii) are similar, efforts to establish cottonwoods often result in concurrent establishment of saltcedars. We evaluated the success\\u000a of fall flooding to reduce saltcedar seedling density in the Rio Grande floodplain of central New Mexico, USA. We also evaluated\\u000a the effects of flooding on cottonwood

Matthew D. Sprenger; Loren M. Smith; John P. Taylor

2001-01-01

68

Infrastructure for numeric precision control in the ptolemy environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abstract algorithm specification with idealizedarithmetic must be made concrete with realisticarithmetic in the final phase of the "algorithm-toimplementation" design process in order to assess powerconsumption, hardware cost, and execution speed. In thispaper, an infrastructure for refining an idealized modelto get an architecture-dependent specification with finiteprecision is introduced. This infrastructure is built on topof the Ptolemy environment.I. IntroductionDataflow is a

Seehyun Kim; Edward A. Lee

1999-01-01

69

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nonstructural project area. (7) Nonstructural...anywhere within the formerly protected area of the flood control...excavated material disposal areas necessary for the project...restrictions placed on formerly protected lands that would...

2010-07-01

70

75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control...States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-04-09

71

Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding program in Poopenaut Valley should help to distribute fine grained overbank deposits in wetland areas, extending the period of soil water retention in riparian soils.

Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

2012-04-01

72

Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore

2012-01-01

73

Evaluating Green/Gray Infrastructure for CSO/Stormwater Control  

EPA Science Inventory

The NRMRL is conducting this project to evaluate the water quality and quantity benefits of a large-scale application of green infrastructure (low-impact development/best management practices) retrofits in an entire subcatchment. It will document ORD's effort to demonstrate the e...

74

WristQue : a personal sensor wristband for smart infrastructure and control  

E-print Network

Despite the rapid expansion of computers beyond desktop systems into devices and systems in the environment around us, the control interfaces to these systems are often basic and inadequate, particularly for infrastructure ...

Mayton, Brian D. (Brian Dean)

2013-01-01

75

Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity  

E-print Network

............................................................ 134 5.21 Risk-based EOS (EF = 1%, SS = Rising) Based on the Reservoirs GOL Limits.................................................................................... 137 6.1 TSA Rainfall Distribution Transposed Over Addicks Watershed... . 141 6.2 TSA Rainfall Distribution Transposed Over Barker Watershed.... 142 6.3 Computed Excess Precipitation and Flood Hydrographs for (a) Addicks; (b) Barker; and (c) Piney Point Based on Scenario (1); and for (d) Addicks; (e...

Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

2005-02-17

76

Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

2008-01-01

77

Modeling framework to link climate, hydrology and flood hazards: An application to Sacramento, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Sacramento and the broader delta region may be the most flood vulnerable urbanized area in the United States. Management of flood risk here and elsewhere requires an understanding of flooding hazards, which is in turn linked to California hydrology, climate, development and flood control infrastructure. A modeling framework is presented here to make predictions of flooding hazards (e.g., depth and velocity) at the household scale (personalized flood risk information), and to study how these predictions could change under different climate change, land-use change, and infrastructure adaptation scenarios. The framework couples a statewide hydrologic model (RAPID) that predicts runoff and streamflow to a city-scale hydrodynamic model (BreZo) capable of predicting levee-breach flows and overland flows into urbanized lowlands. Application of the framework to the Sacramento area is presented here, with a focus on data needs, computational demands, results and hazard communication strategies, for selected flooding scenarios.

Kim, B.; David, C. H.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

78

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the reservoir for flood control and/or navigation purposes...that bear upon flood control and navigation accomplishment...damage characteristics, real estate acquisition for flowage...to carry out the water control plan. Advice may...

2011-07-01

79

Summerflood 2002 in salzburg/austria: flood analysis and evaluation of control measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Salzburg and its surroundings were affected by the flood of the century on 12th. of august 2002. A high prehumidification, heavy precipitation up to 160 mm in 24 hours and a snowline at about 3000m a.sl. caused a rapid increase of the runoffs of the tributaries of the main rivers of Salzburg, Lammer, Saalach and Salzach and therefore of themselves. In the town of Salzburg the highest flood level mark of 8,2 m and a runoff of 2.300 m^3/s had been reached for 103 years. The torrential catchments of Salzburg surroundings were even concerned by 3 flood disasters this summer. The first happened on 17th. of july, followed by one on 7th. of august and finally with its peak on 12th of august. Several investigations containing the precipitation and disaster processes and evaluations of the control concept and maesures were made. Also the flooded areas were mapped. With the case study "Torrent Fischbach respectively the municipality of Thalgau", which was flooded at every disaster and worst damaged, very interesting results of. these investigations will be demonstrated. These results postulate the implementation of further necessary measures. Complementary control measures were projected.

Leitgeb, M.; Fiebiger, G.

2003-04-01

80

Flood inundation simulation in Ajoy River using MIKE-FLOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and risk management of floods using non-structural measures such as flood forecasting and flood warning, flood hazard mapping and flood risk zoning are quite effective. Of these, preparation of flood hazard maps and flood plain zoning require flood inundation simulation, for which various numerical models are available, for example, one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and 1D-2D-coupled models. In the present

Prashant Kadam; Dhrubajyoti Sen

2012-01-01

81

Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplet, P. & Yésou, P. 2000. Controlling the flood in the Senegal Delta: do waterfowl populations adapt to their new environment? Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 106–111.The delta of the Senegal river (320 000 ha) has been gradually dammed, mostly during the 1970–80s. From 1986, the Diama dam has stopped any backflow of salt water from the sea into most

Patrick Triplet; Pierre Yésou

2000-01-01

82

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL TRENDS IN SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY IMPOUNDED WITHIN A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR: GRENADA LAKE, MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sedimentation issues were examined in a relatively large flood control reservoir in a highly unstable, cultivated watershed. Collected sediment cores were analyzed for 137Cs and texture, which demarcated the as-built reservoir timeline, and the bulk chemistry of the sediments. The concentrations of ...

83

Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

84

HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON  

E-print Network

HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON HIGHLANDS reservoir typically requires water level to be kept at minimum design level to store as much energy, as the reservoir storage volume is lost due to sedimentation, energy output from plant is affected, reservoir

Julien, Pierre Y.

85

Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding  

E-print Network

Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wet- land to controlled flooding in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration

Fisher, Andrew

86

RIPARIAN AND RELATED VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT ALTERNATIVES AT WILDCAT AND SAN  

E-print Network

RIPARIAN AND RELATED VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT ALTERNATIVES AT WILDCAT AND SAN PABLO CREEKS1 Philip A. Meyer 2 1 Presented at the California Riparian Systems Conference; September 22 will consider Riparian benefits from alternative project designs at Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks. Particular

Standiford, Richard B.

87

ACOUSTIC IMAGING OF SEDIMENT IMPOUNDED WITHIN USDA-NRCS FLOOD CONTROL DAMS, WISCONSIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 1948, the USDA-NRCS has constructed nearly 11,000 upstream flood control dams in 2000 watersheds in 47 states, most with a design life of 50 years. But many of these reservoirs are filling with sediment. At the direct request of the USDA-NRCS in Wisconsin, two reservoirs, White Mound Lake an...

88

Flood Prevention of the Demer using Model Predictive Control  

E-print Network

be found in which automatic control techniques are used in order to control a river system ([Brian et al structures (gates) in order to be able to control the discharges in the river system. Extra storage capacity and into the available reservoirs were also added to the system. Nowadays, the hydraulical structures are controlled

89

[Technical features and roles of cobalt-57 flood sources for daily quality control of gamma cameras].  

PubMed

Quality control (QC) detects changes in the performance of gamma cameras that could adversely affect interpretations of clinical studies. We used plate and sheet (57)Co flood sources to measure extrinsic uniformity during daily QC. Each source, when placed on the top of a collimated detector, allowed the acquisition of uniform images from both detectors, thus reducing the amount of time needed to perform daily QC. No serious problems with the gamma camera system were revealed by visual checks, and changes in detector sensitivity were rapidly determined by observing daily variations in the measured values of extrinsic uniformity. Furthermore, (57)Co flood sources confer advantages in that they shorten the time required for preparation of flood sources and reduce the consequent exposure of medical staff to radiation. PMID:24573229

Wagatsuma, Kei; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Miyaji, Noriaki; Umeda, Takuro; Murata, Taisuke; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Mitsuru

2014-02-01

90

Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

2014-01-01

91

Flood control embankments contribute to the improvement of the health status of children in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Every year, Bangladesh experiences major floods that inundate about one-third of the country. Therefore, flood control projects that comprise earthen dikes and irrigation/drainage systems are built along the major rivers to protect the people living in low-lying areas, stabilize the river banks and improve agricultural productivity. However, the adverse effects of these projects are regularly emphasized, such as environmental degradation and reduction of fishing supplies. The Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) was used to assess the effect of a flood control programme on the mortality of 0-4-year-old children residing in the Matlab study area. Adjusted mortality rates were used in comparing four adjacent child populations residing either inside or outside a flood-control embankment and according to the type of health services provided in this area. Between the periods 1983-86 and 1989-92, the crude child mortality in the total study area decreased by 37%, from 185.9 per 1000 live births to 117.9 per 1000 live births. Following the construction of the embankment, death rates outside were up to 29% higher in 1-4-year-old children and 9% higher for 0-4-year age group compared to the flood-protected area (P < 0.001). Simultaneously, in the same study area, health interventions contributed to a 40% reduction in mortality among children less than 5 years of age in all causes of deaths (P < 0.001). Migration patterns and the effect of distances to the hospital are discussed. PMID:9509625

Myaux, J A; Ali, M; Chakraborty, J; de Francisco, A

1997-01-01

92

Optimal timing control in game modeling of an energy project infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to study an optimal infrastructure of a system of international gas pipelines competing for a gas market. We suggest a game-dynamic model of the operation of several interacting gas pipeline projects treated as players in the game. The model treats the projects’ commercialization times as major players’ controls. Current quantities of gas supply are

Andrey A. Krasovskii; Ivan V. Matrosov; Alexander M. Tarasyev

2009-01-01

93

Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

94

Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example. The project will have a major in...

95

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL] [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

96

Green Infrastructure for CSO Control in Kansas City, Missouri  

EPA Science Inventory

Kansas City Water Services Department (WSD) conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system over the last 5 years, for submittal of its long term control plan to EPA. These studies and recent funding opportunities have provided the impetus for sele...

97

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

USGS

98

Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

99

The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

2014-01-01

100

The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

2014-12-01

101

Measurements, patterns, and controls of nitrogen flux in a cranberry bed during the harvest flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for cranberry production but also a source of freshwater eutrophication in southeastern Massachusetts. Surface application of N fertilizer is pervasive throughout the cranberry industry, accounting for 93% of total annual N export from farms. The agricultural practice of "wet harvesting", involving the flooding of farms with ~1 ft of water, may promote the vertical transport and transformation of nitrogen in cranberry beds. A cranberry bed at the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station (East Wareham, MA) has been instrumented with a network of hydrological monitoring equipment for quantifying patterns and controls of nitrogen dynamics during the harvest flood. Here, data of (1) hydraulic head gradient between floodwater and groundwater (J), (2) hydraulic conductivity (K), and (3) N concentration in groundwater (C) collected from multiple points on the cranberry bed will be presented, and used to evaluate the patterns and controls N fluxes (f = JKC) in the cranberry bed.

Kennedy, C. D.

2012-12-01

102

Reduced-order optimal control of water flooding using proper orthogonal decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-based optimal control of water flooding generally involves multiple reservoir simulations, which makes it into a time-consuming\\u000a process. Furthermore, if the optimization is combined with inversion, i.e., with updating of the reservoir model using production\\u000a data, some form of regularization is required to cope with the ill-posedness of the inversion problem. A potential way to\\u000a address these issues is through

Jorn F. M. van Doren; Renato Markovinovi?; Jan-Dirk Jansen

2006-01-01

103

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

104

Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

2009-05-01

105

76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the Lopez Water Treatment Plant Hydropower Generation Unit Project...project was located on the county's water distribution system in San...

2011-07-05

106

A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

Murch, Austin M.

2008-01-01

107

Change and Control Paradoxes in Mobile Infrastructure Innovation: The Android and iOS Mobile Operating Systems Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the smart phone as a highly complex technology has been accompanied by mobile operating systems (OS), large communities of developers, diverse content providers, and increasingly complex networks, jointly forming digital infrastructures. The multi-faceted and relational character of such digital infrastructures raises issues around how change and control can be conceptualized and understood. We discuss how change and

David Tilson; Carsten Sorensen; Kalle Lyytinen

2012-01-01

108

Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Background The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. Methods A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. Results The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net migration rates, other social determinants showed significant correlation with decline in new TB cases per 100,000 population. Conclusions Social infrastructure development leads to social capital generation which engenders positive growth in TB program outcomes. Strategies which promote social infrastructure development should find adequate weightage in the overall policy framework for urban TB control in developing countries. PMID:24438431

2014-01-01

109

Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

2012-07-01

110

Model-controlled flooding with applications to image reconstruction and segmentation  

PubMed Central

We discuss improved image reconstruction and segmentation in a framework we term model-controlled flooding (MCF). This extends the watershed transform for segmentation by allowing the integration of a priori information about image objects into flooding simulation processes. Modeling the initial seeding, region growing, and stopping rules of the watershed flooding process allows users to customize the simulation with user-defined or default model functions incorporating prior information. It also extends a more general class of transforms based on connected attribute filters by allowing the modification of connected components of a grayscale image, thus providing more flexibility in image reconstruction. MCF reconstruction defines images with desirable features for further segmentation using existing methods and can lead to substantial improvements. We demonstrate the MCF framework using a size transform that extends grayscale area opening and attribute thickening/thinning, and give examples from several areas: concealed object detection, speckle counting in biological single cell studies, and analyses of benchmark microscopic image data sets. MCF achieves benchmark error rates well below those reported in the recent literature and in comparison with other algorithms, while being easily adapted to new imaging contexts. PMID:23049229

Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

2012-01-01

111

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

112

The DARHTAcquisition, Archival, Analysis, And Instrument Control System (DAAAC), And Network Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the world's most advanced weapons test facility. DARHT contains two linear accelerators for producing flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. High-speed electronics and optical instrumentation are used for triggering the accelerators and collecting accelerator data. Efficient and effective diagnostics provide basic information needed to routinely tune the accelerators for peak radiographic performance, and to successfully monitor the accelerators performance. DARHT's server and network infrastructure is a key element in providing shot related data storage and retrieval for successfully executing radiographic experiments. This paper will outline the elaborate Data Acquisition, Archival, Analysis, and Instrument Control System (DAAAC), as well as the server and network infrastructure for both accelerators.

Archuleta, Rita Denise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

113

CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection  

SciTech Connect

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

2012-05-14

114

Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented.

Wright, Scott A.; Kaplinski, Matt

2011-03-01

115

Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding  

SciTech Connect

The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicol, David M [UNIV OF IL; Jin, Dong [UNIV OF IL

2010-12-16

116

Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS Analysis of the Habitat Potential and Flood Control Benefits of the Restoration of a Leveed Delta Island  

E-print Network

i Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS Analysis of the Habitat Potential and Flood Control Benefits ...................................................................................................... 15 MIKE 11 Description.................................................................................................... 17 MIKE 11 GIS Description

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

117

Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

2006-05-01

118

Regional parent flood frequency distributions in Europe - Part 2: Climate and scale controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to better understand the effect of catchment scale and climate on the statistical properties of regional flood frequency distributions. A database of L-moment ratios of annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges from Austria, Italy and Slovakia, involving a total of 813 catchments with more than 25 yr of record length is presented, together with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and basin area as catchment descriptors surrogates of climate and scale controls. A purely data-based investigation performed on the database shows that the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution provides a better representation of the averaged sample L-moment ratios compared to the other distributions considered, for catchments with medium to higher values of MAP independently of catchment area, while the three-parameter lognormal distribution is probably a more appropriate choice for drier (lower MAP) intermediate-sized catchments, which presented higher skewness values. Sample L-moment ratios do not follow systematically any of the theoretical two-parameter distributions. In particular, the averaged values of L-coefficient of skewness (L-Cs) are always larger than Gumbel's fixed L-Cs. The results presented in this paper contribute to the progress in defining a set of "process-driven" pan-European flood frequency distributions and to assess possible effects of environmental change on its properties.

Salinas, J. L.; Castellarin, A.; Kohnová, S.; Kjeldsen, T. R.

2014-11-01

119

Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, USA, in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer—resource interactions were not necessarily congruent with the dominant organic matter flows. Our study illustrates the value of detailed food web analysis for elucidating pathways by which dam management may alter production and strengths of species interactions in river food webs. We suggest that controlled floods may increase production of nonnative rainbow trout, and this information can be used to help guide future dam management decisions.

Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Donner, Kevin C.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rogers, R. Scott

2011-01-01

120

33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions that come to bear upon flood control and navigation, e.g., reallocation of reservoir storage space due to sedimentation or transfer of storage space to a neighboring project. Revision of the water control plan, water control...

2010-07-01

121

Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to create an environment for innovation in FRe technology, using new approaches that will reduce the risks involved in function, deployment, performance. The paper will describe how alliances of manufacturers, test houses and research organizations can bring about innovation. (Reference; Zevenbergen C, et al, C22 Book, Urban Flood Management, 2010)

Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

2012-04-01

122

Optimal tree-based release rules for real-time flood control operations on a multipurpose multireservoir system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis study presents a methodology to establish a set of optimal operation release rules which are tree-based rules for real-time flood control on a multipurpose multireservoir system. The derived rules can be used to determine the optimal real-time releases during flood periods. Steps of the proposed methodology involve: (1) collection of data, (2) building of flood database, (3) generation of optimal input-output patterns by running the flood control optimization model, (4) classification of training and testing data, (5) extraction of tree-based release rules for designed scenarios using the decision-tree algorithm (C5.0), (6) determination of optimal tree-based rules, (7) generation of the real-time forecast data by using the hydrological forecast model, (8) processing of reservoir real-time releases by simulating the reservoir real-time flood control operation, and (9) verification of the superior release rules through comparisons of tree-based rules, regression-based rules derived from a multiple-linear regression model and existing release rules. The developed methodology is applied to the Tanshui River Reservoir System in Taiwan to extract the decision trees for each scenario and then select the best ones with highest accuracy as the optimal tree-based rules. The derived optimal tree-based rules, regression-based rules and existing rules are compared by conducting the real-time operations in three historical typhoons, including Aere, Haima and Nock-ten in 2004. Results demonstrate that the solution using the derived tree-based rules have better performance than the regression-based rules and the existing rules in terms of reducing the peak stage at downstream control points, and meeting the target reservoir storage at the end of flood.

Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

2009-02-01

123

Temporal stability and transferability of models of willingness to pay for flood control and wetland conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the temporal stability and transferability of dichotomous choice willingness to pay responses and their determinants from two large-scale contingent valuation surveys in the area of flood control and wetland conservation. The study considers a time period between surveys which is more than double that considered in previous test-retest analyses. Whereas such previous studies have reported stable values over relatively short time periods, the present study finds a statistically significant decrease in real willingness to pay over this more extended time period. Analyses of model transfer between the two survey periods indicate that models derived solely from economic-theoretic determinants pass transferability tests. However, expanding these models to include more ad hoc, transitory factors yields nontransferable models. This provides a guide for future analyses.

Brouwer, Roy; Bateman, Ian J.

2005-03-01

124

Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators

Patrick ONeill

2009-01-01

125

Software and cyber-infrastructure development to control the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys with two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55m telescope of 3deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83cm telescope of 2deg field of view. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and maintain all the observatory systems including not only astronomical subsystems but also infrastructure and other facilities. In order to provide quality, reliability and efficiency, the OAJ control system (OCS) design is based on CIA (Control Integrated Architecture) and OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) as a key to improve day and night operation processes. The OCS goes from low level hardware layer including IOs connected directly to sensors and actuators deployed around the whole observatory systems, including telescopes and astronomical instrumentation, up to the high level software layer as a tool to perform efficiently observatory operations. We will give an overview of the OAJ control system design and implementation from an engineering point of view, giving details of the design criteria, technology, architecture, standards, functional blocks, model structure, development, deployment, goals, report about the actual status and next steps.

Yanes-Díaz, A.; Antón, J. L.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Guillén-Civera, L.; Bello, R.; Jiménez-Mejías, D.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Suárez, O.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Marin-Franch, A.; Luis-Simoes, R.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez-Hernández, M. A. C.; Moles, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Vazquez Ramió, H.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Maicas, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Lopez-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Penteado, P.; Schoenell, W.; Kanaan, A.

2014-07-01

126

Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

2013-05-01

127

Toward sustainable stormwater management : overcoming barriers to green infrastructure  

E-print Network

With their high concentrations of impervious surface, urban areas generate stormwater runoff that overwhelms existing infrastructure causing flooding, sewer overflows, water pollution, and habitat degradation. Under pressure ...

Hammitt, Sarah A. (Sarah Ann)

2010-01-01

128

Reducing combined sewer overflows by using outlet controls for Green Stormwater Infrastructure: Case study in Richmond, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a major problem in many cities. This paper assesses two Low Impact Development (LID) Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) alternatives applied within a 7.05 ha catchment of the Shockoe Creek tributary of the James River in Richmond, Virginia. The LID alternatives were the 'Green-Free' (typical free discharge underdrains) and the 'Green-Control' (underdrains with flow controlled outlets). These alternatives were compared to two non-LID alternatives: 'Existing' (existing conditions) and 'Gray' (tunnel storage). A normal year scenario with average rainfall depths and intensities was compared to a scenario with anticipated higher intensity rainfall due to climate change (CC). In the normal year, the Green-Control alternative performed substantially better than both the Green-Free and the Gray alternatives in terms of volume control. However it experienced slightly more CSO events than Grey. The relative performance of both green alternatives improved with the CC climate year, indicating that GSI is more resilient than gray infrastructure. In particular, Green-Control exhibited much better performance. While the gray infrastructure solution reduced CSOs to the fewest number of occurrences, the smallest overflow volumes, lowest peak flows and the most resilient system was obtained by the Green-Control alternative. Since CSO volume is strongly related to the negative ecological impacts from overflows, and CSO occurrences are not, GSI provides a more sustainable solution than gray. These results find that hydraulic control of discharges should be the preferred option when considering GSI in CSO mitigation.

Lucas, William C.; Sample, David J.

2015-01-01

129

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons  

SciTech Connect

Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch in diameter. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corrosion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is working with the California Department of Water Resources to develop advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructively inspecting their tendons. A unique transducer was designed and fabricated to interrogate the entire tendon. A robust,portable unit was assembled that included a computer controlled data acquisition system and specialized data processing software to analyze the ultrasonic signals. This system was tested on laboratory specimens and is presently being fielded at two dam sites.

Thomas, G.; Brown, A.

1997-10-01

130

Development of improved-mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the first year, the initial phase of the project included a literature survey of surfactant/polymer flooding, a summary of the current status of DOE-sponsored polymer and surfactant/polymer field projects, and a survey of oil industry personnel regarding difficulties encountered in the use of commercially available polymers. Major problems in the use of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides were identified. Purpose of Phase 1 was to delineate the strengths and weaknesses of commercial polymers. Laboratory tests in the second phase then were designed to measure and compare the factors considered to be of greatest importance. During the second year of the project, the Phase 2 baseline screening tests were completed, and Phase 3 work commenced on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new or modified polymers. During the final year of the project, the preliminary screening tests were completed and polymers of interest were evaluated in more detail. This final report contains highlights of the significant accomplishments of the project and presents our conclusions regarding the development of improved mobility control agents. The work has shown that moderate changes in the basic structure of acrylamide polymers can produce significant effects on performance in oil recovery applications. Better viscosity retention in brine can be obtained by stiffening the polymer chain of acrylamide-type materials. Enhanced shear stability can be attained by increasing the polymer hydrophilicity.

Martin, F D; Donaruma, L G; Hatch, M J

1982-02-23

131

Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The method was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were analysed to capture the flood signal. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen inferred vegetation dynamics. The results suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. After 4500-4000 cal BP, the record shows a shift toward increased flood frequency. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed after ca. 4500/4000 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use probably partially control the flood activity.

Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

2013-05-01

132

Evaluating Sand Transport Through Two Spillway Diversions on the Lower Mississippi River During the Flood of 2011: Implications for Land Management Via Controlled Diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mississippi River flood of 2011 necessitated operation of both the Bonnet Carré and Morganza spillways, so that up to 25% of the lower river-water discharge plus associated sediment was diverted into Lake Pontchartrain and Atchafalaya River basin, respectively. The design of each spillway is quite different, and here we present data used to analyze the sand transport capacity of both structures. The Morganza Floodway is set several kilometers from a Mississippi River bend reach, is buffered by a wooded floodplain and has a long, contained forebay. This site location and design inhibits movement of sand from the river through the spillway. In contrast, the Bonnet Carré Spillway is positioned adjacent to the river channel and just downstream of two bend reaches; enhanced secondary flow and turbulence associated with this planform contributes to sand suspension, promoting extensive sediment transport through the spillway. Interestingly, despite the depth of the weir separating the Mississippi River channel and the Bonnet Carré Spillway (approximately the upper 10% of the thalweg depth), the spillway captured a significant proportion of channel-bed sand, based on our data for grain-size distribution of sand on the river-channel bed compared to deposits in the spillway. These results indicate that planform controls and sediment transport dynamics can be used to predict the optimal placement of diversion structures intended to distribute water and sediment from the lower Mississippi River to surrounding wetlands, thereby helping prevent coastal erosion and degradation of infrastructure.

Czapiga, M. J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Brantley, C.; Cash, R. W.; Parker, G.; Best, J. L.

2011-12-01

133

Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in Northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The automatic counting of flood deposits was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were processed to capture the flood signal. Automatic quantification was compared with naked-eye counting. Counts were performed twice on the proximal and distal cores to provide an objective and reproducible record of flood frequency. Geophysical and geochemical analyses made it possible to distinguish event deposits from background sedimentation. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen dynamics inferred from vegetation data. The data suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. The last third of the Holocene is characterised by a shift toward increased flood frequency at ca. 4500-4000 cal BP. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed at ca. 4500 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. The role of climate as the main forcing factor in flood activity is supported by the lake-level records: the major lake-level rises are synchronous with flood frequency increases. However, in the Bronze Age and during the Middle Ages and modern times, forest clearing and land use are indicated by pollen and archaeological data. These human activities have clearly affected the sediment record of flood activity, and they can partially explain the amplitude of the increases in flood activity.

Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

2012-09-01

134

Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed,\\u000a i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the\\u000a polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted

Valérie Bert; Piet Seuntjens; Winnie Dejonghe; Sophie Lacherez; Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Bart Vandecasteele

2009-01-01

135

M. Amin/ Automation, Control, and Complexity: An Integrated Approach, Samad & Weyrauch (Eds.), John Wiley and Sons, pp. 263-286,2000 National Infrastructures as Complex  

E-print Network

M. Amin/ Automation, Control, and Complexity: An Integrated Approach, Samad & Weyrauch (Eds.), John and interconnectedness of energy, telecommunications, transportation, and financial infrastructures pose new challenges for secure, reliable management and operation. No single entity has complete control of these multi

Amin, S. Massoud

136

Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

2014-06-01

137

The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-20

138

Real-time multi-step-ahead water level forecasting by recurrent neural networks for urban flood control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood control is a crucial task, which commonly faces fast rising peak flows resulting from urbanization. To mitigate future flood damages, it is imperative to construct an on-line accurate model to forecast inundation levels during flood periods. The Yu-Cheng Pumping Station located in Taipei City of Taiwan is selected as the study area. Firstly, historical hydrologic data are fully explored by statistical techniques to identify the time span of rainfall affecting the rise of the water level in the floodwater storage pond (FSP) at the pumping station. Secondly, effective factors (rainfall stations) that significantly affect the FSP water level are extracted by the Gamma test (GT). Thirdly, one static artificial neural network (ANN) (backpropagation neural network-BPNN) and two dynamic ANNs (Elman neural network-Elman NN; nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs-NARX network) are used to construct multi-step-ahead FSP water level forecast models through two scenarios, in which scenario I adopts rainfall and FSP water level data as model inputs while scenario II adopts only rainfall data as model inputs. The results demonstrate that the GT can efficiently identify the effective rainfall stations as important inputs to the three ANNs; the recurrent connections from the output layer (NARX network) impose more effects on the output than those of the hidden layer (Elman NN) do; and the NARX network performs the best in real-time forecasting. The NARX network produces coefficients of efficiency within 0.9-0.7 (scenario I) and 0.7-0.5 (scenario II) in the testing stages for 10-60-min-ahead forecasts accordingly. This study suggests that the proposed NARX models can be valuable and beneficial to the government authority for urban flood control.

Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Lu, Ying-Ray; Huang, Eric; Chang, Kai-Yao

2014-09-01

139

A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

140

The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing system composed of thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify the correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed of two main entities that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The first is the engine, a Java service that performs aggregation, processing and filtering of real time data stream and computes statistical correlation on sliding windows of time. The results are made available to clients via a simple web interface supporting SQL-like query syntax. The second is the visualization, provided by an Ajax-based web application that runs on client's browser. The dashboard approach allows to present information in a clear and customizable structure. Several types of interactive graphs are proposed as widgets that can be dynamically added and removed from visualization panels. Each widget acts as a client for the engine, querying the web interface to retrieve data with desired criteria. In this paper we present the design, development and evolution of the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard. We also present the statistical analysis computed by the application in this first period of high energy data taking operations for the ATLAS experiment.

Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Magnoni, Luca; Sloper, John Erik

2011-12-01

141

In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvac?k Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by taking inflow, elevation, precipitation and snow water equivalent into consideration to propose alternative simulations as a decision support system. After that, the releases are subjected to user-defined rules. Thus, previous year reservoir simulations are compared with observed reservoir levels and releases. Hypothetical flood scenarios are tested in case of different storm event timing and sizing. Numerical weather prediction data of Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) can be used for temperature and precipitation forecasts that will form the inputs for a hydrological model. The estimated flows can be used for real time short term decisions for reservoir simulation based on variable guide curve and user defined rules.

Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

2012-04-01

142

GRAZER CONTROL OF STREAM ALGAE :M ODELING TEMPERATURE AND FLOOD EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for epilithic algae and grazer biomass in streams is modified to better predict the effects of temperature and is calibrated for diatoms and mayflies. Mayflies are predicted to maintain low diatom biomass provided that (1) temperatures remain within their preferred range (10-207C); and (2) mayfly populations are not adversely affected by floods. Algal blooms are predicted to

J. C. Rutherford; M. R. Scarsbrook; N. Broekhuizen

2000-01-01

143

Public participation in flood control areas - approaches to ‘sustainable’ communication strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming causes heavy rainfall and rising sea levels. These climate effects prove to be a strong motivation for looking differently at issues of water management and safety in estuaries. For decades, the only answer to hazardous situations (e.g. flooding by increased river discharges or by incoming storm water) was to strengthens dikes and dams. This led to damage in

Mike Duijn; Marc Rijnveld; Peter Van Rooy

2005-01-01

144

The Flood Control and the Ground Water Reservoir Construction Effection Analysis of Huanghui River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct against the constant increase of the water consumption of the regional industry and agriculture in the coastal area and the serious state that the short supply of water resource day by day, we build the retaining and recharging projects in the river to increase the use of the resources of rain water, and prevent flood water from entering the

Qingyong Liu; Baoxiang Zhang; Fanhai Meng; Ruiyong Song

2011-01-01

145

Extreme flood abatement in large dams with gate-controlled spillways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the flood abatement effect at dams with gated spillways under a wide range of extreme floods is analysed (100 < return period <10,000 years). A group of integrated models (rainfall generator, hydrological model and dam operation model) interacting within a Monte Carlo simulation framework is used for producing numerous hydrologic events at 21 sites across mainland Spain, and the hydrologic response applied to 81 configurations of dams and reservoirs. Common behavioural patterns are identified and dimensionless coefficients classified, based on the hydrologic variables and the dam and reservoir characteristics. The relationships between these coefficients are analysed, with a significant degree of correlation both among the cases and the varying magnitude of floods being obtained. Finally, models that enable evaluation of the abatement capacity of a dam with a gated spillway in the event of a flood with Tr between 500 and 10,000 years are offered. In addition, they allow the frequency curve of such a maximum flow to be obtained, something which could serve of use not only during the design phase but also in the evaluation of the hydrologic safety of dams.

Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, M. Dolores; Castillo, Luis G.

2013-08-01

146

Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview on power infrastructure defense systems. A review of the literature on the subjects of critical infrastructures, threats to the power grids, defense system concepts, and the special protection systems is reported. The proposed Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system methodology is a real-time, wide-area, adaptive protection and control system involving the power, communication,

Hao Li; GARY W. ROSENWALD; JUHWAN JUNG; Chen-ching Liu

2005-01-01

147

Teaching floods and flooding quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

Baer, Eric

2007-01-01

148

Green Infrastructure  

E-print Network

SWM, Green Buildings, Energy Forum, Texas Smartscape) ? Deteriorating Roadways ? ASCE Report Card on Texas Infrastructure for 2008 identified roads as the #1 infrastructure concern ? Congestion ? DFW congestion is growing over 45% faster than...

Tildwell, J.

2011-01-01

149

Controls on effective settling velocity of suspended sediment in the Eel River flood plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk effective settling velocities required to explain sinking losses from the Eel River flood plume off the coast of northern California are of order 0.1 mm s?1 for five different helicopter-based sampling surveys conducted in January and February 1998. These effective settling velocities exceed those expected for single-grain sinking and implicate flocculation as an important mechanism for speeding the removal

Paul S Hill; Timothy G Milligan; W. Rockwell Geyer

2000-01-01

150

Balancing Flood Control and Ecological Preservation\\/Restoration of Urban Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout recent history, urbanisation has altered the ecological structure of urban streams and rivers. They have been channelised,\\u000a constricted, and ultimately covered to gain space for urban development and to accommodate increased flood flows. The Los\\u000a Angeles River in California and the Kinnikinnic River in Milwaukee represent the ultimate transformation of an urban stream\\u000a into a concrete, high flow velocity

V. Novotny; D. Clark; R. Griffin; A. Bartošová

151

Hydroclimatic controls on the occurrence of break-up and ice-jam flooding in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryConcern has been expressed regarding the impacts of climate change on freshwater aquatic ecosystems in arctic regions. Populated with lakes controlled by flooding from spring break-up ice jams, arctic deltas such as the Mackenzie Delta in northern Canada are particularly sensitive to changing ice break-up conditions and the hydroclimatic controls on break-up and ice-jam flooding. An understanding of these controls is necessary for assessing future climate change effects. This paper presents an assessment of hydroclimatic conditions controlling break-up over the period 1974-2006, with a focus on extreme flood events. Both the upstream driving force, capturing elements of the spring discharge hydrograph, and the downstream resistance force, describing the competence of the downstream ice cover, were quantified with reference to the Mackenzie River at Arctic Red River hydrometric station such that the contribution of each to the severity and timing of break-up could be explored. Results show that the severity of peak break-up stage is most influenced by upstream discharge and the balance between upstream and downstream melt, while timing is related to delta ice conditions and the rise of the spring hydrograph. The highest peak stage events require a rapid rise in discharge and high peak discharge. Minimal downstream melting degree-days and greater ice thickness are also important, although no relationship of these appears to control the level of backwater produced from broken ice and ice jamming effects. The pattern of rapid (protracted) upstream melt and lower (higher) intensity melt in the delta characterizes the highest (lowest) break-up events. For the most severe events, upstream forces are important in controlling discharge-driven events, while an altered hydrologic response occurring for ice-driven events was noted, meriting future examination. Finally, trends toward a longer prebreak-up melt interval, lower peak discharge, rate of rise in discharge, and ice thickness, and higher freeze-up stage were observed, with greater variability of these controls and break-up severity in the most recent decade.

Goulding, Holly L.; Prowse, Terry D.; Bonsal, Barrie

2009-12-01

152

The best plan for flood mitigation: A case study in the north-eastern part of IRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency and magnitude of flood and debris flow have dramatically risen in north-eastern part of IRAN in the past decade. The evidence shows that the peak discharge of 2001 flood has exceeded the estimated PMF (Probable Maximum Flood) of Goleastan dam. The extreme foods of the region which mostly occurred in the summer, have damaged hundreds of life and thousands of livestock and destroyed a lot of infrastructures in recent years. Structural in association with non structural measures have been identified essential elements of flood mitigation in the master plan. Consequently two-phased plan including urgent measures and a master plan have been prepared for the basin as mid-term and long-term solution respectively. Considering flash flood manner of the region, flood detention and attenuation in upstream areas has been assessed as an effective measure in order to mitigate flood magnitude in down stream areas. Therefore a detention dam has been designed in the upstream catchments where there is high contribution in flood generation of the basin. In the design stage of the detention dam, several alternatives of reservoir and spillway capacity have been assessed regarding to flood reduction in the whole catchments. However, detention dam characteristic has been finalized based on maximum justifiable flood attenuation due to high vulnerability of the areas. The designed detention dam can completely control floods up to 200 year and reduce 1000 year peak discharge to less than 100 year return period at the dam site. Nevertheless, the dam would mitigate floods of downstream damage center at least 40% comparing to without project situation. This paper introduces not only the proposed master plan but also evaluates efficiency of the detention dam in flood reduction of the whole basin.

Heidari, A.

2010-05-01

153

Modeling infiltration process of regulating reservoir built for flood-control based on site-characterization using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulating reservoir built for flood-control in the Shougawa alluvial fan of Toyama prefecture, Japan, was designed to have a high permeable bottom to maintain smooth infiltration of flood water pouring from a river. The infiltration process in the permeable ground was surveyed by sensors, such as piezometers set inside the observation boreholes installed in the reservoir. The observation showed that not only the temperature of the water but also the existence of pore air and heterogeneity in the ground essentially effects on the infiltration behavior beneath the reservoir. To clarify this infiltration process, we conducted 3D-Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey and time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling. 3D-GPR was applicable to detecte less permeable zone with rich clay in sand gravel basement, which control infiltration of reservoir. Time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling could estimate infiltration rate in vadose zone. Based on these results we built unsaturated-saturated water flow model considering subsurface heterogeneity and its effect. This model will contribute the management to maintain its permeability and help understanding the effect of reservoir on surrounding water environment. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25294117 and 30343768.

Kuroda, S.; Tatsuya, S.; Sudani, G.; Ikeda, S.; Satoshi, T.; Kenichi, W.; Tagashira, H.; Masukawa, S.

2013-12-01

154

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain: 1. Hydraulic controls on water elevation, inundation extent, and river-floodplain discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the routing of flood waters across large floodplains is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls from complex geomorphology, vegetation, and multiple water sources. In this study, we analyzed the topographic and hydrologic controls of inundation dynamics of a large floodplain unit (2440 km2) along the lower Amazon River. We combined land topography derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with underwater topography derived from an extensive echo-sounding survey to generate a seamless digital elevation model (DEM). Floodplain inundation was simulated using LISFLOOD-FP, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. For the first time, accurate simulation of filling and drainage of an Amazon floodplain was achieved with quantification of changes in water elevation, flooding extent, and river-floodplain exchange. We examined the role of diffuse overbank versus channelized flows on river-floodplain exchange. Diffuse overbank flows represent 93% of total river to floodplain discharge and 54% of floodplain to river discharge. Floodplain discharge during high-water was four times higher than field observation values when the SRTM v.4 DEM with no correction was used for simulation because of a -4.4 m elevation bias originating from residual motion errors of the SRTM interferometric baseline.

Rudorff, Conrado M.; Melack, John M.; Bates, Paul D.

2014-01-01

155

Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab.  

PubMed

The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17?million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900?kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces. PMID:22337059

Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R

2012-02-16

156

Stream Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

Huff, Warren

2000-11-03

157

The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In both systems, controlled floods are generally effective at enhancing channel relief through fine sediment redistribution. Yet, controlled floods may also exacerbate the fine sediment deficit, and their long-term efficacy thus requires a detailed understanding of sediment mass balance.

Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

2013-12-01

158

Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized adaptive management efforts in the world to manage resources under growing environmental uncertainty as climate change and global warming continues.

Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

2013-12-01

159

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Tingle, Alex; Nasa; Maps, Google; Self-Published

160

Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan ranging from governmental organizations, for-profit to and non-profit entities. All vehicles were equipped with a data acquisition system that automatically collected statistically relevant data for submission to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which monitored the progress of the fuel cell vehicles against the DOE technology validation milestones. The Mercedes Team also provided data from Gen-II vehicles under the similar operations as Gen I vehicles to compare technology maturity during program duration.

Ronald Grasman

2011-12-31

161

Update of Estimated Agricultural Benefits Attributable to Drainage and Flood Control in Willacy County, Texas  

E-print Network

by month, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas Probability January 8 0.0314 February 6 0.0235 March 1 0.0039 April 17 0.0667 May 42 0.1647 June 33 0.1294 July 8 0.0314 August 27 0.1059 September 68 0.2667 October 39 0.1529 November 5 0... for protection at the 10% event level, ranges from $16.8 and $18 million. iii Distribution for Ten Yr Flood PV Benefits/K12 V a lu e s in 1 0 ^ - 6 Values in Millions 0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Mean=1.733668E+07...

Lacewell, Ronald D.; Freeman, Roger; Petit, David; Rister, Ed; Sturdivant, Allan; Ribera, Luis; Zinn, Michele

2006-01-01

162

Diamon2- Improved Monitoring of CERN’s Accelerator Controls Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Monitoring of heterogeneous systems in large organizations like CERN is always challenging. CERN's accelerators infrastructure includes large number of equipment (servers, consoles, FECs, PLCs), some still running legacy software like LynxOS 4 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 on older hardware with very limited resources. DIAMON2 is based on CERN Common Monitoring platform. Using Java industry standards, notably Spring, Ehcache and the Java Message Service, together with a small footprint C++ -based monitoring agent for real time systems and wide variety of additional data acquisition components (SNMP, JMS, JMX etc.), DIAMON2 targets CERN’s environment, providing easily extensible, dynamically reconfigurable, reliable and scalable monitoring solution. This article explains the evolution of the CERN diagnostics and monitoring environment until DIAMON2, describes the overall system’s architecture, main components and their functionality as well as the first operational experiences with the new system, observed...

Buczak, W; Ehm, F; Jurcso, P; Mitev, M

2014-01-01

163

The Global Flood Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage, the core specifications and reference version of the GFM will be licensed free. - for commercial use, users (such as software companies, engineering companies and business or risk management consultancies) will pay an annual fee, contributing to upkeep and maintenance. The GFM demonstrator will be shown and discussed. The initiative is seeking active involvement of the academic community.

Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

2012-04-01

164

Hydrometeorological network for flood monitoring and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its highly fragmented geomorphology, Greece comprises hundreds of small- to medium-size hydrological basins, in which often the terrain is fairly steep and the streamflow regime ephemeral. These are typically affected by flash floods, occasionally causing severe damages. Yet, the vast majority of them lack flow-gauging infrastructure providing systematic hydrometric data at fine time scales. This has obvious impacts on the quality and reliability of flood studies, which typically use simplistic approaches for ungauged basins that do not consider local peculiarities in sufficient detail. In order to provide a consistent framework for flood design and to ensure realistic predictions of the flood risk -a key issue of the 2007/60/EC Directive- it is essential to improve the monitoring infrastructures by taking advantage of modern technologies for remote control and data management. In this context and in the research project DEUCALION, we have recently installed and are operating, in four pilot river basins, a telemetry-based hydro-meteorological network that comprises automatic stations and is linked to and supported by relevant software. The hydrometric stations measure stage, using 50-kHz ultrasonic pulses or piezometric sensors, or both stage (piezometric) and velocity via acoustic Doppler radar; all measurements are being temperature-corrected. The meteorological stations record air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. Data transfer is made via GPRS or mobile telephony modems. The monitoring network is supported by a web-based application for storage, visualization and management of geographical and hydro-meteorological data (ENHYDRIS), a software tool for data analysis and processing (HYDROGNOMON), as well as an advanced model for flood simulation (HYDROGEIOS). The recorded hydro-meteorological observations are accessible over the Internet through the www-application. The system is operational and its functionality has been implemented as open-source software for use in a wide range of applications in the field of water resources monitoring and management, such as the demonstration case study outlined in this work.

Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koussis, Antonis D.; Lykoudis, Spyros; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Kappos, Nikos; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

2013-08-01

165

Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.  

PubMed

Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

2014-01-01

166

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01...harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...rights-of-ways for gas, water, and sewer pipelines...United States in the property affected thereby...

2012-07-01

167

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01...harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...rights-of-ways for gas, water, and sewer pipelines...United States in the property affected thereby...

2011-07-01

168

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01...harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...rights-of-ways for gas, water, and sewer pipelines...United States in the property affected thereby...

2010-07-01

169

33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01...harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...rights-of-ways for gas, water, and sewer pipelines...United States in the property affected thereby...

2013-07-01

170

Effects of Fluctuating Flows and a Controlled Flood on Incubation Success and Early Survival Rates and Growth of Age0 Rainbow Trout in a Large Regulated River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates

Josh Korman; Matthew Kaplinski; Theodore S. Melis

2011-01-01

171

COLLINS, KELLY ALYSSA. A Field Evaluation of Four Types of Permeable Pavement with Respect to Water Quality Improvement and Flood Control. (Under the direction of  

E-print Network

to Water Quality Improvement and Flood Control. (Under the direction of Dr.William F. Hunt.) In North capabilities in reducing runoff, but are not credited for improving water quality. To further test the hydrologic and water quality responses of various permeable pavement designs, a 20-stall parking lot

Hunt, William F.

172

Lynn E. KatzpH Sensitive Polymers for Novel Conformance Control and Polymer Flooding Applications  

E-print Network

To my wife, Kun Sook Na, and my daughter, Hee Seung Choi, who both patiently supported me in my studies and To my mother, Kwang Young Lee, my father, Sang Soon Choi, and all my other family, for their devoted and endless love. Acknowledgements I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Mukul M. Sharma, for his continuous guidance and support throughout all these years. As a truly talented supervisor and professor, he allowed me to explore my academic potential and exposed me to the exciting world of research. I also would like to acknowledge Drs. Steven L. Bryant and Huh Chun, as my co-supervisors, for their warm-hearted guidance and sincere advice. Their supervision over the last 4 years truly guided me to a right path, and encouraged me, especially during the difficult process of research. Dr. Gary A. Pope must also be acknowledged for his invaluable contribution to the understanding of polymer flooding, which is major part of my dissertation. Dr. Lynn E. Katz is also acknowledged for her constructive comments on geochemical reactions

Suk Kyoon Choi; Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Gary A. Pope; Suk Kyoon Choi

173

An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

2012-12-01

174

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

2001-01-01

175

Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

2011-01-01

176

Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

177

Social infrastructure  

E-print Network

Current urbanization patterns and aging transportation infrastructures have marginalized millions of US citizens. The result is that 4 .5 million US residents live within 100 meters of a four-lane highway' and have become ...

Kurlbaum, Ryan E. (Ryan Edward)

2013-01-01

178

From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

2012-04-01

179

The management of urban surface water flood risks: SUDS performance in flood reduction from extreme events.  

PubMed

The need to improve the urban drainage network to meet recent urban growth and the redevelopment of old industrial and commercial areas provides an opportunity for managing urban surface water infrastructure in a more sustainable way. The use of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) can reduce urban surface water flooding as well as the pollution impact of urban discharges on receiving waters. However, these techniques are not yet well known by many stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, or at least the evidence of their performance effectiveness may be doubted compared with more traditional engineering solutions often promoted by existing 1D/2D drainage models. The use of geographic information systems (GIS) in facilitating the inter-related risk analysis of sewer surface water overflows and urban flooding as well as in better communication with stakeholders is demonstrated in this paper. An innovative coupled 1D/2D urban sewer/overland flow model has been developed and tested in conjunction with a SUDS selection and location tool (SUDSLOC) to enable a robust management approach to surface water flood risks and to improve the resilience of the urban drainage infrastructure. The paper demonstrates the numerical and modelling basis of the integrated 1D/2D and SUDSLOC approach and the working assumptions and flexibility of the application together with some limitations and uncertainties. The role of the SUDSLOC modelling component in quantifying flow, and surcharge reduction benefits arising from the strategic selection and location of differing SUDS controls are also demonstrated for an extreme storm event scenario. PMID:23128626

Viavattene, C; Ellis, J B

2013-01-01

180

Flood mapping with multitemporal MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most devastating and frequent disasters resulting in loss of human life and serve damage to infrastructure and agricultural production. Flood is phenomenal in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam. It annually lasts from July to November. Information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics is thus important for planners to devise successful strategies for flood monitoring and mitigation of its negative effects. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for weekly mapping flood dynamics with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data in MRD using the water fraction model (WFM). The data processed for 2009 comprises three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time series of the difference in the values (DVLE) between land surface water index (LSWI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) flood derivation using WFM, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data, which were constructed from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. As several error sources, including mixed-pixel problems and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, could lower the level of classification accuracy, the comparisons indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracy of 80.5% and Kappa coefficient of 0.61, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived flood area and that of the ground reference map at the provincial level, with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93. Considering the importance of remote sensing for monitoring floods and mitigating the damage caused by floods to crops and infrastructure, this study eventually leads to the realization of the value of using time-series MODIS DVLE data for weekly flood monitoring in MRD with the aid of EMD and WFM. Such an approach that could provide quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics for monitoring purposes was completely transferable to other regions in the world.

Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru

2014-05-01

181

Flood Management Scenarios Based on Hydrodynamic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the scenarios developed to assist in the understanding of possible future situations of the complex river system as a part of knowledge acquisition process. Due to complexity of river system, knowledge acquisition is a major bottleneck to develop an expert system for forecasting flood. Operation of flood control gates has a very important role in flood alleviation.

Ian David

2008-01-01

182

Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including ? OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, ? Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, ? Control plane software release, ? Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, ? Network Virtualization architecture, ? Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Lehman, Tom [USC] [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM] [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID] [UCAID

2010-08-31

183

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

2002-01-01

184

Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

Summerhill, Richard

2009-08-14

185

A Communication Synthesis Infrastructure for Heterogeneous Networked Control Systems and Its  

E-print Network

Application to Building Automation and Control Alessandro Pinto University of California, Berkeley 545P Cory Embedded Systems, Building Automation System Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part Science Building 1214 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027-7003 luca@cs.columbia.edu Alberto L

Austin, Mark

186

Flooding compromises compensatory capacity of an invasive plant: implications for biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant compensatory growth is proposed to be insidious to biological control and known to vary under different environmental\\u000a conditions. However, the effects of microsite conditions on compensation capacity and its indirect impacts on biological control\\u000a of plant invaders have received little attention. Alligator weed, Alternanthera phioxeroides, is an invasive plant worldwide, growing in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats that are

Xinmin Lu; Jianqing Ding

2010-01-01

187

1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.

Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

2014-05-01

188

Flooding and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Massachusetts: A Case-Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Floods and other severe weather events are anticipated to increase as a result of global climate change. Floods can lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases due to disruption of sewage and water infrastructure and impacts on sanitation and hygiene. Floods have also been indirectly associated with outbreaks through population displacement and crowding. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study to investigate the association between flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness (ER-GI) in Massachusetts for the years 2003 through 2007. We obtained ER-GI visits from the State of Massachusetts and records of floods from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association’s Storm Events Database. ER-GI visits were considered exposed if a flood occurred in the town of residence within three hazard periods of the visit: 0–4 days; 5–9 days; and 10–14 days. A time-stratified bi-directional design was used for control selection, matching on day of the week with two weeks lead or lag time from the ER-GI visit. Fixed effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of ER-GI visits following the flood. Results and Conclusions A total of 270,457 ER-GI visits and 129 floods occurred in Massachusetts over the study period. Across all counties, flooding was associated with an increased risk for ER-GI in the 0–4 day period after flooding (Odds Ratio: 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03–1.12); but not the 5–9 days (Odds Ratio: 0.995; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.955–1.04) or the 10–14 days after (Odds Ratio: 0.966, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.927–1.01). Similar results were observed for different definitions of ER-GI. The effect differed across counties, suggesting local differences in the risk and impact of flooding. Statewide, across the study period, an estimated 7% of ER-GI visits in the 0–4 days after a flood event were attributable to flooding. PMID:25329916

Wade, Timothy J.; Lin, Cynthia J.; Jagai, Jyotsna S.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

2014-01-01

189

Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.  

PubMed

Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

2013-10-01

190

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

191

Multi-objective sustainable river management: balancing flood control, bio-pysical restoration and socio-economic factors in a Scottish river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of river corridors requires an understanding of the linkages between geomorphic, hydrologic, ecologic and socio-economic factors across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, in order to be genuinely sustainable, management must ideally be set within a catchment/watershed context. However, in practice, this rarely occurs due to obstacles imposed by fragmented land ownership/governance and an incomplete understanding of bio-physical process linkages. We present our experience on a project with the goal of optimising physical objectives at the catchment scale within a framework influenced by environmental legislation and conflicting land-use pressures. The project was carried out on the Eddleston Water in the Scottish Borders and had the primary objective of providing sustainable flood risk management to settlements on the water course while also providing ecological benefit to the river corridor. These co-objectives had to be met while considering the constraints imposed by land-use (predominantly arable agriculture) and transport infrastructure on the floodplain. The Eddleston Water has been heavily impacted by many human activities for over 200 years although a modified upland drainage, markedly canalised main-stem channel and floodplain disconnection are most significant to present-day physical and ecological processes. Catchment-scale restoration plans aim to restore broad-scale hydrological processes in conjunction with re-naturalisation of the river corridor at the reach-scale (including floodbank set-back, floodplain reconnection, regeneration of riparian vegetation, large wood placement). In addition, these measures also had to accommodate the objective of sustainable flood risk management, through the combination of a re-naturalised run-off regime and the encouragement of floodplain water storage. We present the output from 1D and 2D hydraulic models of a 1km stretch of the Eddleston Water that jointly assesses the benefit to flood hydrograph attenuation and bio-physical processes of a suite of restoration designs within the floodplain. Although the models produced an optimised design based on these environmental objectives, the ‘real world’ situation of constraints imposed by ‘socio-economic’ factors (particularly agricultural and urban infrastructure pressures) subsequently modified this. In this way the project demonstrated the compromises that have to be made in implementing these type of idealised physical objectives.

Moir, H.; Bowles, C.; Campbell, C.; Sawyer, A.; Comins, L.; Werritty, A.

2010-12-01

192

Issues : infrastructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of a web site about the future of energy, introduces students to the ways that energy is transported throughout the United States. For each of four energy uses--electricity, hearing, manufacturing, and transportation--the article traces a sample path that energy can travel, from its point of origin to its point of use. Students read about problems that occur within existing infrastructures, including the challenge that the United States faces regarding its aging power grid. The article also notes that new energy sources will require new infrastructures. Links to additional articles, including one about the California power crisis, are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

193

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

194

A communication synthesis infrastructure for heterogeneous networked control systems and its application to building automation and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networked control systems the controller of a physically- distributed plant is implemented as a collection of tightly- interacting, concurrent processes running on a distributed execution platform. The execution platform consists of a set of heterogeneous components (sensors, actuators, and con- trollers) that interact through a hierarchical communication network. We propose a methodology and a framework for design exploration and

Alessandro Pinto; Luca P. Carloni; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

2007-01-01

195

Conditional Reliability, Sub-Monthly Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP  

E-print Network

for the Pearson Type III Distribution ............................................. 125 5.1 Components of Control Point Inflows and Outflows ..................................................... 138 5.2 Variables from SIM/SIMD Simulation Results... in the following files root2.FLO inflow IN records with naturalized stream flows (optional filename root.INF) root2.EVA evaporation EV records with net evaporation-precipitation rates root2.DIS flow distribution FD & FC and watershed parameter WP records...

Salazar, A.A.; Olmos, H.E.; Hoffpauir, R.J.; Wurbs, R.A.

196

Manual on Conditional Reliability, Daily Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP (Draft)  

E-print Network

for the Pearson Type III Distribution ............................................. 125 5.1 Components of Control Point Inflows and Outflows ..................................................... 138 5.2 Variables from SIM/SIMD Simulation Results... in the following files root2.FLO inflow IN records with naturalized stream flows (optional filename root.INF) root2.EVA evaporation EV records with net evaporation-precipitation rates root2.DIS flow distribution FD & FC and watershed parameter WP records...

Wurbs, Ralph

197

Master-slave control scheme in electric vehicle smart charging infrastructure.  

PubMed

WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

2014-01-01

198

Master-Slave Control Scheme in Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure  

PubMed Central

WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

2014-01-01

199

Virtualized network infrastructure using OpenFlow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an introduction to our architecture for a virtualized network infrastructure and explain its enabling technologies including OpenFlow and Network OS for integrated control plane. To enable easy innovation within network research area, infrastructure virtualization to share a physical infrastructure among researchers and an idea of having programmability in control plane have been paid much attention.

Hideyuki Shimonishi; Shuji Ishii

2010-01-01

200

Infrastructure Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by Scranton Gillette Communications, contains information on various types of infrastructures. It contains searchable archives of selected articles from four of SGC's publications (Roads & Bridges, Water & Waste Digest, Water Engineering & Management, and Water Quality Products). In addition, a supplier and product directory (unfortunately not searchable) are available.

201

IT Infrastructure  

Cancer.gov

Overview The CGR IT infrastructure exists as a fully functional data and high performance computing (HPC) center running on a secure 1/10 GB network. The CGR maintains a 5-node Network Accessed Storage (NAS) system consisting of approximately 500 TB of

202

Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106 m3 over an area of 1.2 km2 surrounded by about 4 km of artificial levees and closed downstream by a concrete dam 15 m high, equipped with 3 movable floodgates. The structure has the purpose to store the excess water in the case of high return period flood events, releasing it downstream at a controlled rate. A stilling basin is located downstream the dam in order to dissipate the kinetic energy of the discharged flow. The stilling basin is made up of 2 m thick concrete slabs, on which 3 dissipating blocks are located. The deposits below the stilling basin are surrounded by a grout wall (20 m deep) with the aim of realizing a confined "box". Groundwater levels inside the box are controlled by a 110 m long drainage trench located upstream the stilling basin, 3 m below its floor. In the perspective of a long-term management of the reservoir, after the completion of the works, a phase of investigation, control and monitoring of the efficiency of the entire system has been carried out, mainly to highlight the interactions between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer. This task was accomplished filling the reservoir at the maximum retaining level by means of capturing the tails of spring 2008 flood events. The aquifer beneath and surrounding the structure has been investigated by means of several tests, such analysis. Moreover, a groundwater monitoring system made up by 44 piezometers with dataloggers and real- time data transmission to a dedicated website has been set up. Monitoring data before, during, and after the infilling of the reservoir show that the aquifer below the structure is multilayered, with prevailing silty gravels and relatively thin silty and clayey strata. The aquifer can be simplified in three layers: a phreatic aquifer (from 0 to 20 m depth), a thin clayey layer (20 to 25 m) and a regional semi-confined aquifer (beneath 25 m), whose level tend to respond to the reservoir levels. The multidisciplinary database collected so far is the basis of a numerical model that is going to be developed to understand the interactions between the reservoir and the aquifer, in different scenarios.

Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Chiapponi, L.; D'Oria, M.; Giuffredi, F.; Lancellotta, R.; Mignosa, P.; Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Remitti, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

2008-12-01

203

Assessing grain-size correspondence between flow and deposits of controlled floods in the Colorado River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-deposited sediment has been used to decipher environmental parameters such as variability in watershed sediment supply, paleoflood hydrology, and channel morphology. It is not well known, however, how accurately the deposits reflect sedimentary processes within the flow, and hence what sampling intensity is needed to decipher records of recent or long-past conditions. We examine these problems using deposits from dam-regulated floods in the Colorado River corridor through Marble Canyon–Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A., in which steady-peaked floods represent a simple end-member case. For these simple floods, most deposits show inverse grading that reflects coarsening suspended sediment (a result of fine-sediment-supply limitation), but there is enough eddy-scale variability that some profiles show normal grading that did not reflect grain-size evolution in the flow as a whole. To infer systemwide grain-size evolution in modern or ancient depositional systems requires sampling enough deposit profiles that the standard error of the mean of grain-size-change measurements becomes small relative to the magnitude of observed changes. For simple, steady-peaked floods, 5–10 profiles or fewer may suffice to characterize grain-size trends robustly, but many more samples may be needed from deposits with greater variability in their grain-size evolution.

Draut, Amy; Rubin, David M.

2013-01-01

204

Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.

2007-01-01

205

Sediment deposition in a flood retention structure after two record floods in southwestern Wisconsin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment deposited in a flood-control structure was measured after record floods in SW Wisconsin on June 17 and June 30-July 1, 1978. The structure is in the Driftless Area, where high relief, erodible soils, and land use contribute to high soil losses. The two floods deposited 4.1 acre-ft of sediment in the structure.-from Authors

Kammerer, P.A., Jr.; Batten, W.G.

1982-01-01

206

Coiled-coil protein composition of 22 proteomes – differences and common themes in subcellular infrastructure and traffic control  

PubMed Central

Background Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffolds that organize membrane systems and tissues, motors, levers, rotating arms, and possibly springs. Mutations in long coiled-coil proteins have been implemented in a growing number of human diseases. Using the coiled-coil prediction program MultiCoil, we have previously identified all long coiled-coil proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and have established a searchable Arabidopsis coiled-coil protein database. Results Here, we have identified all proteins with long coiled-coil domains from 21 additional fully sequenced genomes. Because regions predicted to form coiled-coils interfere with sequence homology determination, we have developed a sequence comparison and clustering strategy based on masking predicted coiled-coil domains. Comparing and grouping all long coiled-coil proteins from 22 genomes, the kingdom-specificity of coiled-coil protein families was determined. At the same time, a number of proteins with unknown function could be grouped with already characterized proteins from other organisms. Conclusion MultiCoil predicts proteins with extended coiled-coil domains (more than 250 amino acids) to be largely absent from bacterial genomes, but present in archaea and eukaryotes. The structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins and their relatives are the only long coiled-coil protein family clearly conserved throughout all kingdoms, indicating their ancient nature. Motor proteins, membrane tethering and vesicle transport proteins are the dominant eukaryote-specific long coiled-coil proteins, suggesting that coiled-coil proteins have gained functions in the increasingly complex processes of subcellular infrastructure maintenance and trafficking control of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:16288662

Rose, Annkatrin; Schraegle, Shannon J; Stahlberg, Eric A; Meier, Iris

2005-01-01

207

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web.  

PubMed

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS's newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders. PMID:24303773

Hearn, Paul P; Longenecker, Herbert E; Aguinaldo, John J; Rahav, Ami N

2013-01-01

208

Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

Hearn, Paul P.; Longenecker, Herbert E., III; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

2013-01-01

209

Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the

Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Meesha Joshi; Acharya Balkrishna

2010-01-01

210

Planning of technical flood retention measures in large river basins under consideration of imprecise probabilities of multivariate hydrological loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the severe floods in Europe at the turn of the millennium, the ongoing shift from safety oriented flood control towards flood risk management was accelerated. With regard to technical flood control measures it became evident that the effectiveness of flood control measures depends on many different factors, which cannot be considered with single events used as

D. Nijssen; A. Schumann; M. Pahlow; B. Klein

2009-01-01

211

Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we measured independently CH4 ebullition and diffusion in the footprint of an eddy covariance system (EC) measuring CH4 emissions in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. We showed a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1), whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emissions was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice as high as during nighttime. Additionally, more than 4800 discrete measurements of CH4 ebullition were performed at a weekly/fortnightly frequency, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems. Methane ebullition varies significantly seasonally and depends mostly on water level change during the warm dry season, whereas no relationship was observed during the cold dry season. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and ranged from 0 to 201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network (ANN) model could explain up to 46% of seasonal variability of ebullition by considering total static pressure (the sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the total static pressure, and bottom temperature as controlling factors. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition on the reservoir scale and performance of gap filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the reservoir (disregarding downstream emissions), suggesting that ebullition is a major pathway in young hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics.

Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

2014-08-01

212

Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve water quality and protect the aquatic habitat of the Roanoke River.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

213

Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy Management of a Large-scale Industrial Site in Alberta, Canada  

E-print Network

Infrastructure Case Study Suncor Building Management System Standards Development and Deployment of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Open-standard Monitoring and Equipment Control Networking Protocol Infrastructure for Effective Facility Energy...-20mA, 0-10VDC, relay wiring LNS Database Dashboard Interface - Oil Sands Network Tools Diagnostics Web Interface LON Calgary Site IP/Ethernet Network Device Control Network Equipment IT Connection to Internet ESL-IE-14-05-27 Proceedings...

Bernstein, R.

2014-01-01

214

Flood Inundation Mapper  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

215

Flooding and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

2011-01-01

216

Flood Plain Management.  

E-print Network

of 1973 is an expanded flood insurance program, intended as a substitute and eventual replacement for Federal disaster relief for flood occurrences. It combines sub- sidized flood insurance for existing development with required insurance based... on actuarial rates for future development in flood-prone areas. An immediate problem for the Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has been the documentation of !he flood risk for purposes of ratemaking. The U.S. Corps of Engineers is making a limited...

McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

1976-01-01

217

Geochemistry and flooding as determining factors of plant species composition in Dutch winter-flooded riverine grasslands.  

PubMed

Dutch water policy aims for more frequent, controlled flooding of river valley floodplains to avoid unwanted flooding elsewhere; in anticipation of increased flooding risks resulting from climate changes. Controlled flooding usually takes place in winter in parts of the valleys which had not been subject to flooding in the last decades. It may thus affect existing nature with its conservation values. The goal of this study was to clarify the geochemical and hydrological factors determining plant species composition of winter-flooded river valley grasslands. A correlative study was carried out in 43 sites in 13 Dutch river valley floodplains, with measurements of flooding regime, vegetation composition, soil nutrients and soil pH status. With the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) the plant species composition was investigated in relation to the geochemical variables and the winter winter-flooding regime. We found that the distributions of target species and non-target species were clearly correlated with geochemical characteristics and flooding regime. Clustering of sites within the CCA plots has led us to distinguish between four types of winter flooding in our areas: floodplains with (a) accumulating rain water, (b) low groundwater levels flooded with river water, (c) discharging groundwater and (d) high groundwater levels flooded with river water. Our major conclusions are (1) the winter groundwater level of winter-flooded grasslands was important for evaluating the effects of winter flooding on the geochemistry and plant species composition, and (2) winter winter-flooding effects were largely determined by the nature of the flooding. A high frequency of flooding particularly favoured a small set of common plant species. In areas with groundwater seepage, winter flooding may provide geochemical conditions suitable for diverse vegetation types with rare species. Rainwater flooded sites appeared less suitable for most target species. PMID:18514261

Beumer, Victor; van Wirdum, Geert; Beltman, Boudewijn; Griffioen, Jasper; Grootjans, Ab P; Verhoeven, Jos T A

2008-08-25

218

Coastal Climate Change and Urban Infrastructure Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key urban infrastructure includes roads, bridges, sewer and drainage systems, and buildings. They and the services they provide are sensitive to coastal climate changes that affect tides, groundwater, storm surges, velocity zones, storm intensities, and estuary inflows. Generally roads and sewer and drainage systems are sensitive to all changes. Bridges and buildings are more sensitive to changes in coastal flooding. Several forms of analysis are useful to determine the vulnerabilities of these systems to climate change. These include elevation mapping of tides and floods, approximations of impacts of waves and other dynamics on damages, Monte Carlo simulation, and expected value analysis. Examples of impacts on infrastructure and methods of analysis are presented for several cities in the northeastern USA.

Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Ballestero, T. P.

2012-12-01

219

Uncertainty in surface water flood risk modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two thirds of the flooding that occurred in the UK during summer 2007 was as a result of surface water (otherwise known as ‘pluvial') rather than river or coastal flooding. In response, the Environment Agency and Interim Pitt Reviews have highlighted the need for surface water risk mapping and warning tools to identify, and prepare for, flooding induced by heavy rainfall events. This need is compounded by the likely increase in rainfall intensities due to climate change. The Association of British Insurers has called for the Environment Agency to commission nationwide flood risk maps showing the relative risk of flooding from all sources. At the wider European scale, the recently-published EC Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks will require Member States to evaluate, map and model flood risk from a variety of sources. As such, there is now a clear and immediate requirement for the development of techniques for assessing and managing surface water flood risk across large areas. This paper describes an approach for integrating rainfall, drainage network and high-resolution topographic data using Flowroute™, a high-resolution flood mapping and modelling platform, to produce deterministic surface water flood risk maps. Information is provided from UK case studies to enable assessment and validation of modelled results using historical flood information and insurance claims data. Flowroute was co-developed with flood scientists at Cambridge University specifically to simulate river dynamics and floodplain inundation in complex, congested urban areas in a highly computationally efficient manner. It utilises high-resolution topographic information to route flows around individual buildings so as to enable the prediction of flood depths, extents, durations and velocities. As such, the model forms an ideal platform for the development of surface water flood risk modelling and mapping capabilities. The 2-dimensional component of Flowroute employs uniform flow formulae (Manning's Equation) to direct flow over the model domain, sourcing water from the channel or sea so as to provide a detailed representation of river and coastal flood risk. The initial development step was to include spatially-distributed rainfall as a new source term within the model domain. This required optimisation to improve computational efficiency, given the ubiquity of ‘wet' cells early on in the simulation. Collaboration with UK water companies has provided detailed drainage information, and from this a simplified representation of the drainage system has been included in the model via the inclusion of sinks and sources of water from the drainage network. This approach has clear advantages relative to a fully coupled method both in terms of reduced input data requirements and computational overhead. Further, given the difficulties associated with obtaining drainage information over large areas, tests were conducted to evaluate uncertainties associated with excluding drainage information and the impact that this has upon flood model predictions. This information can be used, for example, to inform insurance underwriting strategies and loss estimation as well as for emergency response and planning purposes. The Flowroute surface-water flood risk platform enables efficient mapping of areas sensitive to flooding from high-intensity rainfall events due to topography and drainage infrastructure. As such, the technology has widespread potential for use as a risk mapping tool by the UK Environment Agency, European Member States, water authorities, local governments and the insurance industry. Keywords: Surface water flooding, Model Uncertainty, Insurance Underwriting, Flood inundation modelling, Risk mapping.

Butler, J. B.; Martin, D. N.; Roberts, E.; Domuah, R.

2009-04-01

220

Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park through use of controlled floods in conjunction with typical amounts and grain sizes of sand supplied by the tributaries that enter the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam.

Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

2010-01-01

221

The vulnerability of U.S. coastal energy infrastructure under climate change  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure -much of it a result of flooding from storm surges during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, Megan Jeramaz

2012-01-01

222

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

COMET

2006-11-08

223

Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

2013-12-01

224

Hierarchical Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure a resilient Healthcare Critical Infrastructure, understanding the vulnerabilities and analysing the interdependency on other critical infrastructures is important. To model this critical infrastructure and its dependencies, Hierarchal Coloured petri net modelling approach for simulating the vulnerability of Healthcare Critical infrastructure in a disaster situation is studied.. The model enables to analyse and understand various state changes, which occur when there is a disruption or damage to any of the Critical Infrastructure, and its cascading nature. It also enables to explore optimal paths for evacuation during the disaster. The simulation environment can be used to understand and highlight various vulnerabilities of Healthcare Critical Infrastructure during a flood disaster scenario; minimize consequences; and enable timely, efficient response.

Nivedita, N.; Durbha, S.

2014-11-01

225

Flood Management Strategies for a Holistic Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living with floods and managing rather than controlling them is becoming the norm. Integrated flood management (IFM) strategies are needed for holistic sustainable developments in the floodplains. A combination of structural and nonstructural measures (IFM) is the key to manage flooding risks to life and property, reduce susceptibility, and preserve ecological diversity and integrity, natural resources and values of the

Ashok K. Katyal; Ioana G. Petrisor

2011-01-01

226

Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California  

E-print Network

#12;JULY 2011 Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California Ann D. Willis operating rules is an important adaptation for climate warming. KEY WORDS Climate change, flood control with changing conditions. A changing climate, along with other changes in floodplain land use and flood warn

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

227

Global Flood risk and Nuclear risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima accident raised considerable concern around the globe on the overall safety of nuclear power plants against natural hazard induced risks. It appeared that natural hazards, and in particular flooding , are a large threat for the safety of global nuclear power plants. Flooding of coastal and fluvial systems are the most significant natural hazards that modern society and is affecting several million people globally each year. The total population and the economic value of material assets located in zones prone to flooding have increased dramatically over the past decades and are expected to increase further due to: (1) an overall growth in economic assets, infrastructure, population and wealth; and (2) increases in sea-level and flood frequency due to climate change. The Fukushima accident has geared an immediate and coordinated response from IAEA and EU member states, who stated that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be re-assessed on their vulnerability to natural hazards such as floods and earthquakes. This 'stress test' was developed in 2012 together with experts from e.g. the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Guidelines for a stress test were developed according to how nuclear installations can withstand the consequences of various extreme external events and to analyze security threats due to e.g. terrorist acts. Since nuclear power-plants are often located near- or in flood zones from rivers, this research assesses whether nuclear facilities will face increased risk from flooding in the future. The research will contribute to stresstesting nuclear facilities in flood zones and describes how global flood risk may increase in the future using a global hydrological model. This information is used to assess the vulnerability of existing and planned nuclear facilities as to whether they (1) are located in flood prone areas (2) are susceptible to an increase in potential flood inundation and (3) are vulnerable to other natural hazards such as earthquake and tsunami. Based on this assessment, a priority ranking can made showing the potentially most vulnerable nuclear power plants to natural hazards, and in particular flood risk.

Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

228

TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE  

SciTech Connect

This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

2005-12-01

229

A Large-Scale Experiment to Determine the Effectiveness of Controlled Floods and Tamarisk Removal in Rehabilitating the Green River, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale field experiment is underway on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore to evaluate the effectiveness of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) removal and increased magnitude and duration of floods released from Flaming Gorge Dam (FGD) for the purpose of increasing active channel width and increasing entrainment rates on gravel bars where there are large proportions of fines. Results to date demonstrate that effectiveness varies with small scale geomorphic setting, and that channel widening in some parts of the river may be impossible without regular removal, which is unlikely. Our approach is important in channel rehabilitation planning, yet the difficulties of conducting such experiments are apparent in the first 2 yrs of the project. All tamarisk are being removed in 3, 0.8 to 1.6 km long study reaches. Three control reaches, immediately upstream or downstream from removal reaches, are also being monitored. We are making detailed measurements of scour and fill, substrate, and composition of riparian vegetation communities in removal and control reaches, and in response to high flood releases from FGD. Difficulties in implementation of the experiment include the multi-year process of tamarisk removal. Tamarisk immediately reestablishes itself on moist substrate following removal; thus, some parts of removal reaches have young tamarisk seedlings and other parts have tamarisk not yet removed. Experimental dam releases have not yet occurred due to drought in the watershed and other water delivery imperatives. We have also compared the distribution of tamarisk on the nearby Yampa River, where an unregulated flow regime exists and where tamarisk are absent or in low densities. The comparison between the distribution, density, and age characteristics of tamarisk on the 2 streams will lead to recommendations as to the sites on the Green River where eradication efforts are best directed. Despite the difficulties of experiment implementation, such large-scale efforts are an essential component of developing a long-term plan for dam releases, because they will lead to definition of a schedule of floods, or repeated removal activities, necessary to achieve project goals.

Schmidt, J. C.; Cooper, D. J.; Larson, G. P.

2002-12-01

230

August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

2003-04-01

231

Effects of seasonal flooding and grazing on the vegetation of former ricefields in the Rhône delta (Southern France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six management regimes were tested during 5 years in 18 abandoned ricefields in the Rh^one delta, France: two artificial floodings for 6 months (winter and summer flooding, 10 cm deep) and a control only flooded by rain, each flooding treatment either with or without grazing by cattle and horses. In the absence of artificial flooding and in presence of grazing by

François Mesléard; Jacques Lepart; Patrick Grillas; André Mauchamp

1999-01-01

232

Cost of Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... Simulator About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial Coverage PolicyHolder Resources Preparation & Recovery Agent Site Agent ... devastating testimonials about flooding to our Home Personified commercials. Watch Now Flood Risk Scenarios There are many ...

233

FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

234

The “Maya Express”: Floods in the U.S. Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 floods in the U.S. Midwest culminated in severe river flooding, with many rivers in the region cresting at record levels during May and particularly June. Twenty-four people were killed and more than 140 were injured as a result of the floods. Nine states were affected: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, 83 of the state's 99 counties were declared disaster areas. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, was among the cities hardest hit by flooding. At one point, water covered 1300 city blocks across 24 square kilometers, inundating 3900 homes and most of the city's infrastructure and municipal facilities. The flood, which also damaged the Midwest's corn and soybean crops, was presaged by unusually heavy snowpack the preceding winter and by anomalously heavy rainfall during the spring.

Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.

2009-03-01

235

Flooding in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

Patrick, Ew

236

The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider reaching Alameda Creek Historical Ecology Study has assessed overall watershed conditions prior to significant Euro-American modification, including historical patterns of sediment transport and storage in the Livermore Valley. These two studies provide context for a focused three-year study to determine the flow of water and sediment into and out of Zone 7 facilities; determine characteristics, rates, and causes of sedimentation; and map and characterize channel modification and mitigation opportunities. The program has begun measuring suspended load and bedload during high flow events at three sites that constrain the management area which will continue into water year 2012, and has begun mapping hillslope sediment processes. Next phases will include an assessment of channel depositional processes and causes and a more detailed evaluation of historical channel function at the reach scale building upon the existing watershed scale knowledge. This study provides further opportunity to integrate historical understanding of watershed functions with current geomorphic research to more effectively inform resource management decisions and can be and has been a model for other watersheds in California and beyond.

Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

2011-12-01

237

Flood Aftermath, Boulder, Colo.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This flooded culvert is located on Monarch Road just east of the Diagonal Highway in Boulder, Colo. Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damaging or destroying several USGS streamgages. In response, USGS field crews measured flood...

238

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

239

USGS Measures Flooding Near Bonnet Carre Spillway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists take streamflow and water quality measurements downstream of the Bonnet Carre Spillway near Norco, La. The Army Corps of Engineers uses USGS streamflow data to help them manage flood control structures....

240

Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

2015-01-01

241

Future trends in flood risk in Indonesia - A probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is one of the 10 most populous countries in the world and is highly vulnerable to (river) flooding. Catastrophic floods occur on a regular basis; total estimated damages were US 0.8 bn in 2010 and US 3 bn in 2013. Large parts of Greater Jakarta, the capital city, are annually subject to flooding. Flood risks (i.e. the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability) are increasing due to rapid increases in exposure, such as strong population growth and ongoing economic development. The increase in risk may also be amplified by increasing flood hazards, such as increasing flood frequency and intensity due to climate change and land subsidence. The implementation of adaptation measures, such as the construction of dykes and strategic urban planning, may counteract these increasing trends. However, despite its importance for adaptation planning, a comprehensive assessment of current and future flood risk in Indonesia is lacking. This contribution addresses this issue and aims to provide insight into how socio-economic trends and climate change projections may shape future flood risks in Indonesia. Flood risk were calculated using an adapted version of the GLOFRIS global flood risk assessment model. Using this approach, we produced probabilistic maps of flood risks (i.e. annual expected damage) at a resolution of 30"x30" (ca. 1km x 1km at the equator). To represent flood exposure, we produced probabilistic projections of urban growth in a Monte-Carlo fashion based on probability density functions of projected population and GDP values for 2030. To represent flood hazard, inundation maps were computed using the hydrological-hydraulic component of GLOFRIS. These maps show flood inundation extent and depth for several return periods and were produced for several combinations of GCMs and future socioeconomic scenarios. Finally, the implementation of different adaptation strategies was incorporated into the model to explore to what extent adaptation may be able to decrease future risks. Preliminary results show that the urban extent in Indonesia is projected to increase within 211 to 351% over the period 2000-2030 (5 and 95 percentile). Mainly driven by this rapid urbanization, potential flood losses in Indonesia increase rapidly and are primarily concentrated on the island of Java. The results reveal the large risk-reducing potential of adaptation measures. Since much of the urban development between 2000 and 2030 takes place in flood-prone areas, strategic urban planning (i.e. building in safe areas) may significantly reduce the urban population and infrastructure exposed to flooding. We conclude that a probabilistic risk approach in future flood risk assessment is vital; the drivers behind risk trends (exposure, hazard, vulnerability) should be understood to develop robust and efficient adaptation pathways.

Muis, Sanne; Guneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

242

Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations vegetation such as tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) was damaged, wholesale bed motion necessary to fully clear these surfaces was not evident. In flow recirculation zones, eddy sandbars aggraded one meter or more, increasing the area of bars exposed during typical dam operations. Yet overall, the 2011 flood resulted in a decrease in reach-scale sand storage because bed degradation exceeded bar deposition. The 2011 response is consistent with that of a similar event in 1999, which was followed by sand-bar erosion and sediment accumulation on the bed during subsequent years of normal dam operational flows. Although the 1999 and 2011 floods were exceptional in the post-dam system, they did not exceed the pre-dam 2-year flood, isolating their effects to the modern active channel with minor erosion or reworking of pre-dam deposits stabilized through vegetation encroachment.

Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

2014-01-01

243

Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

2014-12-01

244

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

245

Flood routing in channels with flood plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on unsteady flows in a channel with flood plains obtained in a laboratory test facility are presented. Flood flow at the upstream end of the channel was produced by an electrically actuated butterfly valve in the supply pipe. Water level variations were recorded at nine stations along the channel using capacitance probes and a computerized data acquisition system. Tests were conducted for various initial conditions, and duration and peak of the flood wave. Complete data for two tests are presented which may be used to verify numerical models. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate flood flow. The model solves the St. Venant equations by using the Preissmann four-point implicit finite-difference scheme. The suitability of two procedures for approximating the channel cross-section is investigated: (1) the flow velocity over the flood plains is negligible, the flood plain acts as storage only and does not contribute to the momentum (the flood plains and the main channel are separated by a vertical line at their interface and the division line is not included in the wetted perimeter); (2) the entire channel section contributes to momentum flux, the entire channel section has uniform average flow velocity and the non-uniform velocity is taken into consideration by a momentum coefficient. Although comparisons between the computed and experimental results are satisfactory in both cases, Approximation (1) gives better results than Approximation (2).

Mizanur Rashid, R. S. M.; Hanif Chaudhry, M.

1995-09-01

246

Floods: The Awesome Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâÂÂre caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

2002-01-01

247

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Comet

2006-10-10

248

Advanced Metering Infrastructure functionalities for electric mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart Grid vision along with the future deployment of Electric Vehicles presents numerous challenges in terms of grid infrastructure, communication, and control. In this context, Advanced Metering Infrastructure solutions are envisioned to be the active management link between utilities and consumers. This paper presents a survey of potential AMI functionalities particularly developed to foster the large scale deployment of

D. Rua; D. Issicaba; F. J. Soares; P. M. Rocha Almeida; R. J. Rei; Joao Abel Pecas Lopes

2010-01-01

249

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

250

Financing infrastructure projects  

E-print Network

Infrastructure is of great importance to the development and economic growth of communities. Due to the increased demand on sophisticated infrastructure, governments' budgets are not anymore able to satisfy this growing ...

Eid, Serge Emile

2008-01-01

251

Flood risk awareness during the 2011 floods in the central United States: showcasing the importance of hydrologic data and interagency collaboration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods have long had a major impact on society and the environment, evidenced by the more than 1,500 federal disaster declarations since 1952 that were associated with flooding. Calendar year 2011 was an epic year for floods in the United States, from the flooding on the Red River of the North in late spring to the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri River basin floods in the spring and summer to the flooding caused by Hurricane Irene along the eastern seaboard in August. As a society, we continually seek to reduce flood impacts, with these efforts loosely grouped into two categories: mitigation and risk awareness. Mitigation involves such activities as flood assessment, flood control implementation, and regulatory activities such as storm water and floodplain ordinances. Risk awareness ranges from issuance of flood forecasts and warnings to education of lay audiences about the uncertainties inherent in assessing flood probability and risk. This paper concentrates on the issue of flood risk awareness, specifically the importance of hydrologic data and good interagency communication in providing accurate and timely flood forecasts to maximize risk awareness. The 2011 floods in the central United States provide a case study of the importance of hydrologic data and the value of proper, timely, and organized communication and collaboration around the collection and dissemination of that hydrologic data in enhancing the effectiveness of flood forecasting and flood risk awareness.

Holmes, Robert R.; Schwein, Noreen O.; Shadie, Charles E.

2012-01-01

252

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study  

E-print Network

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study #12;Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Background: · Currently, funding

Minnesota, University of

253

CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

254

Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

2012-04-01

255

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

256

Bootstrapping an Infrastructure  

E-print Network

When deploying and administering systems infrastructures it is still common to think in terms of individual machines rather than view an entire infrastructure as a combined whole. This standard practice creates many problems, including labor-intensive administration, high cost of ownership, and limited generally available knowledge or code usable for administering large infrastructures. The model we describe treats an infrastructure as a single large distributed virtual machine. We found that this model allowed us to approach the problems of large infrastructures more effectively. This model was developed during the course of four years of mission-critical rollouts and administration of global financial trading floors. The typical infrastructure size was 300-1000 machines, but the principles apply equally as well to much smaller environments. Added together these infrastructures totaled about 15,000 hosts. Further refinements have been added since then, based on experiences ...

Steve Traugott; Joel Huddleston

1998-01-01

257

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

258

Flash Flood Case Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

COMET

2007-06-26

259

Flood frequency in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

Childers, J.M.

1970-01-01

260

Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers  

E-print Network

or FAST uses stream level sensors attached to cell phones to notify Fort Hood Range Control of flooding at six low water crossings. The sensors are part of Blackland Research and Extension Center?s Fort Hood Water Quality Monitoring project, designed... the No. 1 reason for installing the FAST system was ?to protect soldiers by alerting them of dangerous flood conditions.? Equipment and personnel had been lost at low water crossings during storms, he said. Wolfe said the sensors, which constantly...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

261

Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

2008-03-31

262

Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

2014-12-01

263

Artificial neural networks applied to flow prediction scenarios in Tomebamba River - Paute watershed, for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this research is to create a model of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) that allows predicting the flow in Tomebamba River both, at real time and in a certain day of year. As inputs we are using information of rainfall and flow of the stations along of the river. This information is organized in scenarios and each scenario is prepared to a specific area. The information is acquired from the hydrological stations placed in the watershed using an electronic system developed at real time and it supports any kind or brands of this type of sensors. The prediction works very good three days in advance This research includes two ANN models: Back propagation and a hybrid model between back propagation and OWO-HWO. These last two models have been tested in a preliminary research. To validate the results we are using some error indicators such as: MSE, RMSE, EF, CD and BIAS. The results of this research reached high levels of reliability and the level of error are minimal. These predictions are useful for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador

Cisneros, Felipe; Veintimilla, Jaime

2013-04-01

264

CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of critical infrastructures, assessed by the potential consequences of failure or destruction of infrastructures providing essential services to the population. The integration of these two methodologies within a same tool allows the dynamic mapping of human vulnerability according to the characteristics of the flood, and thus produces a precise and reliable evaluation of human risk related to a potential or an ongoing flood. The methodology was successfully applied to two rivers sections exposed to flooding on the suburbs of Quebec City (Canada), which present a diversified land use (industrial areas, residential areas, public facilities, etc.).

Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

2013-12-01

265

Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design. PMID:20298261

Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O

2010-07-01

266

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: Bill Stiles, Dan Kroes USGS Hydrologist Dan Kroes shows Congressional staffers the difference in turbidity levels of the water in Bayou Sorrel. As the record flood waters of the 2011 flood inundate the Atchafalaya Basin, they begin to flush out the stagnant swamp water, or

267

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

268

The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals, presentations and recommendations with respect to the development of the HFLC.

Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

2005-01-01

269

Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Second annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this laboratory work is to develop improved mobility control agents that are more effective than the commercial polymers currently used in this process. During the second year of the project, the baseline testing of commercial products was completed. These baseline tests with polymers include studies on mobility control, retention, and shear degradation in Berea cores, the effect of common ions on rheological properties, thermal stability, microbial degradation, and surfactant-polymer interactions. These data are used for comparison of the commercial agents at standardized sets of conditions, and are also used to evaluate new, modified, or improved polymers. Work was also initiated on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new and modified polymers. Testing of these analogs provides systematic correlations of polymer performance with polymer structure. This preliminary testing consists of measurements of shear degradation and viscosity loss in NaCl brines by the use of a simplified screening procedure. To date, a number of potential structure-utility relationships have been observed. Solution viscosities of all nonionic polymers tested are essentially insensitive to changes in NaCl concentration. Increasing the charge-to-mass ratio (degree of hydrolysis) of either polyacrylamides or N-alkyl analogs enhances the ability of these polymers to build viscosity in low salinity NaCl brines. However, such polymers are increasingly subject to viscosity loss as the salinity is increased. Above a certain critical molecular weight, polymers become more susceptible to shear degradation. Many of the polymers that possess stiffer backbones exhibit improved brine and shear stability. The results of these studies will be used to develop an improved mobility control polymer in the next phase of this project.

Martin, F.D.; Donaruma, L.G.; Hatch, M.J.

1981-04-01

270

Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

271

Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. First annual report, September 29, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1: Based on a literature survey and input solicited from industry, academic, and government sources, inadequacies of the currently used mobility control materials were assessed. Phase 2: Baseline screening of commercially available polymers began in January 1979. Rheological measurements and mobility control test in Berea cores have been completed on Dow Pusher 700, Betz Hi Vis, Nalco Nal-flo, Cyanamid 960S, Kelco Xanflood, and Abbott Xanthan Broth. Similar tests were completed for Pusher 500, Pusher 1000, Amoco Sweepaid 103, and Pfizer Flocon Biopolymer 1035. Shear degradation tests in Berea core plugs have been completed for one acrylamide-type polymer and one xanthan polymer in 0.3% NaCl. Similar tests in 3% NaCl plus 0.3% CaCl/sub 2/ are in progress. Viscosity and screen factor data have been collected for most of the commercially available polymers. Long-term thermal stability tests with one polyacrylamide polymer and one xanthan polymer have been initiated. Phase 3: The polymer synthesis phase of the program is in progress. A series of N-alkyl (N-methyl, N-isopropyl, and N-butyl) acrylamide homopolymers and copolymers with acrylic acid has been synthesized. Variations of the substituents on the acrylamide nitrogen atom did not substantially change the properties of the parent compound. Increasing the molecular weight tends to impart increased shear sensitivity. Degree of hydrolysis also affects performance of the modified polymer. 25 figures, 40 tables.

Martin, F.D.

1980-05-01

272

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2010-10-01

273

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2011-10-01

274

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2012-10-01

275

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2013-10-01

276

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2014-10-01

277

Using FEMA FIS, HAZUS and WMOST to Evaluate Effectiveness of GI in Moderating Flood-Related Risks  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability to accurately assess flood-related risks and costs as well as the effectiveness of green infrastructure on moderating those risks is critical for both emergency management and long-term planning. Potential flooding depths, land use and building conditions are needed ...

278

76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following flooding sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River...include the following flooding sources: Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River...upstream of the Rocky Branch confluence. Gum Creek Flooding...

2011-03-25

279

Technical infrastructure monitoring at CERN  

E-print Network

The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring system (TIM) is used to monitor and control CERN's technical services from the CERN Control Centre (CCC). The system's primary function is to provide CCC operators with reliable real-time information about the state of the laboratory's extensive and widely distributed technical infrastructure. TIM is also used to monitor all general services required for the operation of CERN's accelerator complex and the experiments. A flexible data acquisition mechanism allows TIM to interface with a wide range of technically diverse installations, using industry standard protocols wherever possible and custom designed solutions where needed. The complexity of the data processing logic, including persistence, logging, alarm handling, command execution and the evaluation of datadriven business rules is encapsulated in the system's business layer. Users benefit from a suite of advanced graphical applications adapted to operations (synoptic views, alarm consoles, data analysis tools etc....

Stowisek, Jan; Suwalska, Anna

2006-01-01

280

Telemedicine infrastructure development  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there are significant technical and regulatory barriers to developing an adequate infrastructure for telemedicine, even more fundamental organizational and financial infrastructure issues must be addressed if this technology is to realize its potential. The lack of good evaluative data on telemedicine consultations has been a further major stumbling block to its acceptance by both practitioners and policy-makers. This paper

Dena S. Puskin; Jay H. Sanders

1995-01-01

281

The Ethnography of Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article asks methodological questions about studying infrastructure with some of the tools and perspectives of ethnography. Infrastructure is both relational and ecological—it means different things to different groups and it is part of the balance of action, tools, and the built environment, inseparable from them. It also is frequently mundane to the point of bore - dom, involving things

SUSAN LEIGH STAR

1999-01-01

282

Smart Valley Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

Maule, R. William

1994-01-01

283

Nogales flood detention study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

2010-01-01

284

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

285

Global Floods 1985�2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

Observatory, Dartmouth F.; College, Dartmouth

286

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

287

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

288

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

289

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

290

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

291

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

292

Seismological observatories and research infrastructure within EPOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the EPOS Research Infrastructure initiative, the international European coordination of the seismological research infrastructure is coordinated through ORFEUS (www.orfeus-eu.org) and considerable assistance from EMSC (www.emsc-csem.org). A newly installed EPOS working group 1 ensure a coordinated engagement of all involved seismological research infrastructures. We are working on a comprehensive overview of the seismological observational networks and research infrastructure within Europe and its direct periphery. We will present this overview, its current capabilities and future potential as a coordinated infrastructure. In the past year a number of different projects and initiatives have been launched to investigate new IT developments and its opportunities for improved data services, quality control, data integration and interoperability. Specifically developments include web-services, distributed archives, real-time data exchange software, data curation, data provenance, quality control, etc. EC-projects like NERA, VERCE, EUDAT, ENVRI, COOPEUS, REAKT, but also a large number of national initiatives have obtained funding. We will provide an overview of their activities and their potential impact on the seismological research infrastructure. We will also present the challenges involved in coordinating and implementing these different IT initiatives. The seismological research infrastructure involves a widely diverse set of observational networks; broadband seismic networks, local specialised monitoring networks, mobile deployments, acceleration networks, borehole observations, near source observational networks, etc, divided over many countries. We will present an overview of these networks, and the initiatives and challenges to integrate these data and facilitate access for research. Consequently, we will present a comprehensive overview of the current seismological observatories and research infrastructure within Europe, its developments and its potential. We hope this overview triggers a debate on how to make full advantage of these research infrastructures and where near time development priorities should be.

van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Hanka, W.; Mazza, S.; Melis, N.; Ottemöller, L.; Villasenor, A.; Zednik, J.; orfeus; wg1, epos

2012-04-01

293

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

294

Big Thompson River Flooding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Big Thompson River at Loveland streamgage, pictured here, was damaged during the September 2013 Colorado flood event. USGS crews installed a temporary streamgage nearby to compensate for the lag in data....

295

Japan: Tsunami Flooding  

... article title:  Lingering Floods from Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami     View Larger Image The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a deadly and destructive tsunami whose impacts were felt ...

2013-04-16

296

Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

Comet

2010-08-31

297

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

298

New Orleans Flooding Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

299

National Flood Insurance Program: Flood Hazard Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created this helpful set of resources for policymakers, elected officials, journalists, and members of the general public who would like to know more about the world of flood hazard mapping. On this site, visitors can find a host of resources and over a dozen thematic links, such as Coastal Projects, Change My Flood Zone Designation, and User Groups. Each link is preceded by a brief introduction to the resource, along with a description of the various items within each link. Visitors shouldn't miss the Online Tutorials offered here, as they include several multimedia instructional resources designed to provide in-depth training on different facets on these programs.

300

A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

Buntinas, Darius [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Watson, Gregory R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2008-01-01

301

An assessment of derived flood frequency distributions  

E-print Network

Flood Frequency Curve - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 9. Statistical Flood Frequency Curve - Halls Bayou . . . . . . 51 . . . 51 FIG. 10. Derived Flood Frequency Curves ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 53 FIG. 11. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Briar Creek... . . FIG. 12, Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 13. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Halls Bayou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIG. 14. Simulation Flood Frequency Curve ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 54 . . . 56 FIG. 15. Simulation...

Raines, Timothy Howard

1991-01-01

302

USGS Scientist Interviewed by Media in Flooded Minot  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Chris Laveau is interviewed by media from the Broadway Bridge in downtown Minot, N.D. Dikes on the right of the photograph help control flooding in the downtown area. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing...

303

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

304

Single dosage of doxycycline for prophylaxis against leptospiral infection and leptospirosis during urban flooding in southern Thailand: a non-randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the protective efficacy of a single dosage of 200 mg doxycycline against leptospiral infection and leptospirosis and associated risk factors among residents exposed to flooding in southern Thailand. Of 641 participants, 600 received doxycycline while 41 did not. Twenty two participants were infected with Leptospira and six developed leptospirosis. Having a laceration wound was significantly associated with leptospiral infection (odds ratio [OR] = 37.20; P < 0.001) and leptospirosis (OR = 18.24; P = 0.003) whereas exposure to flood more than 3 h per day was associated with only leptospiral infection (OR = 3.70; P = 0.038). Seventeen participants who received doxycycline and five who did not, were infected with Leptospira, resulting a protective efficacy of 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 34.3%-92.0%). Four who received doxycycline and two who did not, developed leptospirosis, resulting a protective efficacy of 86.3% (CI = -9.8%-98.2%). Among the participants with laceration wound, the protective efficacy for leptospiral infection was 92.0% (CI = 81.2%-96.6%) and for leptospirosis was 95.6% (CI = 78.2%-99.3%). Among the participants exposed to flood water less than or equal to 3 h per day, the protective efficacy for leptospiral infection was 89.2% (95% CI 63.6%-96.67%). A single dosage of 200 mg doxycycline for prophylaxis might be effective for preventing leptospirosis among flood victims with laceration wound after recent flood exposure. PMID:25172777

Chusri, Sarunyou; McNeil, Edward B; Hortiwakul, Thanaporn; Charernmak, Boonsri; Sritrairatchai, Somporn; Santimaleeworagun, Wichai; Pattharachayakul, Sutthiporn; Suksanan, Paritasana; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G

2014-11-01

305

GIS-Based Flood Risk Management for Thermal Power Plants in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate projections for the Upper Rhine Region describe a warmer atmosphere and higher evaporation capacity in winter. Therefore,\\u000a a change to more frequent and more extreme runoff in winter may influence the infrastructure of adjacent power plants as they\\u000a need to be protected against floods. In Germany, two different regulations exist to specify the flood protection of companies.\\u000a For coal-fired

Jeannette Schulz

306

Investigating the Perspectives of Social Value for a UK Flood Alleviation Scheme  

E-print Network

whole, has been strongly driven by economic and, to a lesser extent environmental considerations, which subsequently steer the design, delivery and construction (Cruz et al., 2009; Germond - Duret, 2012; Penning-Roswell and Pardow, 2012; Simm, 2012... , economic and environmental drivers for the construction of flood alleviation schemes (Penning-Roswell and Pardow, 2012). However, current practice concerning flood alleviation design and construction, and indeed the infrastructure sector on the whole...

Fitton, Sarah Louise; Moncaster, Alice; Guthrie, Peter

2015-01-01

307

Management and Control of Cost and Risk for Tunneling and Infrastructure Projects, in China perspective, for the South to North Great Western Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a recently-developed risk-based approach to better estimate, and manage, the cost of complex tunnel and infrastructure projects. The method, called the Cost Estimate Validation Process (CEVP®)1 combines quantified risk and validated base costs to produce a \\

John J. Reilly; C. P. Eng; Gianni A. Arrigoni

308

MFC Communications Infrastructure Study  

SciTech Connect

Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

2012-01-01

309

Building safeguards infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclelland - Kerr, John [NNSA/NA-242

2009-01-01

310

A 2D simulation model for urban flood management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and keep it as large as possible while maintaining the stability of the flow calculations; -Operate on a square grid at any resolution while retaining at least some details of the ground topography of the basic grid, the storage, and the form roughness and conveyance of the ground surface; -Account for the overall average ground slope for particular coarse cells; -Have the facility to refine the grid locally; -Have the facility to treat ponds or lakes as single, irregular cells; -Permit prescribed inflows and arbitrary outflows across the boundaries of the model domain or internally, and sources and sinks at any interior cell; -Simulate runoff for spatial rainfall while permitting infiltration; -Use ground surface cover and soil type indices to determine surface roughness, interception and infiltration parameters; -Present results at the basic cell level; -Have the facility to begin a model run with monitored soil moisture data; -Have the facility to hot-start a simulation using dumped data from a previous simulation; -Operate with a graphics cards for parallel processing; -Have the facility to link directly to the urban drainage simulation software such as SWMM through an Open Modelling Interface; -Be linked to the Netherlands national rainfall database for continuous simulation of rainfall-runoff for particular polders and urban areas; -Make the engine available as Open Source together with benchmark datasets; PriceXD forms a key modelling component of an integrated urban water management system consisting of an on-line database and a number of complementary modelling systems for urban hydrology, groundwater, potable water distribution, wastewater and stormwater drainage (separate and combined sewerage), wastewater treatment, and surface channel networks. This will be a 'plug and play' system. By linking the models together, confidence in the accuracy of the above-ground damage and construction costs is comparable to the below-ground costs. What is more, PriceXD can be used to examine additional physical phenomenon such as the interaction between flood flows and

Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

2014-05-01

311

INDUCED MICRO-SEISMICITY AND MECHANICAL RESPONSE DURING THE EXPERIMENTAL FLOODING OF AN IRON ORE MINE.  

E-print Network

INDUCED MICRO-SEISMICITY AND MECHANICAL RESPONSE DURING THE EXPERIMENTAL FLOODING OF AN IRON ORE the impact of flooding on mining collapses and its relationship with the micro-seismic activity, a controlled experiment of cavity flooding was performed in an underground iron mine. 134 micro-seismic events (magnitude

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Debris Flows and Floods in Southeastern Arizona from Extreme Precipitation in July 2006--Magnitude, Frequency,  

E-print Network

Debris Flows and Floods in Southeastern Arizona from Extreme Precipitation in July 2006--Magnitude Survey #12;ii Cover Photograph. (November 21, 2006) Debris-flow initiation and transport zones Flood Control District Debris Flows and Floods in Southeastern Arizona from Extreme Precipitation

313

44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective...i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated...e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i)...

2012-10-01

314

44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective...i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated...e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i)...

2010-10-01

315

44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective...i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated...e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i)...

2013-10-01

316

44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective...i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated...e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i)...

2011-10-01

317

44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.  

...grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective...i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated...e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i)...

2014-10-01

318

Geographic Variability in Salt Marsh Flooding Patterns may Affect Nursery Value for Fishery Species  

E-print Network

Geographic Variability in Salt Marsh Flooding Patterns may Affect Nursery Value for Fishery Species (outside the USA) 2011 Abstract Flooding of salt marshes controls access to the marsh surface for aquatic geographic variability in marsh access by measuring tidal flooding characteristics in 15 Spartina

319

Floods in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

1948-01-01

320

GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION  

SciTech Connect

A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-17

321

Thirty Years Later: Reflections of the Big Thompson Flood, Colorado, 1976 to 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years ago, over 300 mm of rain fell in about 4 to 6 hours in the middle reaches of the Big Thompson River Basin during the devastating flash flood on July 31, 1976. The rainstorm produced flood discharges that exceeded 40 m3/s/km2. A peak discharge of 883 m3/s was estimated at the Big Thompson River near Drake streamflow-gaging station. The raging waters left 144 people dead, 250 injured, and over 800 people were evacuated by helicopter. Four-hundred eighteen homes and businesses were destroyed, as well as 438 automobiles, and damage to infrastructure left the canyon reachable only via helicopter. Total damage was estimated in excess of $116 million (2006 dollars). Natural hazards similar to the Big Thompson flood are rare, but the probability of a similar event hitting the Front Range, other parts of Colorado, or other parts of the Nation is real. Although much smaller in scale than the Big Thompson flood, several flash floods have happened during the monsoon in early July 2006 in the Colorado foothills that reemphasized the hazards associated with flash flooding. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts flood research to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson flood. A summary of hydrologic conditions of the 1976 flood, what the 1976 flood can teach us about flash floods, a description of some of the advances in USGS flood science as a consequence of this disaster, and lessons that we learned to help reduce loss of life from this extraordinary flash flood are discussed. In the 30 years since the Big Thompson flood, there have been important advances in streamflow monitoring and flood warning. The National Weather Service (NWS) NEXRAD radar allows real-time monitoring of precipitation in most places in the United States. The USGS currently (2006) operates about 7,250 real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the United States that are monitored by the USGS, the NWS, and emergency managers. When substantial flooding occurs, the USGS mobilizes personnel to collect streamflow data in affected areas. Streamflow data improve flood forecasting and provide data for flood-frequency analysis for floodplain management, design of structures located in floodplains, and related water studies. An important lesson learned is that nature provides environmental signs before and during floods that can help people avoid hazard areas. Important contributions to flood science as a result of the 1976 flood include development of paleoflood methods to interpret the preserved flood-plain stratigraphy to document the number, magnitude, and age of floods that occurred prior to streamflow monitoring. These methods and data on large floods can be used in many mountain-river systems to help us better understand flood hazards and plan for the future. For example, according to conventional flood-frequency analysis, the 1976 Big Thompson flood had a flood recurrence interval of about 100 years. However, paleoflood research indicated the 1976 flood was the largest in about the last 10,000 years in the basin and had a flood recurrence interval in excess of 1,000 years.

Jarrett, R. D.; Costa, J. E.; Brunstein, F. C.; Quesenberry, C. A.; Vandas, S. J.; Capesius, J. P.; O'Neill, G. B.

2006-12-01

322

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the  

E-print Network

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance. There is currently a provisional solution in place, an agreement between the insurance industry and the government the government, the insurance industry and consumer advocates move forward based on the best information

Anderson, Jim

323

Toward disaster-resilient cities: characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments.  

PubMed

Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at community and regional scales. This article develops a practical approach for analysts to characterize a community's infrastructure vulnerability and resilience in disasters. It addresses key challenges of incomplete incentives, partial information, and few opportunities for learning. The approach is demonstrated for Metro Vancouver, Canada, in the context of earthquake and flood risk. The methodological approach is practical and focuses on potential disruptions to infrastructure services. In spirit, it resembles probability elicitation with multiple experts; however, it elicits disruption and recovery over time, rather than uncertainties regarding system function at a given point in time. It develops information on regional infrastructure risk and engages infrastructure organizations in the process. Information sharing, iteration, and learning among the participants provide the basis for more informed estimates of infrastructure system robustness and recovery that incorporate the potential for interdependent failures after an extreme event. Results demonstrate the vital importance of cross-sectoral communication to develop shared understanding of regional infrastructure disruption in disasters. For Vancouver, specific results indicate that in a hypothetical M7.3 earthquake, virtually all infrastructures would suffer severe disruption of service in the immediate aftermath, with many experiencing moderate disruption two weeks afterward. Electric power, land transportation, and telecommunications are identified as core infrastructure sectors. PMID:24152135

Chang, Stephanie E; McDaniels, Timothy; Fox, Jana; Dhariwal, Rajan; Longstaff, Holly

2014-03-01

324

Research on Submarine Maneuverability of Flooded Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper establishes the emergency recovery maneuver motion model. According to the characteristic of hydrodynamics coefficients on flooded submarine, attaining hydrodynamics coefficients of different angle of attack by limited ship model hydrodynamics experiment of large angle of attack. A sensitivity index is introduced to evaluate submarine's controllability. The experiment results are regressed to two kinds of hydrodynamic coefficients for big

Liu Hui; Pu Jinyun; Jin Tao

2009-01-01

325

Federal Flood Assessment Conference Recommendations and Proceedings  

E-print Network

Continuity of Operations - COO Plan El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 24x7 Operation of American Canal System Real time flood monitoring Levee breach repair and control Storm water impact on agricultural drainage system Elephant Butte.... The last time something like this happened in El Paso was July 9, 1881 when 6.5 inches of rain fell at the official measuring site downtown. Additional flooding occurred from the Rio Grande itself (9.3 feet on August 1-2) Which last exceeded its banks...

Reyes, Silvestre; Brock, Peter; Michelsen, Ari

2006-09-06

326

Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale,

Karl Spachinger; Wolfgang Dorner; Rudolf Metzka; Kamal Serrhini; Sven Fuchs

2008-01-01

327

River Flooding and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Dupre, Bill

328

FLOOD! Emergency Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

329

The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.  

PubMed

Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

2014-08-01

330

Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

NONE

2006-06-15

331

66 FR 19139 - Critical Infrastructure Protection Grants Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...key infrastructures, network security products, reliability and security of computing systems, information access controls, and robust IT controls for power grids. Intrusion Monitoring and Response. This area examines technologies to...

2001-04-13

332

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

River during flood events. Qualitative flood forecasts are issued whenever widespread minor flood levels issue. Local response organisations Page 2 of 6 04/2014 #12;These include the Councils, Police Bulletins and other weather related data is available on the Bureau's Web page at http

Greenslade, Diana

333

Managed flood releases from reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for environmental flow releases from reservoirs is now widely recognised. However, most attention has been paid to low flow releases during dry periods. Less consideration has been given to generating floods, since floods are considered only as a natural hazard. Work funded by DFID for the World Commission on Dams has highlighted the benefits of flooding to river

M. Acreman

2003-01-01

334

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

335

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

336

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Proserpine River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

337

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

338

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Gilbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

339

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

340

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

341

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

342

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

343

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

344

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

345

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

346

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

347

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

348

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

349

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

350

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods  

E-print Network

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

351

Coastal Floods: Urban Planning as a Resilience System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite some research efforts can be found across the literature, FRe system (Flood resilient system) is still a vaguely defined concept. Therefore, a comprehensive presentation of existing FRe systems would provide valuable contribution in order to illuminate objects laying behind this term. A systematical literature review scanning existing FRe objects will submerge us in a melting pot involving an extremely wide and heterogeneous range of elements like land planning, opening barriers, river channeling, rain forecasting… Carrying out an analyze of the resulting matter and focusing on the nature and spatial range of application of each element, a FRe objects comprehensive typology will be sorted out, leading into the end to a better understanding of the ways human societies can improve their resilience against floods. Coastal areas have been characterized by an urban expansion due mainly to the increase and displacement of the population, being this process highly increasing during the last century. On the other hand, climate has been changing leading to the increase of coastal floods, through both sea level rise and several meteorological phenomena accentuation. And also, other longer term local/regional coastal changes, most occasionally favoring floods, interfere leading to more frequent and intense flood risks and damages. As "living with floods" became an objective in many coastal cities, the previous clas-sification will be put into practice focusing on one particular FRe system scale: Urban Flood Resilience. This resilience can be achieved by means of planning procedures and building infrastructures, but in many cases these measures cannot be enough, having to be complemented with different technologies and systems. With suitable applications, Flood Resilience Systems substantially reduce damages, costs and health impacts associated with flood hazards. The importance of the urban planning as a Flood Resilience System in coastal areas will be analyzed in the research project FP7 - SMARTEST by means of different cases study: cold drop floods (Valencia 1776, 1957 and 1982; and Murcia, 1879 and 1997), hurricanes on Caribbean and western North-Atlantic areas, or to typhoons.

Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Esteban, M. D.; Monnot, J. V.; López Gutiérrez, J. S.; Negro Valdecantos, V.; Calderón, E. J.; Márquez Paniagua, P.; Silvestre, J. M.

2012-04-01

352

The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.

2010-12-01

353

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: George Arcement USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement looks out onto Lake Murphy on the East Side of the Atchafalaya Basin. During the 2011 record-setting flood, high water levels have flushed out the stagnant waters in the back bayous in the Basin, replacing t...

354

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: George Arcement, Phil Turnipseed USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement and USGS National Wetlands Research Center Director Phil Turnipseed are coordinating USGS efforts in Louisiana to respond to the record-setting 2011 flood. Although fairly new to their posit...

355

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: Dan Kroes, George Arcement, Bill Stiles USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement talks with Congressional staffers about USGS work monitoring the floodwaters in the Atchafalaya Basin. The 2011 flood has caused record levels of water to move through the Basin, pote...

356

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS streamgage station lies mostly submerged. Following rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood, USGS crews removed sensitive streamgage equipment and replaced them with special, pressure-operated streamgage monitoring equipment that could survive being inundated with water. This streamgage, and...

357

Hydrologic Flood Routing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

Heggen, Richard J.

1982-01-01

358

Flooded Gage House  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flooded U.S. Geological Survey gage house on the Sheyenne River near Lisbon, North Dakota, April 22, 2011.  At this time streamflow was approximately 7,450 cubic feet per second and gage height (stage) was 21.23 feet.  More information about this streamgage is available online....

359

Floods of November 12, 1974 in the Charlotte Amalie area, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flood on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, of November 12, 1974, was the largest recorded flood in the area from Fort Christian through Charlotte Amalie and Frenchtown to the end of Crown Bay. This flood has a recurrence interval of about 60 years. With the exception of a few narrow beaches, very little flooding occurred outside of the Charlotte Amalie area. The flood boundaries are controlled to a large extent by the prevailing channel and flood-plain conditions. Inundation from future floods may be affected by changes in channel conditions, alteration of waterway openings at roads, changes in runoff characteristics of the stream caused by increased urbanization, and other cultural developments. The areas inundated by the 1974 flood are shown on 2 maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Haire, W.J.; Johnson, K.G.

1977-01-01

360

A framework for assessing flood frequency based on climate projection information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood safety is of the utmost concern for water resources management agencies charged with operating and maintaining reservoir systems. Risk evaluations guide design of infrastructure alterations or lead to potential changes in operations. Changes in climate may change the risk due to floods and therefore decisions to alter infrastructure with a life span of decades or longer may benefit from the use of climate projections as opposed to use of only historical observations. This manuscript presents a set of methods meant to support flood frequency evaluation based on current downscaled climate projections and the potential implications of changing flood risk on how evaluations are made. Methods are demonstrated in four case study basins: the Boise River above Lucky Peak Dam, the San Joaquin River above Friant Dam, the James River above Jamestown Dam, and the Gunnison River above Blue Mesa Dam. The analytical design includes three core elements: (1) a rationale for selecting climate projections to represent available climate projections; (2) generation of runoff projections consistent with climate projections using a process-based hydrologic model and temporal disaggregation of monthly downscaled climate projections into 6-h weather forcings required by the hydrologic model; and (3) analysis of flood frequency distributions based on runoff projection results. In addition to demonstrating the methodology, this paper also presents method choices under each analytical element, and the resulting implications to how flood frequencies are evaluated. The methods used reproduce the antecedent calibration period well. The approach results in a unidirectional shift in modeled flood magnitudes. The comparison between an expanding retrospective (current paradigm for flood frequency estimation) and a lookahead flood frequency approach indicate potential for significant biases in flood frequency estimation.

Raff, D. A.; Pruitt, T.; Brekke, L. D.

2009-11-01

361

Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.  

PubMed

Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. PMID:24530580

Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

2014-04-15

362

Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of flash floods in the Patagonian Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash floods represent a significant natural hazard in small mountainous catchments of the Patagonian Andes and have repeatedly caused loss to life and infrastructure. At the same time, however, documentary records of past events remain fairly scarce and highly fragmentary in most cases. In this study, we therefore reconstruct the spatiotemporal patterns of past flash flood activity along the Los Cipreses torrent (Neuquén, Argentina) using dendrogeomorphic methods. Based on samples from Austrocedrus chilensis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Nothofagus dombeyi, we document 21 flash flood events covering the period A.D. 1890-2009 and reconstruct mean recurrence intervals of events at the level of individual trees being impacted, which varies from 4 to 93 years. Results show that trees tend to be older (younger) in sectors of the torrent with gentler (steeper) slope gradients. Potential triggers of flash floods were analyzed using daily temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Weather conditions leading to flash floods are abundant precipitations during one to three consecutive days, combined with temperatures above the rain/snow threshold (2 °C) in the whole watershed.

Casteller, Alejandro; Stoffel, Markus; Crespo, Sebastián; Villalba, Ricardo; Corona, Christophe; Bianchi, Emilio

2015-01-01

363

Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel  

E-print Network

well Water/oil mixture from production well 14 Figure 6: DDG Activation showing diversion of water After the laboratory stage of preparation was completed, a series of field trials were carried out with the first being in Chevron?s Minas... Diverting Gels The deep diverting gel that will be studied and compared to waterflooding and polymer flooding was the result of a research project undertaken in 1997. This was a joint venture between Mobil, BP and ChevronTexaco, also known as Mo...

Okeke, Tobenna

2012-07-16

364

Infrastructure Survey 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

365

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Infrastructure  

E-print Network

programs in the College's focus areas of energy, environment, health, and infrastructure. · We continued minority applicants. · Research expenditures are a good measure of the level of research activity that is conducted within a college. Our research expenditures are the highest of any college of engineer- ing

366

Infrastructure Assurance Center  

E-print Network

and liquefied natural gas [LNG] production facilities) for each state served by pipelines Benefits NGFast canInfrastructure Assurance Center NGFast: rapid assessment of impacts of natural gas pipeline breaks Assurance Center Our nation relies on natural gas to meet about 22% of its energy needs. Within the next 10

Kemner, Ken

367

Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

2012-08-01

368

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-08-01

369

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-04-01

370

Coastal Flooding of Jakarta (Indonesia): Causes and Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and large coastal city located in the northern coast of Java island, with a population of about 9.6 million. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. Coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. In general, based on the Levelling, GPS surveys, and InSAR surveys, conducted since 1982 up to 2011, it is obtained that land subsidence in Jakarta exhibits spatial and temporal variations, with the rates of about 1 to 15 cm/year, and a few locations can have the subsidence rates up to about 20-25 cm/year. Largest subsidence occurred at several areas along the coast. This subsidence is mainly due to natural consolidation of alluvial, excessive groundwater extraction, and load of constructions. During the high tide periods, these subsiding areas used to experience flooding. The sea level rise phenomena in Java sea and high sedimentation rates in 13 rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta have worsen this coastal flooding phenomenon of Jakarta. Based on the linear-term of sea level change for period of 1993 to 2009 as derived from satellite altimetry data, the sea level rise around Jakarta coastal area is about 4-5 mm/year.The impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta are numerous and resulted economic losses are quite significant. Besides causing coastal erosion, the frequent and severe coastal flooding is deteriorating the function of building and infrastructures and decreasing the quality of living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition) in the affected areas. This paper analyzes and discusses the causes and impacts of coastal flooding in Jakarta, and proposes the potential mechanism to overcome the problems.

Abidin, H. Z.; Hadi, S.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Nurmaulia, S. L.; Fukuda, Y.

2012-04-01

371

Building green infrastructure via citizen participation - a six-year study in the Shepherd Creek  

EPA Science Inventory

Green infrastructure at the parcel scale provides critical ecosystem goods and services when these services (such as flood mitigation) must be provided locally. Here we report on an approach that encourages suburban landowners to mitigate impervious surfaces on their properties t...

372

The costs of uncoordinated infrastructure management in multi-reservoir river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though there are surprisingly few estimates of the economic benefits of coordinated infrastructure development and operations in international river basins, there is a widespread belief that improved cooperation is beneficial for managing water scarcity and variability. Hydro-economic optimization models are commonly-used for identifying efficient allocation of water across time and space, but such models typically assume full coordination. In the real world, investment and operational decisions for specific projects are often made without full consideration of potential downstream impacts. This paper describes a tractable methodology for evaluating the economic benefits of infrastructure coordination. We demonstrate its application over a range of water availability scenarios in a catchment of the Mekong located in Lao PDR, the Nam Ngum River Basin. Results from this basin suggest that coordination improves system net benefits from irrigation and hydropower by approximately 3–12% (or US12-53 million/yr) assuming moderate levels of flood control, and that the magnitude of coordination benefits generally increases with the level of water availability and with inflow variability. Similar analyses would be useful for developing a systematic understanding of the factors that increase the costs of non-cooperation in river basin systems worldwide, and would likely help to improve targeting of efforts to stimulate complicated negotiations over water resources.

Jeuland, Marc; Baker, Justin; Bartlett, Ryan; Lacombe, Guillaume

2014-10-01

373

Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Su?any village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Tren?ín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Ba?ová Mitková, Veronika

2014-05-01

374

Evolving flood patterns in a Mediterranean region (1301-2012) and climatic factors - the case of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on flood occurrence and flood impacts for the last seven centuries in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula have been analysed in order to characterise long-term trends, anomalous periods and their relationship with different climatic factors such as precipitation, general circulation and solar activity. Catastrophic floods (those that produce complete or partial destruction of infrastructure close to the river, and major damages in the overflowed area, including some zones away from the channels) do not present a statistically significant trend, whereas extraordinary floods (the channel is overflowed and some punctual severe damages can be produced in the infrastructures placed in the rivercourse or near it, but usually damages are slight) have seen a significant rise, especially from 1850 on, and were responsible for the total increase in flooding in the region. This rise can be mainly attributed to small coastal catchments, which have experienced a marked increase in developed land and population, resulting in changes in land use and greater vulnerability. Changes in precipitation alone cannot explain the variation in flood patterns, although a certain increase was shown in late summer-early autumn, when extraordinary floods are most frequently recorded. The relationship between the North Atlantic circulation and floods is not as strong, due to the important role of mesoscale factors in heavy precipitation in the northwest of the Mediterranean region. However, it can explain the variance to some extent, mainly in relation to the catastrophic floods experienced during the autumn. Solar activity has some impact on changes in catastrophic floods, with cycles related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the Gleissberg solar cycle. In addition, anomalous periods of high flood frequency in autumn generally occurred during periods of increased solar activity. The physical influence of the latter in general circulation patterns, the high troposphere and the stratosphere, has been analysed in order to ascertain its role in causing floods.

Barrera-Escoda, A.; Llasat, M. C.

2015-01-01

375

Loss Reduction Catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods kill thousands of people  

E-print Network

Loss Reduction Catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods kill thousands of people and destroy Research · Addresses damage related to wind, snow, ice, earthquakes, mould and a range of other hazards of disasters Research Priorities · Reduce wind and earthquake damage to housing and infrastructure · Understand

Denham, Graham

376

Infrastructure Tradeoffs for Sensor Networks Sameer Tilak  

E-print Network

domains because of their reliability, accuracy, flexibil- ity, cost-effectiveness, and ease of deployment in determining the performance of the network. In this paper, we study the effect of infrastructure de- cisions the door for network optimizations that control the effective topology to better achieve the application

Abu-Ghazaleh, Nael B.

377

Private Virtual Infrastructure for Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing places an organization's sensitive data in the control of a third party, introducing a significant level of risk on the privacy and security of the data. We propose a new management and security model for cloud computing called the Private Virtual Infrastructure (PVI) that shares the responsibility of security in cloud computing between the service provider and client,

F. John Krautheim

378

ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

Macduff, M; Egan, D

2004-12-01

379

Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

Guilin, L. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Defu, L. [Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Huajun, L. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Fengqing, W. [Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Ocean Univ. of China, Songling Road No.238, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tao, Z. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. of China, Songling Road No.238, Qingdao 266100 (China)

2012-07-01

380

Flooding tolerance in halophytes.  

PubMed

Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes. PMID:18482227

Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

2008-01-01

381

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

382

Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity Presented at  

E-print Network

Carrying Capacity Theory Externality Theory Measures of Effectiveness #12;The Complexity of the Problem;Infrastructure and Development Over Time under Carrying Capacity Theory Growth Time Public Facility CapacityMonitoring Infrastructure Capacity Presented at Conference on Land Supply and Infrastructure

Levinson, David M.

383

In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

2011-11-01

384

Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding  

PubMed Central

Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water balance and gas exchange under flooding conditions. PMID:22738296

2012-01-01

385

Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

2013-09-01

386

Flood inundation modeling using MIKE FLOOD and remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, MIKE FLOOD was used to simulate the flood inundation extent and flooding depth in the\\u000a delta region of Mahanadi River basin in India. Initially, the 1D model MIKE 11 was calibrated using river water level and\\u000a discharge data of various gauging sites for the monsoon period (June to October) of the year 2002. Subsequently, the

S. Patro; C. Chatterjee; S. Mohanty; R. Singh; N. S. Raghuwanshi

2009-01-01

387

Local Legal Infrastructure and Population Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored the association between the legal infrastructure of local public health, as expressed in the exercise of local fiscal and legislative authority, and local population health outcomes. Methods. Our unit of analysis was public health jurisdictions with at least 100?000 residents. The dependent variable was jurisdiction premature mortality rates obtained from the Mobilize Action Toward Community Health (MATCH) database. Our primary independent variables represented local public health’s legal infrastructure: home rule status, board of health power, county government structure, and type of public health delivery system. Several control variables were included. We used a regression model to test the relationship between the varieties of local public health legal infrastructure identified and population health status. Results. The analyses suggested that public health legal infrastructure, particularly reformed county government, had a significant effect on population health status as a mediator of social determinants of health. Conclusions. Because states shape the legal infrastructure of local public health through power-sharing arrangements, our findings suggested recommendations for state legislation that positions local public health systems for optimal impact. Much more research is needed to elucidate the complex relationships among law, social capital, and population health status. PMID:22897523

Patton, Dana J.

2012-01-01

388

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control...whether proposed building sites will be reasonably...flooding. If a proposed building site is in a...so as to prevent water from entering or...iii) adequate drainage is provided to reduce...replacement water supply systems to be...

2012-10-01

389

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control...whether proposed building sites will be reasonably...flooding. If a proposed building site is in a...so as to prevent water from entering or...iii) adequate drainage is provided to reduce...replacement water supply systems to be...

2013-10-01

390

Internet indirection infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to generalize the Internet's point-to-point communication abstraction to provide services like multicast, anycast, and mobility have faced challenging technical problems and deployment barriers. To ease the deployment of such services, this paper proposes an overlay-based Internet Indirection Infrastructure ( I3) that offers a rendezvous-based communication abstraction. Instead of explicitly sending a packet to a destination, each packet is associated

Ion Stoica; Daniel Adkins; Shelley Zhuang; Scott Shenker; Sonesh Surana

2002-01-01

391

Internet Indirection Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to generalize the Internet's point-to-point communication abstraction to provide services like multicast, anycast, and mobility have faced challenging technical problems and deployment barriers. To ease the deployment of such services, this paper proposes an overlay-based Internet Indirection Infrastructure ( I3) that offers a rendezvous-based communication abstraction. Instead of explicitly sending a packet to a destination, each packet is associated

Ion Stoica; Daniel Adkins; Sylvia Ratnasamy; Scott Shenker; Sonesh Surana; Shelley Zhuang

2002-01-01

392

A framework for assessing flood frequency based on climate projection information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood safety is of the utmost concern for water resources management agencies charged with operating and maintaining reservoir systems. Risk evaluations guide design of infrastructure alterations or lead to potential changes in operations. Changes in climate may change the risk due to floods and therefore decisions to alter infrastructure with a life span of decades or longer may benefit from the use of climate projections as opposed to use of only historical observations. This manuscript presents a set of methods meant to support flood frequency evaluation based on current downscaled climate projections and the potential implications of changing flood risk on how evaluations are made. Methods are demonstrated in four case study basins: the Boise River above Lucky Peak Dam, the San Joaquin River above Friant Dam, the James River above Jamestown Dam, and the Gunnison River above Blue Mesa Dam. The analytical design includes three core elements: (1) a rationale for selecting climate projections to represent available climate projections; (2) generation of runoff projections consistent with climate projections using a process-based hydrologic model and temporal disaggregation of monthly downscaled climate projections into 6-h weather forcings required by the hydrologic model; and (3) analysis of flood frequency distributions based on runoff projection results. In addition to demonstrating the methodology, this paper also presents method choices under each analytical element, and the resulting implications to how flood frequencies are evaluated.

Raff, D. A.; Pruitt, T.; Brekke, L. D.

2009-03-01

393

Developing coastal adaptation to climate change in the New York City infrastructure-shed: process, approach, tools, and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable\\u000a by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level\\u000a rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic\\u000a Icesheets, may be outside the range

Cynthia Rosenzweig; William D. Solecki; Reginald Blake; Malcolm Bowman; Craig Faris; Vivien Gornitz; Radley Horton; Klaus Jacob; Alice LeBlanc; Robin Leichenko; Megan Linkin; David Major; Megan O’Grady; Lesley Patrick; Edna Sussman; Gary Yohe; Rae Zimmerman

2011-01-01

394

Eye in the Sky: Floods and Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about floods and dams. There are sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects of floods. One video clip shows the Mississippi River at flood and non-flood levels. Another clip shows actual footage of a flood wreaking havoc on a populated area.

395

Increased Flooding Risk - Accelerating Threat and Stakeholder Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities have been adapting to coastal flooding for centuries. Now, with increased population along the coast combined with increased flooding because of sea level rise (SLR) the vulnerability of coastal cities has increased significantly. In this paper we will discuss the physical threat of accelerating sea level rise and the response of stakeholders. Sallenger et al (2012) stated "... we present evidence of recently accelerated SLR in a unique 1,000-km-long hotspot on the highly populated North American Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras and show that it is consistent with a modeled fingerprint of dynamic SLR." In the Northeast Hotspot (NEH) dynamic processes such as Gulf Stream transport can cause local sea level differences (Ezer, 2001). Sweet et al (2009) attributed the anomalously high sea level along the mid-Atlantic in 2009 to dynamic SLR. A recent paper (Ezer and Corlett, 2012 submitted), focused on Chesapeake Bay, confirms Sallenger et al. These accelerations suggest that the higher estimates of SLR in IPCC reports may be better estimates. The combination of local sea level rise and acceleration, even with average coastal storm surge, results in increased vulnerability and economic losses. We will use three examples of stakeholder response to this threat: shipbuilding, cities and insurance. Nuclear aircraft carrier drydock in Newport News, VA - The only drydock where nuclear powered aircraft carriers are built flooded during Hurricane Isabel. A study showed that with a 1 meter sea level rise and no change in storm severity they would have 'Major Flooding' every 4 months rather than every 27 years. Cities infrastructure - In a recent report on sea level rise, the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (representing nearly 2m people) found that "sea level rise will be a major issue", "there is not yet official state or federal guidance for addressing sea level rise", "…the "…U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has developed guidance…" for their projects, and "…subsidence …. is not well-documented". Studies sponsored by the City of Norfolk for example suggest massive tidal barriers. Flood insurance - Flood insurance is available only from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), not from private insurers. NFIP has a current deficit of about 18B, which is estimated to increase by about 2B annually. The rates are subsidized and do not reflect the true risk of coastal flooding and do not incorporate the likelihood of future sea-level rise. In effect, the subsidy promotes increased building on the coast, leading to increased deficits in the tax-payer financed program. Risk-based flood insurance pricing would lead to less coastal development, therefore decreasing the tax base of the community. Stakeholder needs - Planning for increased flooding due to sea level rise extends 50 to 100 years given the lifetime of infrastructure. Planners need guidance and error estimates. To make adequate predictions for users we must understand the various components of sea level rise including subsidence, global sea level rise and regional and local dynamic sea level rise. Predictions of regional sea level rise will be presented in the context of existing infrastructure such as NASA research facilities and the city of Norfolk, Virginia.

Atkinson, L. P.; Ezer, T.; De Young, R.; McShane, M. K.; McFarlane, B.

2012-12-01

396

Alkaline flooding - design of a low cost, portable facility  

SciTech Connect

Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects usually require fairly soft water to achieve optimum recovery. Chemical softening was selected for an alkaline flood design in a Montana Muddy Formation at a considerable savings over ion-exchange softening. Many Rocky Mt. oil fields have relatively soft water available, often from the producing formation. This work shows that using simple and controllable processes with common oil field equipment, satisfactory water treatment can be achieved at economic levels for EOR floods.

Garrett, B.T.; Krumrine, P.H.; Van Kirk, C.W.

1983-01-01

397

Copula-Based Flood Frequency Analysis at Ungauged Basin Confluences: Nashville, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Many cities are located at or near the confluence of streams where availability of water resources may be enhanced to sustain user needs while also posing an increased flooding risk from multiple tributaries. An accurate flood frequency estimator that models the joint flood potential at a basin confluence is needed. Given that long-term flow observations are often unavailable, estimating flood frequency at ungaged basin confluences proves challenging. Through the use of copulas, this case study demonstrates how an improved flood frequency analysis can be performed for stream confluences at Nashville, TN. The approach involves four major steps including initial data quality control, fitting of marginal distributions of tributary peak flows, construction of a suitable dependence structure, and identification of flood frequency at the confluence point based on synthesized peak flows. This case study may help researchers and practitioners develop a better understanding of joint flood frequency with consideration of upstream dam regulation among several contributing watersheds.

Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Chang, Ni-Bin [University of Central Florida, Orlando

2012-01-01

398

Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Science Plan: A Community-based Infrastructure Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The river basin is a fundamental unit of the landscape and water in that defined landscape plays a central role in shaping the land surface, in dissolving minerals, in transporting chemicals, and in determining species distribution. Therefore, the river basin is a natural observatory for examining hydrologic phenomena and the complex interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes that control them. CUAHSI, incorporated in 2001, is a community-based research infrastructure initiative formed to mobilize the hydrologic community through addressing key science questions and leveraging nationwide hydrologic resources from its member institutions and collaborative partners. Through an iterative community-based process, it has been previously proposed to develop a network of hydrologic infrastructure that organizes around scales on the order of 10,000 km2 to examine critical interfaces such as the land-surface, atmosphere, and human impact. Data collection will characterize the stores, fluxes, physical pathways, and residence time distributions of water, sediment, nutrients, and contaminants coherently at nested scales. These fundamental properties can be used by a wide range of scientific disciplines to address environmental questions. This more complete characterization will enable new linkages to be identified and hypotheses to be tested more incisively. With such a research platform, hydrologic science can advance beyond measuring streamflow or precipitation input to understanding how the river basin functions in both its internal processes and in responding to environmental stressors. That predictive understanding is needed to make informed decisions as development and even natural pressures stress existing water supplies and competing demands for water require non-traditional solutions that take into consideration economic, environmental, and social factors. Advanced hydrologic infrastructure will enable research for a broad range of multidisciplinary science questions. The CUAHSI science agenda has evolved through community input and research into several unifying theme areas, or categories. Three example categories are: forcing, internal processing, and evolution. Within each category, coherent (integrated in space and time) physical, chemical and biological data are needed to answer specific science questions. For example, in the case of "forcing": How do patterns in rainfall influence predictability of floods and droughts? Floods and droughts have long been considered random events. However, we now know that there are decadal patterns in rainfall and that rainfall recycles within the basin thereby intensifying floods and droughts. How does the internal state of the system combine with external forcing to determine the occurrence of hydrologic extremes?

Wilson, J. L.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R. P.

2005-12-01

399

Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the flood but also to restart as fast as possible (for example, the clearing of roads is a prerequisite for electricity's restoration which is a vital network for territory's functioning). While the waste management is a main stage of post crisis, these questions are still without answer. The extend of this network influence also leads us to think about the means to prevent from waste production and service's dysfunction. How to develop the territory to limit the floods' impact on the waste management network? Are there techniques or equipments allowing stakeholders to limit these impacts? How to increase population's, entrepreneur's or farmer's awareness to get ready to face floods, to limit the waste production, but also to react well during and after the floods? Throughout means of prevention and thanks to actor's technical and organizational adaptations towards the waste network, or by raising population's awareness and preparation, economic and institutional actors of urban territories might improve the waste's network flood resilience, and thus, cities' flood resilience. Through experience feedbacks about countries recently affected by large-extended floods and field reflection with local actors, the stakes of this PhD research are thus to think about means (1) to maintain the activity out of flood plains during a flood, (2) to increase the waste management network's activity in post crisis period in order to be able to deal with a new waste production both by its quality and its quantity, but also (3) to study the means to prevent this new production. This work will use the concept of urban system to describe urban territory because it allows us to study both its behaviour and functioning. The interest of this methodological choice is to take into account the impacts of the disruption of waste management networks on cities' functioning, and thus, on cities' flood resilience.

Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

2010-05-01

400

DECLINES IN ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS OF BIRDS FOLLOWING A MAJOR FLOOD ON THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the abundance and species richness of birds breeding in flood- plain forests of the Upper Mississippi River from 1992 to 1994 to identify effects of a major flood in 1993 on the bird assemblage. Sixty-five study plots were divided into treatments and controls based on whether they were flooded in 1993. Among 84 species observed on all plots,

MELINDA G. KNUTSONAND; ERWIN E. KLAAS

401

Flooding in the Finger Lakes Region, NY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this several week-long introductory geoscience project, students evaluate the potential for flooding in the local region. Students visit the site during the first week of the semester as part of a "Walk in the Watershed" and make observations in order to generate hypotheses about the processes that shape the landscape and control the movement of water. During a later lab period, students return to the same site to determine stream discharge using the flotation and current meter methods and compare and contrast the results from the two methods. In addition, students in the different laboratory sections use their data to compare and contrast reasons for why discharge may have changed over the course of the day or week during the following class meeting. As an in-class exercise, students examine an annual hydrograph and then predict the weather that generated the observed stream discharge. Students test their hypotheses by analyzing precipitation data available on-line in order to correlate flood events with storm types or other causes for major discharge events. Next, students examine historical flood and discharge data of the local stream available on-line at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/ as a homework assignment. In addition to calculating the recurrence interval and probability of occurrence for each event, students determine the discharge and stage of a 1-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year flood, create a rating curve, and generate a floodway map for each of these events. Subsequently, students revisit the site during lab and locate the boundaries of these flood events. Students will make recommendations for building a house in the region based on their analyses.

Curtin, Tara

402

Flooding in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

403

Storage and flood routing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

1960-01-01

404

Snowmelt and Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rate that the snow melts is crucial in determining how fast water will reach the streams and rivers and thus, how damaging the flooding may be. This resource provides a step-by-step calculation of the volume of water stored in the snow in the Red River basin. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

405

A scalable agent-based network measurement infrastructure  

E-print Network

, or performance evaluation have been developed by several research groups. There is not yet, however, a measurement infrastructure which offers systematic control and management of measurement efforts and performance data focused on supporting distributed network...

Wijata, Y. I.; Niehaus, Doug; Frost, Victor S.

2000-09-01

406

Large-scale simulator for global data infrastructure optimization  

E-print Network

Companies depend on information systems to control their operations. During the last decade, Information Technology (IT) infrastructures have grown in scale and complexity. Any large company runs many enterprise applications ...

Herrero-López, Sergio

2012-01-01

407

India Infrastructure Report 2010 Call-for-Papers  

E-print Network

is carefully chosen to reflect a central contemporary issue in infrastructure development, and brings together of adaptation and mitigation, critique of policies and mechanisms to control emission, political economy issues

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

408

A data based mechanistic real-time flood forecasting module for NFFS FEWS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data based mechanistic (DBM) approach for identifying and estimating rainfall to level, and level to level models has been shown to perform well for flood forecasting in several studies. The DELFT-FEWS open shell operational flood forecasting system provides a framework linking hydrological/meteorological real-time data, real-time forecast models, and a human/computer interaction interface. This infrastructure is used by the UK National Flood Forecasting System (NFFS) and the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) among others. The open shell nature of the FEWS framework has been specifically designed to make it easy to add new forecasting models written as FEWS modules. This paper shows the development of the DBM forecast model as a FEWS module and presents results for the Eden catchment (Cumbria UK) as a case study.

Leedal, D.; Weerts, A. H.; Smith, P. J.; Beven, K. J.

2012-06-01

409

Ontogeny of a flood plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

1999-01-01

410

77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...Page 73491

2012-12-10

411

Agile Infrastructure Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

2014-06-01

412

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

413

Flooding along Danube River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

414

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2011 vol 5 no 2  

E-print Network

/Proposals........................ 17 Hurricane/Tropical Storm Irene Follow-up.....9 FY12 PROSPECT Courses........................... 19 and Tributaries (MR&T) system's flood control structures. Flood Risk Management Newsletter December 2011 vol 5 nation's mightiest river to historic levels. Epic floodwaters required heroic responses to control flows

US Army Corps of Engineers

415

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

was completed in 1974, only minor to moderate flooding had been recorded before December 2010. In January 2013/2014 #12;These include the Councils, Police, and State Emergency Services in the local area. Internet/World Wide Web Flood Warnings, River Height Bulletins and other weather related data is available

Greenslade, Diana

416

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

. Mosquito Flats, composite of FEMA flood map and Google Earth imagery. #12;Adding a Second Exit for Mosquito Flats. Base map from Johnson County GIS Online, with 2006 topography and FEMA layers included. #12;Storm Drains The FEMA 100 year flood level is 652 feet at 820 Park Road and 651 at 801 Normandy. As a r

Jones, Douglas W.

417

Flash Flood Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flash floods can occur in nearly any area of the world. A rainfall-induced flash flood is a truly hydrometeorological event: one that depends on both hydrologic and meteorological conditions. Forecasting flash floods involves a detailed understanding of the local hydrologic features and continual monitoring of the current meteorological situation. This module examines both the hydrologic and meteorological processes that often contribute to the development of flash flooding. Common tools and technologies that are used in flash flood monitoring and forecasting, from manual gauging systems to complex radar- and satellite-based runoff models, are explored. This module also examines the strengths and limitations of these technologies, as well as how they are likely to advance in the future.

COMET

2011-02-22

418

Floods on the Minnesota River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the USGS water website to identify the location of stream gauges on the Minnesota River and the types of data that can be retrieved from the website. They determine which data to download based on the area of interest in the exercise (St. Peter, MN) and import historical flood data into MS Excel. The students use a spreadsheet to rank each flood and calculate a recurrence interval for a given flood, then estimate the discharge and stage of the 100-year flood in St. Peter, MN. The final task is to establish a flood hazard zone on a topographic map of the city of St. Peter. Note: this exercise can be applied to almost any non-dammed river with two or more USGS gaging stations on it. Go to http://water.usgs.gov and select your state from the pull-down menu to view an interactive map of your state's rivers and gaging station locations.

Ben Laabs

419

Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the upper Truckee River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future flood frequency for the upper Truckee River basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme value models and design-life risk methodology. Historical floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and Reno, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models. The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season (November-April) monthly maximum flows using historical monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities are combined to calculate the probability of a flood of a given magnitude occurring over a specific time period (referred to as flood risk) using recent developments in design-life risk methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary downscaled climate projections to demonstrate the evolution of a flood risk profile over typical design life periods of existing infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding (e.g., dams, levees, bridges and sewers). Results show that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period (from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that do not account for time-varying risk. Although model parameters for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations (Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10-20% between the historical period 1950 to 1999 and the future period 2000 to 2050 and 30-50% between the same historical period and a future period of 2050 to 2099.

Condon, L. E.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2015-01-01

420

Developing a Malaysia flood model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

2014-05-01

421

A Real-Time Web Services Hub to Improve Situation Awareness during Flash Flood Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Texas corridor is one of the most flash flood-prone regions in the United States. Over the years, flash floods have resulted in hundreds of flood fatalities and billions of dollars in property damage. In order to mitigate risk to residents and infrastructure during flood events, both citizens and emergency responders need to exhibit proactive behavior instead of reactive. Real-time and forecasted flood information is fairly limited and hard to come by at varying spatial scales. The University of Texas at Austin has collaborated with IBM Research-Austin and ESRI to build a distributed real-time flood information system through a framework that leverages large scale data management and distribution, Open Geospatial Consortium standardized web services, and smart map applications. Within this paradigm, observed precipitation data encoded in WaterML is ingested into HEC-HMS and then delivered to a high performance hydraulic routing software package developed by IBM that utilizes the latest advancements in VLSI design, numerical linear algebra and numerical integration techniques on contemporary multicore architecture to solve fully dynamic Saint Venant equations at both small and large scales. In this paper we present a real-time flood inundation map application that in conjunction with a web services Hub, seamlessly integrates hydrologic information available through both public and private data services, model services and mapping services. As a case study for this project, we demonstrate how this system has been implemented in the City of Austin, Texas.

Salas, F. R.; Liu, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Hodges, B. R.

2011-12-01

422

Cislunar space infrastructure: Lunar technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing its emphasis on the creation of a cisluar infrastructure as an appropriate and cost-effective method of space exploration and development, the University of Colorado explores the technologies necessary for the creation of such an infrastructure, namely (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologes. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by automation and robotics (LOARS). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics have been extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a 'buddy system', these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of lunar resources and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar Environmentally Controlled Life Support System. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the lunar surface. Physiochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and reconfiguration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously initiated, manned Lunar Oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program. The Lunar Oasis will provide support to science, technology, and commerce. It will enable more cost-effective space exploration to the planets and beyond.

Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

1989-01-01

423

Patterns of photosynthesis and starch allocation in seedlings of four bottomland hardwood tree species subjected to flooding.  

PubMed

Effects of short-term (32 days) flooding on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, relative growth rate and tissue starch concentrations of flood-intolerant Quercus alba L. (white oak), bottomland Quercus nigra L. (water oak), bottomland Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall. (green ash) and flood-tolerant Nyssa aquatica L. (water tupelo) seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. Net photosynthetic rates of flooded N. aquatica seedlings were reduced by 25% throughout the 32-day flooding period. Net photosynthetic rates of flooded Q. alba seedlings fell rapidly to 25% of those of the control seedlings by Day 4 of the flooding treatment and to 5% by Day 16. In F. pennsylvanica and Q. nigra, net photosynthetic rates were reduced to 50% of control values by Day 8 but remained at approximately 30 and 23%, respectively, of control values by Day 32. Leaves of flooded Q. alba seedlings accumulated approximately twice as much starch as leaves of non-flooded control plants, whereas root starch concentrations decreased to 67% of those of control plants by the end of the 32-day flooding treatment. In contrast, flooding caused only a small increase in leaf starch concentrations of N. aquatica plants, but it increased root starch concentrations to 119% of those of the control plants by the end of the experiment. The co-occurring bottomland species, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Q. nigra, differed from each other in their patterns of stomatal conductance and root starch concentrations. We conclude that the maintenance of low leaf starch concentrations, and high pre-flood root tissue starch concentrations are important characteristics allowing flood-tolerant species to survive in flooded soils. PMID:12651366

Gravatt, Dennis A.; Kirby, Conrad J.

1998-06-01

424

An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems  

SciTech Connect

US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

2000-03-29

425

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO{sub 2} Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO{sub 2} Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This work will examine three major areas in which CO{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The first full quarter of this project has been completed. We began examining synergistic affects of mixed surfactant versus single surfactant systems to enhance the properties of foams used for improving oil recovery in CO{sub 2} floods. The purpose is to reduce the concentration of surfactants or finding less expensive surfactants. Also, we are examining the effect of oil saturation on the development of foam in CO{sub 2}-surfactant solution systems. CO{sub 2} flooding of low permeability, vugular, and fracture reservoirs are another major thrust of this project. Work conducted this quarter involved simulating gravity stable floods using large core samples; results showed excellent recovery in a low permeability vugular core.

Boyun (Gordon) Guo; David S. Schechter; Jyun-Syung Tsau; Reid B. Grigg; Shih-Hsien (Eric) Chang

1997-10-31

426

Calculation and visualization of flood inundation based on a topographic triangle network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of flood inundation have important practical significance for flood control and disaster alleviation. Accuracy and efficiency are two major indicators in evaluating the performance of flood inundation models. Although a flood inundation model based on hydrodynamics can use detailed topographic data to accurately evaluate flood inundation processes, it is difficult to build a reasonable model for complex topography and variable flood conditions. More importantly, the simulation time for these types of models is generally too long and cannot be accomplished in real time. This paper proposes a new method, named the flood-connected domain calculation (FCDC) method, to improve the efficiency of flood inundation models in regions of complex topography. The main concept of the method is that inundation can only occur in areas where the water level is higher than the terrain elevation and connected with the river; this requires the key development of an algorithm to search for connected domains. The FCDC method uses a topographic triangle network to define the DEM source data and topological relationships are constructed to undertake the flood-connected domain search. Two cases from the Songhua River in Harbin City, China have been examined to expand the usage and effect of the method. The results show that the FCDC method can simulate source flooding such as inundation by river flooding or dike breach flooding and can characterize inundation under a range of conditions. Also, it can use a range of resolutions for topographic data and water level as model input, which in turn significantly reduces simulation time while providing reasonable simulation results. In addition, the FCDC method can be used to obtain a smooth display effect for flood inundation processes. Overall, the FCDC method is useful for estimating flood inundation and preparing for emergencies because of its time-efficient performance and low input and hardware requirements.

Zhang, Shanghong; Wang, Taiwei; Zhao, Bohua

2014-02-01

427

Financing InfrastructureFinancing Infrastructure Over TimeOver Time  

E-print Network

-As-You-Use (Bonds, Continuous Recovery) Pay-When-You-Enter (Impact Fees) #12;Cost IncidenceCost Incidence New immediately after infrastructure (re-) financing, so that bond payments for old infrastructure are borne proportionally by old residents and new development where: R, r = net present value of future bond payment

Levinson, David M.

428

Michigan E85 Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced regional GHG emissions by 375 tons in the first year of station deployment.

Sandstrom, Matthew M.

2012-03-30

429

Flood inundation maps and water-surface profiles for tropical storm Irene and selected annual exceedance probability floods for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River in Roxbury, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flint Brook, a tributary to the Third Branch White River in Roxbury, Vermont, has a history of flooding the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department’s Roxbury Fish Culture Station (the hatchery) and surrounding infrastructure. Flooding resulting from tropical storm Irene on August 28–29, 2011, caused widespread destruction in the region, including extensive and costly damages to the State-owned hatchery and the transportation infrastructure in the Town of Roxbury, Vermont. Sections of State Route 12A were washed out, and several bridges and culverts on Oxbow Road, Thurston Hill Road, and the New England Central Railroad in Roxbury were heavily damaged. Record high peak-discharge estimates of 2,140 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 4,320 ft3/s were calculated for Flint Brook at its confluence with the Third Branch White River and for the Third Branch White River at about 350 feet (ft) downstream from the hatchery, respectively. The annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of the peak discharges for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River were less than 0.2 percent (less than a one in 500 chance of occurring in a given year). Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River were done to investigate flooding at the hatchery in Roxbury and support efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to assist State and local mitigation and reconstruction efforts. During the August 2011 flood, the majority of flow from Flint Brook (97 percent or 2,070 ft3/s) diverged from its primary watercourse due to a retaining wall failure immediately upstream of Oxbow Road and inundated the hatchery. Although a minor amount of flow from the Third Branch White River could have overtopped State Route 12A and spilled into the hatchery, the Third Branch White River did not cause flood damages or exacerbate flooding at the hatchery during the August 2011 flood. The Third Branch White River which flows adjacent to the hatchery does not flood the hatchery for the 10-, 2-, 1, or 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The simulated water-surface elevations for August 2011 flood equal the elevations of State Route 12A about 500 ft downstream of Thurston Hill Road adjacent to the troughs between the rearing ponds. Four flood mitigation alternatives being considered by the Vermont Agency of Transportation to improve the hydraulic performance of Flint Brook and reduce the risk of flooding at the hatchery include: (A) no changes to the infrastructure or existing alignment of Flint Brook (existing conditions [2014]), (B) structural changes to the bridges and the existing retaining wall along Flint Brook, (C) realignment of Flint Brook to flow along the south side of Oxbow Road to accommodate larger stream discharges, and (D) a diversion channel for flows greater than 1-percent annual exceedance probability. Although the 10-, 2-, and 1-percent AEP floods do not flood the hatchery under alternative A (no changes to the infrastructure), the 0.2-percent AEP flow still poses a flooding threat to the hatchery because flow will continue to overtop the existing retaining wall and flood the hatchery. Under the other mitigation alternatives (B, C, and D) that include some variation of structural changes to bridges, a retaining wall, and (or) channel, the peak discharges for the 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities do not flood the hatchery. Water-surface profiles and flood inundation maps of the August 2011 flood and the 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent AEPs for four mitigation alternatives were developed for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River in the vicinity of the hatchery and can be used by the Federal, State, and local agencies to better understand the potential for future flooding at the hatchery.

Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Lombard, Pamela J.

2014-01-01

430

Nonstationary Precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Infrastructure Design in a Changing Climate  

PubMed Central

Extreme climatic events are growing more severe and frequent, calling into question how prepared our infrastructure is to deal with these changes. Current infrastructure design is primarily based on precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves with the so-called stationary assumption, meaning extremes will not vary significantly over time. However, climate change is expected to alter climatic extremes, a concept termed nonstationarity. Here we show that given nonstationarity, current IDF curves can substantially underestimate precipitation extremes and thus, they may not be suitable for infrastructure design in a changing climate. We show that a stationary climate assumption may lead to underestimation of extreme precipitation by as much as 60%, which increases the flood risk and failure risk in infrastructure systems. We then present a generalized framework for estimating nonstationary IDF curves and their uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The methodology can potentially be integrated in future design concepts. PMID:25403227

Cheng, Linyin; AghaKouchak, Amir

2014-01-01

431

An Analytical Alarm Flood Reduction to Reduce Operator’s Workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the domain of process control, an alarm flood is a situation when there are more alarms generated by the automation system\\u000a than can be physically addressed by a single operator. To reduce alarm floods an analytical approach, so called AADA (Automatic\\u000a Alarm Data Analyzer), has been developed to learn these alarm floods by itself. Finally, this behavior can be

Jens Folmer; Dorothea Pantförder; Birgit Vogel-Heuser

432

MOEMS industrial infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the numbers they want (several millions per year). The crossover point where building a dedicated facility becomes a realistic option, can differ very much depending on technology complexity, numbers and market value. Also history plays a role, companies with past experience in the production of a product and the necessary facilities and equipment will tend to achieve captive production. Companies not having a microtechnology history will tend to outsource, offering business opportunities for foundries. The number of foundries shows a steady growth over the years. The total availability of foundries, however, and their flexibility will, undoubtedly, rely on market potential and its size. Unlike design houses, foundries need to realise a substantial return on the "large" investments they make in terms of capital and infrastructure. These returns will be maximised through mass-produced products aimed at "killer" applications (accelerometers are only one example). The existence of professional suppliers of MOEMS packaging and assembly is an essential element in the supply chain and critical for the manufacturing and commercialisation of MOEMS products. In addition, the incorporation of packaging and assembly techniques at the front-end of the engineering cycle will pay back in terms of financial savings and shorter timescales to market. Packaging and assembly for MOEMS are, in general, more costly than their equivalents for standard integrated circuits. This is, primarily, due to the diversity of the interconnections (which are multi-functional and may incorporate: electrical, optical, fluidic etc). In addition, the high levels of accuracy and the potential sensitivity of the devices to mechanical and external influences play a major role in the cost aspects of the final MNT product. This article will give an overview of the package/assembly providers and foundry business models and analyse their contribution to the MOEMS supply chain illustrated with some typical examples. As we believe that commercial services are the main basis for the break

van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

2004-08-01

433

Stress responses of spring rape plants to soil flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress responses of spring rape to soil hypoxia were investigated during 8-days flooding. Soil air-filled porosity decreased from 25-30% to 0%, oxygen diffusion rate - from 2.6-3.5 to 0.34 ?mol O2 m-2 s-1, and redox potential - from 460 to 150mVwithin few hours. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in roots increased up to 7-fold after one day of flooding and then decreased to 170% of control. Superoxide dismutase activity in roots increased by 27% during first 3 days and then dropped to 60% of control; in the leaves superoxide dismutase activity increased in average by 44%. Ascorbate peroxidase activity in leaves increased by 37% during first 3 days and then decreased to control value. Glutathione reductase activity increased by 45% in roots of flooded plants but did not change in leaves. Proline concentration in leaves increased up to 4-fold on the 3d day of flooding and then decreased to control value. Thus soil flooding induces increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity and subsequent increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in roots while the leaves display a few days increase of free proline concentration and ascorbate peroxidase activity, and a long-term increase of superoxide dismutase activity.

Balakhnina, T.; Bennicelli, R.; Stêpniewska, Z.; Stêpniewski, W.; Borkowska, A.; Fomina, I.

2012-10-01

434

1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

Jarrett, R. D., (compiler); Vandas, S.J.

2006-01-01

435

Sea-Level Rise and Flood Potential along the California Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-level rise is becoming an ever-increasing problem in California. Sea-level is expected to rise significantly in the next 100 years, which will raise flood elevations in coastal communities. This will be an issue for private homeowners, businesses, and the state. One study suggests that Venice Beach could lose a total of at least $440 million in tourism spending and tax dollars from flooding and beach erosion if sea level rises 1.4 m by 2100. In addition, several airports, such as San Francisco International Airport, are located in coastal regions that have flooded in the past and will likely be flooded again in the next 30 years, but sea-level rise is expected to worsen the effects of flooding in the coming decades It is vital for coastal communities to understand the risks associated with sea-level rise so that they can plan to adapt to it. By obtaining accurate LiDAR elevation data from the NOAA Digital Coast Website (http://csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/?keyword=lidar#), we can create flood maps to simulate sea level rise and flooding. The data are uploaded to ArcGIS and contour lines are added for different elevations that represent future coastlines during 100-year flooding. The following variables are used to create the maps: 1. High-resolution land surface elevation data - obtained from NOAA 2. Local mean high water level - from USGS 3. Local 100-year flood water level - from the Pacific Institute 4. Sea-level rise projections for different future dates (2030, 2050, and 2100) - from the National Research Council The values from the last three categories are added to represent sea-level rise plus 100-year flooding. These values are used to make the contour lines that represent the projected flood elevations, which are then exported as KML files, which can be opened in Google Earth. Once these KML files are made available to the public, coastal communities will gain an improved understanding of how flooding and sea-level rise might affect them in the future. This would allow them to plan ahead to reduce the level of risk to homes, industry, and infrastructure San Francisco International Airport will be most likely be flooded in the next 30 years. Blue lines indicate current Mean High Water Levels. Yellow lines indicate the Mean High Water level combined with flood levels for 2030. Green, 2050, and Red lines, 2100

Delepine, Q.; Leung, C.

2013-12-01

436

Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern WWTPs can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using systems thinking. As modern society becomes increasingly complex and interdependent this approach

Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

2012-01-01

437

Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation?s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

438

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies  

E-print Network

Thermocatalytic CO2-free Production of H2 from HC Fuels, Florida Solar Energy Center 2.83 v 7 Novel Catalytic FuelHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003 Merit Review & Peer Evaluation the comments provided by the Merit Review Panel at the U.S. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure